HOME
The Info List - Bethany





Bethany (Βηθανία) is recorded in the New Testament
New Testament
as the home of the siblings Mary, Martha, and Lazarus, as well as that of Simon the Leper. Jesus
Jesus
is reported to have lodged there after his entry into Jerusalem, and it could be from Bethany that he parted from his disciples at the Ascension.

Contents

1 Location 2 Etymology 3 Bethany and care of the poor and sick 4 New Testament
New Testament
references to Bethany 5 Bethany beyond the Jordan 6 See also 7 Notes 8 Bibliography 9 External links

Location[edit] Bethany has traditionally been identified with the present-day West Bank city of al-Eizariya (Arabic العيزرية "place of Lazarus"), site of the reputed Tomb of Lazarus, located about 1.5 miles (2.4 km) to the east of Jerusalem on the south-eastern slope of the Mount of Olives. The oldest house in present-day al-Eizariya, a 2,000-year-old dwelling reputed to have been (or which at least serves as a reminder of) the House of Martha
Martha
and Mary, is also a popular pilgrimage site.[1] The tomb in al-Eizariya has been identified as the tomb of the gospel account since at least the 4th century AD. Both the historian Eusebius of Caesarea[2] (c. 330) and the Itinerarium Burdigalense[3] (c. 333) mention the Tomb of Lazarus in this location. Zanecchia (1899), however, argued that ancient Bethany may actually have been located higher up the Mount of Olives
Mount of Olives
from al-Eizariya, closer to Bethphage.[4] Breen (1907) in Catholic Encyclopedia
Catholic Encyclopedia
reported Zanecchia's hypothesis, and while conceding that the traditional site of the tomb "has no strong intrinsic or extrinsic authority", but that in view of the antiquity of the traditional identification of the tomb of Lazarus, "there is every reason to believe that it was in this general location".[5] Etymology[edit] The root meaning and origin of the name Bethany has been the subject of much scholarship and debate. William Hepworth Dixon
William Hepworth Dixon
devotes a multi-page footnote to it in his The Holy Land (1866), largely devoted to debunking the meaning "house of dates", which is attributed to Joseph Barber Lightfoot
Joseph Barber Lightfoot
by way of a series of careless interpretative mistakes. Dixon quotes at length a refutation of Lightfoot's thesis in the form of a letter by Emanuel Deutsch of the British Museum, who notes that neither the name Bethany, nor any of the roots suggested by Lightfoot, appear anywhere in the Talmud. Deutsch suggests a non-Hebrew root, a word transcribed in Syriac script whose meaning he gives as "House of Misery" or "Poor-house".[6] This theory as to Bethany's etymology, which was eventually also adopted by Gustaf Dalman
Gustaf Dalman
in 1905, is not without challengers. For example, E. Nestle's Philologica Sacra (1896) suggests that Bethany is derived from the personal name Anaiah, while others have suggested it is a shortened version of Ananiah, a village of Bethel
Bethel
mentioned in the Book of Nehemiah
Book of Nehemiah
(11:32). Since Greek can neither reproduce an /h/ sound nor the harsh /ħ/ sound (Hebrew Ḥet) in the middle of a word, a derivation from the personal name Chananya ("Yah has been gracious") is also possible. Another suggestion, arising from the presence of nearby Bethphage ("house of unripe figs"), is that its name comes from beit hini ( Aramaic
Aramaic
בית היני / ביתייני[7]) , meaning "house of figs". In the Talmud, there is mention of a village called Beit Hino located near the Mount of Olives. Some translations suggest it as Bethany.[8] Deutsch's thesis, however, seems to also be attested to by Jerome. In his version of Eusebius' Onomasticon, the meaning of Bethany is defined as domus adflictionis or "house of affliction". Brian J. Capper writes that this is a Latin derivation from the Hebrew beth 'ani or more likely the Aramaic
Aramaic
beth 'anya, both of which mean "house of the poor" or "house of affliction/poverty", also semantically speaking "poor-house". Capper concludes, from historical sources as well as this linguistic evidence, that Bethany may have been the site of an almshouse.[9] According to Capper and Deutsch before him, there are also linguistic difficulties that arise when the Anaiah/Ananiah, "house of figs" or "house of dates" theses are compared against the bethania form used in Greek versions of the New Testament. Additionally, the Aramaic
Aramaic
beit 'anya (בית עניא) is the form used for Bethany in Christian Palestinian and Syriac versions of the New Testament. Given this, and Jerome's familiarity with Semitic philology and the immediate region, Capper concludes that the "house of affliction" / "poor-house" meaning as documented by Jerome
Jerome
and in the Syriac New Testament
New Testament
usage is correct, and that this meaning relates to the use of the village as a centre for caring for the sick and aiding the destitute and pilgrims to Jerusalem.[9] It may be possible to combine the Ananiah (as a personal name) and "house of the poor" derivations, since the shortening of Ananiah ("Yah has intervened") to Anya is conceivable though unattested (cf. the common shortening of Yochanan [and perhaps also Chananyah?] to Choni), whence a typical semitic wordplay might arise between Anya as a shortening of the personal name within the name of the village and as Aramaic
Aramaic
for "poor". Such a wordplay may have served the choice of the village as the location for an almshouse.[10] Bethany and care of the poor and sick[edit] Capper and others have concluded that ancient Bethany was the site of an almshouse for the poor and a place of care for the sick. There is a hint of association between Bethany and care for the unwell in the Gospels: Mark tells of Simon the Leper's house there (Mark 14:3–10); Jesus
Jesus
receives urgent word of Lazarus' illness from Bethany (John 11:1–12:11). According to the Temple Scroll
Temple Scroll
from Qumran, three places for the care of the sick, including one for lepers, are to be located to the east of Jerusalem. The passage also defines a (minimum) radius of three thousand cubits (circa 1,800 yards) around the city within which nothing unclean shall be seen (XLVI:13–18). Since Bethany was, according to John, fifteen stadia (about 1.72 miles) from the holy city,[11] care for the sick there corresponded with the requirements of the Temple Scroll
Temple Scroll
(the stadion being ideally 600 feet (180 m) or 400 cubits).[12] Whereas Bethphage
Bethphage
is probably to be identified with At-Tur, located on the peak of the Mount of Olives
Mount of Olives
with a magnificent view of Jerusalem, Bethany lay below to the southeast, out of view of the Temple Mount, which may have made its location suitable as a place for care of the sick, "out of view" of the Temple. From this it is possible to deduce that the mention of Simon the Leper at Bethany in Mark's Gospel suggests that the Essenes, or pious patrons from Jerusalem who held to a closely similar view of ideal arrangements, settled lepers at Bethany. Such influence on the planning of Jerusalem and its environs (and even its Temple) may have been possible especially during the reign of Herod the Great
Herod the Great
(36–4 BC), whose favour towards the Essenes
Essenes
was noted by Josephus (Antiquities 15.10.5 [373–78]).[13] Reta Halteman Finger approves Capper's judgment that only in the context of an almshouse at Bethany, where the poor were received and assisted, could Jesus
Jesus
remark that "The poor you will always have with you" (Mark 14:7; Matthew 26:11) without sounding callous.[14] Ling follows Capper's thesis concerning the connection between then place-name Bethany and the location there of an almshouse. Capper and Ling note that it is only in Bethany we find mention of the poor on the lips of the disciples, who object that the expensive perfumed oil poured over Jesus
Jesus
there might have been sold and the proceeds given to the poor (Mark 14:5; Matthew 26:8–9; John 12:4–6 [where the objection is made by Judas]); this objection may have been made in embarrassment and may also suggest a special connection between Bethany and care for the poor.[15] It has also been suggested, based on the names found carved on thousands of ossuaries at the site, that Bethany in the time of Jesus was settled by people from Galilee
Galilee
who had come to live by Jerusalem. This would explain why Jesus
Jesus
and the disciples, as Galileans, would find it convenient to stay here when visiting Jerusalem.[16] As Capper writes,

Galilean pilgrims avoided potential conflict with Samaritans
Samaritans
by travelling south on the eastern side of the Jordan. Bethany was the last station on their route to Jerusalem after crossing the river and taking the road through Jericho
Jericho
up into the highlands. A respectful distance from the city and Temple, and on the pilgrim route, Bethany was a most suitable location for a charitable institution. It is not surprising that an Essene hospice had been established at Bethany to intercept and care for pilgrims at the end of the long and potentially arduous journey from Galilee. The house combined this work with care for the sick and destitute of the Jerusalem area. Thus Bethany received its name because it was the Essene poorhouse par excellence, the poorhouse which alleviated poverty closest to the holy city.[17]

New Testament
New Testament
references to Bethany[edit] See also: New Testament
New Testament
places associated with Jesus The village of Bethany is referenced in relation to five incidents in the New Testament, in which the word Bethany appears 11 times:[18]

The raising of Lazarus from the dead – John 11:1–46 The entry of Jesus
Jesus
into Jerusalem on Palm Sunday, which Jesus
Jesus
begins near Bethany – Mark 11:1 and Luke 19:29 The lodging of Jesus
Jesus
in Bethany during the following week – Matthew 21:17 and Mark 11:11–12 The dinner in the house of Simon the Leper, at which Mary anoints Jesus
Jesus
– Matthew 26:6–13, Mark 14:3–9, and John 12:1–8 Before the Ascension of Jesus
Jesus
into heaven – Luke 24:50

In Luke 10:38–42, a visit of Jesus
Jesus
to the home of Mary and Martha
Martha
is described, but the village of Bethany is not named (nor whether Jesus is even in the vicinity of Jerusalem). Bethany beyond the Jordan[edit] A second place named Bethany is mentioned in the Gospel of John
Gospel of John
1:28 as being located on the east bank of the Jordan River. Its exact location is unclear; in fact, the only mention of this “Bethany” is to be found in that one verse. In the King James Version
King James Version
(following the Textus Receptus
Textus Receptus
of the New Testament) the place where John the Baptist was baptizing in John 1:28 was not called Bethany, but Bethabara.[19] The second place may also refer to the more northerly territory of Batanaea.[20] The King James Version
King James Version
is the only English version of the New Testament that refers to "Bethany on the east bank of the Jordan River", as "Bethabara". Most other English versions (including the Douay-Rheims, NIV, NASB, NLT, RSV, IBS, and Darby) call it "Bethany". See also[edit]

al-Eizariya Tomb of Lazarus (al-Eizariya)

Notes[edit]

^ Shahin, 2005, p. 332. ^ The Onomastikon of Eusebius and the Madaba Map, By Leah Di Segni. First published in: The Madaba Map Centenary, Jerusalem, 1999, pp. 115–20. ^ Itinerary of the Pilgrim of Bordeaux, translated by Arnold vander Nat, 2001. ^ D. Zanecchia La Palestine d'aujourd'hui, ses sanctuaires, ses localités bibliques et historiiques (Paris, 1899), Vol. I, 445–46. ^ Breen, A.E. "Bethany". The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 2. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907. "Zanecchia places the site of the ancient village of Bethany higher up on the southeastern slope of the Mount of Olives, not far from the accepted site of Bethphage, and near that of the Ascension. It is quite certain that the present village formed about the traditional tomb of Lazarus, which is in a cave in the village. The identification of this cave as the tomb of Lazarus is merely possible; it has no strong intrinsic or extrinsic authority. The site of the ancient village may not precisely coincide with the present one, but there is every reason to believe that it was in this general location. St. Jerome
Jerome
testifies: 'Bethany is a village at the second milestone from Aelia [Jerusalem], on the slope of the Mount of Olives, where the Savior raised Lazarus to life, to which event the church now built there bears witness' (Onom. ed. Lagarde 1008, 3). In the early ages this church was called the "Lazarium" and held in great veneration. Towards the close of the fourth century St. Silvia declares that on the Saturday before Palm Sunday
Palm Sunday
the clergy of Jerusalem and the people go out to the Lazarium at Bethany [...] The sites of the house of Martha
Martha
and Mary, and of that of Simon the leper are shown at Bethany; but it is evident that these localizations are purely imaginary." ^ Dixon, 1866, pp. 214–19. ^ "Neubauer's Geography" (Adolphe Neubauer, La Géographie du Talmud, Paris 1868, pp. 149–50), where he writes: “The Talmud
Talmud
reports that Beth Hini shops were destroyed three years before Jerusalem. These shops were probably on the Mount of Olives, and Beth Hini would be identical with Bethany of the Gospel. The Talmud
Talmud
adds that the figs of Beth Hini ripened earlier than elsewhere and that fig trees disappeared as a result of the siege of Jerusalem. These fruits have given the name to the place Beth-Phagi, a place according to the Gospels near Bethany. We would identify Bethany with the present village of el-Azarieh, inhabited by Muslims and Christians.” Klein, Samuel (1910). "Remarks about the geography of ancient Palestine (German)". Monatsschrift für Geschichte und Wissenschaft des Judentums. 54 (1/2): 18–19. JSTOR 23081701. (Registration required (help)).  ^ The Schottenstein Daf Yomi Edition Tractate Bava Kamma 88a2 ^ a b Capper, in Charlesworth, 2006, pp. 497–98. ^ Cf. Capper, "John, Qumran
Qumran
and Virtuoso Religion" in Paul Anderson, Mary Coloe, and Tom Thatcher (eds.), John and Qumran
Qumran
(Leuven: Peeters, 2009) ^ John 11:18. ^ Cf. Dieter Lelgemann, 'Recovery of the Ancient System of Foot/Cubit/Stadion Length Units' ^ Matthias Delcor suggested that Essenes
Essenes
familiar with the Temple Scroll influenced the design of Herod's Temple, "Is the Temple Scroll a Source of the Herodian Temple?" in G.J. Brooke, Temple Scroll Studies (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1989), pp. 67–89 ^ Reta Halteman Finger, Of Widows and Meals: Communal Meals in the Book of Acts (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2008) p. 164, cf. Brian J. Capper, "The Church as the New Covenant of Effective Economics", International Journal for the Study of the Christian Church 2, 1 (January 2002) pp. 83–102, see p. 95. ^ Timothy J. M. Ling, The Judaean Poor and the Fourth Gospel (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2007), pp. 143–45, 170–71, 176–77. ^ With Jesus
Jesus
in the City of Bethany Archived December 19, 2010, at the Wayback Machine., Rev. the Hon. Dr. Gordon Moyes AC MLC. ^ Brian J. Capper, "The Church as the New Covenant of Effective Economics", International Journal for the Study of the Christian Church 2, 1 (January 2002) pp. 83–102. For further information, see also "The New Covenant Network in Southern Palestine at the Arrest of Jesus", in James R. Davila, The Dead Sea Scrolls as Background to Postbiblical Judaism and Early Christianity (Leiden: Brill, 2003), pp. 90–116, especially pp. 108–16 on Bethany and pp. 98–108 on the social work of the Essene poorcare houses of Judaea in general. ^ Strong's Concordance ^ Sloyan, Gerard Stephen (1987). John. ISBN 0-8042-3125-7. p. 11. ^ Carson, D. A. (1991). Gospel According to John. ISBN 978-0851117492. pp. 146–47.

Bibliography[edit]

Aburish, Said K.: Children of Bethany: The Story of a Palestinian Family, Indiana University Press 1988. ISBN 0-253-30676-0 Capper, Brian J., "Essene Community Houses and Jesus' Early Community" (2006), in James H. Charlesworth, ed., Jesus
Jesus
and Archaeology, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, pp. 474–502, ISBN 978-0-8028-4880-2  Dixon, William Hepworth (1866), The Holy Land, Chapman and Hall  Shahin, Mariam (2005), Palestine: A Guide, Interlink Books, p. 332, ISBN 1-56656-557-X 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bethany (biblical village).

Catholic Encyclopedia: Bethany Jewish Encyclopedia: Bethany Pictures of Lazarus' reputed tomb at Bethany

v t e

New Testament
New Testament
places associated with Jesus

Galilee

Ænon Bethsaida Cana Capernaum Chorazin Gennesaret Mount of Transfiguration Nain Nazareth Sea of Galilee

Judea

Bethany Bethesda Bethlehem Bethphage Calvary Emmaus Gabbatha Gethsemane Jericho Jerusalem Temple Mount of Olives

Other

Al-Maghtas Bethabara Caesarea Maritima Caesarea Philippi Egypt Gerasa Road to Damascus Sychar Umm Qais

Christianity Portal

Coordinates: 31°46′17.08″N 35°15′40.77″E / 31.7714111°N 35.2613250°E / 31.7714111

.