Białystok ([bʲaˈwɨstɔk] ( listen); English:
/bjɑːˈwɪstɒk/ byah-WIH-stok; Belarusian: Беласток,
translit. Belostok, Lithuanian: Balstogė, Russian:
Белосток, translit. Belostok, Yiddish:
ביאַליסטאָק, translit. Byalistok) is the largest
city in northeastern
Poland and the capital of the Podlaskie
Located in the
Białystok Uplands of the
Plain on the banks
of the Biała River,
Białystok ranks second in terms of population
density, eleventh in population, and thirteenth in area, of the cities
of Poland. It has historically attracted migrants from elsewhere in
Poland and beyond, particularly from Central and Eastern Europe. This
is facilitated by the fact that the nearby border with
Belarus is also
the eastern border of the European Union, as well as the Schengen
Area. The city and its adjacent municipalities constitute Metropolitan
Białystok. The city has a Warm Summer Continental climate,
characterized by warm summers and long frosty winters. Forests are an
important part of Białystok's character, and occupy around 1,756 ha
(4,340 acres) (17.2% of the administrative area of the city) which
places it as the fifth most forested city in Poland.
The first settlers arrived in the 14th century. A town grew up and
received its municipal charter in 1692.
Białystok has traditionally
been one of the leading centers of academic, cultural, and artistic
Podlachia and the most important economic center in
Białystok was once an important center for light
industry, which was the reason for the substantial growth of the
city's population. The city continues to reshape itself into a modern
Białystok in 2010, was on the short-list, but ultimately
lost the competition to become a finalist for European Capital of
Culture in 2016.
5 Metropolitan Białystok
8 Military units
10 Culture and tourism
10.1 Performing arts
10.3 Parks and green spaces
16 Notable residents
18 Further reading
19 External links
The English translation of
Białystok is "white slope". Due to
changing borders and demographics over the centuries, the city has
been known as Belarusian: Беласток (Byelastok?, Biełastok?
[bʲeɫaˈstok]), Yiddish: ביאַליסטאָק (Byalistok,
Bjalistok), Lithuanian: Baltstogė, Balstogė, and Russian:
Linguist A. P. Nepokupnyj proposes that the language source for
Białystok is Yotvingian. Names with the -stok suffix as a second
element of a hydronym are localized in the basin of the upper
History of Białystok
History of Białystok and Timeline of Białystok
Branicki Palace, also known as the Polish Versailles
Archaeological discoveries show that the first settlements in the area
Białystok occurred during the Stone Age. Tombs of
ancient settlers can be found in the district of Dojlidy. In the
Iron Age a mix of Prussians,
Yotvingians and Wielbark culture
people settled in the area producing kurgans, the tombs of the chiefs
in the area located in the current village of Rostołty. Since
Białystok area has been at the crossroads of cultures.
Trade routes linking the Baltic to the Black Sea favored the
development of settlements with Yotvingia-Ruthenian-Polish cultural
The city of
Białystok has existed for five centuries and during this
time the fate of the city has been affected by various political and
Surviving documents attest that around 1437 a representative of the
Raczków family, Jakub Tabutowicz of the coat of arms Łabędź,
Michael Žygimantaitis son of Sigismund Kęstutaitis,
Duke of Lithuania, a wilderness area along the river Biała that
marked the beginning of
Białystok as a settlement.
The first brick church and a castle were built between 1617 and 1826.
The two-floor castle, designed on a rectangular plan in the
Gothic-Renaissance style, was the work of Job Bretfus. Extension of
the castle was continued by Krzysztof Wiesiołowski, starost of
Tykocin, Grand Marshal of
Lithuania since 1635, and husband of
Aleksandra Marianna Sobieska. In 1637 he died childless, and as a
Białystok came under the management of his widow. After her
death in 1645 the Wiesiołowski estate, including Białystok, passed
to the Commonwealth to cover the costs of maintaining
In the years 1645–1659
Białystok was managed by the governors of
Tykocin and was part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
In 1661 it was given to
Stefan Czarniecki as a reward for his service
in the victory over the Swedes during the Deluge. Four years later, it
was given as a dowry of his daughter Aleksandra, who married Hetman
Jan Klemens Branicki, thus passing into the hands of the Branicki
family. In 1692, Stefan Mikołaj Branicki, the son of Jan
Klemens Branicki (Marshal of the Crown Court), obtained city rights
Białystok from King John III Sobieski. He constructed the
Branicki Palace on the foundations of the castle of the Wiesiołowski
family. In the second half of the eighteenth century the ownership
of the city was inherited by Field Crown
Hetman Jan Klemens
Branicki. It was he who transformed the palace built by his father
into a magnificent residence of a great noble.
The end of the eighteenth century saw the division of the
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, in three steps, among the
neighboring states. The
Kingdom of Prussia
Kingdom of Prussia acquired
Białystok and the
surrounding region during the third partition. The city became the
capital of the
New East Prussia
New East Prussia province in 1795. Prussia lost the
territory following Napoleon Bonaparte's victory in the War of the
Fourth Coalition as the resultant 1807
Treaties of Tilsit
Treaties of Tilsit awarded the
area to the Russian Empire, which organized the region into the
Belostok Oblast, with the city as the regional center.
Białystok circa 1900
At the end of the nineteenth century, the majority of the city's
population was Jewish. According to Russian census of 1897, out of the
total population of 66,000,
Jews constituted 41,900 (so around 63%
percent). This heritage can be seen on the Jewish Heritage Trail
in Białystok. The
Białystok pogrom occurred between 14–16 June
1906 in the city. During the pogrom between 81 and 88 people were
killed, and about 80 people were wounded.
A tenement on Sienkiewicz Street, one of the main boulevards in the
The first Anarchist groups to attract a significant following of
Russian workers or peasants, were the
groups, founded in
Białystok in 1903.
World War I
World War I the
Bialystok-Grodno District was the
administrative division of German-controlled territory of Ober-Ost. It
comprised the city, as the capital, and the surrounding Podlaskie
region, roughly corresponding to the territory of the earlier Belostok
Oblast. At the end of
World War I
World War I the city became part of the
newly independent Second Polish Republic, as the capital of the
Voivodeship (1919–1939). During the 1919–1920
Polish-Soviet War, possession of the city by the
Red Army and the
Provisional Polish Revolutionary Committee
Provisional Polish Revolutionary Committee occurred during the lead up
to the Battle of Warsaw. During the resultant counteroffensive, the
city returned to Polish control after the Battle of Białystok.
With the beginning of World War II,
Poland was invaded by Nazi Germany
and the Soviet Union, and initially the city came under Soviet
control, as a result of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact. It was
incorporated into the
Byelorussian SSR from 1939 to 1941 as the
capital of the Belastok Voblast. After the Nazi attack on
Soviet Union in 1941,
Białystok was occupied by the German Army on 27
June 1941, during the Battle of Białystok–Minsk, and the city
became the capital of Bezirk Białystok, a separate region in German
occupied Poland, until 1944. The Great Synagogue, Białystok
was burnt down by Germans on June 27, 1941, with an estimated number
Białystok Ghetto, 1941–1943
From the very beginning, the Nazis pursued a ruthless policy of
pillage and removal of the non-German population. The 56,000 Jewish
residents of the town were confined in a ghetto. On August 15,
Białystok Ghetto Uprising began, and several hundred Polish
Jews and members of the
Anti-Fascist Military Organisation (Polish:
Antyfaszystowska Organizacja Bojowa) started an armed struggle against
the German troops who were carrying out the planned liquidation of the
ghetto with deportations to the Treblinka extermination camp.
The city was liberated by the
Red Army on 27 July 1944 and on 20
September 1944 transferred to Poland. After the war, the city became
capital of the initial
Białystok Voivodeship (1945–1975)
Białystok Voivodeship (1945–1975) of the
People's Republic of Poland. After the 1975 administrative
reorganization, the city was the capital of the smaller Białystok
Voivodeship (1975–1998). Since 1999 it has been the capital of
Podlaskie Voivodeship, Republic of Poland.
Biała River near Białystok
Knyszyn Forest Landscape Park
Białystok is situated in the
Białystok Uplands (Polish: Wysoczyzna
Białostocka) of the
Plain (Polish: Nizina
Północnopodlaska), part of what is known collectively as the Green
Lungs of Poland. It is the biggest Polish city close to
Belarus and Lithuania. The Biała River, a left tributary of the
Supraśl River, passes through the city. The landscape of the
Białystok Upland is diverse, with high moraine hills and kame in
excess of 200 m (660 ft) above sea level. Vast areas of
outwash, a glacial plain formed of sediments deposited by meltwater at
the terminus of a glacier, are covered by forests.
Forests are an important part of the city character, they currently
occupy approximately 1,756 ha (4,340 acres) (17.2% of the
administrative area of the city) which places it as the fifth most
"wooded" city in Poland; behind
Toruń (22.9%) and
Part of Knyszyn Forest is preserved within the city limits by two
nature reserves—a total area of 105 ha (260 acres). The
Zwierzyniecki Forest Nature Reserve (Polish: Rezerwat przyrody Las
Zwierzyniecki), which is contained within the city limits, is a
fragment, 33.48 ha (82.7 acres), of the riparian forest with a
dominant assemblage of oak and hornbeam. The Antoniuk Nature
Reserve (Polish: Rezerwat Przyrody Antoniuk) is a 70.07 ha (173.1
acres) park in the city that preserves the natural state of a forest
fragment characteristic of the
Białystok Upland, with a dominant
mixed forest of hazel and spruce.
The 40 ha (99 acres) of forests lying in the vicinity of the
Dojlidy Ponds are administered by the Central Sports and Recreation
Białystok (Polish: Miejski Ośrodek Sportu i Rekreacji w
Białymstoku – MOSiR). The Dojlidy Ponds recreation area includes a
public beach, walking trails, birdwatching and fishing.
The city has a Mild Summer Continental or
Hemiboreal climate (Dfb)
according to the
Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification system, characterized
by warm temperatures during summer and long and frosty winters. It
is substantially different from most of the other Polish lowlands.
The region is one of the coldest in Poland, with the average
temperature in January being −2.5 °C (27 °F). The
average temperature in a year is about 7 °C (45 °F).
The number of frost days ranges from 50 to 60, with frost from 110 to
138 days and the duration of snow cover from 90 to 110 days. Mean
annual rainfall values oscillate around 580 mm (22.8 in),
and the vegetation period lasts 200 to 210 days.
Climate data for
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average precipitation days
Average rainy days
Average snowy days
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source #1: Weatherbase
Source #2: ClimateData.eu
source 3= meteblue.com date=July 7, 2017
One of the remaining tenements in Centrum, the central district of
Main article: Districts of Białystok
The city of
Białystok is divided into 28 administrative units, known
in Polish as osiedla. The first 27 of these were created on
October 25, 2004. The 28th, Dojlidy Górne, was created by on
October 23, 2006, out of three settlements which had been incorporated
into the city: Dojlidy Górne, Kolonia Halickie, and Zagórki.
The center of the city,
Osiedle Centrum, surrounds Lipowa
Street (pl), the main street of the city. Lipowa Street extends
from Rynek Kościuszki (the corner of Spółdzielcza Street) to Plac
Niepodległości im. Romana Dmowskiego (the corner of Krakowska
Street). Over the centuries the name of this street has taken on a
number of different names; Choroska, Nowolipie, Lipowa, Józef
Piłsudski, Joseph Stalin,
Adolf Hitler and Joseph Stalin, once again,
to return, after the end of World War II, to its original name –
A public square dedicated to Constantine the Great
The city covers 10,212 ha (25,230 acres) of which 3,210 ha
(7,900 acres) is agricultural land, 4,889 ha (12,080 acres) is
urbanized areas, 85 ha (210 acres) is surface waters and
65 ha (160 acres) is wasteland. The composition of the
districts vary from residential near the city center, with a
combination of multi-story apartment buildings and individual houses
on small parcels, to industrial and agricultural at the city
Main article: Metropolitan Białystok
Metropolitan Białystok was designated by the
Voivodeship of the
Regulation No. 52/05 of 16 May 2005  to help develop the region
economically. In 2006, the metropolitan area population was 450,254
inhabitants. The municipalities adjacent to
Białystok are slowly
losing their agricultural character, becoming residential suburban
neighborhoods with single-family housing and small businesses.
Main article: Demographics of Białystok
In June 2009, the population of the city was 294,399, among cities
Białystok is second in terms of population density,
eleventh in population, and thirteenth in area.
Białystok has been a destination for internal and
foreign immigration, especially from Central and Eastern Europe. In
addition to the Polish minority, there was a significant Jewish
majority in Białystok. According to Russian census of 1897, out of
the total population of 66,000,
Jews constituted 41,900 (around 63%
percent). Białystok's pre-
World War II
World War II Jewish population
constituted about 63 percent of the city's total population of
World War II
World War II changed all of this, in 1939, around 107,000
people lived in Białystok, but in 1946 – only 56,759, and to
this day there is much less ethnic diversity than in the previous 300
years of the city's history. Currently the city's population is
97% Polish, 2.5% Belarusian and 0.5% of a number of minorities
including Russians, Lipka Tatars, Ukrainians and Romani. Most of
the modern-day population growth is based on internal migration within
Poland and urbanization of surrounding areas.
Main article: Governance of Białystok
Podlasie Voivodship Office
Białystok, like other major cities in Poland, is a city county
(Polish: Miasto na prawach powiatu). The Legislative power in the
city is vested in the unicameral
City Council (Polish: Rada
Miasta), which has 28 members. Council members are elected
directly every four years, one of whom is the mayor, or
Białystok (Polish: prezydent). Like most legislative bodies, the
City Council divides itself into committees which have the oversight
of various functions of the city government. Bills passed by a
simple majority are sent to the mayor, who may sign them into law.
If the mayor vetoes a bill, the Council has 30 days to override the
veto by a two-thirds majority vote. The current
Białystok, elected for his first term in 2006, is Tadeusz Truskolaski
won the elections as the Civic Platform's candidate, however, he has
no official connection with the party. In the first round of the
elections he received 49% of the votes (42,889 votes altogether). In
the later runoff he defeated his rival candidate Marek Kozlowski from
Law and Justice
Law and Justice (Polish: Prawo i Sprawiedliwość), receiving 67% of
the votes cast (53,018 votes).
For the 2010–2011 fiscal year the city received revenue (taxes
levied + investments) of 1,409,565,525 zł, expended 1,676,459,102 zł
leaving a budget deficit of 266,893,577 zł. The deficit was
covered by short-term borrowing of 166,893,577 zł and the issuance of
100 million zł in municipal bonds.
District Court in Białystok
Other levels of governmental representation
It is also the seat of government for the
The city is represented by several members of both houses of the
Polish Parliament (Sejm and Senat) from the Białystok
Białystok is represented by the
Warmian-Masurian constituency of the European Parliament.
There are two consulates in Białystok,
Belarus has a Consulate
Romania has an Honorary Consulate. The City of
Białystok is a member of several organizations such as Union of
Polish Metropolises (Polish: Unia Metropolii Polskich), Euroregion
Niemen, Polish Green Lungs Foundation (headquarters)  and
Białystok is twinned with Częstochowa, Poland, Dijon,
France:, Eindhoven, Netherlands, Hrodno, Belarus,
Jelgava, Latvia, Kaliningrad, Russia Kaunas, Lithuania,
Milwaukee County, Wisconsin, USA and Tallinn, Estonia.
Military Drafting Office located in the historical Nowik Palace
18th Reconnaissance Regiment (Polish: 18 Pułk Rozpoznawczy) of
Polish Land Forces
Polish Land Forces is based in Białystok. The heritage of the
unit was the former 18th Territorial Defense Battalion (Polish: 18
Białostocka Brygada Obrony Terytorialnej) and prior to that the
former 18th Mechanized Brigade. December 31, 2001, as a result of
the restructuring of the Armed Forces, 18th Mechanized Brigade
(Polish: 18 Brygada Zmechanizowana) was disbanded and in its place
created the 18th Territorial Defense Battalion (Polish: 18
Białostocka Brygada Obrony Terytorialnej).
Historical military units
During December 1993 an order of the Chief of the General Staff of the
Polish Armed Forces created the 18th Mechanized Brigade (Polish: 18
Brygada Zmechanizowana) at the garrison in Białystok. The unit
was formed from the 3rd Mechanized Regiment (Polish: 3 Pułk
Zmechanizowany) and was subordinated to the commander of the 1st
Warsaw Mechanized Division (Polish: 1 Warszawskiej Dywizji
Zmechanizowanej im. Tadeusza Kościuszki). On December 31, 2001,
as a result of the restructuring of the Armed Forces, the 18th
Mechanized Brigade was disbanded and in its place was created the 18th
Territorial Defense Battalion.
Podlaska Cavalry Brigade (Polish: Podlaska Brygada Kawalerii) was
a military unit of the Polish Army, created on April 1, 1937.
Its headquarters was located in
Białystok and operated as part of
Independent Operational Group Narew. It was formed from the
Cavalry Brigade "Białystok", which existed between February 1929, and
March 30, 1937. After the Soviet invasion of Poland, remnants of
the Brigade fought both
Red Army troops, capitulating on
October 6, 1939.
The Cavalry Brigade "Białystok" (BK "Białystok") of the Polish Army
Second Republic was formed in February 1929. April 1, 1937 BK
"Białystok" was renamed the Podlaska Cavalry Brigade.
Main article: Economy of Białystok
High-rise building in the city center
In the nineteenth century
Białystok was an important center for light
industry, which was the reason for the substantial growth of the
city's population. The tradition continued with many garment factories
established in the twentieth century, such as Fasty in the district of
Bacieczki. However, after the fall of communism in 1989 many of these
factories faced severe problems and subsequently closed down.
The unemployment rate for February 2011 in
Białystok was 13.2%.
The 2009 average household had a monthly per capita income of 1018.77
zł  and monthly per capita expenses of 823.56 zł
The city has a number of nearby border crossings. The border with
Belarus is only 50 km (31 mi) away, the nearest border
crossings are located in;
Bobrowniki (road crossing located about
50 km (31 mi) from the city limits), Kuźnica Białostocka
(road and rail crossing located 60 km (37 mi) from the city
Siemianówka (railway – freight traffic),
and Czeremcha (railway). Since the border with
Belarus is also the
eastern border of the European Union, as well as the
Schengen Area the
city is a center for trade in mainly from the east.
Podlaskie Zakłady Zbożowe (
Podlaskie Cereal Industrial
The famous bison grass vodka called "Żubrówka" is made in Białysok
at the Polmos Factory
The leading industries in the city's economy are: food processing
(production of meat products, fruit and vegetable products, the
production of spirits, the production of frozen food, grain
processing), electrical engineering (production tools and equipment
for machine tools, production of electric heaters, manufacture and
production mixers household appliances). There is also a developed
machine industry (electronics, machinery and metal), plastic
processing (production of household appliances), textiles (textiles
and upholstery, manufacture of underwear, clothing accessories,
footwear and backpacks), Wood (production plywood and furniture)
Some notable major employers who are based in
Dojlidy Brewery in the district of Dojlidy produces the second most
popular beer in Poland, Żubr.
Polmos Białystok, the biggest vodka manufacturer in Poland, is
located in the city district of Starosielce. The company produces
Żubrówka (bison grass vodka) – both major exports
Standard Motor Products
Poland Ltd. headquartered in
manufacturing ignition coils for original equipment manufacturers 30
Białystok is the leading Polish producer of fire fighting
SavaPol, Sp.z o.o. is a manufacturer of stationary and mobile concrete
mixing equipment based in Białystok.
Biazet S.A. is a large manufacture of household appliances, including
vacuum cleaners, coffee makers, and LED lighting located in
Agnella, a major Polish producer of carpets and similar products is in
Białystok, located in the district of Białostoczek.
Poland Sp. z o.o., has provided for more than 60 years precision
injection molded products for some of the world's leading brands.
Biaglass Huta Szkla
Białystok Sp. z o.o.,established in 1929,
produces mouth blown glass lampshades and related products. Biaglass
belongs to elite group of Glass Works in Europe, where 100% of the
lighting glass is mouth-blown.
Białystok S.A (Cold Store
Białystok S.A.), established in
1952, is one of the largest Polish producers of frozen vegetables,
fruits and ready-to-heat meals.
Podlaskie Zakłady Zbożowe S.A. was established on 1 July 2000 as a
result of privatizing The Regional Establishment of Corn and Milling
Industry 'PZZ' in Białystok. It is one of the leading firms in
Podlaskie region in the department of preservation and processing of
grain with elevators in Białystok,
Grajewo and Suwałki.
Culture and tourism
Main article: Culture in Białystok
Interior of the Podlasie Opera and Philharmonic
Białystok is one of the largest cultural centers in the Podlaskie
Voivodeship. The attractions include performing arts groups, art
museums, historical museums, walking tours of architectural / cultural
aspects and a wide variety of parks and green spaces.
2010 was on the short-list, but ultimately lost the competition, to
become a finalist for
European Capital of Culture
European Capital of Culture in 2016.
The city has a number of performing arts facilities including:
Białystok Puppet Theater (Polish: Bialostocki Teatr Lalek),
established in 1953, is one of the oldest Polish puppet theaters.
The facility is located at Kalinowskiego 1 in Białystok. The
repertoire includes performances for both children and puppet
adaptations of world literature for adults. Because of the high
artistic level of productions, the theater has been recognized as one
of the best puppetry arts centers in Poland.
The Aleksandra Węgierki Drama Theatre. Housed in a building designed
by Jarosław Girina, built in the years 1933–1938.
The Podlasie Opera and Philharmonic – European Art Centre in
Białystok is the largest institute of arts in Northeastern Poland,
and the most modern cultural center in this region of Europe. In its
amphitheatre every year in the end of June
Halfway Festival takes
There are a number of museums in the city including:
The Historical Museum in
Białystok (Polish: Muzeum Historyczne w
Białymstoku) is part of the
Podlaskie Museum. The facility has a
rich collection of archival materials and iconography illustrating the
Białystok and Podlasie, and a number of middle-class
cultural relics, especially in the field of craft utility. There
are also the Numismatic Cabinet of the collection of 16 000 coins,
medals and securities. The museum is in possession of the only
collections in the country memorabilia connected with the Tatar
settlement on the Polish–Lithuanian–Belarusian region.
The Army Museum in
Białystok (Polish: Muzeum Wojska w Białymstoku)
was established in September 1968 as a branch of the
to house the research and collections of many people connected with
military history of north-eastern Poland.
The Ludwik Zamenhof Centre
The Ludwik Zamenhof Centre (Polish: Centrum im. Ludwika Zamenhofa w
Białymstoku) offers the visitors a permanent exhibition, 'Bialystok
of Young Ludwik Zamenhof', and various temporary exhibitions,
concerts, film projections, and theatre performances. The Centre has a
branch of Lukasz Gornicki’s Podlaska Library dedicated to the
Parks and green spaces
Around 32% of the city is occupied by parks, squares and forest
preserves which creates a unique and healthy climate. The green
Branicki Palace (Polish: Pałac Branickich) is a historical edifice
and 9.7 ha (24 acres) park in Białystok. It was developed on the
site of an earlier building in the first half of the eighteenth
century by Jan Klemens Branicki, a wealthy Polish–Lithuanian
Commonwealth hetman, into a residence suitable for a man whose
ambition was to be elected king of Poland. The palace complex
with gardens, pavillons, sculptures, outbuildings and other structures
and the city with churches, city hall and monastery, all built almost
at the same time according to French models was the reason why the
city was known in the eighteenth century as Versailles of Podlaskie
(Polish: wersalem podlaskim).
Planty is a 14.94 ha (36.9 acres) park created between 1930 and
1938, under the auspices of the then Voivode Kościałkowskiego
Mariana Zyndrama in the areas adjacent to Branicki Palace. The
modernist composition of the park was designed by Stanislav
All Saints' Church
Town Hall on Kościuszko Square
The various historically driven changes have had a very significant
influence on the architectural space of the city. Most other Polish
cities have suffered similarly, but the processes in Białystok, have
had a particularly intense course. Numerous historic works of
architecture no longer exist, while many others have been rebuilt to
their original configuration. Very few historic buildings of the city
have been preserved – the sights are merely an echo of the old
historical shape of Białystok.
Main sights include:
Palaces: Branicki Palace, Branicki Guest Palace, Lubomirski Palace,
Hasbach Palace, Nowik Palace
St. Roch Church
St. Adalbert Church
Daughters of Charity Monastery
Former Masonic Lodge
Main article: Sports in Białystok
Białystok City Stadium
Chorzów – Jagiellonia Białystok
The city has both professional and amateur sports teams, and a number
of venues where they are based.
Jagiellonia Białystok is a Polish
football club, based in Białystok, in the
Ekstraklasa League that
plays at the
Białystok City Stadium.
Jagiellonia Białystok won
the Polish Cup in 2010, Super Cup and qualified to play in the third
round qualification of the UEFA Europa League. A new 22,500 seat
stadium was completed at the beginning of 2015.
Białystok (formerly known as Gwardia Białystok) is a Polish
football club based in
Podlaskie Voivodeship. They play in the
Division IV or the (4th) League.
Lowlanders Białystok is a football club, based in Białystok, that
plays in the
Polish American Football League
Polish American Football League (Polish: Polska Liga
Futbolu Amerykańskiego) PLFA I Conference. The Lowlanders were
the champions of the PLFA II Conference in 2010 with a perfect season
(8 wins in eight meetings). Because of the win they were advanced to
the upper conference (PLFA I) in 2011.
Offices of Kurier Poranny
Main article: Media in Białystok
Białystok has a wide variety of media outlets serving the city and
surrounding region. There are two locally published daily newspapers,
Gazeta Współczesna (36.3% market share)  and Kurier
Poranny (20.3% market share). In addition two national
papers have local bureaus. There are a number of national and locally
produced television and radio channels available both over-the-air
from the nearby
RTCN Białystok (Krynice)
RTCN Białystok (Krynice) Mast, the seventh highest
structure in Poland, in addition to transmitter sites within the
TVP Białystok is one of the locally produced, regional branches
of the TVP, Poland's public television broadcaster. There is also a
cable television system available within the city. The city has two
campus radio stations; Radiosupeł at the Medical University of
Białystok and Radio Akadera at
Main article: Religion in Białystok
In the early 1900s,
Białystok was reputed to have the largest
Jews of all the cities in the world. In 1931,
Jews lived in the city, nearly half the city's
inhabitants. The city is the seat of the Roman Catholic
Archdiocese of Białystok. Pope John Paul II on 5 June 1991, during a
visit to Białystok, announced the establishment of the Archdiocese of
Białystok which ended the period of the temporary church
administration of the portion of the Archdiocese of Vilnius that had,
after World War II, remained within the Polish borders. The city
is also the seat of the Białystok-Gdansk Diocese of the Autocephalous
Polish Orthodox Church.
Białystok is the largest concentration
of Orthodox believers in Poland. In Białystok, the following
Protestant churches exist: a Lutheran parish, two Pentecostal
churches, Baptist church, a congregation of the Church of God in
Christ and a Seventh Day Adventist church.
Białystok is home to more than two thousand Muslims (mainly Tatars).
There is an Islamic Centre a
House of Prayer, and various
organisations. There is magazine issued – "Pamięć i trwanie"
("Memory and persistence").
Church of St. Roch
Old Parish Church
Basilica of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary
Church of the Resurrection
Orthodox Church of the Holy Spirit
Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church of St. Nicholas
Białystok railway station
Main article: Transport in Białystok
The city is, and has been for centuries, the main hub of
transportation for the
Podlaskie Voivodeship and the entire
northeastern section of Poland. It is a major city on the European
Union roadways (Via Baltica) and railways (Rail Baltica) to
the Baltic Republics and Finland. It is also a main gateway of trade
Belarus due to its proximity to the border and its current and
longstanding relationship with Hrodno, Belarus.
Passenger trains connect from Suvalki,
Lithuania to Warsaw
and the rest of the European passenger network. Passenger services are
provided by two rail service providers,
PKP Intercity that provides
intercity passengers trains (express, intercity, eurocity, hotel and
Przewozy Regionalne that operates only regional
passenger trains financed by the voivodeship. Passenger trains are
mostly run using electrical multiple units (on electrified lines) or
Solaris Urbino 18 W29 bus operated by BKM in Białystok
There is an extensive bus network that covers the entire city by three
bus services, but no tram or subway exists. The three bus operators
are partially owned by the city (KPKM, KPK and KZK) and each shares
approximately a third of the lines and the bus fleet.
Roads and highways
The National Roads (Polish: Droga krajowa) running through Białystok:
Bielsk Podlaski –
Białystok – Kuznica
Gołdap (Russia–Polish border)-Ełk-Białystok-Bobrowniki
/ 67: Budziska (Polish–
Lithuania border) –
Białystok – Warsaw
Wrocław – Kudowa Zdrój (Czech–Polish border)
A civil airport, Białystok-Krywlany Airport, lies within the city
limits, but does not provide regularly scheduled service. There
were plans in 2011 to build a new regional airport, Białystok-Saniki
Airport, that would have provided flights within Europe.
Library of the
Main article: Education in Białystok
Higher education in the city can be traced back to the second half of
the eighteenth century, when the ownership of the city was inherited
by Field Crown
Hetman Jan Klemens Branicki. As a patron of the
arts and sciences, Branicki encouraged numerous artists and scientists
to settle in
Białystok to take advantage of Branicki's
patronage. In 1745 Branicki established Poland's first military
college, the School of Civil and Military Engineering, in the
Since the fall of communism many privately funded institutions of
higher educations have been founded and their number is still
Białystok is home to one principal public
university (University of Białystok) and two other public
specialist universities (
Białystok Technical University and
Medical University of Białystok). Some institutions, such as
Musical Academy in Białystok, are branches of their parent
institutions in other cities, usually in Warsaw.
L. L. Zamenhof, the creator of Esperanto
Main article: Notable persons from Białystok
See also: Category:People from Białystok.
Over the centuries
Białystok has produced a number of persons who
have provided unique contributions to the fields of science, language,
politics, religion, sports, visual arts and performing arts. This
environment was created in the mid eighteenth century by the patronage
Jan Klemens Branicki
Jan Klemens Branicki for the arts and sciences. A list of
recent notable persons includes, but is not limited to; Ryszard
Kaczorowski, last émigré
President of the Republic of Poland,
L. L. Zamenhof, the creator of Esperanto, Albert Sabin,
co-developer of the polio vaccine, Izabella Scorupco,
actress, Max Weber, painter.
Tomasz Bagiński illustrator,
animator and director Oscar nominee in 2002 for The Cathedral
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