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40 million(Census of India
India
-2001) 160 million (Times of India- 80 million in Bihar
Bihar
and 70 million in uttar Pradesh and rest in other parts of the world) 180 million ( Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
Association of North America) (2001 census)[2] Census results conflate most speakers with Hindi.[3]

Language family

Indo-European

Indo-Iranian

Indo-Aryan

Central

Eastern

Bhojpuri

Writing system

Devanagari
Devanagari
(present), Kaithi
Kaithi
(Historical)[4]

Official status

Official language in

   Nepal   Fiji
Fiji
(as Fiji
Fiji
Hindi)

Language codes

ISO 639-2 bho

ISO 639-3 bho – inclusive code Individual codes: hns –  Caribbean
Caribbean
Hindustani hif –  Fiji
Fiji
Hindi

Glottolog bhoj1246[5]

Linguasphere 59-AAF-sa

This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
(Devanagari: भोजपुरी  listen (help·info)) is an Indo-Aryan language
Indo-Aryan language
spoken in the Northern-Eastern part of India
India
and the Terai
Terai
region of Nepal.[4] It is chiefly spoken in eastern Uttar Pradesh, western Bihar, and in extreme northwestern part of Jharkhand
Jharkhand
in India.[6] Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
is, sociolinguistically, one of the seven Hindi languages
Hindi languages
(Haryanvi, Braj, Awadhi, Bhojpuri, Bundeli, Bagheli and Kannauji).[7]The Fijian variation of Bhojpuri-Hindi, Fiji
Fiji
Hindi
Hindi
an official language of Fiji. Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
is one of the recognized national languages of Nepal. It is also a recognized language in Guyana, Suriname, and Mauritius.[8][9] Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
is also spoken by the first generation immigrants who migrated from the UP region which now encompasses parts of Bihar
Bihar
and Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
in India
India
to the newly created Pakistan. It is, however, slowly dying out in Pakistan as the next generation prefers to speak Urdu, Pakistan's national language and lingua franca.[10] The variant of Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
of the Indo-Surinamese
Indo-Surinamese
people is also referred to as Sarnami Hindustani, Sarnami Hindi
Hindi
or just Sarnami[11] and has experienced considerable Sranan Tongo
Sranan Tongo
Creole and Dutch lexical influence. In Mauritius, a distinctive dialect of Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
remains in use, locally called Bojpury. The day-to-day usage of the language in Mauritius
Mauritius
is dropping and today, it is spoken by approximately 5% of the population, according to latest census.[12]

Contents

1 Location 2 Writing system 3 Phonology

3.1 Vowels 3.2 Consonants 3.3 Sociolinguistics

4 Universal declaration of human rights in Bhojpuri 5 Name of Weekdays and Months

5.1 Weekdays 5.2 Months

6 Politeness 7 Dialects 8 Recognition 9 Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
literature 10 Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
media 11 Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
outside India

11.1 South Asia 11.2 Outside South Asia

12 See also 13 References 14 External links

Location[edit] Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
speaking region is bounded by the Awadhi-speaking region to the west, Nepali speaking region to the north, Magahi- and Maithili-speaking regions to the east, and Magahi- and Bagheli-speaking regions to the south.[4] Writing system[edit]

Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
story written in Kaithi
Kaithi
script, written by Babu Rama Smaran Lal in 1898

Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
was historically written in Kaithi
Kaithi
scripts,[4] but since 1894, Devanagari
Devanagari
has served as the primary script. Kaithi
Kaithi
script was used for administrative purposes in the Mughal era for writing Bhojpuri, Awadhi, Maithili, Urdu, Magahi
Magahi
and Hindi
Hindi
from at least the 16th century up to the first decade of the 20th century. Government gazetteers report that Kaithi
Kaithi
was used in a few districts of Bihar
Bihar
through the 1960s. Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
residents of India, who signed up and moved as indentured labour in Africa, Mauritius, Fiji, and the Caribbean
Caribbean
colonies of the British Empire
British Empire
in 19th century and early 20th century, used Kaithi
Kaithi
as well as Devanagari
Devanagari
scripts.[8] By 1894, official texts in Bihar
Bihar
were written in Kaithi
Kaithi
and Devanagari. At present almost all Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
texts are written in Devanagari
Devanagari
even in the overseas islands where Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
is spoken. For example, in Mauritius, both Kaithi
Kaithi
and Devanagari
Devanagari
scripts have been in use since the arrival of Bhojpuri people from India. The Kathi script was considered informal in Mauritius, with the structure of Kaithi similar to Devanagari
Devanagari
(spelled Devanagri in Mauritius). In modern Mauritius, Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
script is Devanagari.[13] Phonology[edit] Vowels[edit]

Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
vowels[14]

Front Central Back

Close i ɪ

u

Close-mid e ə o

Open-mid

ɔ

Open æ ɑ

Consonants[edit]

Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
consonants[14]

Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal

Nasal m

n ɳ ɲ ŋ

Stop voiceless p

ʈ tʃ k

voiced b

ɖ dʒ ɡ

aspirated pʰ

t̪ʰ

ʈʰ tʃʰ kʰ

breathy voiced bʱ

d̪ʱ

ɖʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ

Fricative

s

h

Rhotic plain

ɾ ɽ

aspirated

ɾʱ ɽʱ

Approximant

ʋ l

j

Sociolinguistics[edit] Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
is, sociolinguistically, one of the seven Hindi
Hindi
languages (Haryanvi, Braj, Awadhi, Bhojpuri, Bundeli, Bagheli and Kannauji).[15] Of these seven, Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
has the most allophonic variations in vowels.[16] Robert Trammell has published the phonology of Bhojpuri.[17][18] Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
has six vowel phonemes,[18] and ten vocoids. The higher vowels are relatively tense, while lower vowels are relatively lax. The language has 31 consonant phonemes and 34 contoids (6 bilabial, 4 apico-dental, 5 apico-alveolar, 7 retroflex, 6 alveo-palatal, 5 dorso-velar and 1 glottal).[17] According to Trammell, the syllable system is peak type: every syllable has the vowel phoneme as the highest point of sonority. Codas may consist of one, two or three consonants. Vowels occur as simple peaks or as peak nuclei in diphthongs. The intonation system involves four pitch levels and three terminal contours.[17][19] Universal declaration of human rights in Bhojpuri[edit] The United Nations has published the universal declaration of human rights in Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
and Sarnámi, one of 154 languages of the world.[20] Article 1 of the declaration in Bhojpuri, Hindi, Sarnámi and English respectively are: अनुच्छेद १: सबहि लोकानि आजादे जन्मेला आउर ओखिनियो के बराबर सम्मान आओर अधिकार प्राप्त हवे। ओखिनियो के पास समझ-बूझ आउर अंत:करण के आवाज होखता आओर हुनको के दोसरा के साथ भाईचारे के बेवहार करे के होखला।[20] अनुच्छेद १: सभी मनुष्यों को गौरव और अधिकारों के मामले में जन्मजात स्वतन्त्रता और समानता प्राप्त हैं। उन्हें बुद्धि और अन्तरात्मा की देन प्राप्त है और परस्पर उन्हें भाईचारे के भाव से बर्ताव करना चाहिये।[21] Aadhiaai 1: Sab djanne aadjádi aur barabar paidaa bhailèn, iddjat aur hak mê. Ohi djanne ke lage sab ke samadj-boedj aur hierdaai hai aur doesare se sab soemmat sè, djaane-maane ke chaahin.[22] Article 1: All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.[23] Name of Weekdays and Months[edit] Weekdays[edit]

English Bhojpuri भोजपुरी Hindi
Hindi
हिन्दी Urdu

Sunday Eitwaar एतवार Raviwaar रविवार, Itwaar इतवार Itwar اتوار

Monday Somaar सोमार Somwaar सोमवार Peer پیر

Tuesday Mangar मंगर Mangalwaar मंगलवार Mangal منگل

Wednesday Budh बुध Budhwaar बुधवार Budh بده

Thursday Bi'phey बियफे Guruwaar गुरुवार, Brihaspatiwar बृहस्पतिवार Jumerat جمعرات

Friday Sukk सुक्क Shukrawaar शुक्रवार Juma جمعه

Saturday Sanichchar सनिच्चर Shaniwaar शनिवार, Sanichar सनीचर Sanichar سنیچر / Hafta ہفتہ

Months[edit]

No. हिंदी Hindi Bhojpuri भोजपुरी संस्कृत Sanskrit

1 चैत Chait Chait चइत चैत्र Chaitra

2 बैसाख Baisakh Baisakh बैसाख वैशाख Vaishakha

3 जेठ Jeth Jeth जेठ ज्येष्ठ Jyeshtha

4 अषाढ़ Asharh Asarh अषाढ़ आषाढ Ashadha

5 सावन Sawan Sawan सावन श्रावण Shravana

6 भादो Bhado Bhado भादो भाद्रपद,भाद्र,प्रोष्ठपद Bhadrapada

7 आश्विन Ashwin Kuwar कुवार आश्विन Ashwina

8 कार्तिक Kartik Katik कातिक कार्तिक Kartika

9 अग्रहन Agrahan Agahan अगहन अग्रहायण,मार्गशीर्ष Agrahaayana

10 पौष Paus Poos पूस पौष Pausha

11 माघ Magh Magh माघ माघ Maagha

12 फाल्गुन Phalgun Phagun फागुन फाल्गुन Phalguna

Politeness[edit] Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
syntax and vocabulary reflect a three-tier system of politeness. Any verb can be conjugated as per these tiers. For example, the verb "to come" in Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
is "aana" and the verb "to speak" is "bolna". The imperatives "come!" and "speak!" can thus be conjugated five ways, each marking subtle variation in politeness and propriety. These permutations exclude a host of auxiliary verbs and expressions which can be added to these verbs to add even greater degree of subtle variation. For extremely polite or formal situations, the pronoun is generally omitted.

Literary [teh] āō [teh] bōl

Casual and intimate [tum] āō [tum] bōl

Polite and intimate [tum] āv' [tum] bōl'

Formal yet intimate [rau'ā] āīñ [rau'ā] bōlīñ

Polite and formal [āpne] āīñ [āp] bōlīñ

Extremely formal āwal jā'e bōlal jā'e

Similarly, adjectives are marked for politeness and formality. For example, "your" has several forms with different tones of politeness: "tum" (casual and intimate), "tumar/tōhār" (polite and intimate), "t'hār" (formal yet intimate), "rā'ur" (polite and formal) and "āp ke" (extremely formal). Although there are many tiers of politeness, Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
speakers mainly use the form "tum" to address an individual who is younger and "ap" for individuals who are older than themselves or hold a higher position in workplace situations. Dialects[edit] The known dialects, per world language classification system, are Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
Tharu, Domra, Madhesi, Musahari, Northern Standard Bhojpuri (Basti, Gorakhpuri, Sarawaria), Southern Standard Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
(Kharwari), and Western Standard Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
(Benarsi, Purbi).[4] Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
has the following dialects, the first three being the major child dialects:[9]

Southern Standard Bhojpuri Northern Standard Bhojpuri Western Standard Bhojpuri[24] Nagpuria Bhojpuri[25]

Southern Standard Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
is prevalent the areas of Shahabad (Buxar, Bhojpur, Rohtas and Kaimur districts) and Saran region (Saran, Siwan and Gopalganj districts) in Bihar, and eastern Azamgarh (Ballia and Mau district) and Varanasi regions (eastern part of Ghazipur district) in Uttar Pradesh. It is sometimes referred to as ‘Kharwari’. It can be further divided into 'Shahabadi', 'Chapariyah' and 'Pachhimahi'.[26] Northern Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
is common in the areas of Gorakhpur (Deoria, Kushinagar, Gorakhpur and Maharajganj districts) and Basti regions (Basti, Sidhartha Nagar and Sant Kabir Nagar districts) in Uttar Pradesh, western Tirhut region (East and West Champaran districts) in Bihar
Bihar
and other districts in Nepal.[27] Local names include ‘Gorakhpuri’ for the language in Deoria and eastern Gorakhpur, and ‘Sarwariya’ in western Gorakhpur and Basti. The variety spoken cast of Gandak river between Gorakhpur and Champaran has a local name Pachhimahwa.[citation needed]. Western Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
is prevalent the areas of Varanasi (Varanasi, Chandauli, Jaunpur and Western part of Ghazipur districts), Azamgarh (Azamgarh district) and Mirzapur regions (Mirzapur, Sant Ravidas Nagar and Bhadohi districts) in Uttar Pradesh. ‘Banarasi’ is a local name for the Banaras Bhojpuri. Western Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
is also referred to as "Purbi" or "Benarsi".[28] Nagpuria Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
(not to be confused with Nagpuri) is southern most dialect, found in Chhotanagpur region of Jharkhand, particularly parts of Palamau and of Ranchi. It has more Magahi
Magahi
influence.[25][27] It is sometimes referred to as 'Sadari'.[29] Recognition[edit] According to Census of India
India
(2001) there are more than 4 crore or 40 million native speakers of Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
in India
India
alone. However, according to an article published in The Times of India, a total of 150 million people in India
India
speak Bhojpuri. An estimated 70 million people in  Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
and 80 million people in  Bihar
Bihar
speak Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
as their first or second language. Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
Association of North America(BANA) claims that there are 180 million speakers in the world.[30] This difference is probably due to the fact that most people don't provide the information that Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
is their mother tongue. Thus Ravikant Dubey has petitioned that Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
be one of the official languages of India.[31] For cultural reasons, it is usually seen as a dialect of Hindi. Due to the persistent demand from Bhojpuri language activists to recognise it as an official language, P Chidambaram, Home Minister, Government of India
India
announced to Lok Sabha speaker a few lines in Bhojpuri : "hum rauwa sabke bhavna samjhatani (I understand your feelings)", proposing to include Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
in 8th Schedule of the Constitution and accorded the official status.[32] Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
literature[edit] Main article: Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
literature Lorikayan, or the story of Veer Lorik, is a famous Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
folklore of Eastern Uttar Pradesh.[33] Bhikhari Thakur's Bidesiya is another famous book. A modest number of novels have been published in Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
since 1956. Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
media[edit] Many Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
magazines and papers are published in Bihar, Jharkhand and Uttar Pradesh. Parichhan is a contemporary important literary-cultural Maithili- Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
magazine, published by Maithili- Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
academy, Delhi government and edited by Parichay Das. Parichay Das is pathbreaker poet, Essayist, Critic, editor in Bhojpuri. He was Secretary, Hindi, Maithili- Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
Academy, Delhi Government. The Sunday Indian, Bhojpuri[34] is a regular national news magazine in Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
published by Planman Media, owned by Prof. Arindam Chaudhary and edited by Onkareshwar Pandey. Aakhar is a monthly online Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
literature magazine.[35] It is published by Sanjay Singh, Shashi Mishra, Navin Kumar and designed-edited by Ashwini Rudra. Other media in Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
include Lok Lucknow,[36] Mahuaa TV and Hamar TV as Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
language channels, and a weekly paper in Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
published from Birgunj, Parsa of Nepal
Nepal
whose publisher is Dipendra Prasad Kanu. In 2008, when Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
cinema was witnessing revolution of new channels and big productions houses coming in, Manoj Bhawuk
Manoj Bhawuk
joined Hamar TV as a programming head. After ending four years long creative journey with Hamar TV, Bhawuk associated with a Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
GEC Channel Anjan TV as an executive producer. In 2015 Bhawuk entered in a new role of creative consultant with Mahua Plus, the most popular Bhojpuri channel. Khabar Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
is among One of the growing news web portals totally based on Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
founded by Anurag Ranjan. Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
outside India[edit] South Asia[edit] In Bangladesh, there are also Bhojpuri-speaking Muslims. However, their total number is estimated to be smaller than the number of Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
speakers in Mauritius, African, Caribbean, and South American nations. Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
is a major language spoken in Nepal
Nepal
with official status.[9] Outside South Asia[edit] Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
is also spoken by people who were brought as indentured labourers in the 19th century and early 20th century, for work in sugarcane plantations during British colonial era, to Mauritius, Guyana, Suriname, Fiji, the Caribbean, Jamaica, and South Africa.[8][9][37] See also[edit]

Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
portal Language portal

Languages of Nepal Hindustani language Culture of Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
Region Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
literature Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
cinema

References[edit]

^ Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
entry, Oxford Dictionaries, Oxford University Press ^ Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) Caribbean Hindustani at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) Fiji
Fiji
Hindi
Hindi
at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) ^ Language Demographics Census,[dubious – discuss] Government of India
India
(2001) ^ a b c d e Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
Ethnologue
Ethnologue
World Languages (2009) ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Bhojpuric". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ Ethnologue's detailed language map of western Madhesh; see the disjunct enclaves of language #9 in SE. ^ Diwakar Mishra and Kalika Bali, A COMPARATIVE PHONOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE DIALECTS OF HINDI Archived 1 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine., ICPhS XVII, Hong Kong, 17–21 August 2011, pp 1390 ^ a b c Rajend Mesthrie, Language in indenture: a sociolinguistic history of Bhojpuri- Hindi
Hindi
in South Africa, Routledge, 1992, ISBN 978-0415064040, pages 30-32 ^ a b c d Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
Language Materials Project, University of California, Los Angeles, United States ^ AFP (2017-01-06). "Pakistan's regional languages face looming extinction". DAWN.COM. Retrieved 2018-01-01.  ^ Hindustani, Caribbean
Caribbean
Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(2013) ^ William J. Frawley, International Encyclopedia of Linguistics, Volume 1, ISBN 0-19-513977-1, Oxford University Press, Bhojpuri, page 481 ^ Sarita Boodho, Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
traditions in Mauritius, Mauritius
Mauritius
Bhojpuri Institute, 1999, ISBN 978-9990390216, pages 47-48 and 85-92 ^ a b Trammell, R. L. (1971). The Phonology of the Northern Standard Dialect of Bhojpuri. Anthropological Linguistics, Vol. 13, No. 4, pp. 126–141 ^ Diwakar Mishra and Kalika Bali, A COMPARATIVE PHONOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE DIALECTS OF HINDI Archived 1 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine., ICPhS XVII, Hong Kong, 17–21 August 2011, pp 1390 ^ Diwakar Mishra and Kalika Bali, A COMPARATIVE PHONOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE DIALECTS OF HINDI Archived 1 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine., ICPhS XVII, Hong Kong, 17–21 August 2011, pp 1390-1393 ^ a b c Robert L. Trammell, The Phonology of the Northern Standard Dialect of Bhojpuri, Anthropological Linguistics, Vol. 13, No. 4 (Apr. 1971), pp. 126-141 ^ a b Verma, Manindra K. (2003), Bhojpuri, In Cardona et al. (Editors), The Indo-Aryan Languages, 515-537. London: Routledge ^ Shukla, Shaligram (1981), Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
Grammar, Washington, D. C., Georgetown University Press ^ a b Universal Declaration of Human Rights Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
language (United Nations) ^ Universal Declaration of Human Rights Hindi
Hindi
language (United Nations) ^ UDHR Sárnami - http://www.ohchr.org/EN/UDHR/Documents/UDHR_Translations/hns.pdf ^ Universal Declaration of Human Rights English language (United Nations) ^ Parable of the prodigal son in Benares Bhojpuri, A Recording in May 1920 by Rajaji Gupta, Linguistic Survey of India, Digital South Asia Library, University of Chicago, USA ^ a b Parable of the prodigal son in Nagpuria Bhojpuri, A Recording in 1920 by Shiva Sahay Lal, Linguistic Survey of India, Digital South Asia Library, University of Chicago, USA ^ Map of Southern Standard Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
Digital Library of Language Relationships (2012) ^ a b Shaligram Shukla (1981), Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
Grammar, Georgetown University School of Language, ISBN 978-0878401895 ^ Western Standard Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
Digital Library of Language Relationships (2012) ^ Monika Horstmann (1969), Sadari, Indologia Berolinensis, Otto Harrassowitz - Wiesbaden, Germany, pp 176-180 ^ " Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
Association of North America". www.bhojpuri.us. Retrieved 2017-12-31.  ^ "'Recognition' of Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
sought". The Times Of India. 23 January 2012. Retrieved 20 July 2012.  ^ "Chidambaram speaks a surprise". Chennai, India. The Hindu. 17 May 2012. Retrieved 5 June 2012.  ^ Traditions of heroic and epic poetry - Google Books. Books.google.co.in. 4 December 1969. Retrieved 27 February 2014.  ^ Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
- The Sunday Indian Newspaper ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 2016-03-13.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 25 February 2015. Retrieved 2009-12-10.  ^ "Forced Labour". The National Archives, Government of the United Kingdom. 2010. 

External links[edit]

Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
edition of, the free encyclopedia

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Bhojpuri, United Nations Information Centre, India
India
(1998) Kaipuleohone has archived open access recordings of Bhojpuri.

v t e

Bihari languages

Angika Bhojpuri Kudmali Magahi Maithili Majhi Musasa Panchpargania Sadri Sadri, Oraon Surjapuri Vajjika

v t e

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Old

Western

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Modern

North

Old Azari Balochi Central Iran Zoroastrian Dari Fars Gilaki Gorani Kurdic

Sorani Kurmanji Southern group Laki

Mazandarani Semnani Taleshi Deilami Tati Zazaki

Eastern

Pamir

Ishkashimi Sanglechi Wakhi Munji Yidgha Vanji Yazghulami Shughni Roshani Khufi Bartangi Sarikoli

Others

Ossetian

Digor Iron

Pashto

Central Pashto Northern Pashto Southern Pashto Wanetsi

Yaghnobi Ormuri Parachi

Western

South

Persian

Caucasian Tat Dari Tajik

Luri

Feyli Bakhtiari Kumzari

Larestani Bashkardi

Other Indo-Iranian languages

Nuristani

Kamkata-viri

Kamviri Kata-vari Mumviri

Others

Askunu Kalasha-ala Kamkata-viri Tregami Vasi-vari

Italics indicate extinct languages.

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Languages of India

Official languages

Union-level

Hindi English

8th schedule to the Constitution of India

Assamese Bengali Bodo Dogri Gujarati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Konkani Maithili Malayalam Meitei (Manipuri) Marathi Nepali Odia Punjabi Sanskrit Sindhi Santali Tamil Telugu Urdu

State-level only

Garo Gurung Khasi Kokborok Lepcha Limbu Mangar Mizo Newari Rai Sherpa Sikkimese Sunwar Tamang

Major unofficial languages

Over 1 million speakers

Angika Awadhi Bagheli Bagri Bajjika Bhili Bhojpuri Bundeli Chhattisgarhi Dhundhari Garhwali Gondi Harauti Haryanvi Ho Kangri Khandeshi Khortha Kumaoni Kurukh Lambadi Magahi Malvi Marwari Mewari Mundari Nimadi Rajasthani Sadri Surjapuri Tulu Wagdi Varhadi

100,000 – 1 million speakers

Adi Angami Ao Dimasa Halbi Karbi Kharia Kodava Kolami Konyak Korku Koya Kui Kuvi Ladakhi Lotha Malto Mishing Nishi Phom Rabha Sema Sora Tangkhul Thadou

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Languages of Nepal

Official language

Nepali

Indigenous languages

Sino-Tibetan

Kiranti

Bahing Bantawa Belhare Chamling Limbu Sampang Sunwar Thulung Vayu Waling Yakkha

Magaric

Bhujel Chepang Dura Kham Magar

Tamangic

Chantyal Gurung Manang Tamang

Tibetic

Jirel Kyirong-Kagate Mugomt Naapa Sherpa Sikkimese Yolmo

Other

Baram Dhimal Kaike Lepcha Newar Raji Raute Thangmi

Indo-Aryan

Angika Awadhi Bhojpuri Danwar Doteli Jumli Maithili Rangpuri Tharu Marwari

Other

Ghandruk Sign Language Jhankot Sign Language Jumla Sign Language Kusunda Majhwar Mundari Nepali Sign Language

Authority control

N

.