The Info List - Bicycle

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A bicycle, also called a cycle or bike, is a human-powered, pedal-driven, single-track vehicle, having two wheels attached to a frame, one behind the other. A bicycle rider is called a cyclist, or bicyclist. Bicycles were introduced in the late 19th century in Europe, and by the early 21st century, more than 1 billion have been produced worldwide.[1][2][3] These numbers far exceed the number of cars, both in total and ranked by the number of individual models produced.[4][5][6] They are the principal means of transportation in many regions. They also provide a popular form of recreation, and have been adapted for use as children's toys, general fitness, military and police applications, courier services, bicycle racing and bicycle stunts. The basic shape and configuration of a typical upright or "safety bicycle", has changed little since the first chain-driven model was developed around 1885.[7][8][9] But many details have been improved, especially since the advent of modern materials and computer-aided design. These have allowed for a proliferation of specialized designs for many types of cycling. The bicycle's invention has had an enormous effect on society, both in terms of culture and of advancing modern industrial methods. Several components that eventually played a key role in the development of the automobile were initially invented for use in the bicycle, including ball bearings, pneumatic tires, chain-driven sprockets and tension-spoked wheels.[10]


1 Etymology 2 History 3 Uses 4 Technical aspects

4.1 Types 4.2 Dynamics 4.3 Performance

5 Parts

5.1 Frame 5.2 Drivetrain and gearing 5.3 Steering 5.4 Seating 5.5 Brakes 5.6 Suspension 5.7 Wheels and tires 5.8 Accessories 5.9 Standards

6 Maintenance and repair

6.1 Tools

7 Social and historical aspects

7.1 In daily life 7.2 Poverty alleviation 7.3 Female emancipation 7.4 Economic implications 7.5 Environmental impact 7.6 Religious implications 7.7 Manufacturing 7.8 Legal requirements 7.9 Theft

8 Longest bicycle 9 See also 10 References

10.1 Citations 10.2 Sources

11 Further reading 12 External links

Etymology The word bicycle first appeared in English print in The Daily News in 1868, to describe "Bysicles and trysicles" on the "Champs Elysées and Bois de Boulogne".[11] The word was first used in 1847 in a French publication to describe an unidentified two-wheeled vehicle, possibly a carriage.[11] The design of the bicycle was an advance on the velocipede, although the words were used with some degree of overlap for a time.[11][12] Other words for bicycle include "bike",[13] "pushbike",[14] "pedal cycle",[15] or "cycle".[16] In Unicode, the code point for "bicycle" is 0x1F6B2. The entity 🚲 in HTML
produces 🚲.[17] History Main article: History of the bicycle

Wooden draisine (around 1820), the first two-wheeler and as such the archetype of the bicycle

The "Dandy horse", also called Draisienne or Laufmaschine, was the first human means of transport to use only two wheels in tandem and was invented by the German Baron Karl von Drais. It is regarded as the modern bicycle's forerunner; Drais introduced it to the public in Mannheim
in summer 1817 and in Paris in 1818.[18][19] Its rider sat astride a wooden frame supported by two in-line wheels and pushed the vehicle along with his or her feet while steering the front wheel.[18]

Michaux's son on a velocipede 1868

The first mechanically-propelled, two-wheeled vehicle may have been built by Kirkpatrick MacMillan, a Scottish blacksmith, in 1839, although the claim is often disputed.[20] He is also associated with the first recorded instance of a cycling traffic offense, when a Glasgow
newspaper in 1842 reported an accident in which an anonymous "gentleman from Dumfries-shire... bestride a velocipede... of ingenious design" knocked over a little girl in Glasgow
and was fined five shillings.[21][not in citation given] In the early 1860s, Frenchmen Pierre Michaux
Pierre Michaux
and Pierre Lallement
Pierre Lallement
took bicycle design in a new direction by adding a mechanical crank drive with pedals on an enlarged front wheel (the velocipede). This was the first in mass production. Another French inventor named Douglas Grasso had a failed prototype of Pierre Lallement's bicycle several years earlier. Several inventions followed using rear-wheel drive, the best known being the rod-driven velocipede by Scotsman Thomas McCall
Thomas McCall
in 1869. In that same year, bicycle wheels with wire spokes were patented by Eugène Meyer of Paris.[22] The French vélocipède, made of iron and wood, developed into the "penny-farthing" (historically known as an "ordinary bicycle", a retronym, since there was then no other kind).[23] It featured a tubular steel frame on which were mounted wire-spoked wheels with solid rubber tires. These bicycles were difficult to ride due to their high seat and poor weight distribution. In 1868 Rowley Turner, a sales agent of the Coventry
Sewing Machine Company (which soon became the Coventry
Machinists Company), brought a Michaux cycle to Coventry, England. His uncle, Josiah Turner, and business partner James Starley, used this as a basis for the 'Coventry Model' in what became Britain's first cycle factory.[24]

1886 Rover safety bicycle at the British Motor Museum. The first modern bicycle, it featured a rear-wheel-drive, chain-driven cycle with two similar-sized wheels. Dunlop's pneumatic tire was added to the bicycle in 1888.

The dwarf ordinary addressed some of these faults by reducing the front wheel diameter and setting the seat further back. This, in turn, required gearing—effected in a variety of ways—to efficiently use pedal power. Having to both pedal and steer via the front wheel remained a problem. Englishman J. K. Starley (nephew of James Starley), J. H. Lawson, and Shergold solved this problem by introducing the chain drive (originated by the unsuccessful "bicyclette" of Englishman Henry Lawson),[25] connecting the frame-mounted cranks to the rear wheel. These models were known as safety bicycles, dwarf safeties, or upright bicycles for their lower seat height and better weight distribution, although without pneumatic tires the ride of the smaller-wheeled bicycle would be much rougher than that of the larger-wheeled variety. Starley's 1885 Rover, manufactured in Coventry[26] is usually described as the first recognizably modern bicycle.[27] Soon the seat tube was added, creating the modern bike's double-triangle diamond frame.

John Boyd Dunlop
John Boyd Dunlop
on a bicycle c. 1915

Further innovations increased comfort and ushered in a second bicycle craze, the 1890s Golden Age of Bicycles. In 1888, Scotsman John Boyd Dunlop introduced the first practical pneumatic tire, which soon became universal. Willie Hume demonstrated the supremacy of Dunlop's tyres in 1889, winning the tyre's first-ever races in Ireland and then England.[28][29] Soon after, the rear freewheel was developed, enabling the rider to coast. This refinement led to the 1890s invention[30] of coaster brakes. Dérailleur gears and hand-operated Bowden cable-pull brakes were also developed during these years, but were only slowly adopted by casual riders. The Svea Velocipede
with vertical pedal arrangement and locking hubs was introduced in 1892 by the Swedish engineers Fredrik Ljungström and Birger Ljungström. It attracted attention at the World Fair
World Fair
and was produced in a few thousand units.

Cyclists' Touring Club sign on display at the National Museum of Scotland

In the 1870s many cycling clubs flourished. They were popular in a time when there were not cars on the market and the principal mode of transportation was horse-drawn vehicles, such the horse and buggy or the horsecar. Among the earliest clubs was The Bicycle
Touring Club, which has operated since 1878. By the turn of the century, cycling clubs flourished on both sides of the Atlantic, and touring and racing became widely popular. The Raleigh Bicycle Company
Raleigh Bicycle Company
was founded in Nottingham, England in 1888. It became the biggest bicycle manufacturing company in the world, making over two million bikes per year.[31] Bicycles and horse buggies were the two mainstays of private transportation just prior to the automobile, and the grading of smooth roads in the late 19th century was stimulated by the widespread advertising, production, and use of these devices.[9] More than 1 billion bicycles have been manufactured worldwide as of the early 21st century.[1][2][3] Bicycles are the most common vehicle of any kind in the world, and the most numerous model of any kind of vehicle, whether human-powered or motor vehicle, is the Chinese Flying Pigeon, with numbers exceeding 500 million.[1] The next most numerous vehicle, the Honda Super Cub
Honda Super Cub
motorcycle, has more than 60 million units made, while most produced car, the Toyota Corolla, has reached 35 million and counting.[4][5][6][32]

Women on bicycles on unpaved road, USA, late 19th Century

A penny-farthing or ordinary bicycle photographed in the Škoda Auto museum in the Czech Republic

The Svea Velocipede
by Fredrik Ljungström
Fredrik Ljungström
and Birger Ljungström, exhibitioned at the Swedish National Museum of Science and Technology

in Plymouth, England
Plymouth, England
at the start of the 20th century

Uses From the beginning and still today, bicycles have been and are employed for many uses. In a utilitarian way, bicycles are used for transportation, bicycle commuting, and utility cycling. It can be used as a 'work horse', used by mail carriers, paramedics, police, messengers, and general delivery services. Military uses of bicycles include communications, reconnaissance, troop movement, supply of provisions, and patrol. See also: bicycle infantry. The bicycle is also used for recreational purposes, such as bicycle touring, mountain biking, physical fitness, and play. Bicycle competition includes racing, BMX
racing, track racing, criterium, roller racing, sportives and time trials. Major multi-stage professional events are the Giro d'Italia, the Tour de France, the Vuelta a España, the Tour de Pologne, and the Volta a Portugal. Bikes can be used for entertainment and pleasure, such as in organised mass rides, artistic cycling and freestyle BMX. Technical aspects

Firefighter bicycle

A cyclist leaning in a turn.

A recumbent bicycle

Balance bicycle
Balance bicycle
for young children

The bicycle has undergone continual adaptation and improvement since its inception. These innovations have continued with the advent of modern materials and computer-aided design, allowing for a proliferation of specialized bicycle types, improved bicycle safety, and riding comfort. Types Main article: List of bicycle types Bicycles can be categorized in many different ways: by function, by number of riders, by general construction, by gearing or by means of propulsion. The more common types include utility bicycles, mountain bicycles, racing bicycles, touring bicycles, hybrid bicycles, cruiser bicycles, and BMX
bikes. Less common are tandems, low riders, tall bikes, fixed gear, folding models, amphibious bicycles, cargo bikes, recumbents and electric bicycles. Unicycles, tricycles and quadracycles are not strictly bicycles, as they have respectively one, three and four wheels, but are often referred to informally as "bikes" or "cycles". Dynamics Main article: Bicycle
and motorcycle dynamics A bicycle stays upright while moving forward by being steered so as to keep its center of mass over the wheels.[33] This steering is usually provided by the rider, but under certain conditions may be provided by the bicycle itself.[34] The combined center of mass of a bicycle and its rider must lean into a turn to successfully navigate it. This lean is induced by a method known as countersteering, which can be performed by the rider turning the handlebars directly with the hands[35] or indirectly by leaning the bicycle.[36] Short-wheelbase or tall bicycles, when braking, can generate enough stopping force at the front wheel to flip longitudinally.[37] The act of purposefully using this force to lift the rear wheel and balance on the front without tipping over is a trick known as a stoppie, endo, or front wheelie. Performance Main article: Bicycle
performance The bicycle is extraordinarily efficient in both biological and mechanical terms. The bicycle is the most efficient human-powered means of transportation in terms of energy a person must expend to travel a given distance.[38] From a mechanical viewpoint, up to 99% of the energy delivered by the rider into the pedals is transmitted to the wheels, although the use of gearing mechanisms may reduce this by 10–15%.[39][40] In terms of the ratio of cargo weight a bicycle can carry to total weight, it is also an efficient means of cargo transportation. A human traveling on a bicycle at low to medium speeds of around 16–24 km/h (10–15 mph) uses only the power required to walk. Air drag, which is proportional to the square of speed, requires dramatically higher power outputs as speeds increase. If the rider is sitting upright, the rider's body creates about 75% of the total drag of the bicycle/rider combination. Drag can be reduced by seating the rider in a more aerodynamically streamlined position. Drag can also be reduced by covering the bicycle with an aerodynamic fairing. The fastest recorded unpaced speed on a flat surface is 144.18 km/h (89.59 mph)[41] In addition, the carbon dioxide generated in the production and transportation of the food required by the bicyclist, per mile traveled, is less than 1/10 that generated by energy efficient motorcars.[42] Parts Frame Main article: Bicycle

Diagram of a bicycle.

The great majority of modern bicycles have a frame with upright seating that looks much like the first chain-driven bike.[7][8][9] These upright bicycles almost always feature the diamond frame, a truss consisting of two triangles: the front triangle and the rear triangle. The front triangle consists of the head tube, top tube, down tube, and seat tube. The head tube contains the headset, the set of bearings that allows the fork to turn smoothly for steering and balance. The top tube connects the head tube to the seat tube at the top, and the down tube connects the head tube to the bottom bracket. The rear triangle consists of the seat tube and paired chain stays and seat stays. The chain stays run parallel to the chain, connecting the bottom bracket to the rear dropout, where the axle for the rear wheel is held. The seat stays connect the top of the seat tube (at or near the same point as the top tube) to the rear fork ends.

A Triumph with a step-through frame.

Historically, women's bicycle frames had a top tube that connected in the middle of the seat tube instead of the top, resulting in a lower standover height at the expense of compromised structural integrity, since this places a strong bending load in the seat tube, and bicycle frame members are typically weak in bending. This design, referred to as a step-through frame or as an open frame, allows the rider to mount and dismount in a dignified way while wearing a skirt or dress. While some women's bicycles continue to use this frame style, there is also a variation, the mixte, which splits the top tube laterally into two thinner top tubes that bypass the seat tube on each side and connect to the rear fork ends. The ease of stepping through is also appreciated by those with limited flexibility or other joint problems. Because of its persistent image as a "women's" bicycle, step-through frames are not common for larger frames. Step-throughs were popular partly for practical reasons and partly for social mores of the day. For most of the history of bicycles' popularity women have worn long skirts, and the lower frame accommodated these better than the top-tube. Furthermore, it was considered "unladylike" for women to open their legs to mount and dismount - in more conservative times women who rode bicycles at all were vilified as immoral or immodest. These practices were akin to the older practice of riding horse sidesaddle. Another style is the recumbent bicycle. These are inherently more aerodynamic than upright versions, as the rider may lean back onto a support and operate pedals that are on about the same level as the seat. The world's fastest bicycle is a recumbent bicycle but this type was banned from competition in 1934 by the Union Cycliste Internationale.[43]

A carbon fiber Trek Y-Foil from the late 1990s

Historically, materials used in bicycles have followed a similar pattern as in aircraft, the goal being high strength and low weight. Since the late 1930s alloy steels have been used for frame and fork tubes in higher quality machines. By the 1980s aluminum welding techniques had improved to the point that aluminum tube could safely be used in place of steel. Since then aluminum alloy frames and other components have become popular due to their light weight, and most mid-range bikes are now principally aluminum alloy of some kind.[where?] More expensive bikes use carbon fibre due to its significantly lighter weight and profiling ability, allowing designers to make a bike both stiff and compliant by manipulating the lay-up. Virtually all professional racing bicycles now use carbon fibre frames, as they have the best strength to weight ratio. A typical modern carbon fiber frame can weighs less than 1 kilogram (2.2 lb). Other exotic frame materials include titanium and advanced alloys. Bamboo, a natural composite material with high strength-to-weight ratio and stiffness[44] has been used for bicycles since 1894.[45] Recent versions use bamboo for the primary frame with glued metal connections and parts, priced as exotic models.[45][46] [47] Drivetrain and gearing Main article: Bicycle
drivetrain systems

A bicycle with shaft drive instead of a chain

A set of rear sprockets (also known as a cassette) and a derailleur

Hub gear

The drivetrain begins with pedals which rotate the cranks, which are held in axis by the bottom bracket. Most bicycles use a chain to transmit power to the rear wheel. A very small number of bicycles use a shaft drive to transmit power, or special belts. Hydraulic
bicycle transmissions have been built, but they are currently inefficient and complex. Since cyclists' legs are most efficient over a narrow range of pedaling speeds, or cadence, a variable gear ratio helps a cyclist to maintain an optimum pedalling speed while covering varied terrain. Some, mainly utility, bicycles use hub gears with between 3 and 14 ratios, but most use the generally more efficient dérailleur system, by which the chain is moved between different cogs called chainrings and sprockets in order to select a ratio. A dérailleur system normally has two dérailleurs, or mechs, one at the front to select the chainring and another at the back to select the sprocket. Most bikes have two or three chainrings, and from 5 to 11 sprockets on the back, with the number of theoretical gears calculated by multiplying front by back. In reality, many gears overlap or require the chain to run diagonally, so the number of usable gears is fewer. An alternative to chaindrive is to use a synchronous belt. These are toothed and work much the same as a chain - popular with commuters and long distance cyclists they require little maintenance. They can't be shifted across a cassette of sprockets, and are used either as single speed or with a hub gear. Different gears and ranges of gears are appropriate for different people and styles of cycling. Multi-speed bicycles allow gear selection to suit the circumstances: a cyclist could use a high gear when cycling downhill, a medium gear when cycling on a flat road, and a low gear when cycling uphill. In a lower gear every turn of the pedals leads to fewer rotations of the rear wheel. This allows the energy required to move the same distance to be distributed over more pedal turns, reducing fatigue when riding uphill, with a heavy load, or against strong winds. A higher gear allows a cyclist to make fewer pedal turns to maintain a given speed, but with more effort per turn of the pedals. With a chain drive transmission, a chainring attached to a crank drives the chain, which in turn rotates the rear wheel via the rear sprocket(s) (cassette or freewheel). There are four gearing options: two-speed hub gear integrated with chain ring, up to 3 chain rings, up to 11 sprockets, hub gear built into rear wheel (3-speed to 14-speed). The most common options are either a rear hub or multiple chain rings combined with multiple sprockets (other combinations of options are possible but less common). Steering The handlebars turn the fork and the front wheel via the stem, which rotates within the headset. Three styles of handlebar are common. Upright handlebars, the norm in Europe and elsewhere until the 1970s, curve gently back toward the rider, offering a natural grip and comfortable upright position. Drop handlebars "drop" as they curve forward and down, offering the cyclist best braking power from a more aerodynamic "crouched" position, as well as more upright positions in which the hands grip the brake lever mounts, the forward curves, or the upper flat sections for increasingly upright postures. Mountain bikes generally feature a 'straight handlebar' or 'riser bar' with varying degrees of sweep backwards and centimeters rise upwards, as well as wider widths which can provide better handling due to increased leverage against the wheel. Seating

A Selle San Marco saddle designed for women

Saddles also vary with rider preference, from the cushioned ones favored by short-distance riders to narrower saddles which allow more room for leg swings. Comfort depends on riding position. With comfort bikes and hybrids, cyclists sit high over the seat, their weight directed down onto the saddle, such that a wider and more cushioned saddle is preferable. For racing bikes where the rider is bent over, weight is more evenly distributed between the handlebars and saddle, the hips are flexed, and a narrower and harder saddle is more efficient. Differing saddle designs exist for male and female cyclists, accommodating the genders' differing anatomies and sit bone width measurements, although bikes typically are sold with saddles most appropriate for men. Suspension seat posts and seat springs provide comfort by absorbing shock but can add to the overall weight of the bicycle. A recumbent bicycle has a reclined chair-like seat that some riders find more comfortable than a saddle, especially riders who suffer from certain types of seat, back, neck, shoulder, or wrist pain. Recumbent bicycles may have either under-seat or over-seat steering. Brakes Main article: Bicycle

Linear-pull brake, also known by the Shimano
trademark: V-Brake, on rear wheel of a mountain bike

brakes may be rim brakes, in which friction pads are compressed against the wheel rims; hub brakes, where the mechanism is contained within the wheel hub, or disc brakes, where pads act on a rotor attached to the hub. Most road bicycles use rim brakes, but some use disk brakes.[48] Disc brakes
Disc brakes
are more common for mountain bikes, tandems and recumbent bicycles than on other types of bicycles, due to their increased power, coupled with an increased weight and complexity.[49]

A front disc brake, mounted to the fork and hub

With hand-operated brakes, force is applied to brake levers mounted on the handlebars and transmitted via Bowden cables or hydraulic lines to the friction pads, which apply pressure to the braking surface, causing friction which slows the bicycle down. A rear hub brake may be either hand-operated or pedal-actuated, as in the back pedal coaster brakes which were popular in North America until the 1960s. Track bicycles do not have brakes, because all riders ride in the same direction around a track which does not necessitate sharp deceleration. Track riders are still able to slow down because all track bicycles are fixed-gear, meaning that there is no freewheel. Without a freewheel, coasting is impossible, so when the rear wheel is moving, the cranks are moving. To slow down, the rider applies resistance to the pedals, acting as a braking system which can be as effective as a conventional rear wheel brake, but not as effective as a front wheel brake.[50] Suspension Main article: Bicycle
suspension Bicycle suspension
Bicycle suspension
refers to the system or systems used to suspend the rider and all or part of the bicycle. This serves two purposes: to keep the wheels in continuous contact with the ground, improving control, and to isolate the rider and luggage from jarring due to rough surfaces, improving comfort. Bicycle
suspensions are used primarily on mountain bicycles, but are also common on hybrid bicycles, as they can help deal with problematic vibration from poor surfaces. Suspension is especially important on recumbent bicycles, since while an upright bicycle rider can stand on the pedals to achieve some of the benefits of suspension, a recumbent rider cannot. Basic mountain bicycles and hybrids usually have front suspension only, whilst more sophisticated ones also have rear suspension. Road bicycles tend to have no suspension.

A rigid fork mountain bicycle

Wheels and tires Main articles: Bicycle wheel
Bicycle wheel
and Bicycle
tire The wheel axle fits into fork ends in the frame and fork. A pair of wheels may be called a wheelset, especially in the context of ready-built "off the shelf", performance-oriented wheels. Tires vary enormously depending on their intended purpose. Road bicycles use tires 18 to 25 millimeters wide, most often completely smooth, or slick, and inflated to high pressure in order to roll fast on smooth surfaces. Off-road tires are usually between 38 and 64 mm (1.5 and 2.5 in) wide, and have treads for gripping in muddy conditions or metal studs for ice. Accessories

Touring bicycle
Touring bicycle
equipped with front and rear racks, fenders/mud-guards, water bottles in cages, four panniers and a handlebar bag.

Some components, which are often optional accessories on sports bicycles, are standard features on utility bicycles to enhance their usefulness, comfort, safety and visibility. Mudguards, or fenders, protect the cyclist and moving parts from spray when riding through wet areas and chainguards protect clothes from oil on the chain while preventing clothing from being caught between the chain and crankset teeth. Kick stands keep bicycles upright when parked, and bike locks deter theft. Front-mounted baskets, front or rear luggage carriers or racks, and panniers mounted above either or both wheels can be used to carry equipment or cargo. Pegs can be fastened to one, or both of the wheel hubs to either help the rider perform certain tricks, or allow a place for extra riders to stand, or rest.[citation needed] Parents sometimes add rear-mounted child seats, an auxiliary saddle fitted to the crossbar, or both to transport children. Training wheels
Training wheels
are sometimes used when learning to ride. Toe-clips and toestraps and clipless pedals help keep the foot locked in the proper pedal position and enable cyclists to pull and push the pedals. Technical accessories include cyclocomputers for measuring speed, distance, heart rate, GPS data etc. Other accessories include lights, reflectors, mirrors, racks, trailers, bags, water bottles and cages, and bell.[51] Bicycle
lights, reflectors, and helmets are required by law in some geographic regions depending on the legal code. It is more common to see bicycles with bottle generators, dynamos, lights, fenders, racks and bells in Europe. Bicyclists also have specialized form fitting and high visibility clothing. Bicycle
helmets can reduce injury in the event of a collision or accident, and a suitable helmet is legally required of riders in many jurisdictions. Helmets may be classified as an accessory[51] or as an item of clothing.[52] Bike trainers are used to enable cyclists to cycle while the bike remains stationary. They are frequently used to warm up before races or indoors when riding conditions are unfavorable.[53] Bicycles can also be fitted with a hitch to tow a trailer for carrying cargo, a child, or both. Standards A number of formal and industry standards exist for bicycle components to help make spare parts exchangeable and to maintain a minimum product safety. The International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO) has a special technical committee for cycles, TC149, that has the scope of "Standardization in the field of cycles, their components and accessories with particular reference to terminology, testing methods and requirements for performance and safety, and interchangeability". The European Committee for Standardization
European Committee for Standardization
(CEN) also has a specific Technical Committee, TC333, that defines European standards for cycles. Their mandate states that EN cycle standards shall harmonize with ISO standards. Some CEN cycle standards were developed before ISO published their standards, leading to strong European influences in this area. European cycle standards tend to describe minimum safety requirements, while ISO standards have historically harmonized parts geometry.[54] Maintenance and repair Maintenance of adequate tire inflation is the most frequent and troublesome concern for cyclists and many means and methods are employed to preserve pneumatic integrity. Thicker tires, thicker tubes, tire liners (of a number of rather impenetrable devices installed between the tire and tube), liquid sealing compounds squeezed into the tube, and automotive-style patch kits are all used to reliably contain the typical tire pressures of 40 to 60 pounds per square inch that are required for bicycle operation. Thin, light bicycle tires are particularly vulnerable to penetration and subsequent deflation caused by goat's heads and other burs, colloquially known as stickers. Inflation of bicycle tires to pressures higher than typical for automotive use requires special pumps. The complexity of bicycle tire maintenance and repair may cause many to not consider the bicycle for transport or leisure. Some bicycle parts, particularly hub-based gearing systems, require considerable torque for dis-assembly and may thus need professional services. Self-service
and assisted-service maintenance and repair may be available.

Some cyclists choose self-service: they maintain their own bicycles, perhaps as part of their enjoyment of the hobby of cycling or simply for economic reasons. There exist several hundred assisted-service Community Bicycle Organizations worldwide.[55] At a Community Bicycle
Organization, laypeople bring in bicycles needing repair or maintenance; volunteers teach them how to do the required steps. Full service is available from bicycle mechanics at a local bike shop. In areas where it is available, some cyclists purchase roadside assistance from companies such as the Better World Club or the American Automobile


Puncture repair kit with tire levers, sandpaper to clean off an area of the inner tube around the puncture, a tube of rubber solution (vulcanizing fluid), round and oval patches, a metal grater and piece of chalk to make chalk powder (to dust over excess rubber solution). Kits often also include a wax crayon to mark the puncture location.

Main article: Bicycle
tools There are specialized bicycle tools for use both in the shop and on the road. Many cyclists carry tool kits. These may include a tire patch kit (which, in turn, may contain any combination of a hand pump or CO2 Pump, tire levers, spare tubes, self-adhesive patches, or tube-patching material, an adhesive, a piece of sandpaper or a metal grater (for roughing the tube surface to be patched), Special, thin wrenches are often required for maintaining various screw fastened parts, specifically, the frequently lubricated ball-bearing "cones". [56][57] and sometimes even a block of French chalk.), wrenches, hex keys, screwdrivers, and a chain tool. There are also cycling specific multi-tools that combine many of these implements into a single compact device. More specialized bicycle components may require more complex tools, including proprietary tools specific for a given manufacturer. Social and historical aspects The bicycle has had a considerable effect on human society, in both the cultural and industrial realms. In daily life Around the turn of the 20th century, bicycles reduced crowding in inner-city tenements by allowing workers to commute from more spacious dwellings in the suburbs. They also reduced dependence on horses. Bicycles allowed people to travel for leisure into the country, since bicycles were three times as energy efficient as walking and three to four times as fast. In built up cities around the world, urban planning uses cycling infrastructure like bikeways to reduce traffic congestion and air pollution.[58] A number of cities around the world have implemented schemes known as bicycle sharing systems or community bicycle programs.[59][60] The first of these was the White Bicycle
plan in Amsterdam
in 1965. It was followed by yellow bicycles in La Rochelle and green bicycles in Cambridge. These initiatives complement public transport systems and offer an alternative to motorized traffic to help reduce congestion and pollution.[61] In Europe, especially in the Netherlands and parts of Germany and Denmark, bicycle commuting is common. In Copenhagen, a cyclists' organization runs a Cycling
Embassy that promotes biking for commuting and sightseeing. The United Kingdom has a tax break scheme (IR 176) that allows employees to buy a new bicycle tax free to use for commuting.[62] In the Netherlands all train stations offer free bicycle parking, or a more secure parking place for a small fee, with the larger stations also offering bicycle repair shops. Cycling
is so popular that the parking capacity may be exceeded, while in some places such as Delft the capacity is usually exceeded.[63] In Trondheim
in Norway, the Trampe bicycle lift
Trampe bicycle lift
has been developed to encourage cyclists by giving assistance on a steep hill. Buses in many cities have bicycle carriers mounted on the front. There are towns in some countries where bicycle culture has been an integral part of the landscape for generations, even without much official support. That is the case of Ílhavo, in Portugal. In cities where bicycles are not integrated into the public transportation system, commuters often use bicycles as elements of a mixed-mode commute, where the bike is used to travel to and from train stations or other forms of rapid transit. Some students who commute several miles drive a car from home to a campus parking lot, then ride a bicycle to class. Folding bicycles are useful in these scenarios, as they are less cumbersome when carried aboard. Los Angeles removed a small amount of seating on some trains to make more room for bicycles and wheel chairs.[64]

Urban cyclists in Copenhagen
at a traffic light

Some US companies, notably in the tech sector, are developing both innovative cycle designs and cycle-friendliness in the workplace. Foursquare, whose CEO Dennis Crowley
Dennis Crowley
"pedaled to pitch meetings ... [when he] was raising money from venture capitalists" on a two-wheeler, chose a new location for its New York headquarters "based on where biking would be easy". Parking in the office was also integral to HQ planning. Mitchell Moss, who runs the Rudin Center for Transportation Policy & Management at New York University, said in 2012: "Biking has become the mode of choice for the educated high tech worker".[65] Bicycles offer an important mode of transport in many developing countries. Until recently, bicycles have been a staple of everyday life throughout Asian countries. They are the most frequently used method of transport for commuting to work, school, shopping, and life in general. In Europe, bicycles are commonly used.[66] They also offer a degree of exercise to keep individuals healthy.[67] Bicycles are also celebrated in the visual arts. An example of this is the Bicycle
Film Festival, a film festival hosted all around the world. Poverty alleviation Main article: Bicycle
poverty reduction

Men in Uganda using a bicycle to transport bananas

Experiments done in Uganda, Tanzania, and Sri Lanka on hundreds of households have shown that a bicycle can increase a poor family's income as much as 35%.[68][better source needed][69][70] Transport, if analyzed for the cost-benefit analysis for rural poverty alleviation, has given one of the best returns in this regard. For example, road investments in India were a staggering 3-10 times more effective than almost all other investments and subsidies in rural economy in the decade of the 1990s. What a road does at a macro level to increase transport, the bicycle supports at the micro level. The bicycle, in that sense, can be an important poverty-eradication tool in poor nations. Female emancipation See also: Bicycling and feminism

"Let go — but stand by"; Frances Willard learning to ride a bicycle.[71]

The safety bicycle gave women unprecedented mobility, contributing to their emancipation in Western nations. As bicycles became safer and cheaper, more women had access to the personal freedom that bicycles embodied, and so the bicycle came to symbolize the New Woman
New Woman
of the late 19th century, especially in Britain and the United States.[8][72] The bicycle craze in the 1890s also led to a movement for so-called rational dress, which helped liberate women from corsets and ankle-length skirts and other restrictive garments, substituting the then-shocking bloomers.[8] The bicycle was recognized by 19th-century feminists and suffragists as a "freedom machine" for women. American Susan B. Anthony
Susan B. Anthony
said in a New York World
New York World
interview on February 2, 1896: "I think it has done more to emancipate woman than any one thing in the world. I rejoice every time I see a woman ride by on a wheel. It gives her a feeling of self-reliance and independence the moment she takes her seat; and away she goes, the picture of untrammelled womanhood."[73]:859 In 1895 Frances Willard, the tightly laced president of the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union, wrote A Wheel Within a Wheel: How I Learned to Ride the Bicycle, with Some Reflections by the Way, a 75-page illustrated memoir praising "Gladys", her bicycle, for its "gladdening effect" on her health and political optimism.[71] Willard used a cycling metaphor to urge other suffragists to action.[71] Economic implications

Columbia Bicycles
Columbia Bicycles
advertisement from 1886

manufacturing proved to be a training ground for other industries and led to the development of advanced metalworking techniques, both for the frames themselves and for special components such as ball bearings, washers, and sprockets. These techniques later enabled skilled metalworkers and mechanics to develop the components used in early automobiles and aircraft. Wilbur and Orville Wright, a pair of businessmen, ran the Wright Cycle Company which designed, manufactured and sold their bicycles during the bike boom of the 1890s.[74] They also served to teach the industrial models later adopted, including mechanization and mass production (later copied and adopted by Ford and General Motors),[75][76][77] vertical integration[76] (also later copied and adopted by Ford), aggressive advertising[78] (as much as 10% of all advertising in U.S. periodicals in 1898 was by bicycle makers),[79] lobbying for better roads (which had the side benefit of acting as advertising, and of improving sales by providing more places to ride),[77] all first practiced by Pope.[77] In addition, bicycle makers adopted the annual model change[75][80] (later derided as planned obsolescence, and usually credited to General Motors), which proved very successful.[81] Early bicycles were an example of conspicuous consumption, being adopted by the fashionable elites.[82][83][84][75][85][86][87][88] In addition, by serving as a platform for accessories, which could ultimately cost more than the bicycle itself, it paved the way for the likes of the Barbie doll.[75][89][90] Bicycles helped create, or enhance, new kinds of businesses, such as bicycle messengers,[91] traveling seamstresses,[92] riding academies,[93] and racing rinks.[94][93] Their board tracks were later adapted to early motorcycle and automobile racing. There were a variety of new inventions, such as spoke tighteners,[95] and specialized lights,[90][95] socks and shoes,[96] and even cameras, such as the Eastman Company's Poco.[97] Probably the best known and most widely used of these inventions, adopted well beyond cycling, is Charles Bennett's Bike Web, which came to be called the jock strap.[98]

A man uses a bicycle to carry goods in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

They also presaged a move away from public transit[99] that would explode with the introduction of the automobile. J. K. Starley's company became the Rover Cycle Company Ltd. in the late 1890s, and then simply the Rover Company
Rover Company
when it started making cars. Morris Motors
Morris Motors
Limited (in Oxford) and Škoda also began in the bicycle business, as did the Wright brothers.[100] Alistair Craig, whose company eventually emerged to become the engine manufacturers Ailsa Craig, also started from manufacturing bicycles, in Glasgow
in March 1885. In general, U.S. and European cycle manufacturers used to assemble cycles from their own frames and components made by other companies, although very large companies (such as Raleigh) used to make almost every part of a bicycle (including bottom brackets, axles, etc.) In recent years, those bicycle makers have greatly changed their methods of production. Now, almost none of them produce their own frames. Many newer or smaller companies only design and market their products; the actual production is done by Asian companies. For example, some 60% of the world's bicycles are now being made in China. Despite this shift in production, as nations such as China and India become more wealthy, their own use of bicycles has declined due to the increasing affordability of cars and motorcycles.[101] One of the major reasons for the proliferation of Chinese-made bicycles in foreign markets is the lower cost of labor in China.[102] In line with the European financial crisis, in Italy in 2011 the number of bicycle sales (1.75 million) just passed the number of new car sales.[103] Environmental impact One of the profound economic implications of bicycle use is that it liberates the user from oil consumption.(Ballantine, 1972) The bicycle is an inexpensive, fast, healthy and environmentally friendly mode of transport. Ivan Illich
Ivan Illich
stated that bicycle use extended the usable physical environment for people, while alternatives such as cars and motorways degraded and confined people's environment and mobility.[104] Currently, two billion bicycles are in use around the world. Children, students, professionals, laborers, civil servants and seniors are pedaling around their communities. They all experience the freedom and the natural opportunity for exercise that the bicycle easily provides. Bicycle
also has lowest carbon intensity of travel.[105] Religious implications The proper Islamic bicycle
Islamic bicycle
for the Iranian women is a topic of heated discussion in both Sunni and Shia Islam.[106][107][108] Manufacturing See also: List of bicycle manufacturing companies The global bicycle market is $61 billion in 2011.[109] As of 2009[update] 130 million bicycles were sold every year globally and 66% of them were made in China.[110]

EU28 Bicycle
market 2000-2014[111]

Year production (M) sales (M)

2000 14.531 18.945

2001 13.009 17.745

2002 12.272 17.840

2003 12.828 20.206

2004 13.232 20.322

2005 13.218 20.912

2006 13.320 21.033

2007 13.086 21.344

2008 13.246 20.206

2009 12.178 19.582

2010 12.241 20.461

2011 11.758 20.039

2012 11.537 19.719

2013 11.360 19.780

2014 11.939 20.234

EU28 Bicycle
market 2014[111]

Country Production (M) Parts Sales (M) Avg Sales (M€)

Italy 2.729 491 M€ 1.696 288 488.4

Germany 2.139 286 M€ 4.100 528 2164.8

Poland .991 58 M€ 1.094 380 415.7

Bulgaria .950 9 M€ .082 119 9.8

The Netherlands .850 85 M€ 1.051 844 887

Romania .820 220 M€ .370 125 46.3

Portugal .720 120 M€ .340 160 54.4

France .630 170 M€ 2.978 307 914.2

Hungary .370 10 M€ .044 190 8.4

Spain .356 10 M€ 1.089 451 491.1

Czech Republic .333 85 M€ .333 150 50

Lithuania .323 0 .050 110 5.5

Slovakia .210 9 M€ .038 196 7.4

Austria .138 0 .401 450 180.5

Greece .108 0 .199 233 46.4

Belgium .099 35 M€ .567 420 238.1

Sweden .083 0 .584 458 267.5

Great Britain .052 34 M€ 3.630 345 1252.4

Finland .034 32 M€ .300 320 96

Slovenia .005 9 M€ .240 110 26.4

Croatia 0 0 .333 110 36.6

Cyprus 0 0 .033 110 3.6

Denmark 0 0 .470 450 211.5

Estonia 0 0 .062 190 11.8

Ireland 0 0 .091 190 17.3

Latvia 0 0 .040 110 4.4

Luxembourg 0 0 .010 450 4.5

Malta 0 0 .011 110 1.2

EU 28 11.939 1662 M€ 20.234 392 7941.2

Legal requirements Main article: Bicycle
law Early in its development, as with automobiles, there were restrictions on the operation of bicycles. Along with advertising, and to gain free publicity, Albert A. Pope
Albert A. Pope
litigated on behalf of cyclists.[77] The 1968 Vienna Convention on Road Traffic
Vienna Convention on Road Traffic
of the United Nations considers a bicycle to be a vehicle, and a person controlling a bicycle (whether actually riding or not) is considered an operator. The traffic codes of many countries reflect these definitions and demand that a bicycle satisfy certain legal requirements before it can be used on public roads. In many jurisdictions, it is an offense to use a bicycle that is not in a roadworthy condition.[citation needed] In most jurisdictions, bicycles must have functioning front and rear lights when ridden after dark. As some generator or dynamo-driven lamps only operate while moving, rear reflectors are frequently also mandatory. Since a moving bicycle makes little noise, some countries insist that bicycles have a warning bell for use when approaching pedestrians, equestrians, and other cyclists, though sometimes a car horn can be used when a 12 volt battery is available.[citation needed] Some countries require child and/or adult cyclists to wear helmets, as this may protect riders from head trauma. Countries which require adult cyclists to wear helmets include Spain, New Zealand and Australia. Mandatory helmet wearing is one of the most controversial topics in the cycling world, with proponents arguing that it reduces head injuries and thus is an acceptable requirement, while opponents argue that by making cycling seem more dangerous and cumbersome, it reduces cyclist numbers on the streets, creating an overall negative health effect (fewer people cycling for their own health, and the remaining cyclists being more exposed through a reversed safety in numbers effect).[citation needed] Theft Main article: Bicycle
theft Bicycles are popular targets for theft, due to their value and ease of resale.[112] The number of bicycles stolen annually is difficult to quantify as a large number of crimes are not reported.[113] Around 50% of the participants in the Montreal
International Journal of Sustainable Transportation survey were subjected to a bicycle theft in their lifetime as active cyclists.[114] Most bicycles have serial numbers that can be recorded to verify identity in case of theft.[115] Longest bicycle The worlds longest bicycle was created by Santos and University of South Australia. It measures at 41.42 m (135 ft 10.7 in) long.[116] See also


List of bicycle types Outline of bicycles Outline of cycling Bicycle-sharing system

References Citations

^ a b c d Koeppel, Dan (January–February 2007). "Flight of the Pigeon". Bicycling. Vol. 48 no. 1. Rodale. pp. 60–66. ISSN 0006-2073. Retrieved 2012-01-28.  ^ a b "Bicycling; A way of life; Faster in town than going by car, bus, tube or on foot". The Economist. April 20, 2011.  ^ a b "Bicycles produced in the world - Worldometers". Retrieved 2 January 2012.  ^ a b Squatriglia, Chuck (23 May 2008). "Honda Sells Its 60 Millionth – Yes, Millionth – Super Cub". Wired. Retrieved 31 October 2010.  ^ a b "That's 2.5 billion cc!". American Motorcyclist. Westerville, Ohio. May 2006. p. 24. ISSN 0277-9358. Retrieved 31 October 2010.  ^ a b "Toyota ponders recall of world's best-selling car". Australian Broadcasting Corporation News Online. 18 February 2010.  ^ a b Herlihy 2004, pp. 200–50. ^ a b c d Herlihy 2004, pp. 266–71. ^ a b c Herlihy 2004, p. 280. ^ Heitmann JA. The Automobile
and American Life. McFarland, 2009, ISBN 0-7864-4013-9, pp. 11 and following ^ a b c "bicycle". Oxford
English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) ^ "bicycle (n.)". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 10 February 2014.  ^ "bike". Oxford
English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford
University Press. September 2005.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) ^ "pushbike". Oxford
English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford
University Press. September 2005.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) ^ "pedal cycle". Oxford
English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) ^ "cycle". Oxford
English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford
University Press. September 2005.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) ^ "Transport and Map Symbols" (PDF). unicode.org. Retrieved 10 February 2014.  ^ a b "Baron von Drais' Bicycle". Canada Science and Technology Museum. Retrieved 10 February 2014.  ^ Herlihy 2004, p. 26. ^ Herlihy 2004, pp. 66–7. ^ "Is dangerous cycling a problem?". BBC News. 13 April 2011. Retrieved 11 February 2014.  ^ Bulletin des lois de la République française (1873) 12th series, vol. 6, page 648, patent no. 86,705: "Perfectionnements dans les roues de vélocipèdes" (Improvements in the wheels of bicycles), issued: 4 August 1869. ^ Norcliffe 2001, p. 50. ^ McGrory, David. A History of Coventry
(Chichester: Phillimore, 2003), p.221. ^ Norcliffe 2001, p. 47. ^ McGrory, p. 222. ^ "Cycle market: Moving into the fast lane". The Independent. 26 February 2018.  ^ The Golden Book of Cycling
– William Hume, 1938. Archive maintained by 'The Pedal Club'. Archived 3 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Dunlop, What sets Dunlop apart, History, 1889 ^ Sheldon Brown. "One-Speed Bicycle
Coaster Brakes". Archived from the original on 29 November 2010. Retrieved 2010-12-01. Coaster brakes were invented in the 1890s.  ^ "On Your Bike..." BBC. 26 February 2018.  ^ 24/7 Wall St. (26 January 2012). "The Best-Selling Cars of All Time". Fox Business. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016.  ^ Various (9 December 2006). "Like falling off". New Scientist
New Scientist
(2581): 93. Retrieved 27 January 2009.  ^ Meijaard, J.P.; Papadopoulos, Jim M.; Ruina, Andy; Schwab, A.L. (2007). "Linearized dynamics equations for the balance and steer of a bicycle: a benchmark and review". Proceedings of the Royal Society A. 463 (2084): 1955–1982. Bibcode:2007RSPSA.463.1955M. doi:10.1098/rspa.2007.1857.  ^ Wilson, David Gordon; Jim Papadopoulos (2004). Bicycling Science (Third ed.). The MIT Press. pp. 270–272. ISBN 0-262-73154-1.  ^ Fajans, Joel (July 1738). "Steering in bicycles and motorcycles" (PDF). American Journal of Physics. 68 (7): 654–659. Bibcode:2000AmJPh..68..654F. doi:10.1119/1.19504. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 September 2006. Retrieved 2006-08-04.  ^ Cossalter, Vittore (2006). Motorcycle Dynamics (Second ed.). Lulu. pp. 241–342. ISBN 978-1-4303-0861-4.  ^ S. S. Wilson, " Bicycle
Technology", Scientific American, March 1973 ^ "Pedal power probe shows bicycles waste little energy". Johns Hopkins Gazette. August 30, 1999.  ^ Whitt, Frank R.; David G. Wilson (1982). Bicycling Science (Second ed.). Massachusetts Institute of Technology. pp. 277–300. ISBN 0-262-23111-5.  ^ "AeroVelo Eta: bullet-shaped bike sets new human-powered speed record". International Business Times. Sep 21, 2016. Retrieved 2016-11-29.  ^ "How Much Do Bicycles Pollute? Looking at the Carbon Dioxide Produced by Bicycles". Kenkifer.com. 1999-11-20. Retrieved 2011-10-24.  ^ "History Loudly Tells Why The Recumbent Bike Is Popular Today". Recumbent-bikes-truth-for-you.com. 1934-04-01. Retrieved 2011-10-24.  ^ Lakkad; Patel (June 1981). "Mechanical properties of bamboo, a natural composite". Fibre Science and Technology. 14 (4): 319–322. doi:10.1016/0015-0568(81)90023-3.  ^ a b Jen Lukenbill. "About My Planet: Bamboo
Bikes". Archived from the original on 25 October 2012. Retrieved 14 January 2013.  ^ Teo Kermeliotis (May 31, 2012). "Made in Africa: Bamboo
bikes put Zambian business on right track". CNN.  ^ Bamboo
bicycles made in Zambia (TV news). Tokyo: NHK World News in English. 14 Jan 2013. Archived from the original on 2013-01-15.  ^ Wade Wallace (1 October 2013). "Disc Brakes and Road Bikes: What does the Future Hold?". cyclingtips.com.au. Retrieved 24 February 2014.  ^ John Allan. "Disc Brakes". sheldonbrown.com. Retrieved 24 February 2014.  ^ Brown, Sheldon. "Fixed Gear Conversions: Braking". Archived from the original on 9 February 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-11.  ^ a b Bluejay, Michael. "Safety Accessories". Bicycle
Accessories. BicycleUniverse.info. Archived from the original on 8 October 2006. Retrieved 2006-09-13.  ^ "The Essentials of Bike Clothing". About Bicycling. About.com. Archived from the original on 26 August 2006. Retrieved 2006-09-13.  ^ " Bicycle
Advisor". bicycleadvisor.com. Retrieved 16 December 2015.  ^ The TC149 ISO bicycle committee, including the TC149/SC1 ("Cycles and major sub-assemblies") subcommittee, has published the following standards:[citation needed]

ISO 4210 Cycles—Safety requirements for bicycles ISO 6692 Cycles—Marking of cycle components ISO 6695 Cycles—Pedal axle and crank assembly with square end fitting—Assembly dimensions ISO 6696 Cycles—Screw threads used in bottom bracket assemblies ISO 6697 Cycles—Hubs and freewheels—Assembly dimensions ISO 6698 Cycles—Screw threads used to assemble freewheels on bicycle hubs ISO 6699 Cycles—Stem and handlebar bend—Assembly dimensions ISO 6701 Cycles—External dimensions of spoke nipples ISO 6742 Cycles—Lighting and retro-reflective devices—Photometric and physical requirements ISO 8090 Cycles—Terminology (same as BS 6102-4) ISO 8098 Cycles—Safety requirements for bicycles for young children ISO 8488 Cycles—Screw threads used to assemble head fittings on bicycle forks ISO 8562 Cycles—Stem wedge angle ISO 10230 Cycles—Splined hub and sprocket—Mating dimensions ISO 11243 Cycles—Luggage carriers for bicycles—Concepts, classification and testing

Other ISO Technical Committees have published various cycle relevant standards, for example:

ISO 5775
ISO 5775
Bicycle tire
Bicycle tire
and rim designations ISO 9633 Cycle chains—Characteristics and test methods

Published cycle standards from CEN TC333 include:

EN 14764 City and trekking bicycles – Safety requirements and test methods EN 14765 Bicycles for young children – Safety requirements and test methods EN 14766 Mountain-bicycles – Safety requirements and test methods EN 14781 Racing bicycles – Safety requirements and test methods EN 14782 Bicycles – Accessories for bicycles – Luggage carriers EN 15496 Cycles – Requirements and test methods for cycle locks

Yet to be approved cycle standards from CEN TC333:

EN 15194 Cycles—Electrically power assisted cycles (EPAC bicycle) EN 15532 Cycles—Terminology 00333011 Cycles – Bicycles trailers – safety requirements and test methods

^ "Community Bicycle
Organizations". Bike Collective Network wiki. Retrieved 15 January 2013.  ^ "Sheldon Brown: Flat tires". Archived from the original on 13 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-29.  ^ "BikeWebSite: Bicycle
Glossary – Patch kit". Archived from the original on 13 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-20.  ^ Winters, M; Brauer, M; Setton, EM; Teschke, K (2010). "Built environment influences on healthy transportation choices: bicycling versus driving". J Urban Health. 87: 969–93. doi:10.1007/s11524-010-9509-6. PMC 3005092 . PMID 21174189.  ^ Shaheen, Susan; Guzman, Stacey; Zhang, Hua (2010). "Bikesharing in Europe, the Americas, and Asia". Transportation Research Record. 2143: 159–67. doi:10.3141/2143-20.  ^ Shaheen, Stacey; Stacey Guzman (2011). "Worldwide Bikesharing". Access Magazine. Archived from the original on 2012-03-26.  ^ Shaheen, Susan; Zhang, Hua; Martin, Elliot; Guzman, Stacey (2011). "China's Hangzhou Public Bicycle". Transportation Research Record. 2247: 33–41. doi:10.3141/2247-05.  ^ "Tax free bikes for work through the Government's Green Transport Initiative - Cyclescheme, provider of Cycle to Work schemes for UK employers". Cyclescheme. [non-primary source needed] ^ Joel Broekaert & Reinier Kist (12 February 2010). "So many bikes, so little space". NRC Handelsblad. Retrieved 2010-02-13.  ^ Damien Newton (October 16, 2008). "Metro Making Room for Bikes on Their Trains". LA.StreetsBlog.Org. Retrieved 2010-02-12.  ^ Bernstein, Andrea, "Techies on the cutting edge... of bike commuting", Marketplace, February 22, 2012. "Bernstein reports from the Transportation Nation project at WNYC". Retrieved 2012-02-22. ^ "In Almost Every European Country, Bikes Are Outselling New Cars". NPR. 24 October 2013.  ^ Lowe, Marcia D. (1989). The Bicycle: Vehicle
for a Small Planet (PDF). Worldwatch Institute. ISBN 978-0-916468-91-0. [page needed] ^ "Bicycle: The Unnoticed Potential". BicyclePotential.org. 2009. Archived from the original on 25 June 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-09.  ^ Niklas Sieber (1998). "Appropriate Transportation and Rural Development in Makete District, Tanzania" (PDF). Journal of Transport Geography. 6 (1): 69–73. doi:10.1016/S0966-6923(97)00040-9. Retrieved 2011-07-09.  ^ "Project Tsunami Report Confirms The Power of Bicycle" (PDF). World Bicycle
Relief. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-12-26. Retrieved 2011-07-09.  ^ a b c Willard, Frances Elizabeth (1895). A Wheel Within a Wheel: How I Learned to Ride the Bicycle, with Some Reflections by the Way. Woman's Temperance Publishing Association. pp. 53, 56.  ^ Roberts, Jacob (2017). "Women's work". Distillations. 3 (1): 6–11. Retrieved 22 March 2018.  ^ Husted Harper, Ida (1898). The life and work of Susan B. Anthony: including public addresses, her own letters and many from her contemporaries during fifty years. A story of the evolution of the status of woman, Volume 2. 2. The Bowen-Merrill Company.  ^ "Wilbur Wright Working in the Bicycle
Shop". World Digital Library. 1897. Retrieved 2013-07-22.  ^ a b c d Norcliffe 2001, p. 23. ^ a b Norcliffe 2001, p. 106. ^ a b c d Norcliffe 2001, p. 108. ^ Norcliffe 2001, pp. 142–7. ^ Norcliffe 2001, p. 145. ^ Babaian, Sharon. The Most Benevolent Machine: A Historical Assessment of Cycles in Canada (Ottawa: National Museum of Science and Technology, 1998), p.97. ^ Babaian, p.98. ^ Norcliffe 2001, p. 8. ^ Norcliffe 2001, p. 12. ^ Norcliffe 2001, p. 14. ^ Norcliffe 2001, p. 147–8. ^ Norcliffe 2001, p. 187–8. ^ Norcliffe 2001, p. 208. ^ Norcliffe 2001, p. 243–5. ^ Norcliffe 2001, p. 121. ^ a b Norcliffe 2001, p. 123. ^ Norcliffe 2001, p. 212. ^ Norcliffe 2001, p. 214. ^ a b Norcliffe 2001, p. 131. ^ Norcliffe 2001, p. 30. ^ a b Norcliffe 2001, p. 125. ^ Norcliffe 2001, pp. 125–126. ^ Norcliffe 2001, p. 238. ^ Norcliffe 2001, p. 128. ^ Norcliffe 2001, pp. 214–5. ^ "The Wrights' bicycle shop". 2007. Archived from the original on 25 January 2007. Retrieved 2007-02-05.  ^ Francois Bougo (May 26, 2010). "Beijing looks to revitalise bicycle culture". Agence France-Presse.  ^ The Economist, 15 February 2003 ^ "Italian bicycle sales 'surpass those of cars'". BBC News. October 2, 2012.  ^ Illich, I. (1974). Energy and equity. New York, Harper & Row. ^ "Global cyclists say NO to carbon - opt for CDM", The World Bank, 27 October 2015 ^ "Peddling religion: Why secular academics fret about an "Islamic bicycle"". The Economist. Sep 15, 2012.  ^ Michael Slackman (Sep 9, 2007). "Molding the Ideal Islamic Citizen". The New York Times.  ^ Farzaneh Milani (Jun 28, 2007). "'Islamic bicycle' can't slow Iranian women". USA Today.  ^ "High Growth and Big Margins in the $61 Billion Bicycle
Industry". Seeking Alpha. Retrieved 2011-10-24.  ^ "The Business of Bicycles Manufacturing Opportunities DARE - Because Entrepreneurs Do ". DARE. 2009-06-01. Archived from the original on 2011-11-10. Retrieved 2011-10-24.  ^ a b "2014 European Bicycle
Industry & Market Profile". Confederation of the European Bicycle
Industry. 2015.  ^ Van Lierop, Dea; Grimsrud, Michael; El-Geneidy, Ahmed (2014). "Breaking into Bicycle
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Herlihy, David V. (2004). Bicycle: The History. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0300120479.  Norcliffe, Glen (2001). The Ride to Modernity: The Bicycle
in Canada, 1869–1900. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-0-8020-8205-3. 

Further reading

Max Glaskin, Cycling
Science: How Rider and Machine Work Together January 2013, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 9780226921877 Raymond Huttier. Le roman de la bicyclette, du célérifère au vélo moderne. ( Bicycle
history) 139 p. illustré. Editions Susse, Paris. 1951.

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Tire Spoke Spoke
nipple Valve stem Dustcap Quick release skewer


Pedal Crankset Chain Cogset Derailleur gears/Hub gears Gear case Sprocket


Shifter Bowden cable Cable guide Brake Ferrule


Basket Bell Bottle cage Fairing Cyclocomputer Kickstand Lighting Luggage carrier Mudguards Panniers Saddlebag Spoke
card Reflectors Skirt guard Training wheels

Authority control

LCCN: sh85013911 GND: 4016297-7 BNF: cb13162854m (data) HDS: 1