The Info List - Betty Ford

Elizabeth Anne "Betty" Ford (née Bloomer; April 8, 1918 – July 8, 2011) was First Lady of the United States
First Lady of the United States
from 1974 to 1977, as the wife of the 38th President of the United States, Gerald Ford. As First Lady, she was active in social policy and created precedents as a politically active presidential wife.[2] Throughout her husband's term in office, she maintained high approval ratings despite opposition from some conservative Republicans who objected to her more moderate and liberal positions on social issues. Ford was noted for raising breast cancer awareness following her 1974 mastectomy. In addition, she was a passionate supporter of, and activist for, the Equal Rights Amendment
Equal Rights Amendment
(ERA). Pro-choice
on abortion and a leader in the Women's Movement, she gained fame as one of the most candid first ladies in history, commenting on every hot-button issue of the time, including feminism, equal pay, the Equal Rights Amendment, sex, drugs, abortion, and gun control. She also raised awareness of addiction when in the 1970s, she announced her long-running battle with alcoholism and substance abuse, being the first First Lady to do so. Following her White House
White House
years, she continued to lobby for the ERA and remained active in the feminist movement. She was the founder, and served as the first chair of the board of directors, of the Betty Ford Center for substance abuse and addiction. She was awarded the Congressional Gold Medal
Congressional Gold Medal
(co-presentation with her husband on October 21, 1998) and the Presidential Medal of Freedom
Presidential Medal of Freedom
(presented 1991 by George H. W. Bush).


1 Early life and career 2 Marriages and family 3 First Lady of the United States

3.1 National power, influence, and candor 3.2 Social policy and political activism 3.3 Health and breast cancer awareness 3.4 The arts 3.5 Conceding the 1976 election

4 Post- White House
White House

4.1 The Betty Ford
Betty Ford
Center 4.2 Women's movement

5 Later life and honors 6 Death and funeral 7 Awards 8 Bibliography 9 See also 10 Notes 11 External links

Early life and career[edit]

Betty Bloomer at age 18, 1936

She was born Elizabeth Anne Bloomer in 1918 in Chicago, Illinois, the third child and only daughter of Hortense (née Neahr; July 11, 1884 – November 20, 1948) and William Stephenson Bloomer, Sr. (July 19, 1874 – July 18, 1934), who was a traveling salesman for Royal Rubber Co.[3] She was called Betty as a child. Hortense and William married on Nov 9, 1904 in Chicago. Betty's two older brothers were Robert (died 1971) and William Jr. After the family lived briefly in Denver, Colorado, she grew up in Grand Rapids, Michigan, where she graduated from Central High School.[4] After the 1929 stock market crash, when Bloomer was aged 11, she began to earn money by modeling clothes and teaching children popular dances, such as the foxtrot, waltz, and big apple. She also entertained and worked with children with disabilities at the Mary Free Bed Home for Crippled Children. She studied dance at the Calla Travis Dance Studio, graduating in 1935.[3][5] When Betty Bloomer was age 16, her father died of carbon monoxide poisoning in the family's garage while working under their car, despite the garage doors being open.[6][7] He died the day before his 60th birthday.[3] In 1936, after Bloomer graduated from high school, she proposed continuing her study of dance in New York City, but her mother refused.[why?] Instead, she attended the Bennington School of Dance in Bennington, Vermont, for two summers, where she studied under director Martha Hill
Martha Hill
with choreographers Martha Graham
Martha Graham
and Hanya Holm. After being accepted by Graham as a student, Bloomer moved to New York City to live in its Manhattan's Chelsea neighborhood; she worked as a fashion model for the John Robert Powers
John Robert Powers
firm in order to finance her dance studies. She joined Graham's auxiliary troupe and eventually performed with the company at Carnegie Hall
Carnegie Hall
in New York City.[3] Her mother opposed her daughter's choice of a career and insisted that she move home, but Bloomer resisted. They finally came to a compromise: Bloomer had to return home for six months, but if she still wanted to return to New York City at the end of that time, her mother would not protest further. Bloomer became immersed in her life in Grand Rapids and did not return to New York. Her mother remarried, to family friend and neighbor Arthur Meigs Goodwin, and Bloomer lived with them. She got a job as assistant to the fashion coordinator for Herpolsheimer's, a local department store. She also organized her own dance group and taught dance at various sites in Grand Rapids.[3] Marriages and family[edit]

Gerald and Betty Ford
Betty Ford
on their wedding day, 1948

In 1942, Elizabeth Bloomer married William G. Warren,[4] who worked for his father in insurance sales, and whom she had known since she was 12. William Warren began selling insurance for another company shortly after their marriage. He later worked for Continental Can Co., and after that for Widdicomb Furniture. The couple moved frequently because of his work. At one point, they lived in Toledo, Ohio, where Elizabeth was employed at the department store Lasalle & Koch as a demonstrator, a job that entailed being a model and saleswoman. She worked a production line for a frozen-food company in Fulton, New York. When they returned to Grand Rapids, she worked again at Herpolsheimer's, this time as "The" Fashion Coordinator.[8] Warren was an alcoholic and in poor health. Just after Betty decided to file for divorce, he went into a coma. She took care of him for another two years as he convalesced, at his family's home. She stayed upstairs while he was nursed downstairs. After he recovered, they were divorced on September 22, 1947, on the grounds of "excessive, repeated cruelty".[3][clarification needed] On October 15, 1948, Elizabeth married Gerald Ford, a lawyer and World War II veteran, at Grace Episcopal Church, in Grand Rapids. Gerald Ford was then campaigning for what would be his first of thirteen terms as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives. In the first of adjustments for politics, he asked her to delay the wedding until shortly before the elections because, as The New York Times
The New York Times
reported, "Jerry was running for Congress and wasn't sure how voters might feel about his marrying a divorced ex-dancer."[3][9]

Betty Ford
Betty Ford
(third from left) and her family in the White House
White House
in 1974.

Gerald and Elizabeth Ford had four children together: Michael Gerald Ford (born 1950), John Gardner Ford
John Gardner Ford
(nicknamed Jack; born 1952), Steven Meigs Ford (born 1956), and Susan Elizabeth Ford (born 1957).[10] Betty Ford
Betty Ford
never spanked or hit her children, believing that there were better, more constructive ways to deal with discipline and punishment.[11] The Fords moved to the Virginia
suburbs of Washington, D.C., and lived there for twenty-five years. Gerald Ford
Gerald Ford
rose to become the highest-ranking Republican in the House. After Spiro Agnew
Spiro Agnew
resigned as Vice President in 1973, President Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
appointed Gerald Ford to the position. He succeeded to the presidency in 1974, upon Nixon's resignation in the wake of the Watergate scandal.[12] The Fords, who were married 58 years until Gerald's death, were among the more openly affectionate First Couples in United States history. Neither was shy about their mutual love and equal respect, and they were known to have a strong personal and political partnership.[13] First Lady of the United States[edit] National power, influence, and candor[edit]

Vice President Gerald Ford
Gerald Ford
is sworn in as the 38th President of the United States by Chief Justice Warren Burger
Warren Burger
in the East Room
East Room
at the White House
White House
as Betty Ford
Betty Ford
looks on.

Reporters wondered what kind of first lady Ford would be, as they thought her predecessor, Pat Nixon, as noted by one reporter, to be the "most disciplined, composed first lady in history."[14] In the opinion of The New York Times
The New York Times
and several presidential historians, "Mrs. Ford's impact on American culture may be far wider and more lasting than that of her husband, who served a mere 896 days, much of it spent trying to restore the dignity of the office of the president."[15] Steinhauer of The New York Times
The New York Times
described Ford as "a product and symbol of the cultural and political times — doing the Bump dance along the corridors of the White House, donning a mood ring, chatting on her CB radio
CB radio
with the handle First Mama — a housewife who argued passionately for equal rights for women, a mother of four who mused about drugs, abortion and premarital sex aloud and without regret."[16] In 1975, in an interview with McCall's, Ford said that she was asked just about everything, except for how often she and the president had sex. "And if they'd asked me that I would have told them," she said, adding that her response would be, "As often as possible."[7]

Gerald and Betty Ford
Betty Ford
in the presidential limousine, 1974

The Fords host Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
and her husband the Duke of Edinburgh in the President's Dining Room
President's Dining Room
during a 1975 state visit.

She was open about the benefits of psychiatric treatment, and spoke understandingly about marijuana use and premarital sex. The new First Lady noted during a televised White House
White House
tour that she and the President shared the same bed. Ford was a guest on 60 Minutes
60 Minutes
and, in a characteristically candid interview, she discussed how she would counsel her daughter if she was having an affair. She said she "would not be surprised" by that,[17] and also acknowledged that her children may have experimented with marijuana, which was popular among the young. Some conservatives called her "No Lady" for her comments and demanded her "resignation", but her overall approval rating was at a high seventy-five percent. As she later said, during her husband's failed 1976 presidential campaign, "I would give my life to have Jerry have my poll numbers."[16] Her outspoken comments also caused President Ford's advisors dismay due to their attempts at restoring America's composure in the wake of Watergate.[18] Social policy and political activism[edit] During her time as First Lady, Ford was an outspoken advocate of women's rights and was a prominent force in the Women's Movement of the 1970s. She supported the proposed ERA and lobbied state legislatures to ratify the amendment, and took on opponents of the amendment. She was also un-apologetically pro-choice.[19] Her active political role prompted Time to call her the country's "Fighting First Lady" and name her a Woman of the Year in 1975, as representing American women, along with other feminist icons.[2] In May 1975, during a four-day trip,[20] Ford met with former Prime Minister of the Republic of Vietnam Nguyễn Cao Kỳ
Nguyễn Cao Kỳ
to discuss Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
refugees, Ford afterward stating she was impressed with the conduct of the refugees.[21] On June 30, 1976, Ford attended the opening of "Remember the Ladies", a Revolutionary War era women exhibit. She drew boos from demonstrators against the Equal Rights Amendment
Equal Rights Amendment
in stating, "This exhibit about neglected Americans should give us strength and courage to seek equal rights for women today."[22] For a time, it was unclear whether Gerald Ford
Gerald Ford
shared his wife's pro-choice viewpoint. In December 1999, he told interviewer Larry King that he, too, was pro-choice and had been criticized for that stance by conservative forces within the Republican Party.[19] Health and breast cancer awareness[edit]

Betty Ford
Betty Ford
hosts actress Rosalind Russell
Rosalind Russell
at the White House
White House
on May 11, 1976. Russell was suffering from breast cancer, and would ultimately pass away later that year

Weeks after Ford became First Lady, she underwent a mastectomy for breast cancer on September 28, 1974, after having been diagnosed with the disease.[23] Ford decided to be open about her illness because "There had been so much cover-up during Watergate that we wanted to be sure there would be no cover-up in the Ford administration."[24] Her openness about her cancer and treatment raised the visibility of a disease that Americans had previously been reluctant to talk about.

When other women have this same operation, it doesn't make any headlines," she told Time. "But the fact that I was the wife of the President put it in headlines and brought before the public this particular experience I was going through. It made a lot of women realize that it could happen to them. I'm sure I've saved at least one person — maybe more.[25]

Adding to heighten public awareness of breast cancer were reports that several weeks after Ford's cancer surgery, Happy Rockefeller, the wife of vice president Nelson Rockefeller, also had a mastectomy.[25] The spike in women self-examining after Ford went public with the diagnosis led to an increase in reported cases of breast cancer, a phenomenon known as the " Betty Ford
Betty Ford
blip".[24] The arts[edit] As First Lady, Ford was an advocate of the arts; she was instrumental in gaining award of the Presidential Medal of Freedom
Presidential Medal of Freedom
for choreographer and dancer Martha Graham
Martha Graham
in 1976. She received an award from Parsons The New School for Design
Parsons The New School for Design
in recognition of her style.[3] Conceding the 1976 election[edit]

Betty Ford
Betty Ford
reads her husband's concession speech to the press.

After Gerald Ford's defeat by Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
in the 1976 presidential election she delivered her husband's concession speech because he had lost his voice while campaigning.[10] Post- White House
White House
career[edit] After leaving the White House
White House
in 1977, Ford continued to lead an active public life. In addition to founding the Betty Ford
Betty Ford
Center, she remained active in women's issues, taking on numerous speaking engagements and lending her name to charities for fundraising.[26] In March 1977, Ford signed with NBC News
NBC News
to appear in two news specials within the following two years along with contributing to Today,[27] and jointly signed with her husband to write their memoirs.[28] In June, Ford was a speaker at the Arthritis Association Convention.[29] In September of that year, Ford traveled to Moscow
for a television program taping and to serve as hostess for The Nutcracker.[30] In November, Ford appeared at the opening session of the National Women's Conference in Houston, Texas.[31] In January 1984, Ford said the six year since beginning her treatment "have been the best years in my life from the standpoint of feeling healthier and feeling more comfortable with myself" during an address at a program in Michigan.[32] The Betty Ford
Betty Ford
Center[edit] Main article: Betty Ford
Betty Ford

August 1975 support in Portland, Maine
Portland, Maine
for Ford's stance on various women's issues

In 1978, the Ford family staged an intervention and forced her to confront her alcoholism and an addiction to opioid analgesics, which had been prescribed in the early 1960s for a pinched nerve.[3] "I liked alcohol," she wrote in her 1987 memoir. "It made me feel warm. And I loved pills. They took away my tension and my pain". She went into treatment for substance abuse.[33] In 1982, after her recovery, she established the Betty Ford
Betty Ford
Center (initially called the Betty Ford
Betty Ford
Clinic) in Rancho Mirage, California, for the treatment of chemical dependency,[34] including treating the children of alcoholics.[35] She served as chair of the board of directors. She also co-authored with Chris Chase
Chris Chase
a book about her treatment, Betty: A Glad Awakening (1987). In 2003, Ford produced another book, Healing and Hope: Six Women from the Betty Ford
Betty Ford
Center Share Their Powerful Journeys of Addiction and Recovery. In 2005, Ford relinquished her chair of the center's board of directors to her daughter Susan. She had held the top post at the center since its founding.[13] Barbara Bush, one of Ford's successors as First Lady, observed that Ford, after discovering she was dependent on drugs, "transformed her pain into something great for the common good. Because she suffered, there will be more healing. Because of her grief, there will be more joy."[36] Women's movement[edit]

A handmade flag given to Betty Ford
Betty Ford
that demonstrates her support for the Equal Rights Amendment.

Ford continued to be an active leader and activist of the feminist movement after the Ford administration. She continued to strongly advocate and lobby politicians and state legislatures for passage of the ERA. In 1977, President Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
appointed Ford to the second National Commission on the Observance of International Women's Year (the first had been appointed by President Ford). That same year, she joined First Ladies
First Ladies
Lady Bird Johnson
Lady Bird Johnson
and Rosalynn Carter
Rosalynn Carter
to open and participate in the National Women's Conference
National Women's Conference
in Houston, Texas, where she endorsed measures in the convention's National Plan of Action, a report sent to the state legislatures, the U.S. Congress, and the President on how to improve the status of American women.[37] Ford continued to be an outspoken supporter of equal pay for women, breast cancer awareness, and the ERA throughout her life.[38] In 1978, the deadline for ratification of the ERA was extended from 1979 to 1982, resulting largely from a march of a hundred thousand people on Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington. The march was led by prominent feminist leaders, including Ford, Bella Abzug, Elizabeth Chittick, Betty Friedan
Betty Friedan
and Gloria Steinem. In 1981, Eleanor Smeal, the National Organization for Women's president, announced Ford's appointment to be the co-chair, with Alan Alda, of the ERA Countdown Campaign.[39] In November 1981, Ford stated that Governor of Illinois James R. Thompson
James R. Thompson
had not done enough in support of the ERA as well as her disappointment with First Lady Nancy Reagan
Nancy Reagan
not being in favor of the measure, though also relayed her hopes to change the incumbent First Lady's mind in further encounters with her.[40] As the deadline approached, Ford led marches, parades and rallies for the ERA with other feminists, including First Daughter Maureen Reagan
Maureen Reagan
and various Hollywood actors. Ford was credited with rejuvenating the ERA movement and inspiring more women to continue working for the ERA. She visited states, including Illinois, where ratification was believed to have the most realistic chance of passing.[41] The amendment did not receive enough states' ratification. In 2004, Ford reaffirmed her pro-choice stance and her support for the 1973 U.S. Supreme Court decision in Roe v. Wade, as well as her belief in and support for the ratification of the ERA.[42] Later life and honors[edit]

Betty Ford
Betty Ford
is awarded the nation's highest civilian honor, the Presidential Medal of Freedom, by President George H. W. Bush, 1991. First Lady Barbara Bush
Barbara Bush
holds the medal.

Betty Ford
Betty Ford
with President George W. Bush
George W. Bush
and former President Ford on April 23, 2006

In 1987, Ford underwent quadruple coronary bypass surgery and recovered without complications.[43] In November 18, 1991, she was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President George H.W. Bush[3][44] and a Congressional Gold Medal in 1999. That same year, a Golden Palm Star on the Palm Springs Walk of Stars was dedicated to her and her husband.[45] On May 8, 2003, Ford received the Woodrow Wilson Award in Los Angeles for her public service, awarded by the Woodrow Wilson Center
Woodrow Wilson Center
of the Smithsonian Institution.[3] During these years, she and her husband resided in Rancho Mirage and in Beaver Creek, Colorado.[3] Gerald Ford
Gerald Ford
died, aged 93, of heart failure on December 26, 2006 at their Rancho Mirage home. Despite her advanced age and own frail physical condition, Ford traveled across the country and took part in the funeral events in California, Washington, D.C., and Michigan.[3] Following her husband's death, Ford continued to live in Rancho Mirage. Poor health and increasing frailty due to operations in August 2006 and April 2007 for blood clots in her legs caused her to largely curtail her public life. Her ill health prevented her from attending Lady Bird Johnson's funeral in July 2007; her daughter Susan Ford represented her mother at the funeral service.[3] Death and funeral[edit] Betty Ford
Betty Ford
died of natural causes on July 8, 2011, three months after her 93rd birthday, at Eisenhower Medical Center
Eisenhower Medical Center
in Rancho Mirage.[10][46] Coincidentally, she and her husband Gerald Ford
Gerald Ford
were both 93 when they died; Gerald outlived Betty slightly, by 74 days. Funeral services were held in Palm Desert, California, on July 12, 2011, with over 800 people in attendance, including former president George W. Bush, then-First Lady Michelle Obama, then-Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, former First Lady Rosalynn Carter[26] and former first lady Nancy Reagan. On July 13, her casket was flown to Grand Rapids where it lay in repose at the Gerald Ford
Gerald Ford
Museum overnight.[47] On July 14, a second service was held at Grace Episcopal Church with eulogies given by Lynne Cheney, former Ford Museum director Richard Norton Smith, and Ford's son Steven. In attendance were former President Bill Clinton, former Vice President Dick Cheney
Dick Cheney
and former first lady Barbara Bush.[26] In her remarks, Mrs. Cheney noted that July 14 would have been Gerald Ford's 98th birthday.[48] After the service, she was buried next to her husband on the museum grounds.[47] Awards[edit] In 1985, Ford received the Award for Greatest Public Service Benefiting the Disadvantaged, an award given out annually by Jefferson Awards.[49] Bibliography[edit]

Ford, Betty; Chase, Chris (1978). The Times of My Life. New York City, New York: Harper & Row. ISBN 978-0-06-011298-1. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Ford, Betty; Chase, Chris (1987). Betty — A Glad Awakening. Garden City, New York: Doubleday. ISBN 978-0-385-23502-0. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Ford, Betty; Betty Ford Center
Betty Ford Center
(2003). Healing and Hope — Six Women from the Betty Ford Center
Betty Ford Center
Share Their Powerful Journeys of Addiction and Recovery. New York City, New York: Putnam (Penguin Group). ISBN 978-0-399-15138-5. 

See also[edit]

Biography portal Government of the United States portal

List of breast cancer patients according to occupation List of First Ladies
First Ladies
of the United States Second-wave feminism


^ https://www.c-span.org/person/?susanbailes ^ a b Staff (March 3, 1975). "Women: A Fighting First Lady". Time. Retrieved July 15, 2011.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Staff (n.d.). "First Lady Biography — Betty Ford". National First Ladies' Library. Retrieved July 10, 2011.  ^ a b Ford, Betty; Chase, Chris (1978). The Times of My Life. p. 22. ^ " Betty Ford
Betty Ford
Dies at Age 93; A Look Back on the Former First Lady". Business 2 Community. Archived from the original on June 5, 2013.  ^ Ford, Betty; Chase, Chris (1978). The Times of My Life. p. 21. ^ a b Tucker, Neely (December 29, 2006). "Betty Ford, Again Putting On a Brave Face". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 16, 2011. ^ Ford, Betty; Chase, Chris (1978). The Times of My Life. pp. 39, 41. ^ Abstract; subscription required for full article) Jane Howard (December 8, 1974). "Forward Day by Day; The 38th First Lady: Not a Robot At All", The New York Times, Retrieved July 16, 2011. ^ a b c (registration required) Nemy, Enid (July 8, 2011). "Betty Ford, Former First Lady, Dies at 93". The New York Times. Retrieved July 9, 2011.  ^ Ashley, Jeffrey S. (2003). Betty Ford: A Symbol of Strength. Nova Publishers. p. 52. ISBN 978-1-59033-407-2.  ^ "The Watergate Story - The Washington Post". The Washington Post.  ^ a b Video documentary (May 16, 2009). Betty Ford — The Real Deal (requires Adobe Flash; 57 minutes). PBS NewsHour
PBS NewsHour
(via Public Broadcasting Service). Retrieved July 10, 2011. ^ *Anthony, Carl Sferrazza (1991). First Ladies: The Saga of the Presidents' Wives and Their Power; 1961–1990 (Volume II). New York City: William Morrow and Company. p. 220. ISBN 978-0-688-10562-4.  ^ "Betty Ford's Legacy Wide and Lasting", National Journal, 9 July 2011 ^ a b Steinhauer, Jennifer (December 31, 2006). ""Back in View, a First Lady With Her Own Legacy", The New York Times. Retrieved July 16, 2011. ^ Staff (n.d.). "Elizabeth "Betty" Ford". Miller Center of Public Affairs. Archived from the original on January 18, 2012. Retrieved July 11, 2011.  ^ "Former First Lady Betty Ford
Betty Ford
Dies at 93". BET.com. July 9, 2011.  ^ a b Transcript (December 30, 2006). " Special
Encore Presentation — Interview with Gerald Ford". Larry King
Larry King
Live. CNN. Retrieved July 11, 2011.  ^ Hunter, Marjorie (May 25, 1975). " Betty Ford
Betty Ford
'in Tip‐Top Shape' After Grueling Four‐Day Trip". New York Times.  ^ Hunter, Marjorie (May 22, 1975). "FIRST LADY VISITS WITH KY ON COAST". New York Times.  ^ Klemesrud, Judy. "Mrs. Ford Helps 'Remember the Ladies' of Revolutionary Era". New York Times.  ^ "A Leading Lady," Cancer Today magazine, Fall 2012 ^ a b Gibbs, Nancy (July 8, 2011). "Betty Ford, 1918–2011". Time. Retrieved July 16, 2011. ^ a b Staff (November 4, 1974). "Breast Cancer: Fear and Facts". Time. Retrieved July 11, 2011. ^ a b c Staff (July 14, 2011). "After Funeral Service, Betty Ford Buried Next to Husband". MSNBC. Retrieved July 16, 2011.  ^ Brown, Les (March 12, 1977). " NBC News
NBC News
Signs Betty Ford
Betty Ford
to Pact For Two Specials". New York Times.  ^ Mitgang, Herbert (March 9, 1977). "FORD AND WIFE SIGN PACT FOR MEMOIRS". New York Times.  ^ "Ford Calls B1 Halt 'Very Risky Gamble'". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. July 1, 1977.  ^ " Betty Ford
Betty Ford
in Moscow". New York Times. September 25, 1977.  ^ Klemesrud, Judy (November 20, 1977). "Equal Rights Plan and Abortion Are Opposed by 15,000 at Rally". New York Times.  ^ "Former first lady Betty Ford
Betty Ford
says the six years..." UPI. January 27, 1984.  ^ Gibbs, Nancy (July 8, 2011). "Betty Ford, 1918–2011". Time. Retrieved September 20, 2017.  ^ "Addiction Treatment - Betty Ford Center
Betty Ford Center
- Rancho Mirage, CA". bettyfordcenter.org.  ^ " Betty Ford
Betty Ford
targets children of addicted families". USA Today. January 16, 2002.  ^ Bush, Barbara (2015). Barbara Bush: A Memoir. Scribner. p. 180. ISBN 978-1501117787.  ^ Staff (n.d.). "The Conference". Background material on the documentary film Sisters of '77
Sisters of '77
(2005), aired on Independent Lens
Independent Lens
(via Public Broadcasting Service). Retrieved July 16, 2011.  ^ Barth-Werb, Zoë (July 12, 2011). "Former First Lady and Women's Rights Advocate: Betty Ford". Blog of Rights. ACLU. Retrieved July 16, 2011.  ^ Smeal, Eleanor (opinion essay) (July 9, 2011). "Betty Ford, Champion of Women's Rights". CNN. Archived from the original on July 16, 2011. Retrieved July 16, 2011.  ^ "Former first lady Betty Ford
Betty Ford
says she is disappointed..." UPI. November 18, 1981.  ^ Carabillo, Toni; Meuli, Judith; Csida, June Bundy (1993). Feminist Chronicles 1953–1993. Los Angeles, California: Women's Graphics (via Feminist Majority Foundation). ISBN 978-0-9634912-0-6. Retrieved July 16, 2011.  ^ Stanley, Tim (opinion essay) (July 9, 2011). "Betty Ford's death marks the passing of a lost generation of moderate Republican women". The Daily Telegraph. UK. Retrieved January 6, 2012.  ^ " Betty Ford
Betty Ford
Returns Home". The New York Times. December 2, 1987. Retrieved September 20, 2017.  ^ Staff (November 16, 2010). "Heroes of the Presidential Medal of Freedom" (PDF file; 806 KB). National First Ladies' Library. p. 3. Retrieved July 16, 2011. Betty Ford
Betty Ford
(1918 – ) ...  Presidential Medal of Freedom
Presidential Medal of Freedom
received November 18, 1991  ^ "Palm Springs Walk of Stars: By Date Dedicated" (PDF). palmspringswalkofstars.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 8, 2012.  ^ Staff (July 9, 2011). "Ex-First Lady, Advocate for Substance Abuse Treatment Betty Ford
Betty Ford
Dies". CNN. Retrieved July 16, 2011.  ^ a b Staff (July 12, 2011). " Betty Ford
Betty Ford
Memorial Schedule". Detroit Free Press. Retrieved July 16, 2011.  ^ Gray, Kathleen; Christoff, Chris (July 14, 2011). "Betty Ford Funeral: Family, Friends Eulogize Former First Lady". Detroit Free Press. Retrieved July 15, 2011.  ^ "National - Jefferson Awards". Jefferson Awards. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Betty Ford.

Betty Ford, a Visual History curated by Michigan State University Betty Ford, US Presidential First Lady at Find a Grave Betty Ford
Betty Ford
on IMDb Remembering Betty Ford — slideshow by Life Ford, Betty from Encyclopædia Britannica Appearances on C-SPAN

Betty Ford
Betty Ford
at C-SPAN's First Ladies: Influence & Image

Honorary titles

Vacant Title last held by Judy Agnew Second Lady of the United States 1973–1974 Vacant Title next held by Happy Rockefeller

Preceded by Pat Nixon First Lady of the United States 1974–1977 Succeeded by Rosalynn Carter

v t e

First Ladies
First Ladies
of the United States

Martha Washington Abigail Adams Martha Jefferson Randolph Dolley Madison Elizabeth Monroe Louisa Adams Emily Donelson Sarah Jackson Angelica Van Buren Anna Harrison Jane Harrison Letitia Tyler Priscilla Tyler Julia Tyler Sarah Polk Margaret Taylor Abigail Fillmore Jane Pierce Harriet Lane Mary Todd Lincoln Eliza Johnson Julia Grant Lucy Hayes Lucretia Garfield Mary McElroy Rose Cleveland Frances Cleveland Caroline Harrison Mary Harrison Frances Cleveland Ida McKinley Edith Roosevelt Helen Taft Ellen Wilson Margaret Wilson Edith Wilson Florence Harding Grace Coolidge Lou Hoover Eleanor Roosevelt Bess Truman Mamie Eisenhower Jacqueline Kennedy Lady Bird Johnson Pat Nixon Betty Ford Rosalynn Carter Nancy Reagan Barbara Bush Hillary Clinton Laura Bush Michelle Obama Melania Trump

First Lady of the United States National Historic Site First Ladies: Influence & Image

v t e

Second Ladies of the United States

Abigail Adams
Abigail Adams
(1789–1797) Ann Gerry
Ann Gerry
(1813–1814) Hannah Tompkins
Hannah Tompkins
(1817–1825) Floride Calhoun (1825–1832) Letitia Tyler (1841) Sophia Dallas
Sophia Dallas
(1845–1849) Abigail Fillmore
Abigail Fillmore
(1849–1850) Mary Cyrene Burch Breckinridge
Mary Cyrene Burch Breckinridge
(1857–1861) Ellen Vesta Emery Hamlin (1861–1865) Eliza Johnson (1865) Ellen Maria Colfax (1869–1873) Eliza Hendricks
Eliza Hendricks
(1885) Anna Morton
Anna Morton
(1889–1893) Letitia Stevenson
Letitia Stevenson
(1893–1897) Jennie Tuttle Hobart
Jennie Tuttle Hobart
(1897–1899) Edith Roosevelt
Edith Roosevelt
(1901) Cornelia Cole Fairbanks
Cornelia Cole Fairbanks
(1905–1909) Carrie Babcock Sherman (1909–1912) Lois Irene Marshall
Lois Irene Marshall
(1913–1921) Grace Coolidge
Grace Coolidge
(1921–1923) Caro Dawes
Caro Dawes
(1925–1929) Mariette Rheiner Garner
Mariette Rheiner Garner
(1933–1941) Ilo Wallace (1941–1945) Bess Truman
Bess Truman
(1945) Jane Hadley Barkley
Jane Hadley Barkley
(1949–1953) Pat Nixon
Pat Nixon
(1953–1961) Lady Bird Johnson
Lady Bird Johnson
(1961–1963) Muriel Humphrey (1965–1969) Judy Agnew
Judy Agnew
(1969–1973) Betty Ford
Betty Ford
(1973–1974) Happy Rockefeller (1974–1977) Joan Mondale
Joan Mondale
(1977–1981) Barbara Bush
Barbara Bush
(1981–1989) Marilyn Quayle
Marilyn Quayle
(1989–1993) Tipper Gore
Tipper Gore
(1993–2001) Lynne Cheney
Lynne Cheney
(2001–2009) Jill Biden
Jill Biden
(2009–2017) Karen Pence
Karen Pence

v t e

Gerald R. Ford

38th President of the United States
President of the United States
(1974–1977) 40th Vice President of the United States
President of the United States
(1973–1974) U.S. Representative for MI-5 (1949–1973)

Presidency (timeline)

Inauguration Federal-Aid Highway Amendments of 1974 Education for All Handicapped Children Act Vladivostok Summit Meeting on Arms Control Helsinki Accords National Security Study Memorandum 200 Nixon pardon Whip inflation now Wilson desk Assassination attempts (Sacramento San Francisco) State of the Union Addresses (1975 1976) Cabinet Federal judiciary appointments

Supreme Court candidates controversies


Early life Gerald R. Ford Birthsite and Gardens President Gerald R. Ford Jr. Boyhood Home Gerald R. Ford Jr. House Warren Commission AEI World Forum Death and state funeral Gerald R. Ford Presidential Museum Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library


United States House of Representatives
United States House of Representatives
elections, 1948 1950 1952 1954 1956 1958 1960 1962 1964 1966 1968 1970 1972 Republican Party presidential primaries, 1976 1980 Republican National Convention, 1976 1980 United States presidential election, 1976


Gerald R. Ford International Airport Gerald R. Ford Award Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy Ford House Office Building USS Gerald R. Ford
USS Gerald R. Ford
(CVN-78) Gerald R. Ford Freeway U.S. Postage stamps


Betty Ford
Betty Ford
(wife) Michael Gerald Ford
Gerald Ford
(son) John Gardner Ford
John Gardner Ford
(son) Steven Meigs Ford (son) Susan Ford
Susan Ford
Bales (daughter) Dorothy Gardner Ford (mother) Leslie Lynch King Sr.
Leslie Lynch King Sr.
(father) Gerald Rudolff Ford
Gerald Rudolff Ford
(stepfather) Thomas Gardner Ford (half-brother) Charles Henry King (grandfather) Liberty (family dog)

← Richard Nixon Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter


v t e

Time Persons of the Year


Charles Lindbergh
Charles Lindbergh
(1927) Walter Chrysler
Walter Chrysler
(1928) Owen D. Young
Owen D. Young
(1929) Mohandas Gandhi (1930) Pierre Laval
Pierre Laval
(1931) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1932) Hugh S. Johnson
Hugh S. Johnson
(1933) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1934) Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
(1935) Wallis Simpson
Wallis Simpson
(1936) Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
/ Soong Mei-ling
Soong Mei-ling
(1937) Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
(1938) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1939) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1940) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1941) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1942) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1943) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1944) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1945) James F. Byrnes
James F. Byrnes
(1946) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1947) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1948) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1949) The American Fighting-Man (1950)


Mohammed Mosaddeq (1951) Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
(1952) Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
(1953) John Foster Dulles
John Foster Dulles
(1954) Harlow Curtice
Harlow Curtice
(1955) Hungarian Freedom Fighters (1956) Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
(1957) Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
(1958) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1959) U.S. Scientists: George Beadle / Charles Draper / John Enders / Donald A. Glaser / Joshua Lederberg
Joshua Lederberg
/ Willard Libby
Willard Libby
/ Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
/ Edward Purcell / Isidor Rabi / Emilio Segrè
Emilio Segrè
/ William Shockley
William Shockley
/ Edward Teller / Charles Townes / James Van Allen
James Van Allen
/ Robert Woodward (1960) John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
(1961) Pope John XXIII
Pope John XXIII
(1962) Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
(1963) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1964) William Westmoreland
William Westmoreland
(1965) The Generation Twenty-Five and Under (1966) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1967) The Apollo 8
Apollo 8
Astronauts: William Anders
William Anders
/ Frank Borman
Frank Borman
/ Jim Lovell (1968) The Middle Americans (1969) Willy Brandt
Willy Brandt
(1970) Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1971) Henry Kissinger
Henry Kissinger
/ Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1972) John Sirica
John Sirica
(1973) King Faisal (1974) American Women: Susan Brownmiller / Kathleen Byerly
Kathleen Byerly
/ Alison Cheek / Jill Conway / Betty Ford
Betty Ford
/ Ella Grasso / Carla Hills / Barbara Jordan / Billie Jean King
Billie Jean King
/ Susie Sharp / Carol Sutton / Addie Wyatt (1975)


Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
(1976) Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
(1977) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1978) Ayatollah Khomeini (1979) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
(1980) Lech Wałęsa
Lech Wałęsa
(1981) The Computer (1982) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
/ Yuri Andropov
Yuri Andropov
(1983) Peter Ueberroth
Peter Ueberroth
(1984) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1985) Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
(1986) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1987) The Endangered Earth (1988) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1989) George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
(1990) Ted Turner
Ted Turner
(1991) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
(1992) The Peacemakers: Yasser Arafat
Yasser Arafat
/ F. W. de Klerk
F. W. de Klerk
/ Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
/ Yitzhak Rabin
Yitzhak Rabin
(1993) Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
(1994) Newt Gingrich
Newt Gingrich
(1995) David Ho
David Ho
(1996) Andrew Grove
Andrew Grove
(1997) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
/ Ken Starr
Ken Starr
(1998) Jeffrey P. Bezos (1999) George W. Bush
George W. Bush


Rudolph Giuliani (2001) The Whistleblowers: Cynthia Cooper / Coleen Rowley
Coleen Rowley
/ Sherron Watkins (2002) The American Soldier (2003) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2004) The Good Samaritans: Bono
/ Bill Gates
Bill Gates
/ Melinda Gates
Melinda Gates
(2005) You (2006) Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(2007) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2008) Ben Bernanke
Ben Bernanke
(2009) Mark Zuckerberg
Mark Zuckerberg
(2010) The Protester (2011) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2012) Pope Francis
Pope Francis
(2013) Ebola Fighters: Dr. Jerry Brown / Dr. Kent Brantly
Kent Brantly
/ Ella Watson-Stryker / Foday Gollah / Salome Karwah
Salome Karwah
(2014) Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
(2015) Donald Trump
Donald Trump
(2016) The Silence Breakers (2017)


v t e

Michigan Women's Hall of Fame



Harriette Simpson Arnow N. Lorraine Beebe Mamie Geraldine Neale Bledsoe Elizabeth Margaret Chandler Mary Stallings Coleman Wilma T. Donahue Grace Eldering Josephine Gomon Martha W. Griffiths Dorothy Haener Laura Smith Haviland Mildred Jeffrey Pearl Kendrick Helen W. Milliken Rosa L. Parks Anna Howard Shaw Lucinda Hinsdale Stone Sojourner Truth


Helen J. Claytor Caroline Bartlett Crane Marguerite De Angeli Emma Genevieve Gillette Icie Macy Hoobler Magdelaine Laframboise Martha Longstreet Elly M. Peterson Jessie Pharr Slaton Mary C. Spencer Bertha Van Hoosen


Patricia Boyle Elizabeth C. Crosby Gwen Frostic Elmina R. Lucke Marjorie Swank Matthews Marjorie Peebles-Meyers Mary Chase Perry Stratton Helen Thomas


Marion Isabel Barnhart Patricia Hill Burnett Ethel Calhoun Georgia Emery Betty Ford Rosa Slade Gragg Clara Raven


Louise L. Brown Ethelene Crockett Marcia J. Federbush Fran Harris M. Jane Kay Nugent Agnes Mary Mansour Helen Martin Sarah Goddard Power


Clara B. Arthur Anna Sutherland Bissell Alexa Canady Anne R. Davidow Bernadine Newsom Denning Isabella Karle Jean Ledwith King Olga Madar Mary Anne Mayo



Emily Helen Butterfield Erma Henderson Dorothy Leonard Judd Elba Lila Morse Fannie M. Richards Emelia Christine Schaub Mary P. Sinclair Merze Tate Delia Villegas Vorhauer


Rachel Andresen Mary Beck Jan BenDor Janet K. Good Jo Jacobs Virginia
Cecile Blomer Nordby Dorothy Comstock Riley Edith Mays Swanson


Cora Brown Mary Lou Butcher Sarah Emma Edmonds Violet Temple Lewis Luise Ruth Leismer Mahon Gilda Radner Martha Romayne Seger Ann M. Shafer Sylvia M. Stoesser Lucy Thurman Charleszetta Waddles


Edith Vosburgh Alvord Catherine Carter Blackwell Jean W. Campbell Katherine Hill Campbell Lenna Frances Cooper Roberta A. Griffith Bina West Miller Jeanne Omelenchuk Sippie Wallace Edna Noble White Irene Clark Woodman


Allan Marie-Therese Guyon Cadillac Ruth Carlton Flossie Cohen Bertha A. Daubendiek Genora Johnson Dollinger Flora Hommel Sarah Van Hoosen Jones Aleda E. Lutz Helen Walker McAndrew


Yolanda Alvarado-Ortega Irene Auberlin Hilda R. Gage Lucia Voorhees Grimes R. Louise Grooms Odessa Komer Laura Freele Osborn Jacquelin E. Washington


Carrie Frazier Rogers-Brown Anna Clemenc Waunetta McClellan Dominic Margaret Muth Laurence Claudia House Morcom Betsy Graves Reyneau Shirley E. Schwartz Joan Luedders Wolfe


Ellen Burstyn Marion Corwell-Shertzer Four Sisters of Charity Della Goodwin Alice Hamilton Nancy Harkness Love Maryann Mahaffey Sharon E. Sutton Matilda Dodge Wilson


Connie Binsfeld Hilda Patricia Curran Marie Dye Eleanor Josaitis Dorrie Ellen Rosenblatt Ella Merriman Sharp Martha Jean Steinberg Ruth Thompson Lily Tomlin


Patricia L. Beeman Olympia Brown Doris DeDeckere Margaret Drake Elliott Elizabeth Homer Eleonore Hutzel Ella Eaton Kellogg Emily Burton Ketcham Ardeth Platte



Lillian Mellen Genser Loney Clinton Gordon Katherine G. Heideman Dauris Gwendolyn Jackson Cornelia Groefsema Kennedy Marjorie J. Lansing Chaun-Pu Lee Marilyn Fisher Lundy Katharine Dexter McCormick Kathleen N. Straus Clarissa M. Young


Cora Reynolds Anderson Lucile E. Belen Theresa Maxis Duchemin Aretha Franklin Francie Kraker Goodridge Marian Bayoff Ilitch Mary Ellen Riordan Joesphine Stern Weiner


Hortense Golden Canady Julia Wheelock Freeman May Stocking Knaggs Naomi Long Madgett Lucille Hanna McCollough Lana Pollack Martha Louise Rayne Muriel Dorothy Ross


Mary Agnes Blair Verne Burbridge Nellie Cuellar Alice Scanlan Kocel Joyce Lewis Kornbluh Eliza Seaman Leggett Ida Lippman Marion 'Babe' Ruth Bernice "B" Steadman Pamela Withrow Ruth Zweifler


Geraldine Bledsoe Ford Jennifer Mulhern Granholm Lystra Gretter Florine Mark Cathy McClelland Constance Mayfield Rourke


Margaret M. Chiara Eva Lois Evans Georgia A. Lewis Johnson Lida Holmes Mattman Olivia Maynard Deborah Stabenow Caroline Thrun Margaret Sellers Walker Elizabeth Weaver


Cynthia Yao Mary Esther Daddazio Margery Feliksa Nancy Hammond Viola Liuzzo Marge Piercy Dora Hall Stockman Martha Strickland Clark Helen Hornbeck Tanner


Mary Brown Gertrude Buck Emma Cole Haifa Fakhouri Carolyn Geisel Jane Briggs Hart Abigail Rogers Kathleen Wilbur Woman's Hospital Association (charter members)


Carol Atkins Patricia Cuza Carol King Vicki Neiberg James Johnston Schoolcraft Leta Snow Mary Francilene Van de Vyver


Carol Atkins Grace Lee Boggs Margaret Chandler Ruth Ellis Edna Ferber Glenda Lappan Kay Givens McGowan Elizabeth Phillips Jessica Rickert Betty Tableman Marlo Thomas



Mary Aikey Laura Carter Callow Augusta Jane Chapin Sandra Laser Draggoo Annie Etheridge Sherrill Freeborough Dorean Marguerite Hurley Koenig Terry McMillan Edith Munger Cynthia J. Pasky


Lois A. Bader Jumana Judeh Marilyn Kelly Valeria Lipczynski Edelmira Lopez Kary Moss Rose Mary C. Robinson Patricia Saunders


Gladys Beckwith Patricia Caruso Mary Jane Dockeray Judith Karandjeff Les Meres et Debutantes Club of Greater Lansing Serena Williams L. Anna Ballard Eva McCall Hamilton Mary E. McCoy


Elizabeth W. Bauer Judith Levin Cantor Paula Cunningham Joan Jackson Johnson Gladys McKenney Marina von Neumann Whitman Con-Con Eleven Elizabeth Eaglesfield Harriet Quimby


Elizabeth Lehman Belen MaryLee Davis Jeanne Findlater Dorothy A. Johnson Julie Krone Mary Carmelita Manning Barbara Roberts Mason Marylou Olivarez Mason Andra M. Rush Mary Ellen Sheets Lucille Farrier Stickel


Jocelyn Benson Maxine Berman Sue Carter Janet C. Cooper Mabel White Holmes Candice Miller Esther K. Shapiro Maggie Walz Myra Wolfgang Linda M. Woods


Elizabeth Sparks Adams Anan Ameri Daisy Elliott Faith Fowler Evelyn Golden Olivia Letts Mary Free Bed Guild Diana Ross Lou Anna Kimsey Simon Charlotte Wilson


American Legion NUWARINE Post 535 Ella Mae Backus Clara Bryant Ford Elizabeth Denison Forth Mary Kay Henry Curtis Hertel Jr. Verna Grahek Mize Bernice Morton Rosie the Riveter Rosemary C. Sarri Elizabeth Wetzel

v t e

Inductees to the National Women's Hall of Fame



Jane Addams Marian Anderson Susan B. Anthony Clara Barton Mary McLeod Bethune Elizabeth Blackwell Pearl S. Buck Rachel Carson Mary Cassatt Emily Dickinson Amelia Earhart Alice Hamilton Helen Hayes Helen Keller Eleanor Roosevelt Florence Sabin Margaret Chase Smith Elizabeth Cady Stanton Helen Brooke Taussig Harriet Tubman


Abigail Adams Margaret Mead Mildred "Babe" Didrikson Zaharias


Dorothea Dix Juliette Gordon Low Alice Paul Elizabeth Bayley Seton



Margaret Sanger Sojourner Truth


Carrie Chapman Catt Frances Perkins


Belva Lockwood Lucretia Mott


Mary "Mother" Harris Jones Bessie Smith


Barbara McClintock Lucy Stone Harriet Beecher Stowe


Gwendolyn Brooks Willa Cather Sally Ride Ida B. Wells-Barnett



Margaret Bourke-White Barbara Jordan Billie Jean King Florence B. Seibert


Gertrude Belle Elion


Ethel Percy Andrus Antoinette Blackwell Emily Blackwell Shirley Chisholm Jacqueline Cochran Ruth Colvin Marian Wright Edelman Alice Evans Betty Friedan Ella Grasso Martha Wright Griffiths Fannie Lou Hamer Dorothy Height Dolores Huerta Mary Jacobi Mae Jemison Mary Lyon Mary Mahoney Wilma Mankiller Constance Baker Motley Georgia O'Keeffe Annie Oakley Rosa Parks Esther Peterson Jeannette Rankin Ellen Swallow Richards Elaine Roulet Katherine Siva Saubel Gloria Steinem Helen Stephens Lillian Wald Madam C. J. Walker Faye Wattleton Rosalyn S. Yalow Gloria Yerkovich


Bella Abzug Ella Baker Myra Bradwell Annie Jump Cannon Jane Cunningham Croly Catherine East Geraldine Ferraro Charlotte Perkins Gilman Grace Hopper Helen LaKelly Hunt Zora Neale Hurston Anne Hutchinson Frances Wisebart Jacobs Susette La Flesche Louise McManus Maria Mitchell Antonia Novello Linda Richards Wilma Rudolph Betty Bone Schiess Muriel Siebert Nettie Stevens Oprah Winfrey Sarah Winnemucca Fanny Wright


Apgar Ann Bancroft Amelia Bloomer Mary Breckinridge Eileen Collins Elizabeth Hanford Dole Anne Dallas Dudley Mary Baker Eddy Ella Fitzgerald Margaret Fuller Matilda Joslyn Gage Lillian Moller Gilbreth Nannerl O. Keohane Maggie Kuhn Sandra Day O'Connor Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin Pat Schroeder Hannah Greenebaum Solomon


Louisa May Alcott Charlotte Anne Bunch Frances Xavier Cabrini Mary A. Hallaren Oveta Culp Hobby Wilhelmina Cole Holladay Anne Morrow Lindbergh Maria Goeppert-Mayer Ernestine Louise Potowski Rose Maria Tallchief Edith Wharton


Madeleine Albright Maya Angelou Nellie Bly Lydia Moss Bradley Mary Steichen Calderone Mary Ann Shadd
Mary Ann Shadd
Cary Joan Ganz Cooney Gerty Cori Sarah Grimké Julia Ward Howe Shirley Ann Jackson Shannon Lucid Katharine Dexter McCormick Rozanne L. Ridgway Edith Nourse Rogers Felice Schwartz Eunice Kennedy Shriver Beverly Sills Florence Wald Angelina Grimké
Angelina Grimké
Weld Chien-Shiung Wu



Faye Glenn Abdellah Emma Smith DeVoe Marjory Stoneman Douglas Mary Dyer Sylvia A. Earle Crystal Eastman Jeanne Holm Leontine T. Kelly Frances Oldham Kelsey Kate Mullany Janet Reno Anna Howard Shaw Sophia Smith Ida Tarbell Wilma L. Vaught Mary Edwards Walker Annie Dodge Wauneka Eudora Welty Frances E. Willard


Dorothy H. Andersen Lucille Ball Rosalynn Carter Lydia Maria Child Bessie Coleman Dorothy Day Marian de Forest Althea Gibson Beatrice A. Hicks Barbara Holdridge Harriet Williams Russell Strong Emily Howell Warner Victoria Woodhull


Paulina Kellogg Wright Davis Ruth Bader Ginsburg Katharine Graham Bertha Holt Mary Engle Pennington Mercy Otis Warren


Linda G. Alvarado Donna de Varona Gertrude Ederle Martha Matilda Harper Patricia Roberts Harris Stephanie L. Kwolek Dorothea Lange Mildred Robbins Leet Patsy Takemoto Mink Sacagawea Anne Sullivan Sheila E. Widnall


Florence Ellinwood Allen Ruth Fulton Benedict Betty Bumpers Hillary Clinton Rita Rossi Colwell Mother Marianne Cope Maya Y. Lin Patricia A. Locke Blanche Stuart Scott Mary Burnett Talbert


Eleanor K. Baum Julia Child Martha Coffin Pelham Wright Swanee Hunt Winona LaDuke Elisabeth Kübler-Ross Judith L. Pipher Catherine Filene Shouse Henrietta Szold


Louise Bourgeois Mildred Cohn Karen DeCrow Susan Kelly-Dreiss Allie B. Latimer Emma Lazarus Ruth Patrick Rebecca Talbot Perkins Susan Solomon Kate Stoneman



St. Katharine Drexel Dorothy Harrison Eustis Loretta C. Ford Abby Kelley
Abby Kelley
Foster Helen Murray Free Billie Holiday Coretta Scott King Lilly Ledbetter Barbara A. Mikulski Donna E. Shalala Kathrine Switzer


Betty Ford Ina May Gaskin Julie Krone Kate Millett Nancy Pelosi Mary Joseph Rogers Bernice Sandler Anna Schwartz Emma Willard


Tenley Albright Nancy Brinker Martha Graham Marcia Greenberger Barbara Iglewski Jean Kilbourne Carlotta Walls LaNier Philippa Marrack Mary Harriman Rumsey Eleanor Smeal


Matilda Cuomo Temple Grandin Lorraine Hansberry Victoria Jackson Sherry Lansing Clare Boothe Luce Aimee Mullins Carol Mutter Janet Rowley Alice Waters

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 84478887 LCCN: n50024808 ISNI: 0000 0001 0994 3425 GND: 121304469 SUDOC: 093479042 BNF: cb16550986x (data) NDL: 00928311 SN