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Belgrader (en) Beograđanin (sr)

Time zone CET (UTC+1)

 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)

Postal code 11000

Area code(s) +381(0)11

ISO 3166 code RS-00

Car plates BG

Website www.beograd.rs

Belgrade
Belgrade
(/ˈbɛlɡreɪd/ BEL-grayd; Serbian: Beograd / Београд, meaning "White city", Serbian pronunciation: [beǒɡrad] ( listen); names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Serbia. It is located at the confluence of the Sava
Sava
and Danube
Danube
rivers, where the Pannonian Plain meets the Balkans.[6] The urban area of the City of Belgrade
Belgrade
has a population of 1.23 million, while nearly 1.7 million people live within its administrative limits.[5] One of the most important prehistoric cultures of Europe, the Vinča culture, evolved within the Belgrade
Belgrade
area in the 6th millennium BC. In antiquity, Thraco- Dacians
Dacians
inhabited the region and after 279 BC Celts conquered the city, naming it Singidūn.[7] It was conquered by the Romans during the reign of Augustus, and awarded city rights in the mid-2nd century.[8] It was settled by the Slavs
Slavs
in the 520s, and changed hands several times between the Byzantine Empire, Frankish Empire, Bulgarian Empire
Bulgarian Empire
and Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
before it became the capital of Serbian king Stephen Dragutin (1282–1316). In 1521, Belgrade
Belgrade
was conquered by the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and became the seat of the Sanjak of Smederevo.[9] It frequently passed from Ottoman to Habsburg rule, which saw the destruction of most of the city during the Austro-Ottoman wars. Belgrade
Belgrade
was again named the capital of Serbia
Serbia
in 1841. Northern Belgrade
Belgrade
remained the southernmost Habsburg post until 1918, when the city was reunited. As a strategic location, the city was battled over in 115 wars and razed 44 times.[10] Belgrade was the capital of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
from its creation in 1918. Belgrade
Belgrade
has a special administrative status within Serbia[11] and it is one of five statistical regions of Serbia. Its metropolitan territory is divided into 17 municipalities, each with its own local council.[12] The city of Belgrade
Belgrade
covers 3.6% of Serbia's territory, and around 24% of the country's population lives within its administrative limits.[5] It is classified as a Beta-Global City.[13]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Prehistory 1.2 Antiquity 1.3 Middle Ages 1.4 Ottoman rule and Austrian invasions 1.5 Principality/Kingdom of Serbia 1.6 World War I 1.7 Kingdom of Yugoslavia 1.8 World War II 1.9 Socialist Yugoslavia 1.10 Breakup of Yugoslavia 1.11 Contemporary period

2 Geography

2.1 Climate

3 Administration

3.1 Municipalities

4 Demographics 5 Economy 6 Culture

6.1 Museums 6.2 Architecture 6.3 Tourism 6.4 Nightlife 6.5 Sport 6.6 Fashion

7 Media 8 Education 9 Transportation 10 International cooperation and honours 11 See also 12 References 13 Sources 14 External links

History[edit] Main articles: History of Belgrade
History of Belgrade
and Timeline of Belgrade
Belgrade
history Prehistory[edit] See also: Prehistoric sites in Serbia
Serbia
and Prehistory of Southeastern Europe

A Vinča culture
Vinča culture
figure

Chipped stone tools found at Zemun
Zemun
show that the area around Belgrade was inhabited by nomadic foragers in the Palaeolithic
Palaeolithic
and Mesolithic eras. Some of these tools belong to the Mousterian
Mousterian
industry, which are associated with Neanderthals
Neanderthals
rather than modern humans. Aurignacian and Gravettian
Gravettian
tools have also been discovered there, indicating occupation between 50,000 and 20,000 years ago.[14] The first farming people to settle in the region are associated with the Neolithic
Neolithic
Starčevo
Starčevo
culture, which flourished between 6200 and 5200 BC.[15] There are several Starčevo
Starčevo
sites in and around Belgrade, including the eponymous site of Starčevo. The Starčevo culture
Starčevo culture
was succeeded by the Vinča culture
Vinča culture
(5500–4500 BC), a more sophisticated farming culture that grew out of the earlier Starčevo
Starčevo
settlements which is also named for a site in the Belgrade
Belgrade
region (Vinča-Belo Brdo). The Vinča culture
Vinča culture
is known for its very large settlements, one of the earliest settlements by continuous habitation and some of the largest in prehistoric Europe;[16] anthropomorphic figurines such as the Lady of Vinča; the earliest known copper metallurgy in Europe;[17] a proto-writing form developed prior to the Sumerians and Minoans, known as the Old European script, dating back to around 5300 BC.[18] When it comes to the modern urban zone of the city, in the modern Cetinjska Street in downtown, a skull of a Paleolithic human was discovered in 1890. The skull is dated to before 5000 BC.[19] Antiquity[edit]

The medieval walls of the Belgrade
Belgrade
Fortress, where the walls of the Roman castrum Singidunum
Singidunum
had been discovered

Evidence of early knowledge about Belgrade's geographical location comes from ancient myths and legends. The rock overlooking the confluence of the Sava
Sava
and Danube
Danube
rivers has been identified as one of the places in the story of Jason
Jason
and the Argonauts.[20][21] The Paleo-Balkan tribes of Thracians
Thracians
and Dacians
Dacians
ruled this area prior to the Roman conquest.[22] Belgrade
Belgrade
was inhabited by a Thraco-Dacian tribe Singi;[7] after the Celtic invasion in 279 BC, the Scordisci took the city, naming it "Singidūn" (dūn, fortress).[7] In 34–33 BC the Roman army led by Silanus reached Belgrade. It became the romanized Singidunum
Singidunum
in the 1st century AD, and by the mid-2nd century, the city was proclaimed a municipium by the Roman authorities, evolving into a full-fledged colonia (highest city class) by the end of the century.[8] Apart from the first Christian Emperor of Rome
Rome
who was born in the territory of modern Serbia
Serbia
in Naissus— Constantine I
Constantine I
known as Constantine the Great[23]—another early Roman Emperor
Roman Emperor
was born in Singidunum: Flavius Iovianus (Jovian), the restorer of Christianity.[24] Jovian reestablished Christianity as the official religion of the Roman Empire, ending the brief revival of traditional Roman religions under his predecessor Julian the Apostate. In 395 AD, the site passed to the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire.[25] Across the Sava
Sava
from Singidunum
Singidunum
was the Celtic city of Taurunum (Zemun); the two were connected with a bridge throughout Roman and Byzantine times.[26] Middle Ages[edit] See also: Serbia
Serbia
in the Middle Ages

Historical affiliations

Kingdom of Serbia
Serbia
(Syrmia) 1282–1325 Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
1325–1404 Serbian Despotate
Serbian Despotate
1404–1427 Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
1427–1521   Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
1521–1688 Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
1688–1690   Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
1690–1717 Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
1717–1739   Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
1739–1789 Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
1789–1791   Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
1791–1806 Revolutionary Serbia
Serbia
1806–1813   Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
1813–1867 Principality of Serbia
Serbia
1867–1882  Kingdom of Serbia
Serbia
1882–1915 Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
1915–1918  Kingdom of Serbia
Serbia
1918 Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
1918–1941 Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
1941–1944  SFR Yugoslavia[27] 1944–1992   Serbia
Serbia
and Montenegro[28] 1992–2006  Republic of Serbia
Serbia
2006–

In 442, the area was ravaged by Attila the Hun.[29] In 471, it was taken by Theodoric the Great, who continued into Greece.[30] As the Ostrogoths
Ostrogoths
left for Italy, the Gepids
Gepids
took over the city. In 539 it was retaken by the Byzantines.[31] In 577, some 100,000 Slavs
Slavs
poured into Thrace
Thrace
and Illyricum, pillaging cities and settling down.[32] The Avars under Bayan I conquered the whole region by 582.[33] According to Byzantine chronicle De Administrando Imperio, the White Serbs
White Serbs
had stopped in Belgrade
Belgrade
on their way back home, asking the strategos for lands; they received provinces in the west, towards the Adriatic, which they would rule as subjects to Heraclius
Heraclius
(610–641).[34] In 829 Khan Omurtag
Khan Omurtag
was able to add Singidunum
Singidunum
and its environs to the First Bulgarian Empire.[35][36]

Siege of 1456, Ottoman miniature.

The first record of the name Belograd appeared on April, 16th, 878, in a Papal letter[37] to Bulgarian ruler Boris I. Later, this name appeared in several variants: Alba Graeca (Greek city), Griechisch Wiessenburg (Greek white castle), Nandor Alba (City of the Bulgarians), Nandor Fejervar (The white castle of the Bulgarians), Castelbianco (White Castle), Alba Bulgarica (Bulgarian City). For about four centuries, the city remained a battleground between the Byzantine Empire, the Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
and the Bulgarian Empire.[38] Basil II
Basil II
(976–1025) installed a garrison in Belgrade.[39] The city hosted the armies of the First and the Second Crusade;[40] while passing through during the Third Crusade, Frederick Barbarossa
Frederick Barbarossa
and his 190,000 crusaders saw Belgrade
Belgrade
in ruins.[41] King Stefan Dragutin (r. 1276–1282) received Belgrade
Belgrade
from his father-in-law, Stephen V of Hungary
Stephen V of Hungary
in 1284; it served as the capital of the Kingdom of Syrmia, and Dragutin is regarded as the first Serbian king to rule over Belgrade
Belgrade
as a vassal to the Kingdom of Hungary.[42] Following the battles at Maritsa (1371) and Kosovo
Kosovo
field (1389), Serbia
Serbia
began to crumble as the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
conquered its southern territory.[43][44] The north resisted through the Serbian Despotate, which had Belgrade
Belgrade
as its capital. The city flourished under Stefan Lazarević, son of Serbian prince Lazar Hrebeljanović. Lazarević built a castle with a citadel and towers, of which only the Despot's tower and west wall remain. He also refortified the city's ancient walls, allowing the Despotate to resist the Ottomans for almost 70 years. During this time, Belgrade
Belgrade
was a haven for many Balkan peoples fleeing Ottoman rule, and is thought to have had a population of 40,000 to 50,000 people.[42] In 1427, Stefan's successor Đurađ Branković
Đurađ Branković
had to return Belgrade to the Hungarian king, and Smederevo
Smederevo
became the new capital. Although the Ottomans captured most of the Serbian Despotate, Belgrade, known as Nándorfehérvár in Hungarian, was unsuccessfully besieged in 1440[40] and 1456.[45] As the city presented an obstacle to the Ottoman advance into Hungary and further, over 100,000 Ottoman soldiers[46] besieged it in 1456, in which the Christian army led by the Hungarian General John Hunyadi successfully defended it.[47] The noon bell ordered by Pope Callixtus III
Pope Callixtus III
commemorates the victory throughout the Christian world to this day.[40][48] Ottoman rule and Austrian invasions[edit] See also: History of Ottoman Serbia

Belgrade
Belgrade
in 1684

Seven decades after the initial siege, on 28 August 1521, the fort was finally captured by Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent
Suleiman the Magnificent
and his 250,000 soldiers and over 100 ships subsequently, most of the city was razed to the ground and its entire Orthodox Christian population was deported to Istanbul,[40] to an area that has since become known as the Belgrade
Belgrade
forest.[49] Belgrade
Belgrade
was made the seat of the district (Sanjak), becoming the second largest Ottoman town in Europe
Europe
at over 100,000 people, surpassed only by Constantinople.[46] Ottoman rule also introduced Ottoman architecture, including numerous mosques, increasing the city's Oriental
Oriental
influences.[50] In 1594, a major Serb rebellion was crushed by the Ottomans. Later, Grand vizier
Grand vizier
Sinan Pasha ordered the relics of Saint Sava
Sava
to be publicly torched on the Vračar plateau; in the 20th century, the Temple of Saint Sava
Sava
was built to commemorate this event.[51] Occupied by the Habsburgs three times (1688–1690, 1717–1739, 1789–1791), headed by the Holy Roman Princes Maximilian of Bavaria and Eugene of Savoy,[52] and field marshal Baron Ernst Gideon von Laudon respectively, Belgrade
Belgrade
was quickly recaptured by the Ottomans and substantially razed each time.[50] During this period, the city was affected by the two Great Serbian Migrations, in which hundreds of thousands of Serbs, led by two Serbian Patriarchs, retreated together with the Austrians into the Habsburg Empire, settling in today's Vojvodina
Vojvodina
and Slavonia.[53] Principality/Kingdom of Serbia[edit] At the beginning of the 19th century, Belgrade
Belgrade
was predominantly inhabited by Muslim population. Traces of Ottoman rule and architecture – such as mosques and bazaars – were to remain a part of Belgrade’s townscape throughout a great time of the 19th century, even several decades after Serbia
Serbia
was granted autonomy from the Ottoman Empire.[54] During the First Serbian Uprising, the Serbian revolutionaries held the city from 8 January 1807 until 1813, when it was retaken by the Ottomans.[55] After the Second Serbian Uprising
Second Serbian Uprising
in 1815, Serbia reached semi-independence, which was formally recognized by the Porte in 1830.[56] The development of Belgrade
Belgrade
architecture after 1815 can be divided into four periods. In the first phase that lasted from 1815 to 1835 the dominant architectural style was still the Balkan or rather Balkan-Ottoman one. At the same time the interest for Central and Western European architecture started to grow. Between 1835 and 1850 a rise in the construction of neoclassicist and baroque buildings could be observed. One of the buildings from that time is the one in which the pedagogical museum is located today. The third phase (1850–1875) was characterized by serious attempts of turning towards romanticism, which implied the combination of romanticist and gothic architecture with that from the early period of the renaissance. Typical of the last quarter of the 19th century was the eclecticist style on the basis of the renaissance and baroque.[57] In 1841, Prince Mihailo Obrenović
Mihailo Obrenović
moved the capital from Kragujevac to Belgrade.[58][59] During his first reign (1815–1839) Prince Miloš Obrenović consequently pursued the creation of new settlements, the colonization of new population and the aim to make Belgrade
Belgrade
a center of administrative, military and cultural institutions. His project of creating a new market space (čaršija) was less successful. The new Abadžijska čaršija couldn't compete against the already well-established market places of the city of Belgrade. Trade was still conducted in the centuries-old Donja čaršija and Gornja čaršija. New construction projects were typical for the Christian quarters and not so much for the Muslim ones. Until 1863 the number of Belgrade
Belgrade
quarters decreases continuosly, mainly as a consequence of the reduction of Muslim population. An Ottoman city map from that year counts only 9 quarters (mahale). The names of only five are known today: Ali-pašina mahala, Reis-efendijina, Jahja-pašina, Bajram-begova and Laz Hadži-Mahmudova mahala.[60] On 18 April 1867 the Ottoman government ordered the Ottoman garrison, which had been since 1826 the last representation of Ottoman suzerainty in Serbia, withdrawn from the Belgrade
Belgrade
fortress. The only stipulation was that the Ottoman flag continue to fly over the fortress alongside the Serbian one. Serbia's de facto independence dates from this event.[61] The urban planner Emilijan Josimović had a significant impact on the urbanism of Belgrade
Belgrade
in the last third of the 19th century. He conceptualized a regulation plan for Belgrade
Belgrade
in 1867, where he proposed an alternation of the town’s crooked streets with rectangular ones. Of great importance was also the construction of political and cultural institutions as well as parks. When it comes to Josimović’s work, Serbian scholars have often pointed out that it represented an important break with Ottoman traditions. However, Istanbul
Istanbul
– the capital city of the state to which Belgrade
Belgrade
and Serbia
Serbia
officially still belonged – at the same time underwent quite similar processes of urbanisation.[62] In May 1868, Prince Mihailo was assassinated with his cousin Anka Konstantinović while riding in a carriage through the park of his country residence[63]

Knez Mihailova
Knez Mihailova
street at the end of the 19th century

Slavija Square.

With the Principality's full independence in 1878, and its transformation into the Kingdom of Serbia
Serbia
in 1882, Belgrade
Belgrade
once again became a key city in the Balkans, and developed rapidly.[55][64] Nevertheless, conditions in Serbia
Serbia
as a whole remained those of an overwhelmingly agrarian country, even with the opening of a railway to Niš, Serbia's second city, and in 1900 the capital had only 70,000 inhabitants[65] (at the time Serbia
Serbia
numbered 2.5 million). Yet by 1905 the population had grown to more than 80,000, and by the outbreak of World War I in 1914, it had surpassed the 100,000 citizens, not counting Zemun
Zemun
which then belonged to Austria-Hungary.[66] The first-ever projection of motion pictures in the Balkans
Balkans
and Central Europe
Europe
was held in Belgrade, in June 1896 by Andre Carr, a representative of the Lumière brothers. He shot the first motion pictures of Belgrade
Belgrade
in the next year; however, they have not been preserved.[67] World War I[edit] The First World War began on 28 July 1914 when Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. Most of the subsequent Balkan offensives occurred near Belgrade. Austro-Hungarian monitors shelled Belgrade
Belgrade
on 29 July 1914, and it was taken by the Austro-Hungarian Army
Austro-Hungarian Army
under General Oskar Potiorek
Oskar Potiorek
on 30 November. On 15 December, it was re-taken by Serbian troops under Marshal Radomir Putnik. After a prolonged battle which destroyed much of the city, between 6 and 9 October 1915, Belgrade
Belgrade
fell to German and Austro-Hungarian troops commanded by Field Marshal August von Mackensen
August von Mackensen
on 9 October 1915. The city was liberated by Serbian and French troops on 1 November 1918, under the command of Marshal Louis Franchet d'Espérey of France and Crown Prince Alexander of Serbia. Since Belgrade
Belgrade
was decimated as the front-line city, Subotica
Subotica
overtook the title of the largest city in the Kingdom for a short while.[68] Kingdom of Yugoslavia[edit]

King Aleksandar I Bridge was destroyed in 1941 and rebuilt after the end of World War II, 1956, as the single-span Branko's Bridge.

Theater square (today Republic Square) 1934

After the war, Belgrade
Belgrade
became the capital of the new Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, renamed the Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
in 1929. The Kingdom was split into banovinas, and Belgrade, together with Zemun
Zemun
and Pančevo, formed a separate administrative unit.[69] During this period, the city experienced fast growth and significant modernisation. Belgrade's population grew to 239,000 by 1931 (incorporating the town of Zemun, formerly in Austria-Hungary), and 320,000 by 1940. The population growth rate between 1921 and 1948 averaged 4.08% a year.[70] In 1927, Belgrade's first airport opened, and in 1929, its first radio station began broadcasting. The Pančevo Bridge, which crosses the Danube, was opened in 1935,[71] while King Alexander Bridge over the Sava
Sava
was opened in 1934. On 3 September 1939 the first Belgrade
Belgrade
Grand Prix, the last Grand Prix motor racing
Grand Prix motor racing
race before the outbreak of World War II, was held around the Belgrade Fortress and was followed by 80,000 spectators.[72] The winner was Tazio Nuvolari.[73] World War II[edit] On 25 March 1941, the government of regent Crown Prince Paul signed the Tripartite Pact, joining the Axis powers in an effort to stay out of the Second World War and keep Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
neutral during the conflict. This was immediately followed by mass protests in Belgrade and a military coup d'état led by Air Force commander General Dušan Simović, who proclaimed King Peter II to be of age to rule the realm. Consequently, the city was heavily bombed by the Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe
on 6 April 1941, killing up to 2,274 people.,[74][75] [76][77] Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
was then invaded by German, Italian, Hungarian, and Bulgarian forces. Belgrade
Belgrade
was captured by subterfuge, with six German soldiers led by their officer Fritz Klingenberg
Fritz Klingenberg
pretending to be a larger force, accepted the surrender of the city. Belgrade
Belgrade
was then occupied by the German Army later the same month and Belgrade
Belgrade
became the seat of the puppet Nedić regime, headed by General Milan Nedić.[78]

German bombing of Belgrade
Belgrade
in 1941

During the summer and fall of 1941, in reprisal for guerrilla attacks, the Germans carried out several massacres of Belgrade
Belgrade
citizens; in particular, members of the Jewish community were subject to mass shootings at the order of General Franz Böhme, the German Military Governor of Serbia. Böhme rigorously enforced the rule that for every German killed, 100 Serbs
Serbs
or Jews would be shot.[79] The resistance movement in Belgrade
Belgrade
was led by Major Žarko Todorović
Žarko Todorović
from 1941 until his arrest in 1943.[80] Just like Rotterdam, which was devastated twice, by both German and Allied bombing, Belgrade
Belgrade
was bombed once more during World War II, this time by the Allies on 16 April 1944, killing at least 1,100 people. This bombing fell on the Orthodox Christian Easter.[81] Most of the city remained under German occupation until 20 October 1944, when it was liberated by the Red Army
Red Army
and the Communist Yugoslav Partisans. On 29 November 1945, Marshal Josip Broz Tito
Josip Broz Tito
proclaimed the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
in Belgrade
Belgrade
(later to be renamed to Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
on 7 April 1963).[82] Higher estimates from the former secret police place the victim count of political persecutions in Belgrade
Belgrade
at 10,000.[83] Socialist Yugoslavia[edit] When the war ended, the city was left with 11,500 demolished housing units.[84] During the post-war period, Belgrade
Belgrade
grew rapidly as the capital of the renewed Yugoslavia, developing as a major industrial center.[64] In 1948, construction of New Belgrade
New Belgrade
started. In 1958, Belgrade's first television station began broadcasting. In 1961, the conference of Non-Aligned Countries was held in Belgrade
Belgrade
under Tito's chairmanship. In 1962, Belgrade Nikola Tesla Airport
Belgrade Nikola Tesla Airport
was built. In 1968, major student protests led to several street clashes between students and the police.[85] Breakup of Yugoslavia[edit]

Ministry of Defense building damaged in the 1999 NATO
NATO
bombing

On 9 March 1991, massive demonstrations led by Vuk Drašković were held in the city against Slobodan Milošević.[86] According to various media outlets, there were between 100,000 and 150,000 people on the streets.[87] Two people were killed, 203 injured and 108 arrested during the protests, and later that day tanks were deployed onto the streets to restore order.[88] Further protests were held in Belgrade
Belgrade
from November 1996 to February 1997 against the same government after alleged electoral fraud at local elections.[89] These protests brought Zoran Đinđić
Zoran Đinđić
to power, the first mayor of Belgrade since World War II who did not belong to the League of Communists of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
or its later offshoot, the Socialist Party of Serbia.[90] In 1999, during the Kosovo
Kosovo
War, NATO
NATO
bombings caused substantial damage to the city. Among the sites bombed were the buildings of several ministries, the RTS building, several hospitals, the Hotel Jugoslavija, the Central Committee building, the Avala
Avala
Tower, and the Chinese embassy.[91] Several of these buildings have been left in their bombed states to serve as a memorial for the bombings.[92] After the 2000 presidential elections, Belgrade
Belgrade
was the site of major public protests, with over half a million people on the streets. These demonstrations resulted in the ousting of president Milošević.[93][94] Contemporary period[edit] In 2014, Belgrade
Belgrade
Waterfront, a catalytic development, has been initiated headed by the Government of Serbia
Serbia
aimed at improving Belgrade's cityscape and economy by revitalizing the Sava amphitheater, a neglected stretch of land on the right bank of the Sava
Sava
river, between the Belgrade Fair
Belgrade Fair
and Belgrade
Belgrade
Main railway station. Around €3.5 billion will be invested by the Serbian government and their Emirati partners.[95] The project includes office and luxury apartment buildings, five-star hotels, a shopping mall and Belgrade
Belgrade
Tower. The project is, however, considered by many as 'controversial', since there are a number of uncertainties regarding its funding, necessity, as well as chosen architectural solutions.[96] City is currently under rapid development and reconstruction, especially in the area of Novi Beograd, where many apartment and office buildings are under construction. Geography[edit]

Panoramic view

Belgrade
Belgrade
lies 116.75 metres (383.0 ft) above sea level and is located at the confluence of the Danube
Danube
and Sava
Sava
rivers. The historical core of Belgrade, Kalemegdan, lies on the right banks of both rivers. Since the 19th century, the city has been expanding to the south and east; after World War II, New Belgrade
New Belgrade
was built on the left bank of the Sava
Sava
river, connecting Belgrade
Belgrade
with Zemun. Smaller, chiefly residential communities across the Danube, like Krnjača, Kotež
Kotež
and Borča, also merged with the city, while Pančevo, a heavily industrialized satellite city, remains a separate town. The city has an urban area of 360 square kilometres (140 sq mi), while together with its metropolitan area it covers 3,223 km2 (1,244 sq mi). On the right bank of the Sava, central Belgrade
Belgrade
has a hilly terrain, while the highest point of Belgrade proper is Torlak hill at 303 m (994 ft). The mountains of Avala
Avala
(511 m (1,677 ft)) and Kosmaj
Kosmaj
(628 m (2,060 ft)) lie south of the city. Across the Sava
Sava
and Danube, the land is mostly flat, consisting of alluvial plains and loessial plateaus.[97] One of the characteristics of the city terrain is mass wasting. On the territory covered by the General Urban Plan there are 1,155 recorded mass wasting points, out of which 602 are active and 248 are labeled as the "high risk". They cover almost 30% of the city territory and include several types of mass wasting. Downhill creeps are located on the slopes above the rivers, mostly on the clay or loam soils, inclined between 7 and 20%. Most critical ones are in Karaburma, Zvezdara, Višnjica, Vinča
Vinča
and Ritopek, in the Danube
Danube
valley, and Umka, and especially its neighborhood of Duboko, in the Sava
Sava
valley. They have moving and dormant phases, and some of them have been recorded for centuries. Less active downhill creep areas include the entire Terazije
Terazije
slope above the Sava
Sava
(Kalemegdan, Savamala), which can be seen by the inclination of the Pobednik
Pobednik
monument and the tower of the Cathedral Church, and the Voždovac
Voždovac
section, between Banjica
Banjica
and Autokomanda.

Sava
Sava
river

Landslides encompass smaller areas, develop on the steep cliffs, sometimes being inclined up to 90%. They are mostly located in the artificial loess hills of Zemun: Gardoš, Ćukovac
Ćukovac
and Kalvarija. However, the majority of the land movement in Belgrade, some 90%, is triggered by the construction works and faulty water supply system (burst pipes, etc.). The neighborhood of Mirijevo
Mirijevo
is considered to be the most successful project of fixing the problem. During the construction of the neighborhood from the 1970s, the terrain was systematically improved and the movement of the land is today completely halted.[98][99] Climate[edit] Belgrade
Belgrade
has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfa), with four seasons and uniformly spread precipitation. Monthly averages range from 1.4 °C (34.5 °F) in January to 23.0 °C (73.4 °F) in July, with an annual mean of 12.5 °C (54.5 °F). There are, on average, 31 days a year when the temperature is above 30 °C (86 °F), and 95 days when the temperature is above 25 °C (77 °F). Belgrade
Belgrade
receives about 691 millimetres (27 in) of precipitation a year, with late spring being wettest. The average annual number of sunny hours is 2,112. The highest officially recorded temperature in Belgrade
Belgrade
was 43.6 °C (110.5 °F) on 24 July 2007,[100] while on the other end, the lowest temperature was −26.2 °C (−15 °F) on 10 January 1893.[101]

Climate data for Belgrade
Belgrade
(1981–2010)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 20.7 (69.3) 23.9 (75) 28.8 (83.8) 32.2 (90) 34.9 (94.8) 37.4 (99.3) 43.6 (110.5) 40.0 (104) 37.5 (99.5) 30.7 (87.3) 28.4 (83.1) 22.6 (72.7) 43.6 (110.5)

Average high °C (°F) 4.6 (40.3) 7.0 (44.6) 12.4 (54.3) 18.0 (64.4) 23.5 (74.3) 26.2 (79.2) 28.6 (83.5) 28.7 (83.7) 23.9 (75) 18.4 (65.1) 11.2 (52.2) 5.8 (42.4) 17.4 (63.3)

Daily mean °C (°F) 1.4 (34.5) 3.1 (37.6) 7.6 (45.7) 12.9 (55.2) 18.1 (64.6) 21.0 (69.8) 23.0 (73.4) 22.7 (72.9) 18.0 (64.4) 12.9 (55.2) 7.1 (44.8) 2.7 (36.9) 12.5 (54.5)

Average low °C (°F) −1.1 (30) −0.1 (31.8) 3.7 (38.7) 8.3 (46.9) 13.0 (55.4) 15.8 (60.4) 17.5 (63.5) 17.6 (63.7) 13.5 (56.3) 9.0 (48.2) 4.2 (39.6) 0.2 (32.4) 8.5 (47.3)

Record low °C (°F) −26.2 (−15.2) −15.4 (4.3) −12.4 (9.7) −3.4 (25.9) 2.5 (36.5) 6.5 (43.7) 9.4 (48.9) 6.7 (44.1) 4.7 (40.5) −4.5 (23.9) −7.8 (18) −13.4 (7.9) −26.2 (−15.2)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 46.9 (1.846) 40.0 (1.575) 49.3 (1.941) 56.1 (2.209) 58.0 (2.283) 101.2 (3.984) 63.0 (2.48) 58.3 (2.295) 55.3 (2.177) 50.2 (1.976) 55.1 (2.169) 57.4 (2.26) 690.9 (27.201)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 13 12 11 13 13 13 10 9 10 10 12 14 139

Average snowy days 10 7 4 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 8 33

Average relative humidity (%) 78 71 63 61 61 63 61 61 67 71 75 79 68

Mean monthly sunshine hours 72.2 101.7 153.2 188.1 242.2 260.9 290.8 274.0 204.3 163.1 97.0 64.5 2,111.9

Source: Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia[102]

Administration[edit] See also: Mayor of Belgrade Belgrade
Belgrade
is a separate territorial unit in Serbia, with its own autonomous city authority.[11] The Assembly of the City of Belgrade has 110 members, elected on four-year terms.[103] A 13-member City Council, elected by the Assembly and presided over by the mayor and his deputy, has the control and supervision of the city administration,[104] which manages day-to-day administrative affairs. It is divided into 14 Secretariats, each having a specific portfolio such as traffic or health care, and several professional services, agencies and institutes.[105] The 2014 Belgrade
Belgrade
local elections were won by the Serbian Progressive Party, which formed a ruling coalition with the Socialist Party of Serbia. These elections ended the long-time rule of the Democratic Party, which was in power from 2004 to 2013.[106] The Mayor of Belgrade
Belgrade
is Siniša Mali, a political independent affiliated with the Serbian Progressive Party.[107] As the capital city, Belgrade
Belgrade
is seat of all Serbian state authorities – executive, legislative, judiciary, and the headquarters of almost all national political parties as well as 75 diplomatic missions.[108] This includes the National Assembly, the Presidency, the Government of Serbia
Serbia
and all the ministries, Supreme Court of Cassation and the Constitutional Court. Municipalities[edit] See also: Subdivisions of Belgrade

Čukarica, Banovo Brdo
Banovo Brdo
and Savski Venac.

Municipalities of Belgrade
Belgrade
map

The city is divided into 17 municipalities.[12] Previously, they were classified into 10 "urban" (lying completely or partially within borders of the city proper) and 7 "suburban" municipalities, whose centres are smaller towns.[109] With the new 2010 City statute, they were all given equal status, with the proviso that suburban ones (except Surčin) have certain autonomous powers, chiefly related with construction, infrastructure and public utilities.[12] Most of the municipalities are situated on the southern side of the Danube
Danube
and Sava
Sava
rivers, in the Šumadija
Šumadija
region. Three municipalities (Zemun, Novi Beograd
Novi Beograd
("New Belgrade"), and Surčin), are on the northern bank of the Sava, in the Syrmia
Syrmia
region, and the municipality of Palilula, spanning the Danube, is in both the Šumadija
Šumadija
and Banat regions.

Municipality Classification Area (km2) Population (2011)

Barajevo suburban 213 27,110

Čukarica urban 156 181,231

Grocka suburban 289 83,907

Lazarevac suburban 384 58,622

Mladenovac suburban 339 53,096

Novi Beograd urban 41 214,506

Obrenovac suburban 411 72,524

Palilula urban 451 173,521

Rakovica urban 31 108,641

Savski Venac urban 14 39,122

Sopot suburban 271 20,367

Stari Grad urban 5 48,450

Surčin urban 285 43,819

Voždovac urban 148 158,213

Vračar urban 3 56,333

Zemun urban 154 168,170

Zvezdara urban 32 151,808

Total

3,227 1,659,440

Demographics[edit] Main articles: Demographics of Belgrade and Demographic history of Belgrade According to the 2011 census, the city has a population of 1,166,763, while the urban area of Belgrade
Belgrade
(with adjacent urban settlements of Borča, Ovča, and Surčin
Surčin
included) has 1,233,796 inhabitants, and the population of the metropolitan area (the administrative area of the City of Belgrade) stands at 1,659,440 people.

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1426 50,000[110] —    

1683 100,000[110] +100.0%

1800 25,000[111] −75.0%

1850 15,000[111] −40.0%

1860 22,000[111] +46.7%

1875 27,000[111] +22.7%

1880 36,000[111] +33.3%

1890 54,000[111] +50.0%

1900 69,000[111] +27.8%

1910 89,000[111] +29.0%

1921 111,739 +25.5%

1931 238,775 +113.7%

1948 397,911 +66.6%

1953 477,982 +20.1%

1961 657,362 +37.5%

1971 899,094 +36.8%

1981 1,087,915 +21.0%

1991 1,133,146 +4.2%

2002 1,119,642 −1.2%

2011 1,233,796 +10.2%

Belgrade
Belgrade
is home to many ethnicities from all over the former Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
and wider Balkans
Balkans
region. The main ethnic groups are: Serbs (1,505,448), Roma (27,325), Montenegrins (9,902), Yugoslavs
Yugoslavs
(8,061), Croats (7,752), Macedonians (6,970), and Muslims by nationality (3,996).[112] Many people came to the city as economic migrants from smaller towns and the countryside, while tens of thousands arrived as refugees from Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Kosovo, as a result of the Yugoslav wars
Yugoslav wars
of the 1990s.[113] Between 10,000 and 20,000[114] Chinese are estimated to live in Belgrade; they began immigrating in the mid-1990s. Block 70 in New Belgrade
New Belgrade
is known colloquially as the Chinese quarter.[115][116] Many Middle Easterners, mainly from Syria, Iran, Jordan
Jordan
and Iraq, arrived in order to pursue their studies during the 1970s and 1980s, and have remained in the city.[117]

Settlements Population [1]

Belgrade 1,166,763

Borča 46,086

Grocka 26,904

Lazarevac 26,006

Obrenovac 25,429

Mladenovac 23,609

Sremčica 21,001

Surčin 18,205

Ripanj 11,088

Ugrinovci 10,807

Leštane 10,473

Although there are several historic religious communities in Belgrade, the religious makeup of the city is relatively homogenous. The Serbian Orthodox community is by far the largest, with 1,475,168 adherents. There are also 31,914 Muslims, 13,720 Roman Catholics, and 3,128 Protestants. There once was a significant Jewish community in Belgrade, but following the World War II Nazi occupation of the city, and subsequent Jewish emigration, their numbers have fallen from over 10,000 to just 295.[118] Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Belgrade See also: Belgrade
Belgrade
IT sector

Business park Airport City Belgrade.

Belgrade
Belgrade
is the financial centre of Serbia
Serbia
and Southeast Europe, with a total of 17 million square metres (180 million square feet) of office space.[119] It is also home to the country's Central Bank. Currently, over 600,000 people are employed in 120,286 companies,[120] 60,000 enterprises[121] and 50,000 shops.[122] The City of Belgrade
Belgrade
owns 267,147 square metres (2,875,550 square feet) of rentable office space.[123] As at 2009, Belgrade
Belgrade
contained 31.4% of Serbia's employed population and generated over 40% of its GDP.[124] The City's nominal GDP in 2014 was estimated at 16.97 billion USD, amounting to 859,329 RSD ($10,086) per capita.[125] GDP at purchasing power parity was estimated at $36.1bn USD, which was $31,461 per capita in terms of purchasing power parity.[126] New Belgrade
New Belgrade
is the country's main business district and one of Southeastern Europe's financial centers. It offers a range of facilities, such as hotels, congress halls (e.g. Sava
Sava
Centar), Class A and B office buildings, and business parks (e.g. Airport City Belgrade). Over 1.2 million square metres (13 million square feet) of land is currently under construction in New Belgrade, with the value of planned construction over the next three years estimated at over 1.5 billion euros. The Belgrade Stock Exchange
Belgrade Stock Exchange
is also located in New Belgrade, and has a market capitalization of €6.5 billion (US$9 billion).

New Belgrade, main financial district

With 6,924 companies in the IT sector (2013 data[update]), Belgrade
Belgrade
is one of the information technology centers for this part of Europe, with strong growth.[120] Microsoft
Microsoft
Development Center, located in Belgrade, was at the time of its establishment the fifth such center in the world.[127] Many world IT companies choose Belgrade
Belgrade
as their European or regional center of operations. These include Asus,[128] Intel,[129] Dell,[130] Huawei
Huawei
and NCR,[131] among others. In September 2013, the average Belgrade
Belgrade
monthly salary stood at 53,564 RSD ($635) in net terms, with the gross equivalent at 73,970 RSD ($877).[132] The 2013 Annual Economist Intelligence Unit
Economist Intelligence Unit
Survey ranked Belgrade
Belgrade
the 86th most expensive out of 131 world cities.[133][134] According to the 2015 Survey,[135] 73% of the City's households owned a computer, 65.8% had a broadband internet connection and 73.9% had pay television services.[135] Culture[edit] Main article: Culture of Belgrade

The Grand Hall of the National Theatre

Belgrade
Belgrade
hosts many annual international cultural events, including the Film Festival, Theatre Festival, Summer Festival, Music Festival, Book Fair, Eurovision Song Contest 2008, and the Beer Fest.[136] The Nobel Prize winning author Ivo Andrić
Ivo Andrić
wrote his most famous work, The Bridge on the Drina, in Belgrade.[137] Other prominent Belgrade authors include Branislav Nušić, Miloš Crnjanski, Borislav Pekić, Milorad Pavić and Meša Selimović.[138][139][140] The most internationally prominent artists from Belgrade
Belgrade
are Marina Abramović and Milovan Destil Marković. Most of Serbia's film industry is based in Belgrade. FEST is an annual film festival that held since 1971, and, through 2013, had been attended by four million people and had presented almost 4,000 films.[141]

Belgrade
Belgrade
Book Fair

The city was one of the main centers of the Yugoslav new wave in the 1980s: VIS Idoli, Ekatarina Velika, Šarlo Akrobata
Šarlo Akrobata
and Električni Orgazam were all from Belgrade. Other notable Belgrade
Belgrade
rock acts include Riblja Čorba, Bajaga i Instruktori
Bajaga i Instruktori
and Partibrejkers.[142][143] Today, it is the center of the Serbian hip hop scene, with acts such as Beogradski Sindikat, Škabo, Marčelo, and most of the Bassivity Music stable hailing from or living in the city.[144][145] There are numerous theatres, the most prominent of which are National Theatre, Theatre on Terazije, Yugoslav Drama Theatre, Zvezdara
Zvezdara
Theatre, and Atelier 212. The Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts is also based in Belgrade, as well as the National Library of Serbia. Other major libraries include the Belgrade
Belgrade
City Library and the Belgrade University
Belgrade University
Library. Belgrade's two opera houses are: National Theatre and Madlenianum Opera House.[146][147] There are many foreign cultural institutions in Belgrade, including the Spanish Instituto Cervantes,[148] the German Goethe-Institut[149] and the French Institut français,[150] which are all located in the central pedestrian area of Knez Mihailova
Knez Mihailova
Street. Other cultural centers in Belgrade
Belgrade
are American Corner,[151] Austrian Cultural Forum,[152] British Council,[153] Chinese Confucius Institute,[154] Canadian Cultural Center,[155] Hellenic Foundation for Culture,[156] Italian Istituto Italiano di Cultura,[157] Iranian Culture Center,[158] Azerbaijani Culture Center[159] and Russian Center for Science and Culture.[160] European Union
European Union
National Institutes for Culture operates a cluster of cultural centres from the EU.[161] Following the victory of Serbia's representative Marija Šerifović
Marija Šerifović
at the Eurovision Song Contest 2007, Belgrade
Belgrade
hosted the Contest in 2008.[162] Museums[edit] See also: List of museums in Belgrade

Republic square, Left: National Museum of Serbia
Serbia
- Centre: Hotel Marriott Belgrade
Belgrade
- Right: National Theatre.

The most prominent museum in Belgrade
Belgrade
is the National Museum, founded in 1844 and currently closed for reconstruction which will be ended in 2018. The museum houses a collection of more than 400,000 exhibits (over 5600 paintings and 8400 drawings and prints, including many foreign masters like Bosch, Juan de Flandes, Titian, Tintoretto, Rubens, Van Dyck, Cézanne, G.B. Tiepolo, Renoir, Monet, Lautrec, Matisse, Picasso, Gauguin, Chagall, Van Gogh, Mondrian etc.) and also the famous Miroslav's Gospel.[163] The Ethnographic Museum, established in 1901, contains more than 150,000 items showcasing the rural and urban culture of the Balkans, particularly the countries of former Yugoslavia.[164] The Museum of Contemporary Art was the first Contemporary art museum in Europe[165] founded in 1958 and has a collection of around 35,000 works including Roy Lichtenstein, Andy Warhol, Joan Miró, David Hockney, Ivan Meštrović
Ivan Meštrović
and others since 1900.[166] The museum is open renovated in 2017.

The Railway Museum is located within the railway company headquarters building

The Military Museum houses a wide range of more than 25,000 military exhibits dating as far back as to the Roman period, as well as parts of a F-117
F-117
stealth aircraft shot down by the Serbian army.[167][168] The Museum of Aviation in Belgrade
Museum of Aviation in Belgrade
has more than 200 aircraft, of which about 50 are on display, and a few of which are the only surviving examples of their type, such as the Fiat G.50. This museum also displays parts of shot down US and NATO
NATO
aircraft, such as the F-117
F-117
and F-16.[169] The Nikola Tesla
Nikola Tesla
Museum, founded in 1952, preserves the personal items of Nikola Tesla, the inventor after whom the Tesla unit was named. It holds around 160,000 original documents and around 5,700 personal other items including his urne.[170] The last of the major Belgrade museums is the Museum of Vuk and Dositej, which showcases the lives, work and legacy of Vuk Stefanović Karadžić
Vuk Stefanović Karadžić
and Dositej Obradović, the 19th century reformer of the Serbian literary language and the first Serbian Minister of Education, respectively.[171] Belgrade
Belgrade
also houses the Museum of African Art, founded in 1977, which has the large collection of art from West Africa.[172] With around 95,000 copies of national and international films, the Yugoslav Film Archive
Yugoslav Film Archive
is the largest in the region and among the 10 largest archives in the world.[173] The institution also operates the Museum of Yugoslav Film Archive, with movie theatre and exhibition hall. The archive's long-standing storage problems were finally solved in 2007, when a new modern depository was opened.[174] The Yugoslav Film Archive also exhibits original Charlie Chaplin's stick and one of the first movies by Auguste and Louis Lumière.[175] The Belgrade City Museum
Belgrade City Museum
moved into a new building in downtown in 2006.[176] The museum hosts a range of collections covering the history of urban life since prehistory.[177] The Museum of Yugoslav History
Museum of Yugoslav History
has collection from Yugoslav era. Beside paintings, the most valuable are Moon
Moon
rocks donated by Apollo 11 crew Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin
Buzz Aldrin
and Michael Collins while visiting Belgrade
Belgrade
in 1969 and from mission Apollo 17
Apollo 17
donated by Richard Nixon in 1971.[178] Museum also houses Joseph Stalin's sabre with 260 brilliants and diamonds, donated by Stalin himself.[179]

Ada Bridge

Museum of Science and Technology moved to the building of the first city's power plant in Dorćol
Dorćol
in 2005.[180] Architecture[edit] See also: List of buildings in Belgrade, List of streets and squares in Belgrade, Bridges of Belgrade, Architectural projects in Belgrade, Religious architecture in Belgrade, and Gates of Belgrade Belgrade
Belgrade
has wildly varying architecture, from the center of Zemun, typical of a Central European town,[181] to the more modern architecture and spacious layout of New Belgrade. The oldest architecture is found in Kalemegdan
Kalemegdan
Park. Outside of Kalemegdan, the oldest buildings date only from the 18th century, due to its geographic position and frequent wars and destructions.[182] The oldest public structure in Belgrade
Belgrade
is a nondescript Turkish türbe, while the oldest house is a modest clay house on Dorćol, from late 18th century.[183] Western influence began in the 19th century, when the city completely transformed from an oriental town to the contemporary architecture of the time, with influences from neoclassicism, romanticism, and academic art. Serbian architects took over the development from the foreign builders in the late 19th century, producing the National Theatre, Old Palace, Cathedral Church and later, in the early 20th century, the National Assembly and National Museum, influenced by art nouveau.[182] Elements of Neo-Byzantine architecture
Neo-Byzantine architecture
are present in buildings such as Vuk's Foundation, old Post Office in Kosovska street, and sacral architecture, such as St. Mark's Church (based on the Gračanica monastery), and the Temple of Saint Sava.[182]

Architectural styles in Belgrade

St. Michael's Cathedral, Belgrade

Knez Mihailova

St. Mark's Church

The Victor

Belgrade University
Belgrade University
Library

Belgrade
Belgrade
Cooperative

Belgrade
Belgrade
Main railway station

National Bank of Serbia
Serbia
building interior

Monument to the Unknown Hero

Royal Palace

During the period of Communist rule, much housing was built quickly and cheaply for the huge influx of people fleeing the countryside following World War II, sometimes resulting in the brutalist architecture of the Blokovi ("Blocks") of New Belgrade; a socrealism trend briefly ruled, resulting in buildings like the Trade Union Hall.[182] However, in the mid-1950s, the modernist trends took over, and still dominate the Belgrade
Belgrade
architecture.[182] Belgrade
Belgrade
has the second oldest sewer system in Europe.[184] Tourism[edit] See also: Tourism in Serbia

Knez Mihailova
Knez Mihailova
Street.

The historic areas and buildings of Belgrade
Belgrade
are among the city's premier attractions. They include Skadarlija, the National Museum and adjacent National Theatre, Zemun, Nikola Pašić Square, Terazije, Students' Square, the Kalemegdan
Kalemegdan
Fortress, Knez Mihailova
Knez Mihailova
Street, the Parliament, the Church of Saint Sava, and the Old Palace. On top of this, there are many parks, monuments, museums, cafés, restaurants and shops on both sides of the river. The hilltop Avala
Avala
Monument and Avala Tower
Avala Tower
offer views over the city.

Belgrade
Belgrade
Fortress.

Gardoš
Gardoš
Tower

Elite neighborhood of Dedinje
Dedinje
is situated near the Topčider
Topčider
and Košutnjak
Košutnjak
parks. The beli dvor (White Palace), house of royal family Karađorđević, is open for visitors. The palace has many valuable artworks.[185] Nearby, Josip Broz Tito's mausoleum, called The House of Flowers, documents the life of the former Yugoslav president. Ada Ciganlija
Ada Ciganlija
is a former island on the Sava
Sava
River, and Belgrade's biggest sports and recreational complex. Today it is connected with the right bank of the Sava
Sava
via two causeways, creating an artificial lake. It is the most popular destination for Belgraders during the city's hot summers. There are 7 kilometres (4 miles) of long beaches and sports facilities for various sports including golf, football, basketball, volleyball, rugby union, baseball, and tennis.[186] During summer there are between 200,000 and 300,000 bathers daily.[187]

Ada Ciganlija

Extreme sports are available, such as bungee jumping, water skiing, and paintballing.[186][188] There are numerous tracks on the island, where it is possible to ride a bike, go for a walk, or go jogging.[186][188] Apart from Ada, Belgrade
Belgrade
has total of 16 islands[189] on the rivers, many still unused. Among them, the Great War Island, at the confluence of Sava, stands out as an oasis of unshattered wildlife (especially birds).[190] These areas, along with nearby Small War Island, are protected by the city's government as a nature preserve.[191] There are 37 protected natural resources in the Belgrade
Belgrade
urban area, among which eight are geo-heritage sites, i.e. Straževica profile, Mašin Majdan-Topčider, Profile at the Kalemegdan
Kalemegdan
Fortress, Abandoned quarry in Barajevo, Karagača valley, Artesian well in Ovča, Kapela loess profile, and Lake in Sremčica. Other 29 places are biodiversity sites.[192] Tourist income in 2016 amounted to nearly one billion euros;[193] with a visit of almost a million registered tourists.[194] Of those, more than 70,000 arrived by 550 river cruisers.[194] Average annual growth is between 13% and 14%.[194] Nightlife[edit] Belgrade
Belgrade
has a reputation for offering a vibrant nightlife; many clubs that are open until dawn can be found throughout the city. The most recognizable nightlife features of Belgrade
Belgrade
are the barges (splav), spread along the banks of the Sava
Sava
and Danube
Danube
Rivers.[195][196][197]

Skadarlija, the city's old bohemian neighbourhood

Many weekend visitors—particularly from Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia and Slovenia—prefer Belgrade
Belgrade
nightlife to that of their own capitals, due to a perceived friendly atmosphere, plentiful clubs and bars, cheap drinks, the lack of language difficulties, and the lack of restrictive night life regulation.[198][199] Famous alternative clubs include Akademija and the KST (Klub Studenata Tehnike), located in the basement of the University of Belgrade Faculty of Electrical Engineering.[200][201][202] One of the most famous sites for alternative cultural happenings in the city is the SKC (Student Cultural Centre), located right across from Belgrade's highrise landmark, the Belgrade
Belgrade
Lady Tower. Concerts featuring famous local and foreign bands are often held at the center. SKC is also the site of various art exhibitions, as well as public debates and discussions.[203] A more traditional Serbian nightlife experience, accompanied by traditional music known as Starogradska (roughly translated as Old Town Music), typical of northern Serbia's urban environments, is most prominent in Skadarlija, the city's old bohemian neighborhood where the poets and artists of Belgrade
Belgrade
gathered in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Skadar Street (the centre of Skadarlija) and the surrounding neighbourhood are lined with some of Belgrade's best and oldest traditional restaurants (called kafanas in Serbian), which date back to that period.[204] At one end of the neighbourhood stands Belgrade's oldest beer brewery, founded in the first half of the 19th century.[205] One of the city's oldest kafanas is the Znak pitanja("?").[206] The Times
The Times
reported that Europe's best nightlife can be found in Belgrade.[207] In the Lonely Planet
Lonely Planet
"1000 Ultimate Experiences" guide of 2009, Belgrade
Belgrade
was placed at the 1st spot among the top 10 party cities in the world.[208] Sport[edit] See also: List of sporting events in Belgrade

Serbian tennis player Novak Đoković
Novak Đoković
was born in Belgrade. He is a 12-time Grand Slam champion and is the ATP World No. 2.

The Štark Arena
Štark Arena
in New Belgrade, one of the largest indoor arenas in Europe.

There are approximately one-thousand sports facilities in Belgrade, many of which are capable of serving all levels of sporting events.[209] Belgrade
Belgrade
has hosted several major sporting events recently, including Eurobasket 2005, the 2005 European Volleyball Championship, the 2006 European Water Polo Championship, the European Youth Olympic Festival 2007, and the 2009 Summer Universiade.[210] The city is home to Serbia's two biggest and most successful football clubs, Red Star Belgrade
Red Star Belgrade
and Partizan Belgrade. Red Star won the 1991 UEFA Champions League
UEFA Champions League
(European Cup). The two major stadiums in Belgrade
Belgrade
are the Marakana (Red Star Stadium) and the Partizan Stadium.[211] The rivalry between Red Star and Partizan is one of the fiercest in world football.[212]

Red Star Stadium.

According to the European Arenas Association, the Štark Arena
Štark Arena
is one of the largest European indoor arena with capacity of 22,868.[213] It is used for major sporting events and large concerts. In May 2008 it was the venue for the 53rd Eurovision Song Contest.[214] The Aleksandar Nikolić Hall
Aleksandar Nikolić Hall
is the main venue of basketball clubs KK Partizan, European champion of 1992, and KK Crvena zvezda.[215][216] In recent years, Belgrade
Belgrade
has also given rise to several world-class tennis players such as Ana Ivanović, Jelena Janković
Jelena Janković
and Novak Đoković. Ivanović and Đoković are the first female and male Belgraders, respectively, to win Grand Slam singles titles and been ATP number 1 with Jelena Janković. The Serbian national team won the 2010 Davis Cup, beating the French team in the finals played in the Belgrade
Belgrade
Arena.[217] Fashion[edit]

Avala
Avala
Tower

Since 1996,[218] biannual (autumn/winter and spring/summer seasons) fashion weeks are held citywide. Numerous Serbian and international designers and fashion brands have their shows during the fashion weeks. Media[edit] See also: List of media organisations in Belgrade Belgrade
Belgrade
is the most important media hub in Serbia. The city is home to the main headquarters of the national broadcaster Radio Television Serbia
Serbia
(RTS), which is a public service broadcaster.[219] The most popular commercial broadcaster is RTV Pink, a Serbian media multinational, known for its popular entertainment programs. One of the most popular commercial broadcaster is B92, another media company, which has its own TV station, radio station, and music and book publishing arms, as well as the most popular website on the Serbian internet.[220][221] Other TV stations broadcasting from Belgrade include 1Prva (formerly Fox televizija), Nova, N1 and others which only cover the greater Belgrade
Belgrade
municipal area, such as Studio B. High-circulation daily newspapers published in Belgrade
Belgrade
include Politika, Blic, Alo!, Kurir
Kurir
and Danas. There are 2 sporting dailies, Sportski žurnal and Sport, and one economic daily, Privredni pregled. A new free distribution daily, 24 sata, was founded in the autumn of 2006. Also, Serbian editions of licensed magazines such as Harper's Bazaar, Elle, Cosmopolitan, National Geographic, Men's Health, Grazia and others have their headquarters in the city. Education[edit] See also: List of educational institutions in Belgrade

Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Belgrade
Belgrade
University.

Belgrade University
Belgrade University
Rectorate.

Belgrade
Belgrade
has two state universities and several private institutions of higher education. The University of Belgrade, founded in 1808 as the "Great School", is the oldest institution of higher learning in Serbia.[222] Having developed with the city in the 19th century, quite a few University buildings are a constituent part of Belgrade's architecture and cultural heritage. With enrollment of nearly 90,000 students, the University is one of the Europe's largest.[223] There are also 195 primary (elementary) schools and 85 secondary schools. Of the primary schools, there are 162 regular, 14 special, 15 art, and 4 adult schools. The secondary school system has 51 vocational schools, 21 gymnasiums, 8 art schools and 5 special schools. The 230,000 pupils are managed by 22,000 employees in over 500 buildings, covering around 1.1 million square metres (12 million square feet).[224] Transportation[edit] Main article: Transport in Belgrade See also: Bridges in Belgrade

Trams in Belgrade

Belgrade
Belgrade
Centre railway station

Belgrade
Belgrade
has an extensive public transport system based on buses (118 urban lines and more than 300 suburban lines), trams (12 lines), and trolleybuses (8 lines).[225] It is run by GSP Beograd
GSP Beograd
and SP Lasta, in cooperation with private companies on various bus routes. The BusPlus ticketing system based on contactless smart cards began operating in February 2012. Daily connections link the capital to other towns in Serbia
Serbia
and many other European destinations through the central bus station. Belgrade
Belgrade
also has a S-train
S-train
network, BG Voz, run by city government. It is a part of the integrated BusPlus system, and currently has only one line (Batajnica-Ovča).[226] It is expected that the second line (Resnik-Ovča) would be introduced in April 2018. Beovoz
Beovoz
was the suburban/commuter railway network that provided mass-transit services in the city, similar to Paris's RER and Toronto's GO Transit. The main usage of system was to connect the suburbs with the city centre. Beovoz
Beovoz
was operated by Serbian Railways.[227] However, this system was abolished back in 2013, mostly due to introduction of more efficient BG Voz. Belgrade
Belgrade
is one of the last big European capitals and cities with over a million people to have no metro or subway or other rapid transit system. Belgrade Metro
Belgrade Metro
is in planning. The main railway station is the main hub for international trains, while the new and (at the present moment unfinished) Belgrade Centre railway station
Belgrade Centre railway station
is used as a terminus for most national intercity trains.

Mostar interchange
Mostar interchange
with E-75 Expressway opened in 1974.

The city is placed along the Pan-European corridors
Pan-European corridors
X and VII.[6] The motorway system provides for easy access to Novi Sad
Novi Sad
and Budapest, in the north; Niš
Niš
to the south; and Zagreb, to the west. Expressway is also toward Pancevo and new Expressway construction toward Obrenovac (Montenegro) is set scheduled for March 2017. Belgrade bypass
Belgrade bypass
is connecting the E70 and E75 motorways and it is currently under construction.[228] Situated at the confluence of two major rivers, the Danube
Danube
and the Sava, Belgrade
Belgrade
has 11 bridges—the four main ones are Branko's bridge, Ada Bridge, Pupin Bridge
Pupin Bridge
and the Gazela Bridge, both of which connect the core of the city to New Belgrade. Further, an "inner magistral semi-ring" is almost done and include a new Ada Bridge across the Sava
Sava
river and Pupin Bridge
Pupin Bridge
across Danube
Danube
river, which eased commuting within the city and unload the Gazela and Branko's bridge traffic.[229]

Beovoz
Beovoz
station Vukov Spomenik located 55 metres (180 feet) underground.

The Port of Belgrade
Port of Belgrade
is on the Danube, and allows the city to receive goods by river.[230] The city is also served by Belgrade
Belgrade
Nikola Tesla Airport, 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) west of the city centre, near Surčin. At its peak in 1986, almost 3 million passengers travelled through the airport, though that number dwindled to a trickle in the 1990s.[231] Following renewed growth in 2000, the number of passengers reached approximately 2 million in 2004 and 2005,[232] over 2.6 million passengers in 2008,[233] reaching over 3 million passengers.[234] All-time peak, with over 4 million passengers, was accomplished in 2014, when Belgrade Nikola Tesla Airport
Belgrade Nikola Tesla Airport
became the second fastest growing major airport in Europe.[235]

Belgrade
Belgrade
Nikola Tesla
Nikola Tesla
Airport.

International cooperation and honours[edit] List of Belgrade's sister and twin cities:[236]

Ljubljana, Slovenia, since 2010[237][238] Chicago, USA, since 2005 Coventry, UK, since 1957[239][240]

Other friendships and cooperations, protocols, memorandums:[236]

Astana, Kazakhstan, since 2016, Agreement on Cooperation [241] Tehran, Iran, since 2016, Agreement on Cooperation [242] Corfu, Greece, since 2010, Protocol on Cooperation Shenzhen, China, since 2009, Agreement on Cooperation[243] Skopje, Macedonia, since 2006, Letter of Intent Banja Luka, Bosnia-Herzegovina, since 2005, Agreement on Cooperation[244] Zagreb, Croatia, since 2003, Letter of Intent Kiev, Ukraine, since 2002, Agreement on Cooperation Tel Aviv, Israel, since 1990, Agreement on Cooperation Bucharest, Romania, since 1999, Agreement on Cooperation Beijing, China, since 1980, Agreement on Cooperation[245] Rome, Italy, since 1971, Agreement on Friendship and Cooperation Athens, Greece, since 1966, Agreement on Friendship and Cooperation

Some of the city's municipalities are also twinned to small cities or districts of other big cities; for details see their respective articles. Belgrade
Belgrade
has received various domestic and international honors, including the French Légion d'honneur
Légion d'honneur
(proclaimed 21 December 1920; Belgrade
Belgrade
is one of four cities outside France, alongside Liège, Luxembourg and Volgograd, to receive this honour), the Czechoslovak War Cross (awarded 8 October 1925), the Yugoslavian Order of the Karađorđe's Star (awarded 18 May 1939) and the Yugoslavian Order of the People's Hero (proclaimed on 20 October 1974, the 30th anniversary of the overthrow of Nazi German occupation during World War II).[246] All of these decorations were received for the war efforts during the World War I and World War II.[247] In 2006, Financial Times' magazine Foreign Direct Investment awarded Belgrade
Belgrade
the title of City of the Future of Southern Europe.[248][249] See also[edit]

List of people from Belgrade

References[edit]

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Sources[edit]

Pavić, Milorad (2000). A Short History of Belgrade. Belgrade: Dereta. ISBN 86-7346-117-0.  Tešanović, Jasmina (2000). The Diary of a Political Idiot: Normal Life in Belgrade. Cleis Press. ISBN 1-57344-114-7.  Levinsohn, Florence Hamlish (1995). Belgrade : among the Serbs. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee. ISBN 1-56663-061-4.  Paton, Andrew Archibald (4 November 2005) [1845]. Servia, Youngest Member of the European Family: or, A Residence in Belgrade, and Travels in the Highlands and Woodlands of the Interior, during the years 1843 and 1844 ( Project Gutenberg
Project Gutenberg
reprint ed.). London: Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans. Retrieved 22 July 2009.  Sonja, Petrović (2015). "Town and city: Memories of daily life in pre-war Belgrade". Glasnik Etnografskog instituta SANU. 63 (1): 85–99. doi:10.2298/GEI1501085P (inactive 2017-11-06). 

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Belgrade

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Barajevo Čukarica Grocka Lazarevac Mladenovac New Belgrade Obrenovac Palilula Rakovica Savski Venac Sopot Stari Grad Surčin Voždovac Vračar Zemun Zvezdara

Landmarks

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Belgrade
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Museums

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Belgrade
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Nikola Tesla
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Kosovo
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and Metohija1

Kosovo Kosovo-Pomoravlje Kosovska Mitrovica Peć Prizren

1  Kosovo
Kosovo
is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo
Kosovo
and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the Brussels
Brussels
Agreement. Kosovo
Kosovo
has received formal recognition as an independent state from 113 out of 193 United Nations
United Nations
member states.

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Municipalities of Belgrade

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Cities

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Crveni Krst Medijana Niška Banja Palilula Pantelej

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v t e

Municipalities and cities of Kosovo
Kosovo
i Metohija1

Cities

Priština

Municipalities

Dečani Đakovica Glogovac Gnjilane Gora Kosovo
Kosovo
Polje Kosovska Kamenica Kosovska Mitrovica Istok Kačanik Klina Leposavić Lipljan Novo Brdo Obilić Orahovac Peć Podujevo Prizren Srbica Suva Reka Štimlje Štrpce Vitina Vučitrn Zubin Potok Zvečan

1  Kosovo
Kosovo
is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo
Kosovo
and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the Brussels
Brussels
Agreement. Kosovo
Kosovo
has received formal recognition as an independent state from 113 out of 193 United Nations
United Nations
member states.

v t e

Capitals of European states and territories

Capitals of dependent territories and states whose sovereignty is disputed shown in italics.

Western

Amsterdam, Netherlands1 Andorra la Vella, Andorra Bern, Switzerland Brussels, Belgium2 Douglas, Isle of Man (UK) Dublin, Ireland London, United Kingdom Luxembourg, Luxembourg Paris, France Saint Helier, Jersey (UK) Saint Peter Port, Guernsey (UK)

Northern

Copenhagen, Denmark Helsinki, Finland Longyearbyen, Svalbard (Norway) Mariehamn, Åland Islands (Finland) Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark) Olonkinbyen, Jan Mayen (Norway) Oslo, Norway Reykjavík, Iceland Stockholm, Sweden Tórshavn, Faroe Islands (Denmark)

Central

Berlin, Germany Bratislava, Slovakia Budapest, Hungary Ljubljana, Slovenia Prague, Czech Republic Vaduz, Liechtenstein Vienna, Austria Warsaw, Poland

Southern

Ankara, Turkey3 Athens, Greece Belgrade, Serbia Bucharest, Romania Gibraltar, Gibraltar (UK) Lisbon, Portugal Madrid, Spain Monaco, Monaco Nicosia, Cyprus4 North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus4, 5 Podgorica, Montenegro Pristina, Kosovo5 Rome, Italy San Marino, San Marino Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina Skopje, Macedonia Sofia, Bulgaria Tirana, Albania Valletta, Malta Vatican City, Vatican City Zagreb, Croatia

Eastern

Astana, Kazakhstan3 Baku, Azerbaijan3 Chișinău, Moldova Kiev, Ukraine Minsk, Belarus Moscow, Russia3 Riga, Latvia Stepanakert, Artsakh4, 5 Sukhumi, Abkhazia3, 5 Tallinn, Estonia Tbilisi, Georgia3 Tiraspol, Transnistria5 Tskhinvali, South Ossetia3, 5 Vilnius, Lithuania Yerevan, Armenia3

1 Also the capital of the Kingdom of the Netherlands 2 Also the seat of the European Union, see Institutional seats of the European Union
European Union
and Brussels
Brussels
and the European Union 3 Transcontinental country 4 Entirely in Southwest Asia but having socio-political connections with Europe 5 Partially recognised country

v t e

The Danube

Countries

Germany Austria Slovakia Hungary Croatia Serbia Bulgaria Romania Moldova Ukraine

Cities

Ulm Ingolstadt Regensburg Passau Linz Vienna Bratislava Győr Budapest Vukovar Ilok Novi Sad Belgrade Ruse Brăila Galați Izmail Tulcea

Tributaries

Iller Lech Regen Isar Inn Morava Váh Hron Ipeľ/Ipoly Drava Tisza/Tisa Sava Timiș/Tamiš Great Morava Timok Jiu Iskar Olt Osam Yantra Vedea Argeș Ialomița Siret Prut

See also

List of islands in the Danube List of crossings of the Danube

v t e

Statistical regions of Serbia

Vojvodina Belgrade Šumadija
Šumadija
and Western Serbia Southern and Eastern Serbia Kosovo
Kosovo
and Metohija

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 148847800 LCCN: n80017896 GND: 4005411-1 BNF:

.