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Bertha Felicitas Sophie Freifrau von Suttner (Baroness Bertha von Suttner, née Countess Kinsky, Gräfin Kinsky von Wchinitz und Tettau; 9 June 1843 – 21 June 1914) was an Austrian-Bohemian pacifist and novelist. In 1905 she was the first woman to be solely awarded the Nobel Peace
Peace
Prize, becoming the second female Nobel laureate after Marie Curie's 1903 award,[1] and the first Austrian laureate.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Tutor in the Suttner household, life in Georgia 3 Arthur and Bertha von Suttner 4 Striving for peace 5 The Writing of Bertha von Suttner

5.1 Religion 5.2 Gender

6 Legacy 7 Commemoration on coins and stamps 8 On film

8.1 TV

9 Works in English translation 10 See also 11 Notes and references

11.1 Notes 11.2 References 11.3 Bibliography

12 External links

Early life[edit]

Von Suttner in 1873

Suttner was born on 9 June 1843 at Palais Kinsky in the Obecní dvůr district of Prague.[2] Her parents were the Austrian Lieutenant general (Feldmarschall-Leutnant) Franz de Paula Josef Graf Kinsky von Wchinitz und Tettau, recently deceased at the age of 75, and his wife Sophie Wilhelmine von Körner, who was fifty years his junior.[3][4] Her father was a member of the Czech House of Kinsky
House of Kinsky
via descent from Vilém Kinský. Suttner's mother came from a family that belonged to untitled nobility of significantly lower status, being the daughter of Joseph von Körner, a cavalry officer, and a distant relative of the poet Theodor Körner.[5] For the rest of her life, Suttner faced exclusion from the Austrian high aristocracy due to her mixed descent; for instance only those with unblemished aristocratic pedigree back to their great-great-grandparents were eligible to be presented at court. She was additionally disadvantaged because her father, as a third son, had no great estates or other financial resources to be inherited. Suttner was baptised at the Church of Our Lady of the Snows, not a traditional choice for the aristocracy.[3] Soon after her birth, Suttner's mother moved to live in Brno
Brno
with her guardian Landgrave
Landgrave
Friedrich Michael zu Fürstenberg (1793–1866). Her older brother Arthur was sent to a military school, at the age of six, and subsequently had little contact with the family. In 1855 Suttner's aunt Loffe and cousin Elvira joined the household.[6] Elvira, whose father was a private tutor, was of a similar age to Suttner and intellectually precocious, introducing Suttner to the pleasures of literature and philosophy.[7] Beyond her reading, Suttner gained proficiency in French, Italian and English as an adolescent, under the supervision of a succession of private tutors; she also became an accomplished amateur pianist and singer.[8] Suttner's mother and aunt suffered from delusions of clairvoyance and thus elected to gamble at Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
in the summer of 1856, hoping to return with a fortune. Their losses were so heavy that they were forced to move to Vienna. During this trip Suttner received a proposal from Prince Philipp zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg
Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg
which was declined due to her tender age.[9] The family returned to Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
in 1859; the second trip was similarly unfortunate, and they had to relocate to a small property in Klosterneuburg. Shortly after this turn of events, Suttner wrote her first published work, the novella Endertraüme im Monde, which appeared in Die Deutsche Frau. Continuing poor financial circumstance led Suttner to a brief engagement to the wealthy Gustav Heine von Geldern, thirty-one years her senior, whom she came to find unattractive and rejected; her memoirs record her disgusted response to the older man's attempt to kiss her.[8] In 1864, the family summered at Bad Homburg
Bad Homburg
which was also a fashionable gambling destination among the aristocracy of the era. Suttner befriended the Georgian aristocrat Ekaterine Dadiani, Princess of Mingrelia, and met Tsar Alexander II.[10] Seeking a career as an opera singer as an alternative to marrying money, Suttner undertook an intensive course of lessons, working on her voice for over four hours a day. Despite tuition from the eminent Gilbert Duprez
Gilbert Duprez
in Paris
Paris
in 1867, and from Pauline Viardot
Pauline Viardot
in Baden-Baden in 1868, she never secured a professional engagement. She suffered from stage fright and was unable to project well in performance.[11][12][13] In the summer of 1872 she was engaged to Prince Adolf zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Hohenstein
Sayn-Wittgenstein-Hohenstein
who died at sea while travelling to America to escape his debts in October.[14] Tutor in the Suttner household, life in Georgia[edit]

Schloss Harmannsdorf today.

Both Elvira and her guardian Friederich had died in 1866, and Suttner, now above typical marriageable age, felt increasingly constrained by her mother's eccentricity and the family's poor financial circumstances.[15] In 1873, she found employment as a tutor and companion to the four daughters of Karl von Suttner, aged between fifteen and twenty. The Suttner family lived in the Innere Stadt
Innere Stadt
of Vienna
Vienna
three seasons of the year, and summered at Schloss Harmannsdorf in Lower Austria. Suttner had an affectionate relationship with her four young students, who nicknamed her "Boulotte" due to her corpulence, a name she would later adopt as a literary pseudonym in the form "B. Oulot".[16][17] She soon fell in love with her charge's elder brother, Arthur Gundaccar, who was seven years her junior. They were engaged but unable to marry due to the Suttners' disapproval. In 1876, with her employers' encouragement, Suttner answered a newspaper advertisement which led to her briefly becoming secretary and housekeeper to Alfred Nobel
Alfred Nobel
in Paris.[18] In the few weeks of her employment Suttner and Nobel developed a friendship, and Nobel may have made romantic overtures.[19] However, Suttner remained committed to Arthur and returned shortly to Vienna
Vienna
to marry him in secrecy, in the church of St. Aegyd in Gumpendorf.[20] The newlyweds eloped to Mingrelia, where Suttner hoped to make use of her connection to the former ruling House of Dadiani. On their arrival they were entertained by Prince Niko. The couple settled in Kutaisi, where they were able to find work teaching languages and music to the children of the local aristocracy. However, they experienced considerable hardship despite their social connections, living in a simple three-roomed wooden house.[17][21] Their situation worsened in 1877 on the outbreak of the Russo-Turkish War, although Arthur had some success in reporting on the hostilities for the Neue Freie Presse.[22] Suttner also wrote frequently for the Austrian press in this period, and worked on her early novels, including in Es Löwos a romanticized account of her life with Arthur. In the aftermath of the war, Arthur attempted to set up a timber business, but it was unsuccessful.[23] Arthur and Bertha von Suttner[edit] Arthur and Suttner were largely socially isolated in Georgia; their poverty rather than their social status restricted their engagement with high society, and neither ever became fluent speakers of Mingrelian or Georgian. To stave off starvation, the couple each began writing as a career. While Arthur's writing during this period is dominated by local themes, Suttner's was not similarly influenced by Georgian culture.[24] In August 1882 Ekaterine Dadiani died. Soon afterwards, the couple decided to relocate to Tbilisi. Here Arthur gained whatever work he could, in accounting, construction and wallpaper design, while Suttner largely concentrated on her writing. She became a correspondent of Michael Georg Conrad, eventually contributing an article to the 1885 edition of his publication Die Gesellschaft. The piece, entitled "Truth and Lies", is a polemic in favour of the naturalism of Émile Zola.[25][26] Her first significant political work, Inventarium einere Seele ("Inventory of the Soul") was published in Leipzig
Leipzig
in 1883. In it Suttner takes a pro-disarmament, progressive stance, arguing for the inevitability of world peace due to technological advancement; a possibility also considered by her friend Nobel due to the increasingly deterrent effect of more powerful weapons. In 1884 Suttner's mother died, saddling the couple with further debts.[27] Arthur had befriended a Georgian journalist in Tbilisi, M,[28] and the couple agreed to collaborate with him on a translation of the Georgian epic The Knight in the Panther Skin. Suttner was to improve M.'s literal translation of the Georgian to French, and Arthur to translate the French to German.[27] This method proved arduous, and they worked for few hours each day due to the distraction of the Mingrelian countryside around M.'s home. Arthur did publish several important articles on the work in the Georgian press, and illustrations were prepared for the putative edition by Mihály Zichy.[27] However, M. failed to produce expected payments, and with the eruption of the Bulgarian Crisis in 1885 the couple felt increasingly unsafe in Georgian society, which due to the nation's political domination by Russia was increasingly hostile to Austrians. Arthur's parents now accepted his marriage, and the couple were welcome in Austria; the couple returned in May, to live in the country house at Harmannsdorf.[29] Bertha found refuge in her marriage with Arthur. About it she said, "The third field of my feelings and moods lay within our married happiness. In this was my peculiarly inalienable home, my refuge for all possible conditions of life, ....and so the leaves of my diary are full not only of political domestic records of all kinds, but also of memoranda of our gay little jokes, our confidential enjoyable walks, our uplifting reading, our hours of music together, and our evening games of chess. To us personally nothing could happen. We had each other, - that was everything."[30]

Suttner's living house in Tbilisi

Striving for peace[edit] Suttner and her husband finally reconciled with his family and in 1885 could return to Austria, where the couple lived at Harmannsdorf Castle in Lower Austria. She continued her journalistic activity and concentrated on peace and conflict studies corresponding with the French philosopher Ernest Renan
Ernest Renan
and influenced by the International Arbitration and Peace
Peace
Association founded by Hodgson Pratt
Hodgson Pratt
in 1880.

Suttner in 1896

In 1889 Suttner became a leading figure in the peace movement with the publication of her pacifist novel, Die Waffen nieder!
Die Waffen nieder!
(Down with Weapons!), which made her one of the leading figures of the Austrian peace movement. The book was published in 37 editions and translated into 12 languages (titled Lay Down Your Arms! in English). She witnessed the foundation of the Inter-Parliamentary Union and called for the establishment of the Austrian Gesellschaft der Friedensfreunde pacifist organization in an 1891 Neue Freie Presse
Neue Freie Presse
editorial. Suttner became chairwoman and also founded the German Peace Society the next year. She gained international repute as editor of the international pacifist journal Die Waffen nieder!, named after her book, from 1892 to 1899. In 1897 she presented Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria
Austria
with a list of signatures urging the establishment of an International Court of Justice and took part in the First Hague Convention in 1899 with the help of Theodor Herzl, who paid for her trip.[31] Upon her husband's death in 1902, Suttner had to sell Harmannsdorf Castle and moved back to Vienna. In 1904 she addressed the International Congress of Women in Berlin
Berlin
and for seven months travelled around the United States attending a universal peace congress in Boston
Boston
and meeting President Theodore Roosevelt. Though her personal contact with Alfred Nobel
Alfred Nobel
had been brief, she corresponded with him until his death in 1896, and it is believed that she was a major influence in his decision to include a peace prize among those prizes provided in his will, which she received in the fifth term on 10 December 1905. The bestowal took place on 18 April 1906 in Kristiania.

Imaginative drawing by Marguerite Martyn
Marguerite Martyn
and a photo of Bertha von Suttner, 1912, with a victorious Suttner holding a scroll labeled "International Peace
Peace
Treaty / England / France / America." In the corner cowers a representation of a defeated warrior labeled "WAR." A broken sword and shield is on the ground. A tangle of broken warships is at the left side. At top are newspaper headlines from the St. Louis Post-Dispatch of October 20, 1912.

In 1907 Suttner attended the Second Hague Peace
Peace
Conference, which however mainly negotiated on aspects of law of war. On the eve of World War
War
I, she continued to advise against international armament. In 1911 she became a member of the advisory council of the Carnegie Peace
Peace
Foundation.[32] In the last months of her life, she battled cancer and helped organize the next Peace
Peace
Conference, which was to take place September 1914. Unfortunately, that conference did not occur. On 21 June 1914, a few weeks before Franz Ferdinand was killed, Bertha von Suttner
Bertha von Suttner
succumbed to her cancer. Within two months of her death WW1 was raging. In the comprehensive socio-cultural debate of her day, Suttner's pacifism was influenced by the writings of Immanuel Kant, Henry Thomas Buckle, Herbert Spencer, Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin
and Leo Tolstoy
Leo Tolstoy
(Tolstoy praised Die Waffen nieder!) [33] conceiving peace as an original state impaired by the human aberrances of war and militarism. Thus, she felt a right to peace could be demanded under international law and was necessary in the sense of an evolutionary (Darwinist) conception of history. Suttner was also an accomplished journalist, with one historian stating that her work revealed her as "a most perceptive and adept political commentator".[33] The Writing of Bertha von Suttner[edit] Bertha von Suttner
Bertha von Suttner
wrote as a career. This often meant that she had to write novels and novellas that she did not believe in or really want to write. However, she continued to write them to avoid starvation. Even in those novels that she did not believe in, she found ways to incorporate her ideals. Often, the romantic heroes would fall in love upon realizing they were both fighting for the same ideals—usually peace and tolerance. As an avid self-promoter, Bertha von Suttner
Bertha von Suttner
also worked as a journalist at times. In her pursuit of self-promotion and the promotion of her ideals, she used her connections in aristocracy and friendships with wealthy individuals (i.e. Alfred Nobel) to gain connections to heads of State internationally. She also used them to gain popularity for her writing. To gain popularity and financial success from writing, she used a male pseudonym early in her career. In addition, Suttner often worked as a journalist to get her message out or promote her own books, events, and causes.[34] As Tolstoy noted and others have since agreed, there is a strong similarity between Suttner and Harriet Beecher Stowe. Both Beecher Stowe and von Suttner "were neither simply writers of popular entertainment nor authors of tendentious propaganda.... [They] used entertainment for idealistic purposes."[35] For Suttner, peace and acceptance of all individuals and all peoples was the largest ideal and theme. Bertha von Suttner
Bertha von Suttner
also wrote about other issues and ideals. Two of the common issues outside of peace vs. violence in her work are religion and gender. Religion[edit] There are two main issues with religion that Bertha von Suttner
Bertha von Suttner
often wrote about. Bertha von Suttner
Bertha von Suttner
held a disdain for the spectacle and pomp of some religious practices. In a scene in Lay Down Your Arms she showed highlighted the odd theatricality of some religious practices. In the scene, the emperor and empress are washing the feet of the normal citizens to show they are as humble as Jesus. However, they invite everyone to witness their show of humility and enter the hall in a dramatic fashion. As the protagonist Martha acknowledged, it was "indeed a sham washing."[36] Next, and more prominent in most of her writing, is the idea that war is righteously for God. Often, leaders use religion as a reason or inspiration for war. This reasoning bothered Bertha von Suttner
Bertha von Suttner
on two fronts. First, it placed the State as the important entity to God rather than the individual. Therefore, it makes dying in battle more glorious than other forms of death or even living through a war. Much of Lay Down Your Arms deals with this trope. This type religious thinking also gives way to segregation and fighting based on religious differences. Bertha and Arthur von Suttner refused to accept that tenet of religious thinking. In fact, as a devote Christian, Arthur founded the League Against Anti-Semitism in response to the pogroms in Eastern Europe and the growing antisemitism across Europe.[37] Acceptance of all people and all faiths is a major factor in everything the Suttner family did. For the Suttner family, “religion was neighborly love, not neighborly hatred. Any kind of hatred, against other nations or against other creeds, detracted from the humaneness of humanity.”[30] Gender[edit] Bertha von Suttner
Bertha von Suttner
is often considered a leader in the women's liberation movement. In Lay Down Your Arms, the protagonist Martha often clashes with her father on this issue. Martha does not want her son to play with toy soldiers and be indoctrinated to the masculine ideas of war. The father character attempts to put Martha back in the female gendered box by suggesting that the son will not need to ask for approval from a woman. He also states that Martha should be marry again because women her age should not be alone.[36] This was not simply because she insisted that women are equal to men, but that she was able to tease out how sexism affects both men and women. Like Martha being placed in a female structured gender box, the character of Tilling is also placed in the male stereotyped box and affected by that. The character even discusses it, saying, "we men have to repress the instinct of self-preservation. Soldiers have also to repress the compassion, the sympathy for the gigantic trouble which invades both friend and foe; for next to cowardice, what is most disgraceful to us is all sentimentality, all that is emotional."[36] Legacy[edit] Bertha von Suttner
Bertha von Suttner
may not have experienced financial success during her lifetime. Her work, however, is still affecting individuals who are moved to action and activism, governments that seek diplomatic solutions before needless lost of life through war, and international organizations and nonprofits that seek to help prevent war and moderate issues between parties. She made note about the possible hope for the future in her Nobel Lecture:

That the future will always be one degree better than what is past and discarded is the conviction of those who understand the laws of evolution and try to assist their action. Only through the understanding and deliberate application of natural laws and forces, in the material domain as well as in the moral, will the technical devices and the social institutions be created which will make our lives easier, richer, and more noble. These things are called ideals as long as they exist in the realm of ideas; they stand as achievements of progress as soon as they are transformed into visible, living, and effective forms.[38]

Commemoration on coins and stamps[edit]

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Bertha von Suttner
Bertha von Suttner
was selected as a main motif for a high value collectors' coin: the 2008 Europe Taler. The reverse shows important people in the history of Europe, including Bertha von Suttner. Also depicted in the coin are Martin Luther
Martin Luther
(symbolising the transition from the Middle Ages to the modern period); Antonio Vivaldi (exemplifying the importance of European cultural life); and James Watt (representing the industrialization of Europe, inventor of the first steam engine in the 18th century). She is depicted on Germany 2005 10 euro coin. She is depicted on the Austrian 2 euro coin, and was pictured on the old Austrian 1000 schilling bank note. She was commemorated on a 1965 Austrian postage stamp and a 2005 German postage stamp.

On film[edit]

Die Waffen nieder, by Holger Madsen and Carl Theodor Dreyer. Released by Nordisk Films Kompagni in 1914.[39][40] No Greater Love (German: Herz der Welt), a 1952 film[41] has Bertha as the main character.

TV[edit]

Eine Liebe für den Frieden – Bertha von Suttner
Bertha von Suttner
und Alfred Nobel
Alfred Nobel
(A Love for Peace
Peace
Bertha von Suttner
Bertha von Suttner
and Alfred Nobel), TV biopic, ORF/Degeto/BR 2014, after the play Mr. & Mrs. Nobel by Esther Vilar.

Works in English translation[edit]

Memoirs of Bertha von Suttner; The Records of an Eventful Life, Pub. for the International School of Peace, Ginn and company, 1910. When Thoughts Will Soar; A Romance of the Immediate Future, by Baroness Bertha von Suttner
Bertha von Suttner
... tr. by Nathan Haskell Dole. Boston, New York, Houghton Mifflin company, 1914. Lay Down Your Arms; The Autobiography of Martha von Tilling, by Bertha von Suttner. Authorised translation by T. Holmes, rev. by the author. 2d ed. New York, Longmans, Green and Co., 1906.

See also[edit]

Novels portal

Pacifism List of peace activists List of Austrians List of Austrian writers List of female Nobel laureates

Notes and references[edit] Notes[edit]

References[edit]

^ List of female recipients of the Nobel Prize ^ Hamann, p. 1 ^ a b Hamann, p. 2 ^ Smith, Digby; Kudrna, Leopold (2008). "Biographical Dictionary of All Austrian Generals During the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, 1792–1815: Kinsky von Wchinitz und Tettau, Franz de Paula Joseph Graf". napoleon-series.org.  ^ Kempf, pp. 7–8 ^ Playne, p. 16 ^ Hamann p. 5 ^ a b Hamann pp. 9–10 ^ Hamann pp. 5–6 ^ Hamann p. 11 ^ Playne, p. 29 ^ Kemf, p. 9 ^ Hamann p. 13 ^ Hamann p. 15 ^ Playne, p. 28 ^ Hamann pp. 18–19 ^ a b Playne, p. 45 ^ Hamann, p. 24 ^ Hamann, p. 26 ^ Hamann, p. 27 ^ Hamann pp. 30–31 ^ Hamann, pp. 32–33 ^ Hamann, pp. 34–37 ^ Hamann, p. 37 ^ Kempf, pp. 15–16 ^ Hamann, pp. 40–41 ^ a b c Hamann, pp. 42–43 ^ Suttner could not recall the journalist's full name on writing her memoirs, and his identity is enigmatic. ^ Hamann, p. 45 ^ a b von Suttner, Bertha (2010). Memoirs of Bertha Von Suttner: The Records of an Eventful Life. Authorized Translation. Charleston: Nabu Press. p. 340. ISBN 1147075816.  ^ Levenson, Alan T. (1994). " Theodor Herzl
Theodor Herzl
and bertha von Suttner: Criticism, collaboration and utopianism". Journal of Israeli History. 15: 213–222. doi:10.1080/13531049408576037.  ^  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1922). "Suttner, Bertha". Encyclopædia Britannica. 32 (12th ed.). London & New York. p. 628.  ^ a b Bertha von Suttner
Bertha von Suttner
by Irwin Adams. The World Encyclopedia of Peace. Edited by Ervin László, Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
and Jong Youl Yoo. Oxford : Pergamon, 1986. ISBN 0-08-032685-4, (vol. 3, pp. 201–4). ^ Spatzier, Astrid (December 2016). "One Woman - Two Sides of the Same Coin? Journalism and Public Relations: The Case of Bertha von Suttner". Publications Review. 42: 787–791. doi:10.1016/j.pubrev.2015.12.003 – via Elsevier Science Direct.  ^ Braker, Regina (January 1991). " Bertha von Suttner
Bertha von Suttner
as Author: The Harriet Beecher Stowe of the Peace
Peace
Movement". Peace
Peace
& Change. 16: 74–96. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0130.1991.tb00566.x.  ^ a b c von Suttner, Bertha (2015). Lay Down Your Arms. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. pp. 95–96. ISBN 1514744317.  ^ Longyel, Emile (1975). All her Paths were Peace: The Life of Bertha von Suttner. Scotland: Thomas Nelson Publishers. ISBN 0840764502.  ^ von Suttner, Bertha (April 18, 1906). "The Evolution of the Peace Movement". NobelPrize.org.  ^ Kelly, A. (1991). "Film As Antiwar Propaganda". Peace
Peace
& Change. 16: 97–112. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0130.1991.tb00567.x.  ^ Ned Med Vaabnene (1914) – IMDb ^ Herz der Welt (1952) – IMDb

Bibliography[edit]

 Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Suttner, Bertha, Baroness von". Encyclopædia Britannica. 26 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 171.  Playne, Caroline Elizabeth (1936). Bertha von Suttner
Bertha von Suttner
and the World War. George Allen Unwin.  Irwin Abrams: Bertha von Suttner
Bertha von Suttner
and the Nobel Peace
Peace
Prize. In: Journal of Central European Affairs. Bd. 22, 1962, S. 286–307 (see also PDF). Kemf, Beatrix (1972). Suffragette for Peace: Life of Bertha Von Suttner. Oswald Wolff. ISBN 0854962557.  Lengyel, Emil (1975). And All Her Paths Were Peace: The Life of Bertha von Suttner. Thomas Nelson, Inc. ISBN 0840764502.  Hamann, Brigitte (1996). Bertha von Suttner
Bertha von Suttner
– a life for peace. Syracuse University Press. ISBN 0815603762.  Brigitte Hamann: Bertha von Suttner
Bertha von Suttner
– Ein Leben für den Frieden. Piper, München 2002, ISBN 3-492-23784-3 Laurie R. Cohen (Hrsg.): „Gerade weil Sie eine Frau sind…“. Erkundungen über Bertha von Suttner, die unbekannte Friedensnobelpreisträgerin. Braumüller, Wien 2005, ISBN 3-7003-1522-8. Maria Enichlmair: Abenteurerin Bertha von Suttner: Die unbekannten Georgien-Jahre 1876 bis 1885. Ed. Roesner, Maria Enzersdorf 2005, ISBN 3-902300-18-3. Beatrix Müller-Kampel (Hrsg.): „Krieg ist der Mord auf Kommando“. Bürgerliche und anarchistische Friedenskonzepte. Bertha von Suttner und Pierre Ramus. Graswurzelrevolution, Nettersheim 2005, ISBN 3-9806353-7-6. Beatrix Kempf: Bertha von Suttner
Bertha von Suttner
und die „bürgerliche“ Friedensbewegung. In: Friede – Fortschritt – Frauen. Friedensnobelpreisträgerin Bertha von Suttner
Bertha von Suttner
auf Schloss Harmannsdorf. LIT-Verlag, Wien 2007, S. 45 ff. Valentin Belentschikow: Bertha von Suttner
Bertha von Suttner
und Russland (= Vergleichende Studien zu den slavischen Sprachen und Literaturen.). Lang, Frankfurt am Main u.a. 2012, ISBN 978-3-631-63598-8. Simone Peter: Bertha von Suttner
Bertha von Suttner
(1843–1914). In: Bardo Fassbender, Anne Peters (Hrsg.): The Oxford Handbook of the History of International Law. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2012, S. 1142–1145 (Vorschau). Stefan Frankenberger (Hrsg.): Der unbekannte Soldat – Zum Andenken an Bertha von Suttner. Mono, Wien 2014, ISBN 978-3-902727-52-7

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bertha von Suttner.

Website devoted to Bertha von Suttner
Bertha von Suttner
on occasion of her memorialization on the Peace
Peace
Palace Centenary Nobel Entry More Info from Nobel Winners Another biography on Bertha von Suttner Bertha von Suttner, "Visit to Alfred Nobel," in Memoirs of Bertha von Suttner: The Records of an Eventful Life. Vol. 1. 2 vols. Boston: Ginn & Co., 1910. 2005 — the Bertha von Suttner
Bertha von Suttner
Year Works by Bertha von Suttner
Bertha von Suttner
at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Bertha von Suttner
Bertha von Suttner
at Internet Archive Works by Bertha von Suttner
Bertha von Suttner
at LibriVox
LibriVox
(public domain audiobooks) Works by Bertha von Suttner
Bertha von Suttner
at Open Library Bertha von Suttner
Bertha von Suttner
(1910). Memoirs of Bertha Von Suttner. Ginn & co.  Online text of "Lay down Your Arms", archive.org "Baroness Bertha von Suttner; Author of "Lay Down Your Arms" and Winner of the Nobel Peace
Peace
Prize". New York Times Review of Books. February 5, 1911. pp. BR61.  (PDF of full review of Memoirs) Claus Bernet (2005). "Bertha von Suttner". In Bautz, Traugott. Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL) (in German). 24. Nordhausen: Bautz. cols. 1435–1471. ISBN 3-88309-247-9.  Memoirs at archive.org (1910 translation)

v t e

Laureates of the Nobel Peace
Peace
Prize

1901–1925

1901 Henry Dunant / Frédéric Passy 1902 Élie Ducommun / Charles Gobat 1903 Randal Cremer 1904 Institut de Droit International 1905 Bertha von Suttner 1906 Theodore Roosevelt 1907 Ernesto Moneta / Louis Renault 1908 Klas Arnoldson / Fredrik Bajer 1909 A. M. F. Beernaert / Paul Estournelles de Constant 1910 International Peace
Peace
Bureau 1911 Tobias Asser / Alfred Fried 1912 Elihu Root 1913 Henri La Fontaine 1914 1915 1916 1917 International Committee of the Red Cross 1918 1919 Woodrow Wilson 1920 Léon Bourgeois 1921 Hjalmar Branting / Christian Lange 1922 Fridtjof Nansen 1923 1924 1925 Austen Chamberlain / Charles Dawes

1926–1950

1926 Aristide Briand / Gustav Stresemann 1927 Ferdinand Buisson / Ludwig Quidde 1928 1929 Frank B. Kellogg 1930 Nathan Söderblom 1931 Jane Addams / Nicholas Butler 1932 1933 Norman Angell 1934 Arthur Henderson 1935 Carl von Ossietzky 1936 Carlos Saavedra Lamas 1937 Robert Cecil 1938 Nansen International Office for Refugees 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 International Committee of the Red Cross 1945 Cordell Hull 1946 Emily Balch / John Mott 1947 Friends Service Council / American Friends Service Committee 1948 1949 John Boyd Orr 1950 Ralph Bunche

1951–1975

1951 Léon Jouhaux 1952 Albert Schweitzer 1953 George Marshall 1954 United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees 1955 1956 1957 Lester B. Pearson 1958 Georges Pire 1959 Philip Noel-Baker 1960 Albert Lutuli 1961 Dag Hammarskjöld 1962 Linus Pauling 1963 International Committee of the Red Cross / League of Red Cross Societies 1964 Martin Luther
Martin Luther
King Jr. 1965 UNICEF 1966 1967 1968 René Cassin 1969 International Labour Organization 1970 Norman Borlaug 1971 Willy Brandt 1972 1973 Lê Đức Thọ (declined award) / Henry Kissinger 1974 Seán MacBride / Eisaku Satō 1975 Andrei Sakharov

1976–2000

1976 Betty Williams / Mairead Corrigan 1977 Amnesty International 1978 Anwar Sadat / Menachem Begin 1979 Mother Teresa 1980 Adolfo Pérez Esquivel 1981 United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees 1982 Alva Myrdal / Alfonso García Robles 1983 Lech Wałęsa 1984 Desmond Tutu 1985 International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War 1986 Elie Wiesel 1987 Óscar Arias 1988 UN Peacekeeping Forces 1989 Tenzin Gyatso (14th Dalai Lama) 1990 Mikhail Gorbachev 1991 Aung San Suu Kyi 1992 Rigoberta Menchú 1993 Nelson Mandela / F. W. de Klerk 1994 Shimon Peres / Yitzhak Rabin / Yasser Arafat 1995 Pugwash Conferences / Joseph Rotblat 1996 Carlos Belo / José Ramos-Horta 1997 International Campaign to Ban Landmines / Jody Williams 1998 John Hume / David Trimble 1999 Médecins Sans Frontières 2000 Kim Dae-jung

2001–present

2001 United Nations / Kofi Annan 2002 Jimmy Carter 2003 Shirin Ebadi 2004 Wangari Maathai 2005 International Atomic Energy Agency / Mohamed ElBaradei 2006 Grameen Bank / Muhammad Yunus 2007 Al Gore / Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2008 Martti Ahtisaari 2009 Barack Obama 2010 Liu Xiaobo 2011 Ellen Johnson Sirleaf / Leymah Gbowee / Tawakkol Karman 2012 European Union 2013 Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons 2014 Kailash Satyarthi / Malala Yousafzai 2015 Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet 2016 Juan Manuel Santos 2017 International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 95160848 LCCN: n50066831 ISNI: 0000 0001 1776 5059 GND: 118620126 SELIBR: 243661 SUDOC: 034975659 BNF: cb12566900g (data) NDL: 01229737 NKC: jn20000710617 BNE: XX1448595 SN

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