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In Hinduism
Hinduism
a Bhagavata
Bhagavata
(a vrddhi formation from Bhagavanta, meaning "devotee of Bhagavanta", the Lord, i.e. God), is a devotee, worshipper or follower of Bhagavanta namely God in his personal aspect. The form of worship is called bhakti which has the meaning of 'adoration'. In Sanskrit language 'Bhaga' stands for desire as well as vagina, 'antha' stands for the end. Hence Bhagavanta or Bhagavan
Bhagavan
means 'the one beyond desire or rebirth', whereas Bhagavata
Bhagavata
indicates a worshiper of this purified and persistent entity.[1] It also refers to a tradition devoted to worship of Krishna, later assimilated into the concept of Narayana[2] where Krishna
Krishna
is conceived as svayam bhagavan. According to some historical scholars, worship of Krishna
Krishna
emerged in the 1st century BC. However, Vaishnava
Vaishnava
traditionalists place it in the 4th century BC.[3] Despite relative silence of the earlier Vedic sources, the features of Bhagavatism and principles of monotheism of Bhagavata school unfolding described in the Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
as viewed as an example of the belief that Vasudeva- Krishna
Krishna
is not an avatar of the Vedic Vishnu, but is the Supreme.[4][5]

Contents

1 Definition of Krishnaism 2 Initial History of Bhagavata
Bhagavata
tradition 3 Second Early Stage 4 Literary references 5 Other meanings 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading

Definition of Krishnaism[edit] Main article: Krishnaism

The Heliodorus pillar, dedicated by a Greek ambassador from the court of Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
king Antialcidas
Antialcidas
circa 100 BCE, contains the first known inscription related to the Bhagavata
Bhagavata
cult in India.[6]

In the ninth century CE Bhagavatism was already at least a millennium old and many disparate groups, all following the Bhagavata
Bhagavata
Purana could be found. Various lineages of Gopala worshipers developed into identifiable denominations. However, the unity that exists among these groups in belief and practice has given rise to the general term Krishnaism. Today the faith has a significant following outside of India
India
as well.[7] Many places associated with Krishna
Krishna
such as Vrindavan
Vrindavan
attract millions of pilgrims each year who participate in religious festivals that recreate scenes from Krishna's life on Earth. Some believe that early Bhagavatism was enriched and transformed with powerful and popular Krishna
Krishna
tradition with a strong "human" element to it.[8] Initial History of Bhagavata
Bhagavata
tradition[edit] It is believed that Bhagavatas
Bhagavatas
borrowed or shared the attribute or title Purusa of their monotheistic deity from the philosophy of Sankhya. The philosophy was formulated by the end of the 4th century BC and as time went other names such as Narayana
Narayana
were applied to the main deity of Krishna-Vāsudeva.[1] Second Early Stage[edit] Some relate absorption by Brahmanism to be the characteristic of the second stage of the development of the Bhagavata
Bhagavata
tradition. It is believed that at this stage Krishna-Vāsudeva was identified with the deity of Vishnu, that according to some belonged to the pantheon of Brahmanism. [9] Rulers onwards from Chandragupta II, Vikramaditya were known as parama Bhagavatas, or Bhagavata
Bhagavata
Vaishnavas. The Bhagavata Purana
Bhagavata Purana
entails the fully developed tenets and philosophy of the Bhagavata
Bhagavata
cult whereis Krishna
Krishna
gets fused with Vasudeva
Vasudeva
and transcends Vedic Vishnu
Vishnu
and cosmic Hari
Hari
to be turned into the ultimate object of bhakti.[10] Literary references[edit] References to Vāsudeva also occur in early Sanskrit literature. Taittiriya Aranyaka (X, i,6) identifies him with Narayana
Narayana
and Vishnu. Pāṇini, ca. 4th century BCE, in his Ashtadhyayi
Ashtadhyayi
explains the word "Vāsudevaka" as a Bhakta (devotee) of Vāsudeva. At some stage during the Vedic period, Vasudeva
Vasudeva
and Krishna
Krishna
became one deity or three distinct deities Vasudeva-Krishna, Krishna-Gopala and Narayana, all become identified with Vishnu.[11] and by the time of composition of the redaction of Mahabharata
Mahabharata
that survives till today. A Gupta period
Gupta period
research makes a "clear mention of Vasudeva
Vasudeva
as the exclusive object of worship of a group of people", who are referred as bhagavatas.[12] According to an opinion of some scholars in Patanjali's time identification of Krishna
Krishna
with Vasudeva
Vasudeva
is an established fact as is surmised from a passage of the Mahabhasya – (jaghana kamsam kila vasudevah).[13] This "supposed earliest phase is though to have been established from the sixth to the fifth centuries BCE at the time of Pāṇini, who in his Astadhyayi explained the word vasudevaka as a bhakta, devotee, of Vasudeva
Vasudeva
and its believed that Bhagavata
Bhagavata
religion with the worship od Vasudeva
Vasudeva
Krishna
Krishna
were at the root of the Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
in Indian history."[14][15] Other meanings[edit] In the recent times this often refer to a particular sect of Vaishnavas
Vaishnavas
in West India, referring to themselves as 'Bhagavata-sampradaya'.[16][17] It is also a common greeting among the followers of Ramanujacharya
Ramanujacharya
and other yoga sects.[18] Constant Satsanga with devotees and Bhagavatas, repetition of His Name, Sri Ram, Sita Ram, Hari
Hari
Om, etc., constant remembrance of the Lord, prayer, study of religious books such as the Ramayana, the Bhagavata, Hari
Hari
Kirtan, service of ... It can also be spelled 'Bhagavats' and refer to a Buddhist
Buddhist
concept.[19][20] Bhagavata
Bhagavata
Sampradaaya is a very old vedic tradition that respects all the darshana shastras & siddantas. It is neutral to any particular practices like only Vaishnava, Smarta, Shakta, Gaanapatya, Saura etc., And instructs to practice the rituals that is in accordance with Vedas. Some of the practices of this Sampradaaya are continuous study of Vedas, all time chanting of Gayatri, Nitya Agni Upaasana, Atiti Satkaara, Vaishwadeva, Pancha Yagnas, Daana-Dharma, Simpleness, humbleness, socially accepted life style, Sachitdananda Dhyana, leaving egotism, Sarva samarpana Bhaava of one's own Sampat-Bhakti-Punya Karma-Knowledge. This is actual Bhagavata. See also[edit]

Bhagavata
Bhagavata
Purana Krishna Vaishnavism Svayam bhagavan Bhagavad Gita Heliodorus pillar Nava rasas Bhagavan

References[edit]

^ a b Hastings 2003, p. 540 ^ Beck, G. (2005). " Krishna
Krishna
as Loving Husband of God". Alternative Krishnas: Regional and Vernacular Variations on a Hindu Deity. ISBN 978-0-7914-6415-1. Retrieved 28 April 2008.  Vishnu
Vishnu
was by then assimilated with Narayana ^ Hastings 2003, pp. 540–42 ^ Srinivasan, Doris (1997). Many heads, arms, and eyes: origin, meaning, and form of multiplicity in Indian art. Leiden: Brill. p. 134. ISBN 90-04-10758-4.  ^ Gopal, Madan (1990). K.S. Gautam, ed. India
India
through the ages. Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. p. 76.  ^ Osmund Bopearachchi, 2016, Emergence of Viṣṇu and Śiva Images in India: Numismatic and Sculptural Evidence ^ Schweig, Graham M. (2005). Dance of Divine Love: The Rڄasa Lڄilڄa of Krishna
Krishna
from the Bhڄagavata Purڄa. na, India's classic sacred love story. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press. Front Matter. ISBN 0-691-11446-3.  ^ KLOSTERMAIER, Klaus K. (2007). A Survey of Hinduism. State University of New York Press; 3 edition. p. 204. ISBN 0-7914-7081-4. Not only was Krsnaism influenced by the identification of Krsna with Vishnu, but also Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
as a whole was partly transformed and reinvented in the light of the popular and powerful Krishna
Krishna
religion. Bhagavatism may have brought an element of cosmic religion into Krishna
Krishna
worship; Krishna
Krishna
has certainly brought a strongly human element into Bhagavatism. ... The center of Krishna-worship has been for a long time Brajbhumi, the district of Mathura that embraces also Vrindavana, Govardhana, and Gokula, associated with Krishna
Krishna
from the time immemorial. Many millions of Krishna
Krishna
bhaktas visit these places ever year and participate in the numerous festivals that reenact scenes from Krshnas life on Earth  ^ Hastings 2003, p. 541, Bhakti
Bhakti
Marga ^ Kalyan Kumar Ganguli (1988). Sraddh njali, Studies in Ancient Indian History: D.C. Sircar Commemoration: Puranic tradition of Krishna. Sundeep Prakashan. ISBN 81-85067-10-4. p.36 ^ Flood, Gavin D. (1996). An introduction to Hinduism. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 341. ISBN 0-521-43878-0. Retrieved 21 April 2008. "Early Vaishnava
Vaishnava
worship focuses on three deities who become fused together, namely Vasudeva-Krishna, Krishna-Gopala and Narayana, who in turn all become identified with Vishnu. Put simply, Vasudeva- Krishna
Krishna
and Krishna-Gopala were worshiped by groups generally referred to as Bhagavatas, while Narayana
Narayana
was worshipped by the Pancaratra sect." ^ Banerjea, 1966, page 20 ^ A Corpus of Indian Studies: Essays in Honour of Professor Gaurinath Sastri, Page 150, 1980 – 416 pages. ^ Page 76 of 386 pages: The Bhagavata
Bhagavata
religion with the worship of Vasudeva
Vasudeva
Krishna
Krishna
as the ... of Vasudeva
Vasudeva
Krishna
Krishna
and they are the direct forerunners of Vaisnavism in India.Ehrenfels, U.R. (1953). "The University of Gauhati". Dr. B. Kakati Commemoration Volume.  ^ Page 98: In the Mahabharata, Vasudeva- Krishna
Krishna
is identified with the highest God.Mishra, Y.K. (1977). Socio-economic and Political History of Eastern India. Distributed by DK Publishers' Distributors.  ^ General, A. (1920). "I. The Bhagavata
Bhagavata
Sampradaya". An Outline of the Religious Literature of India.  ^ Singhal, G.D. (1978). "The Cultural Evolution of Hindu Gaya, the Vishnu
Vishnu
Dham". The Heritage of India: LN Mishra Commemoration Volume.  ^ BHAKTI YOGA[permanent dead link] 19 February 2008 by ANKARALI INC ^ "The Newly Discovered Three Sets of Svetaka Gangacopper Plates" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2009. Retrieved 20 April 2008.  ^ Kielhorn, F. (1908). "Bhagavats, Tatrabhavat, and Devanampriya". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society: 502–505. Retrieved 20 April 2008. 

Further reading[edit]

Dahmen-Dallapiccola, Anna Libera; Dallapiccola, Anna L. Dictionary of Hindu lore and legend. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-51088-1.  Hastings, James Rodney (2003) [1908–26]. Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics. Volume 4 of 24 ( Behistun (continued) to Bunyan.). John A Selbie (2nd edition 1925–1940, reprint 1955 ed.). Edinburgh: Kessinger Publishing, LLC. p. 476. ISBN 0-7661-3673-6. Retrieved 3 May 2008. The encyclopaedia will contain articles on all the religions of the world and on all the great systems of ethics. It will aim at containing articles on every religious belief or custom, and on every ethical movement, every philosophical idea, every moral practice.  Thompson, Richard, PhD (December 1994). "Reflections on the Relation Between Religion and Modern Rationalism". Retrieved 12 April 2008.  Gupta, Ravi M. (2004). Caitanya Vaisnava Vedanta: Acintyabhedabheda in Jiva Gosvami's Catursutri tika. University of Oxford.  Gupta, Ravi M. (2007). Caitanya Vaisnava Vedanta of Jiva Gosvami. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-40548-3.  Ganguli, K.M. (1883–1896). The Mahabharata
Mahabharata
of Krishna
Krishna
Dwaipayana Vyasa. Kessinger Publishing.  Ganguli, K.M. (1896). Bhagavad-gita
Bhagavad-gita
(Chapter V). The Mahabharata, Book 6. Calcutta: Bharata Press.  Wilson, H.H. (1840). The Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana, a System of Hindu Mythology and Tradition: Translated from the Original Sanscrit and Illustrated by Notes Derived Chiefly from Other Puranas. Printed for the Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland.  Prabhupada, A.C. (1988). Srimad Bhagavatam. Bhaktivedanta Book Trust.  Kaviraja, K.; Prabhupada, A.C.B.S.; Bhaktivedanta, A.C. (1974). Sri Caitanya-Caritamrta of Krsnadasa Kaviraja. Imprint unknown.  Goswami, S.D. (1998). The Qualities of Sri Krsna. GNPress. pp. 152 pages. ISBN 0-911233-64-4.  Garuda Pillar of Besnagar, Archaeological Survey of India, Annual Report (1908–1909). Calcutta: Superintendent of Government Printing, 1912, 129. Rowland, B., Jr. (1935). "Notes on Ionic Architecture in the East". American Journal of Archaeology. 39 (4): 489–496. doi:10.2307/498156. JSTOR 498156.  Delmonico, N. (2004). "The History of Indic Monotheism And Modern Chaitanya Vaishnavism". The Hare Krishna
Krishna
Movement: the Postcharismatic Fate of a Religious Transplant. ISBN 978-0-231-12256-6. Retrieved 12 April 2008.  Mahony, W.K. (1987). "Perspectives on Krsna's Various Personalities". History of Religions. 26 (3): 333–335. doi:10.1086/463085. JSTOR 1062381.  Beck, Guy L., ed. (2005). Alternative Krishnas: Regional and Vernacular Variations on a Hindu Deity. SUNY Press. ISBN 0-7914-6415-6.  Vyasanakere, Prabhanjanacharya. Download and Listen to Bhagavata
Bhagavata
in Kannada. Vyasamadhwa Samshodhana Pratishtana.  Vyasanakere, Prabhanjanacharya. Download and Listen Shloka by Shloka of Bhagavata
Bhagavata
and translation in Kannada. Vyasamadhwa Samshodhana

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