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The Biblical apocrypha
Biblical apocrypha
(from the Greek ἀπόκρυφος, apókruphos, meaning "hidden") denotes the collection of apocryphal ancient books found in some editions of Christian Bibles in a separate section between the Old and New Testaments[1] or as an appendix after the New Testament.[2] Some Christian Churches include some or all of the same texts within the body of their version of the Old Testament. Although the term apocrypha had been in use since the 5th century, it was in Luther's Bible
Bible
of 1534 that the Apocrypha
Apocrypha
was first published as a separate intertestamental section.[3] To this date, the Apocrypha is "included in the lectionaries of Anglican and Lutheran Churches."[4] Moreover, the Revised Common Lectionary, in use by most mainline Protestants including Methodists and Moravians, lists readings from the Apocrypha
Apocrypha
in the liturgical kalendar, although alternate Old Testament
Old Testament
scripture lessons are provided.[5] The preface to the Apocrypha
Apocrypha
in the Geneva Bible
Bible
explained that while these books "were not received by a common consent to be read and expounded publicly in the Church," and did not serve "to prove any point of Christian religion save in so much as they had the consent of the other scriptures called canonical to confirm the same," nonetheless, "as books proceeding from godly men they were received to be read for the advancement and furtherance of the knowledge of history and for the instruction of godly manners."[6] Later, during the English Civil War, the Westminster Confession of 1647 excluded the Apocrypha
Apocrypha
from the canon and made no recommendation of the Apocrypha above "other human writings",[7] and this attitude towards the Apocrypha
Apocrypha
is represented by the decision of the British and Foreign Bible
Bible
Society in the early 19th century not to print it (see below). Today, "English Bibles with the Apocrypha
Apocrypha
are becoming more popular again" and they are often printed as intertestamental books.[8] Most of the books of the Protestant Apocrypha
Apocrypha
are called deuterocanonical by Catholics per the Council of Trent
Council of Trent
and all of them are called anagignoskomena by the Eastern Orthodox per the Synod of Jerusalem. The Anglican Communion
Anglican Communion
accepts "the Apocrypha
Apocrypha
for instruction in life and manners, but not for the establishment of doctrine (Article VI in the Thirty-Nine Articles)",[9] and many "lectionary readings in The Book
Book
of Common Prayer are taken from the Apocrypha", with these lessons being "read in the same ways as those from the Old Testament".[10] The Protestant Apocrypha
Apocrypha
contains three books (3 Esdras, 4 Esdras and the Prayer of Manasseh) that are accepted by many Eastern Orthodox Churches and Oriental Orthodox Churches as canonical, but are regarded as non-canonical by the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and are therefore not included in modern Catholic Bibles.[11]

Contents

1 Biblical canon 2 Vulgate
Vulgate
prologues 3 Apocrypha
Apocrypha
in editions of the Bible

3.1 Gutenberg Bible 3.2 Luther Bible 3.3 Clementine Vulgate 3.4 King James Version 3.5 The Bible
Bible
and the Puritan revolution 3.6 Other early Bible
Bible
editions 3.7 Modern editions 3.8 Anagignoskomena

4 Pseudepigrapha 5 Classification 6 Cultural impact 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

Biblical canon[edit] Main articles: Biblical canon, Christian biblical canons, Development of the Christian biblical canon, Protocanonical books, and Deuterocanonical books Vulgate
Vulgate
prologues[edit] See also: Development of the Hebrew Bible
Bible
canon and Development of the Old Testament
Old Testament
canon Jerome
Jerome
completed his version of the Bible, the Latin Vulgate, in 405. In the Middle Ages the Vulgate
Vulgate
became the de facto standard version of the Bible
Bible
in the West. The Vulgate
Vulgate
manuscripts included prologues[12] that Jerome
Jerome
clearly identified certain books of the Vulgate
Vulgate
Old Testament as apocryphal or non-canonical. In the prologue to the books of Samuel and Kings, which is often called the Prologus Galeatus, he says:[13]

This preface to the Scriptures may serve as a “helmeted” introduction to all the books which we turn from Hebrew into Latin, so that we may be assured that what is not found in our list must be placed amongst the Apocryphal writings. Wisdom, therefore, which generally bears the name of Solomon, and the book of Jesus, the Son of Sirach, and Judith, and Tobias, and the Shepherd are not in the canon. The first book of Maccabees
Maccabees
I have found to be Hebrew, the second is Greek, as can be proved from the very style.

In the prologue to Esdras he mentions 3 and 4 Esdras as being apocrypha.[14] In his prologue to the books of Solomon, he says:[15]

Also included is the book of the model of virtue (παναρετος) Jesus
Jesus
son of Sirach, and another falsely ascribed work (ψευδεπιγραφος) which is titled Wisdom of Solomon. The former of these I have also found in Hebrew, titled not Ecclesiasticus as among the Latins, but Parables, to which were joined Ecclesiastes and Song of Songs, as though it made of equal worth the likeness not only of the number of the books of Solomon, but also the kind of subjects. The second was never among the Hebrews, the very style of which reeks of Greek eloquence. And none of the ancient scribes affirm this one is of Philo Judaeus. Therefore, just as the Church also reads the books of Judith, Tobias, and the Maccabees, but does not receive them among the canonical Scriptures, so also one may read these two scrolls for the strengthening of the people, (but) not for confirming the authority of ecclesiastical dogmas.

He mentions the book of Baruch in his prologue to the Jeremias and does not explicitly refer to it as apocryphal, but he does mention that "it is neither read nor held among the Hebrews".[16] In his prologue to the Judith
Judith
he mentions that "among the Hebrews, the authority [of Judith] came into contention", but that it was "counted in the number of Sacred Scriptures" by the First Council of Nicaea.[17] In his reply to Rufinus, he affirmed that he was consistent with the choice of the church regarding which version of the deuterocanonical portions of Daniel to use, which the Jews of his day did not include:

What sin have I committed in following the judgment of the churches? But when I repeat what the Jews say against the Story of Susanna and the Hymn of the Three Children, and the fables of Bel and the Dragon, which are not contained in the Hebrew Bible, the man who makes this a charge against me proves himself to be a fool and a slanderer; for I explained not what I thought but what they commonly say against us. (Against Rufinus, II:33 (AD 402)).[18]

According to Michael Barber, although Jerome
Jerome
was once suspicious of the apocrypha, he later viewed them as Scripture as shown in his epistles. Barber cites Jerome's letter to Eustochium, in which Jerome quotes Sirach
Sirach
13:2.;[19] elsewhere Jerome
Jerome
also refers to Baruch, the Story of Susannah and Wisdom as scripture.[20][21][22] Apocrypha
Apocrypha
in editions of the Bible[edit] Apocrypha
Apocrypha
are well attested in surviving manuscripts of the Christian Bible. (See, for example, Codex Vaticanus, Codex Sinaiticus, Codex Alexandrinus, Vulgate, and Peshitta.) After the Lutheran and Catholic canons were defined by Luther (c. 1534) and Trent[23] (8 April 1546) respectively, early Protestant editions of the Bible
Bible
(notably the Luther Bible
Bible
in German and 1611 King James Version
King James Version
in English) did not omit these books, but placed them in a separate Apocrypha
Apocrypha
section apart from the Old and New Testaments to indicate their status. Gutenberg Bible[edit] This famous edition of the Vulgate
Vulgate
was published in 1455. Like the manuscripts it was based on, the Gutenberg Bible
Bible
lacked a specific Apocrypha
Apocrypha
section;[24] its Old Testament
Old Testament
included the books that Jerome
Jerome
considered apocryphal, and those Clement VIII
Clement VIII
later moved to the appendix. The Prayer of Manasses
Prayer of Manasses
was located after the Books of Chronicles, and 3 and 4 Esdras followed 2 Esdras
2 Esdras
(Nehemiah), and Prayer of Solomon followed Ecclesiasticus. Luther Bible[edit] Main articles: Luther Bible, Intertestamental period, and Luther's canon Martin Luther
Martin Luther
translated the Bible
Bible
into German during the early part of the 16th century, first releasing a complete Bible
Bible
in 1534. His Bible
Bible
was the first major edition to have a separate section called Apocrypha. Books and portions of books not found in the Masoretic Text of Judaism were moved out of the body of the Old Testament
Old Testament
to this section.[25] Luther placed these books between the Old and New Testaments. For this reason, these works are sometimes known as inter-testamental books. The books 1 and 2 Esdras
2 Esdras
were omitted entirely.[26] Luther was making a polemical point about the canonicity of these books. As an authority for this division, he cited St. Jerome, who in the early 5th century distinguished the Hebrew and Greek Old Testaments,[27] stating that books not found in the Hebrew were not received as canonical. Although his statement was controversial in his day,[28] Jerome
Jerome
was later titled a Doctor of the Church and his authority was also cited in the Anglican statement in 1571 of the Thirty-Nine Articles.[29] Luther also expressed some doubts about the canonicity of four New Testament books, although he never called them apocrypha: the Epistle to the Hebrews, the Epistles of James and Jude, and the Revelation to John. He did not put them in a separate named section, but he did move them to the end of his New Testament.[30] Clementine Vulgate[edit] See also: Books of the Latin Vulgate In 1592, Pope Clement VIII
Clement VIII
published his revised edition of the Vulgate, referred to as the Sixto-Clementine Vulgate. He moved three books not found in the canon of the Council of Trent
Council of Trent
from the Old Testament into an appendix "lest they utterly perish" (ne prorsus interirent).[31]

Prayer of Manasses 3 Esdras ( 1 Esdras
1 Esdras
in the King James Bible) 4 Esdras ( 2 Esdras
2 Esdras
in the King James Bible)

The protocanonical and deuterocanonical books he placed in their traditional positions in the Old Testament. King James Version[edit] The English-language King James Version
King James Version
(KJV) of 1611 followed the lead of the Luther Bible
Bible
in using an inter-testamental section labelled "Books called Apocrypha", or just "Apocrypha" at the running page header.[32] The KJV followed the Geneva Bible
Bible
of 1560 almost exactly (variations are marked below). The section contains the following:[33]

1 Esdras
1 Esdras
( Vulgate
Vulgate
3 Esdras) 2 Esdras
2 Esdras
( Vulgate
Vulgate
4 Esdras) Tobit Judith
Judith
("Judeth" in Geneva) Rest of Esther ( Vulgate
Vulgate
Esther 10:4 – 16:24) Wisdom Ecclesiasticus
Ecclesiasticus
(also known as Sirach) Baruch and the Epistle of Jeremy
Epistle of Jeremy
("Jeremiah" in Geneva) (all part of Vulgate
Vulgate
Baruch) Song of the Three Children ( Vulgate
Vulgate
Daniel 3:24–90) Story of Susanna ( Vulgate
Vulgate
Daniel 13) The Idol Bel and the Dragon
Bel and the Dragon
( Vulgate
Vulgate
Daniel 14) Prayer of Manasses
Prayer of Manasses
(Daniel) 1 Maccabees 2 Maccabees

Included in this list are those books of the Clementine Vulgate
Vulgate
that were not in Luther's canon. These are the books most frequently referred to by the casual appellation "the Apocrypha". These same books are also listed in Article VI of the Thirty-Nine Articles
Thirty-Nine Articles
of the Church of England.[34] Despite being placed in the Apocrypha, in the table of lessons at the front of some printings of the King James Bible, these books are included under the Old Testament. The Bible
Bible
and the Puritan revolution[edit] The British Puritan revolution of the 1600s brought a change in the way many British publishers handled the apocryphal material associated with the Bible. The Puritans used the standard of Sola Scriptura (Scripture Alone) to determine which books would be included in the canon. The Westminster Confession of Faith, composed during the British Civil Wars
British Civil Wars
(1642–1651), excluded the Apocrypha
Apocrypha
from the canon. The Confession provided the rationale for the exclusion: 'The books commonly called Apocrypha, not being of divine inspiration, are no part of the canon of the Scripture, and therefore are of no authority in the church of God, nor to be any otherwise approved, or made use of, than other human writings' (1.3).[35] Thus, Bibles printed by English Protestants who separated from the Church of England began to exclude these books. Other early Bible
Bible
editions[edit]

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All English translations of the Bible
Bible
printed in the sixteenth century included a section or appendix for Apocryphal books. Matthew's Bible, published in 1537, contains all the Apocrypha
Apocrypha
of the later King James Version in an inter-testamental section. The 1538 Myles Coverdale Bible
Bible
contained an Apocrypha
Apocrypha
that excluded Baruch and the Prayer of Manasseh. The 1560 Geneva Bible
Bible
placed the Prayer of Manasseh
Prayer of Manasseh
after 2 Chronicles; the rest of the Apocrypha
Apocrypha
were placed in an inter-testamental section. The Douay-Rheims Bible
Bible
(1582–1609) placed the Prayer of Manasseh
Prayer of Manasseh
and 3 and 4 Esdras into an Appendix of the second volume of the Old Testament. In the Zürich Bible
Bible
(1529–30) they are placed in an Appendix. They include 3 Maccabees, along with 1 Esdras
1 Esdras
& 2 Esdras. The 1st edition omitted the Prayer of Manasseh
Prayer of Manasseh
and the Rest of Esther, although these were included in the 2nd edition. The French Bible (1535) of Pierre Robert Olivétan placed them between the Testaments, with the subtitle, "The volume of the apocryphal books contained in the Vulgate
Vulgate
translation, which we have not found in the Hebrew or Chaldee". In 1569 the Spanish Reina Bible, following the example of the pre-Clementine Latin Vulgate, contained the deuterocanonical books in its Old Testament. Following the other Protestant translations of its day, Valera's 1602 revision of the Reina Bible
Bible
moved these books into an inter-testamental section. Modern editions[edit] All King James Bibles published before 1666 included the Apocrypha,[36] though separately to denote them as not equal to Scripture proper, as noted by Jerome
Jerome
in the Vulgate, to which he gave the name, "The Apocrypha."[37] In 1826,[38] the National Bible
Bible
Society of Scotland petitioned the British and Foreign Bible
Bible
Society not to print the Apocrypha,[39] resulting in a decision that no BFBS funds were to pay for printing any Apocryphal books anywhere. Since that time most modern editions of the Bible
Bible
and reprintings of the King James Bible
Bible
omit the Apocrypha
Apocrypha
section. Modern non-Catholic reprintings of the Clementine Vulgate
Vulgate
commonly omit the Apocrypha section. Many reprintings of older versions of the Bible
Bible
now omit the apocrypha and many newer translations and revisions have never included them at all. There are some exceptions to this trend, however. Some editions of the Revised Standard Version
Revised Standard Version
and the New Revised Standard Version
Revised Standard Version
of the Bible
Bible
include not only the Apocrypha
Apocrypha
listed above, but also the third and fourth books of Maccabees, and Psalm 151. The American Bible
Bible
Society lifted restrictions on the publication of Bibles with the Apocrypha
Apocrypha
in 1964. The British and Foreign Bible Society followed in 1966.[40] The Stuttgart edition of the Vulgate (the printed edition, not most of the on-line editions), which is published by the UBS, contains the Clementine Apocrypha
Apocrypha
as well as the Epistle
Epistle
to the Laodiceans
Laodiceans
and Psalm 151. Brenton's edition of the Septuagint
Septuagint
includes all of the Apocrypha found in the King James Bible
Bible
with the exception of 2 Esdras, which was not in the Septuagint
Septuagint
and is no longer extant in Greek.[41] He places them in a separate section at the end of his Old Testament, following English tradition. In Greek circles, however, these books are not traditionally called Apocrypha, but Anagignoskomena (ἀναγιγνωσκόμενα), and are integrated into the Old Testament. The Orthodox Study Bible, published by Thomas Nelson Publishers, includes the Anagignoskomena in its Old Testament, with the exception of 4 Maccabees. This was translated by the Saint Athanasius Academy of Orthodox Theology, from the Rahlfs Edition of the Septuagint
Septuagint
using Brenton's English translation and the RSV Expanded Apocrypha
Apocrypha
as boilerplate. As such, they are included in the Old Testament
Old Testament
with no distinction between these books and the rest of the Old Testament. This follows the tradition of the Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
where the Septuagint
Septuagint
is the received version of Old Testament
Old Testament
scripture, considered itself inspired in agreement with some of the Fathers, such as St Augustine, rather than the Hebrew Masoretic text
Masoretic text
followed by all other modern translations.[42] Anagignoskomena[edit] The Septuagint, the ancient and best known Greek version of the Old Testament, contains books and additions that are not present in the Hebrew Bible. These texts are not traditionally segregated into a separate section, nor are they usually called apocrypha. Rather, they are referred to as the Anagignoskomena (ἀναγιγνωσκόμενα, "things that are read" or "profitable reading"). The anagignoskomena are Tobit, Judith, Wisdom of Solomon, Wisdom of Jesus
Jesus
ben Sira (Sirach), Baruch, Letter of Jeremiah (in the Vulgate
Vulgate
this is chapter 6 of Baruch), additions to Daniel (The Prayer of Azarias, Susanna and Bel and the Dragon), additions to Esther, 1 Maccabees, 2 Maccabees, 3 Maccabees, 1 Esdras, i.e. all of the Deuterocanonical books
Deuterocanonical books
plus 3 Maccabees
3 Maccabees
and 1 Esdras.[43] Some editions add additional books, such as Psalm 151
Psalm 151
or the Odes (including the Prayer of Manasses). 2 Esdras
2 Esdras
is added as an appendix in the Slavonic Bibles and 4 Maccabees
4 Maccabees
as an appendix in Greek editions.[43] Pseudepigrapha[edit] Technically, a pseudepigraphon is a book written in a biblical style and ascribed to an author who did not write it. In common usage, however, the term pseudepigrapha is often used by way of distinction to refer to apocryphal writings that do not appear in printed editions of the Bible, as opposed to the texts listed above. Examples[44] include:

Apocalypse of Abraham Apocalypse of Moses Letter of Aristeas Martyrdom and Ascension of Isaiah Joseph and Aseneth Life of Adam and Eve Lives of the Prophets Ladder of Jacob Jannes and Jambres History of the Captivity in Babylon History of the Rechabites Eldad and Modad History of Joseph Odes of Solomon Prayer of Joseph Prayer of Jacob Vision of Ezra

Often included among the pseudepigrapha are 3 and 4 Maccabees
4 Maccabees
because they are not traditionally found in western Bibles, although they are in the Septuagint. Similarly, the Book
Book
of Enoch, Book
Book
of Jubilees and 4 Baruch are often listed with the pseudepigrapha although they are commonly included in Ethiopian Bibles. The Psalms of Solomon are found in some editions of the Septuagint. Classification[edit]

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The Apocrypha
Apocrypha
of the King James Bible
Bible
constitutes the books of the Vulgate
Vulgate
that are present neither in the Hebrew Old Testament
Old Testament
nor the Greek New Testament. Since these are derived from the Septuagint, from which the old Latin version was translated, it follows that the difference between the KJV and the Roman Catholic Old Testaments is traceable to the difference between the Palestinian and the Alexandrian canons of the Old Testament. This is only true with certain reservations, as the Latin Vulgate
Vulgate
was revised by Jerome according to the Hebrew, and, where Hebrew originals were not found, according to the Septuagint. Furthermore, the Vulgate
Vulgate
omits 3 and 4 Maccabees, which generally appear in the Septuagint, while the Septuagint
Septuagint
and Luther's Bible
Bible
omit 2 Esdras, which is found in the Apocrypha
Apocrypha
of the Vulgate
Vulgate
and the King James Bible. Luther's Bible, moreover, also omits 1 Esdras. It should further be observed that the Clementine Vulgate
Vulgate
places the Prayer of Manasses
Prayer of Manasses
and 3 Esdras and 4 Esdras in an appendix after the New Testament
New Testament
as apocryphal. It is hardly possible to form any classification not open to some objection. Scholars are still divided as to the original language, date, and place of composition of some of the books that come under this provisional attempt at order. (Thus some of the additions to Daniel and the Prayer of Manasseh
Prayer of Manasseh
are most probably derived from a Semitic original written in Palestine, yet in compliance with the prevailing opinion they are classed under Hellenistic Jewish literature. Again, the Slavonic Enoch goes back undoubtedly in parts to a Semitic original, though most of it may have been written by a Greek Jew in Egypt.) A distinction can be made between the Palestinian and the Hellenistic literature of the Old Testament, though even this is open to serious objections. The former literature was written in Hebrew or Aramaic, and seldom in Greek; the latter in Greek. Next, within these literatures there are three or four classes of subject material.

Historical, Legendary (Haggadic), Apocalyptic, Didactic or Sapiential.

The Apocrypha
Apocrypha
proper then would be classified as follows:

Palestinian Jewish Literature

Historical

1 Esdras
1 Esdras
(i.e. Greek Ezra). 1 Maccabees.

Legendary

Book
Book
of Baruch Book
Book
of Judith

Apocalyptic

2 Esdras
2 Esdras
(see also Apocalyptic literature)

Didactic

Sirach
Sirach
(also known as Ecclesiasticus) Tobit

Hellenistic Jewish Literature:

Historical and Legendary

Additions to Daniel Additions to Esther Epistle
Epistle
of Jeremiah 2 Maccabees Prayer of Manasseh

Didactic

Book
Book
of Wisdom

Cultural impact[edit]

The introitus, "Eternal rest grant unto them, O Lord, and let perpetual light shine upon them", of the traditional Requiem
Requiem
in the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
is loosely based on 4 Esdras 2:34–35. The alternative introitus for Quasimodo Sunday
Quasimodo Sunday
in the Roman rite
Roman rite
of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
is loosely based on 4 Esdras 2:36–37. The Story of Susanna is perhaps the earliest example of a courtroom drama, and perhaps the first example of an effective forensic cross-examination (there are no others in the Bible: except perhaps Solomon's judgement at 1 Kings 3:25). Bel and the Dragon
Bel and the Dragon
is perhaps the earliest example of a locked room mystery. Shylock's reference in The Merchant of Venice
The Merchant of Venice
to "A Daniel come to judgment; yea, a Daniel!" refers to the story of Susanna and the elders. The theme of the elders surprising Susanna in her bath is a common one in art, such as in paintings by Tintoretto
Tintoretto
and Artemisia Gentileschi, and in Wallace Stevens' poem Peter Quince at the Clavier. Let Us Now Praise Famous Men, the title of James Agee's 1941 chronicle of Alabama sharecroppers, was taken from Ecclesiasticus
Ecclesiasticus
44:1: "Let us now praise famous men, and our fathers that begat us." In his spiritual autobiography Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners, John Bunyan
John Bunyan
recounts how God strengthened him against the temptation to despair of his salvation by inspiring him with the words, "Look at the generations of old and see: did any ever trust in God, and were confounded?"

“ At which I was greatly encouraged in my soul. ... So coming home, I presently went to my Bible, to see if I could find that saying, not doubting but to find it presently. ... Thus I continued above a year, and could not find the place; but at last, casting my eye upon the Apocrypha
Apocrypha
books, I found it in Ecclesiasticus, chap. ii. 10. This, at the first, did somewhat daunt me; because it was not in those texts that we call holy and canonical; yet, as this sentence was the sum and substance of many of the promises, it was my duty to take the comfort of it; and I bless God for that word, for it was of good to me. That word doth still ofttimes shine before my face.[45] ”

See also[edit]

New Testament
New Testament
apocrypha

References[edit]

^ As in the original King James or Authorized Version, and in modern Bibles such as the New Oxford Annotated Bible
Bible
with Apocrypha, 4th Expanded Edition: New Revised Standard Version ^ See the English Standard Version with the Apocrypha, and the New Oxford Annotated Bible
Bible
with Apocrypha, 3rd Revised and Expanded Edition: Revised Standard Version ^ Bruce, F.F. "The Canon of Scripture". IVP Academic, 2010, Location 1478–86 (Kindle Edition). ^ Readings from the Apocrypha. Forward Movement Publications. 1981. p. 5.  ^ "The Revised Common Lectionary" (PDF). Consultation on Common Texts. 1992. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 July 2015. Retrieved 19 August 2015. In all places where a reading from the deuterocanonical books (The Apocrypha) is listed, an alternate reading from the canonical Scriptures has also been provided.  ^ Geneva Bible, 1560. Full preface available online: http://www.bible-researcher.com/canon2.html ^ "The books commonly called Apocrypha, not being of divine inspiration, are no part of the Canon of the Scripture; and therefore are of no authority in the Church of God, nor to be any otherwise approved, or made use of, than other human writings." For more details see Development of the Old Testament
Old Testament
canon#Church of England. ^ Ewert, David (11 May 2010). A General Introduction to the Bible: From Ancient Tablets to Modern Translations. Zondervan. p. 104. ISBN 9780310872436. English Bibles were patterned after those of the Continental Reformers by having the Apocrypha
Apocrypha
set off from the rest of the OT. Coverdale (1535) called them "Apocrypha". All English Bibles prior to 1629 contained the Apocrypha. Matthew's Bible
Bible
(1537), the Great Bible
Bible
(1539), the Geneva Bible
Bible
(1560), the Bishop's Bible (1568), and the King James Bible
Bible
(1611) contained the Apocrypha. Soon after the publication of the KJV, however, the English Bibles began to drop the Apocrypha
Apocrypha
and eventually they disappeared entirely. The first English Bible
Bible
to be printed in America (1782–83) lacked the Apocrypha. In 1826 the British and Foreign Bible
Bible
Society decided to no longer print them. Today the trend is in the opposite direction, and English Bibles with the Apocrypha
Apocrypha
are becoming more popular again.  ^ Ewert, David (11 May 2010). A General Introduction to the Bible: From Ancient Tablets to Modern Translations. Zondervan. p. 104. ISBN 9780310872436.  ^ Thomas, Owen C.; Wondra, Ellen K. (1 July 2002). Introduction to Theology, 3rd Edition. Church Publishing, Inc. p. 56. ISBN 9780819218971.  ^ Henze, Matthias; Boccaccini, Gabriele (20 November 2013). Fourth Ezra and Second Baruch: Reconstruction after the Fall. Brill. p. 383. ISBN 9789004258815. Why 3 and 4 Esdraas (called 1 and 2 Esdras
2 Esdras
in the NRSV Apocrypha) are pushed to the front of the list is not clear, but the motive may have been to distinguish the Anglican Apocrypha
Apocrypha
from the Roman Catholic canon affirmed at the fourth session of the Council of trent in 1546, which included all of the books in the Anglican Apocrypha
Apocrypha
list except 3 and 4 Esdras and the Prayer of Manasseh. These three texts were designated at Trent as Apocrypha
Apocrypha
and later included in an appendix to the Clementine Vulgate, first published in 1592 (and the standard Vulgate
Vulgate
text until Vatican II).  ^ "The Bible".  ^ "Jerome's Preface to Samuel and Kings".  ^ "St. Jerome, The Prologue on the Book
Book
of Ezra: English translation".  ^ "Jerome, Prologue to the Books of Solomon (2006)".  ^ Kevin P. Edgecomb, Jerome’s Prologue to Jeremiah  ^ "Jerome's Prologue to Judith".  ^ Jerome, "Apology Against Rufinus ( Book
Book
II)", in Philip Schaff, Henry Wace, Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, 3 (1892 ed.), Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co. (retrieved from New Advent)  ^ Barber, Michael (2006-03-06). "Loose Canons: The Development of the Old Testament
Old Testament
(Part 2)". Retrieved 2007-08-01.  ^ Jerome, To Paulinus, Epistle
Epistle
58 (AD 395), in NPNF2, VI:119.: "Do not, my dearest brother, estimate my worth by the number of my years. Gray hairs are not wisdom; it is wisdom which is as good as gray hairs At least that is what Solomon says: "wisdom is the gray hair unto men.’ [Wisdom 4:9]" Moses too in choosing the seventy elders is told to take those whom he knows to be elders indeed, and to select them not for their years but for their discretion [Num. 11:16]? And, as a boy, Daniel judges old men and in the flower of youth condemns the incontinence of age [Daniel 13:55–59 aka Story of Susannah 55–59]" ^ Jerome, To Oceanus, Epistle
Epistle
77:4 (AD 399), in NPNF2, VI:159.:"I would cite the words of the psalmist: 'the sacrifices of God are a broken spirit,’ [Ps 51:17] and those of Ezekiel 'I prefer the repentance of a sinner rather than his death,’ [Ez 18:23] and those of Baruch, 'Arise, arise, O Jerusalem,’ [Baruch 5:5] and many other proclamations made by the trumpets of the Prophets." ^ Jerome, Letter 51, 6, 7, NPNF2, VI:87–8: "For in the book of Wisdom, which is inscribed with his name, Solomon says: "God created man to be immortal, and made him to be an image of his own eternity." [Wisdom 2:23]...Instead of the three proofs from Holy Scripture which you said would satisfy you if I could produce them, behold I have given you seven" ^  Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Canon of the Old Testament". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  section titled "The Council of Florence
Council of Florence
1442": "...contains a complete list of the books received by the Church as inspired, but omits, perhaps advisedly, the terms canon and canonical. The Council of Florence therefore taught the inspiration of all the Scriptures, but did not formally pass on their canonicity." ^ "Gutenberg Bible: View the British Library's Digital Versions Online".  ^ "1945 Edition of the Luther Bible
Bible
on-line".  ^ Preface to the Revised Standard Version
Revised Standard Version
Common Bible ^ See the Theological Glossary of the Jerusalem Bible
Bible
Reader's Edition: "One tradition within the Church excluded the Greek books, and this tradition was taken up by the 15th century sic Reformers, who relegated these books to the Apocrypha. 1 Maccabees
1 Maccabees
12:9." Note that the JB is explicitly approved by the CBCEW (the Bishop's Conference of England and Wales) ^ Catholic Encyclopaedia, "St. Jerome
Jerome
evidently applied the term to all quasi-scriptural books which in his estimation lay outside the canon of the Bible, and the Protestant Reformers, following Jerome's catalogue of Old Testament
Old Testament
Scriptures—one which was at once erroneous and singular among the Fathers of the Church—applied the title Apocrypha
Apocrypha
to the excess of the Catholic canon of the Old Testament over that of the Jews. Naturally, Catholics refuse to admit such a denomination, and we employ "deuterocanonical" to designate this literature, which non-Catholics conventionally and improperly known as the Apocrypha". ^ "And the other books (as Hierome saith) the Church doth read for example of life and instruction of manners; but yet doth it not apply them to establish any doctrine." ^ Six Points On Luther's " Epistle
Epistle
of Straw", 3 April 2007 ^ Introductory material to the appendix of the Vulgata Clementina, text in Latin ^ "Apocrypha," King James Bible
Bible
Online. https://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/Apocrypha-Books/ ^ The Bible: Authorized King James Version
King James Version
with Apocrypha, Oxford World's Classics, 1998, ISBN 978-0-19-283525-3 ^ Article VI at episcopalian.org Archived 28 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "WCF and MESV in Parallel Columns".  ^ Sir Frederic G. Kenyon, Dictionary of the Bible
Bible
edited by James Hastings, and published by Charles Scribner's Sons of New York in 1909 ^ Grudem, Wayne (29 February 2012). Understanding Scripture: An Overview of the Bible's Origin, Reliability, and Meaning. US: Crossway. p. 90. ISBN 978-1433529993. Retrieved 21 June 2014.  ^ Howsam, Leslie (2002). Cheap Bibles. Cambridge University Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-521-52212-0.  ^ Flick, Dr. Stephen. "Canonization of the Bible". Christian heritage fellowship. Retrieved 21 June 2014.  ^ A Brief History of the United Bible
Bible
Societies ^ "2 Esdras".  ^ "The Orthodox Study Bible" 2008, Thomas Nelson Inc. p. xi ^ a b Vassiliadis, Petros (2005). "Canon and authority of Scripture". In S. T. Kimbrough. Orthodox and Wesleyan Scriptural understanding and practice. Crestwood, N.Y: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-88141-301-4.  ^ The Old Testament
Old Testament
Pseudepigrapha, Volume 2, James H. Charlesworth ^ Gilmore, George William (1916). Selections from the World's Devotional Classics. Funk & Wagnalls company. p. 63. 

Texts

Robert Holmes and James Parsons, Vet. Test. Graecum cum var. lectionibus (Oxford, 1798–1827) Henry Barclay Swete, Old Testament
Old Testament
in Greek, i.-iii. (Cambridge, 1887–1894) Otto Fridolinus Fritzsche, Libri Apocryphi V. T. Graece (1871).

Commentaries

O. F. Fritzsche and Grimm, Kurzgef. exeget. Handbuch zu den Apok. des A.T. (Leipzig, 1851–1860) Edwin Cone Bissell, Apocrypha
Apocrypha
of the Old Testament
Old Testament
(Edinburgh, 1880) Otto Zöckler, Die Apokryphen des Alten Testaments (Munchen, 1891) Henry Wace, The Apocrypha
Apocrypha
("Speaker's Commentary") (1888)

Introduction and General Literature:

Emil Schürer, Geschichte des jüdischen Volkes, vol. iii. 135 sqq., and his article on "Apokryphen" in Herzog's Realencykl. i. 622–53 Porter, Frank C. (1898). "Apocrypha". In James Hastings. A Dictionary of the Bible. I. pp. 110–23.  Metzger, Bruce M. An Introduction to the Apocrypha. [Pbk. ed.]. New York: Oxford University Press, 1977, cop. 1957. ISBN 0-19-502340-4

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Deuterocanonical books.

"The Apocrypha, Bridge of the Testaments" by Robert C. Dentan formerly at orthodoxanglican.net, now at thefishersofmenministries.com "Lutheran Cyclopedia: Apocrypha" at lcms.org "Apocrypha" in the Catholic Encyclopaedia at newadvent.org/cathen https://www.christiancourier.com/articles/111-the-apocrypha-inspired-of-god

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