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 Belarus   Poland
Poland
(in Gmina Orla, Gmina Narewka, Gmina Czyże, Gmina Hajnówka
Hajnówka
and town of Hajnówka)

Collective Security Treaty Organization

Recognised minority language in

 Czech Republic[3]  Ukraine[4][5]  Lithuania[citation needed]

Regulated by National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

Language codes

ISO 639-1 be

ISO 639-2 bel

ISO 639-3 bel

Glottolog bela1254[6]

Linguasphere 53-AAA-eb < 53-AAA-e (varieties: 53-AAA-eba to 53-AAA-ebg)

Belarusian-speaking world Legend: Dark blue - territory, where Belarusian language
Belarusian language
is used chiefly; Light blue - historical range[7]

This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Belarusian (/bɛləˈruːsiən/;[8] беларуская мова belaruskaja mova [bʲelaˈruskaja ˈmova]) is an official language of Belarus, along with Russian, and is spoken abroad, mainly in Ukraine and Russia.[9] Before Belarus
Belarus
gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, the language was only known in English as Byelorussian or Belorussian, transliterating the Russian name, белорусский язык (Belorusskiy yazyk), or alternatively as White Ruthenian (/ruːˈθiːniən/) or White Russian. Following independence, it has acquired the additional name Belarusian.[10][11] Belarusian is one of the East Slavic languages
Slavic languages
and shares many grammatical and lexical features with other members of the group. To some extent, Russian, Rusyn, Ukrainian, and Belarusian are mutually intelligible. Its predecessor stage is known as Ruthenian (14th to 17th centuries), in turn descended from Old East Slavic
Old East Slavic
(10th to 13th centuries). In the first Belarus
Belarus
Census of 1999, the Belarusian language
Belarusian language
was declared as a "language spoken at home" by about 3,686,000 Belarusian citizens (36.7% of the population).[12][13] About 6,984,000 (85.6%) of Belarusians
Belarusians
declared it their "mother tongue". Other sources, such as Ethnologue, put the figure at approximately 2.5 million active speakers.[11][14] According to a study done by the Belarusian government in 2009, 72% of Belarusians
Belarusians
speak Russian at home, while Belarusian is actively used by only 11.9% of Belarusians. Approximately 29.4% of Belarusians
Belarusians
can write, speak, and read Belarusian, while 52.5% can only read and speak it.

Contents

1 Phonology 2 Alphabet 3 Grammar 4 Dialects 5 Classification and relationship to other languages 6 History

6.1 1900s–1910s

6.1.1 Grammar

6.2 1914–1917 6.3 1917–1920 6.4 1920–1930

6.4.1 Soviet Belarus 6.4.2 West Belarus

6.5 1930s

6.5.1 Soviet Belarus

6.5.1.1 1933 reform of Belarusian grammar

6.5.2 West Belarus

6.6 Second World War 6.7 Post Second World War

6.7.1 1959 reform of grammar

6.8 Post-1991 6.9 Discrimination against Belarusian speakers 6.10 2010s 6.11 Taraškievica
Taraškievica
or Klasyčny pravapis (Classical orthography)

7 Names

7.1 Official, romanised 7.2 Alternative 7.3 Vernacular

8 Computer representation 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links

Phonology[edit]

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Main article: Belarusian phonology Although closely related to other East Slavic languages, especially Ukrainian, Belarusian phonology is distinct in a number of ways. The phoneme inventory of the modern Belarusian language
Belarusian language
consists of 45 to 54 phonemes: 6 vowels and 39 to 48 consonants, depending on how they are counted. When the nine geminate consonants are excluded as mere variations, there are 39 consonants, and excluding rare consonants further decreases the count. The number 48 includes all consonant sounds, including variations and rare sounds, which may be semantically distinct in the modern Belarusian language. Alphabet[edit] Main article: Belarusian alphabet The Belarusian alphabet is a variant of the Cyrillic
Cyrillic
script, which was first used as an alphabet for the Old Church Slavonic
Old Church Slavonic
language. The modern Belarusian form was defined in 1918, and consists of thirty-two letters. Before that, Belarusian had also been written in the Belarusian Latin alphabet
Belarusian Latin alphabet
(Łacinka / Лацінка), the Belarusian Arabic alphabet (by Lipka Tatars) and the Hebrew alphabet
Hebrew alphabet
(by Belarusian Jews).[15] The Glagolitic script had been used, sporadically, until the 11th or 12th century. There are several systems of romanizing (transliterating) written Belarusian text in existence; see Romanization
Romanization
of Belarusian. Grammar[edit] Main article: Belarusian grammar Standardized Belarusian grammar in its modern form was adopted in 1959, with minor amendments in 1985. It was developed from the initial form set down by Branislaw Tarashkyevich
Branislaw Tarashkyevich
(first printed in Vilnius, 1918). Historically, there had existed several other alternative standardized forms of Belarusian grammar. It is mainly based on the Belarusian folk dialects of Minsk- Vilnius
Vilnius
region. Belarusian grammar is mostly synthetic and partly analytic, and overall is quite similar to Russian grammar. Belarusian orthography, however, differs significantly from Russian orthography
Russian orthography
in some respects, due to the fact that it is a phonetic orthography that closely represents the surface phonology, whereas Russian orthography represents the underlying morphophonology. The most significant instance of this is in the representation of vowel reduction, and in particular akannye, the merger of unstressed /a/ and /o/, which exists in both Russian and Belarusian. Belarusian always spells this merged sound as ⟨a⟩, whereas Russian uses either ⟨a⟩ or ⟨o⟩, according to what the "underlying" phoneme is (determined by looking at related words where the vowel is stressed, or if no such words exist, either by etymology or by the pronunciation in dialects that lack the merger). This means that Belarusian noun and verb paradigms, as written, have large numbers of instances of alternations between written ⟨a⟩ and ⟨o⟩, whereas no such alternations exist in the corresponding written paradigms in Russian. This can significantly complicate the task of foreign speakers in learning these paradigms; but, on the other hand, it makes spelling easier for native speakers. Dialects[edit]

Dialects   North-Eastern   Middle   South-Western   West Palyesian Lines   Area of Belarusian language[16]   Eastern border of western group of Russian dialects (1967, Zaharova, Orlova)   Border between Belarusian and Russian or Ukrainian (1980, Bevzenk)

Besides the literary norm, there exist two main dialects of the Belarusian language, the North-Eastern and the South-Western. In addition, there exist the transitional Middle Belarusian dialect group and the separate West Palyesian dialect group. The North-Eastern and the South-Western dialects are separated by a hypothetical line Ashmyany–Minsk–Babruysk–Homyel, with the area of the Middle Belarusian dialect group placed on and along this line. The North-Eastern dialect is chiefly characterized by the "soft sounding R" (мякка-эравы) and "strong akanye" (моцнае аканне), and the South-Western dialect is chiefly characterized by the "hard sounding R" (цвёрда-эравы) and "moderate akanye" (умеранае аканне). The West Polesian dialect
West Polesian dialect
group is more distinct linguistically, close to Ukrainian language
Ukrainian language
in many aspects and is separated by the conventional line Pruzhany–Ivatsevichy–Telekhany–Luninyets–Stolin. Classification and relationship to other languages[edit] There is a high degree of mutual intelligibility among Belarusian, Russian, and Ukrainian languages.[17] Belarusian has 80% mutual intelligibility with Ukrainian, 75% with Russian, and 55% with the Polish language.[18] Within East Slavic, the Belarusian language
Belarusian language
is most closely related to Ukrainian.[19]

History[edit]

The first Lithuanian statute of 1529, in Belarusian

The modern Belarusian language
Belarusian language
was redeveloped on the base of the vernacular spoken remnants of the Old Belarusian language, surviving in the ethnic Belarusian territories in the 19th century. The end of the 18th century (the times of the Divisions of Commonwealth) is the usual conventional borderline between the Old Belarusian and Modern Belarusian stages of development. By the end of the 18th century, (Old) Belarusian was still common among the minor nobility in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
(GDL). Jan Czeczot in the 1840s had mentioned that even his generation's grandfathers preferred speaking (Old) Belarusian.[20] (According to A. N. Pypin, the Belarusian language
Belarusian language
was spoken in some areas among the minor nobility during the 19th century.[21]) In its vernacular form, it was the language of the smaller town dwellers and of the peasantry and it had been the language of oral folklore. Teaching in Belarusian was conducted mainly in schools run by the Basilian order. The development of Belarusian in the 19th century was strongly influenced by the political conflict in the territories of the former GDL, between the Russian Imperial authorities, trying to consolidate their rule over the "joined provinces", and the Polish and Polonised nobility, trying to bring back its pre-Partitions rule[22] (see also: Polonization in times of Partitions).

The Bible by Francysk Skaryna
Francysk Skaryna
in Belarusian, 16th century

One of the important manifestations of this conflict was the struggle for ideological control over the educational system. The Polish and Russian languages were being introduced and re-introduced, while the general state of the people's education remained poor until the very end of the Russian Empire.[23] In summary, the first two decades of the 19th century had seen the unprecedented prosperity of Polish culture and language in the former GDL lands, and had prepared the era of such famous " Belarusians
Belarusians
by birth – Poles
Poles
by choice," as Mickiewicz and Syrokomla. The era had seen the effective completion of the Polonization of the lowest level of the nobility, the further reduction of the area of use of contemporary Belarusian, and the effective folklorization of Belarusian culture.[24] Due both to the state of the people's education and to the strong positions of Polish and Polonized nobility, it was only after the 1880s–1890s that the educated Belarusian element, still shunned because of "peasant origin", began to appear in state offices.[25] In 1846, ethnographer Pavel Shpilevskiy prepared a Belarusian grammar (using the Cyrillic
Cyrillic
alphabet) on the basis of the folk dialects of the Minsk
Minsk
region. However, the Russian Academy of Sciences
Russian Academy of Sciences
refused to print his submission, on the basis that it had not been prepared in a sufficiently scientific manner. From the mid-1830s ethnographic works began to appear, and tentative attempts to study the language were instigated (e.g., Shpilevskiy's grammar). The Belarusian literary tradition began to re-form, based on the folk language, initiated by the works of Vintsent Dunin-Martsinkyevich. See also: Jan Czeczot, Jan Barszczewski.[26] At the beginning of the 1860s, both the Russian and Polish parties in Belarusian lands had begun to realise that the decisive role in the upcoming conflicts was shifting to the peasantry, overwhelmingly Belarusian. So a large amount of propaganda appeared, targeted at the peasantry and written in Belarusian;[27] notably, the anti-Russian, anti-Tsarist, anti-Eastern Orthodox "Manifesto" and the newspaper "Peasants' Truth" (1862–1863) by Kalinowski, and anti-Polish, anti-Revolutionary, pro-Orthodox booklets and poems (1862).[28] The advent of the all-Russian "narodniki" and Belarusian national movements (late 1870s–early 1880s) renewed interest in the Belarusian language
Belarusian language
(See also: Homan (1884), Bahushevich, Yefim Karskiy, Dovnar-Zapol'skiy, Bessonov, Pypin, Sheyn, Nosovich). The Belarusian literary tradition was also renewed (see also: F. Bahushevich). It was in these times that F. Bahushevich made his famous appeal to Belarusians: "Do not forsake our language, lest you pass away" (Belarusian: Не пакідайце ж мовы нашай, каб не ўмёрлі). In course of the 1897 Russian Empire
Russian Empire
Census, about 5.89 million people declared themselves speakers of Belarusian.

Excerpt from the Russian Empire Census results

Guberniya* Total Population Belarusian (Beloruskij) Russian (Velikoruskij) Polish (Polskij)

Vilna 1,591,207 891,903 78,623 130,054

Vitebsk 1,489,246 987,020 198,001 50,377

Grodno 1,603,409 1,141,714 74,143 161,662

Minsk 2,147,621 1,633,091 83,999 64,617

Mogilev 1,686,764 1,389,782 58,155 17,526

Smolensk 1,525,279 100,757 1,397,875 7,314

Chernigov 2,297,854 151,465 495,963 3,302

Privislinsky Krai 9,402,253 29,347 335,337 6,755,503

All Empire 125,640,021 5,885,547 55,667,469 7,931,307

* See also: Administrative-territorial division of Belarus
Belarus
and bordering lands in 2nd half 19 cent. (right half-page) and Ethnical composition of Belarus
Belarus
and bordering lands (prep. by Mikola Bich on the basis of 1897 data)

The end of the 19th century, however, still showed that the urban language of Belarusian towns remained either Polish or Russian. The same census showed that towns with a population greater than 50,000 had fewer than a tenth Belarusian speakers. This state of affairs greatly contributed to a perception that Belarusian was a "rural" and "uneducated" language. However, the census was a major breakthrough for the first steps of the Belarusian national self-awareness and identity, since it clearly showed to the Imperial authorities and the still-strong Polish minority that the population and the language were neither Polish nor Russian. 1900s–1910s[edit] The rising influence of Socialist ideas advanced the emancipation of the Belarusian language
Belarusian language
still further (see also: Belarusian Socialist Assembly, Circle of Belarusian People's Education and Belarusian Culture, Belarusian Socialist Lot, Socialist Party "White Russia", Alaiza Pashkievich, Nasha Dolya). The fundamental works of Yefim Karskiy marked a turning point in the scientific perception of Belarusian. The ban on publishing books and papers in Belarusian was officially removed (25 December 1904). The unprecedented surge of national feeling in the 20th century, especially among the workers and peasants, particularly after the events of 1905,[29] gave momentum to the intensive development of Belarusian literature
Belarusian literature
and press (See also: Naša niva, Yanka Kupala, Yakub Kolas). Grammar[edit] During the 19th and early 20th century, there was no normative Belarusian grammar. Authors wrote as they saw fit, usually representing the particularities of different Belarusian dialects. The scientific groundwork for the introduction of a truly scientific and modern grammar of the Belarusian language
Belarusian language
was laid down by the linguist Yefim Karskiy. By the early 1910s, the continuing lack of a codified Belarusian grammar was becoming intolerably obstructive in the opinion of uniformitarian prescriptivists. Then Russian academician Shakhmatov, chair of the Russian language
Russian language
and literature department of St. Petersburg University, approached the board of the Belarusian newspaper Naša niva
Naša niva
with a proposal that a Belarusian linguist be trained under his supervision in order to be able to create documentation of the grammar. Initially, the famous Belarusian poet Maksim Bahdanovich
Maksim Bahdanovich
was to be entrusted with this work. However, Bahdanovich's poor health (tuberculosis) precluded his living in the climate of St. Petersburg, so Branislaw Tarashkyevich, a fresh graduate of the Vilnya Liceum No.2, was selected for the task. In the Belarusian community, great interest was vested in this enterprise. The already famous Belarusian poet Yanka Kupala, in his letter to Tarashkyevich, urged him to "hurry with his much-needed work". Tarashkyevich had been working on the preparation of the grammar during 1912–1917, with the help and supervision of Shakhmatov and Karskiy. Tarashkyevich had completed the work by the autumn of 1917, even moving from the tumultuous Petrograd of 1917 to the relative calm of Finland in order to be able to complete it uninterrupted. By the summer of 1918, it became obvious that there were insurmountable problems with the printing of Tarashkyevich's grammar in Petrograd: a lack of paper, type and qualified personnel. Meanwhile, his grammar had apparently been planned to be adopted in the workers' and peasants' schools of Belarus
Belarus
that were to be set up, so Tarashkyevich was permitted to print his book abroad. In June 1918, he arrived in Vilnius, via Finland. The Belarusian Committee petitioned the administration to allow the book to be printed. Finally, the first edition of the " Belarusian grammar for schools" was printed (Vil'nya, 1918). There existed at least two other contemporary attempts at codifying the Belarusian grammar. In 1915, Rev. Balyaslaw Pachopka had prepared a Belarusian grammar using the Latin script. Belarusian linguist S. M. Nyekrashevich considered Pachopka's grammar unscientific and ignorant of the principles of the language. But Pachopka's grammar was reportedly taught in an unidentified number of schools, from 1918 for an unspecified period,. Another grammar was supposedly jointly prepared by A. Lutskyevich and Ya. Stankyevich, and differed from Tarashkyevich's grammar somewhat in the resolution of some key aspects. 1914–1917[edit] On 22 December 1915, Paul von Hindenburg
Paul von Hindenburg
issued an order on schooling in German Army-occupied territories in the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
(Ober Ost), banning schooling in Russian and including the Belarusian language
Belarusian language
in an exclusive list of four languages made mandatory in the respective native schooling systems (Belarusian, Lithuanian, Polish, Yiddish). School attendance was not made mandatory, though. Passports at this time were bilingual, in German and in one of the "native languages".[30] Also at this time, Belarusian preparatory schools, printing houses, press organs were opened (see also: Homan (1916)). 1917–1920[edit] After the 1917 February Revolution in Russia, the Belarusian language became an important factor in political activities in the Belarusian lands (see also: Central Council of Belarusian Organisations, Great Belarusian Council, First All-Belarusian Congress, Belnatskom). In the Belarusian People's Republic, Belarusian was used as the only official language (decreed by Belarusian People's Secretariat on 28 April 1918). Subsequently, in the Belarusian SSR, Belarusian was decreed to be one of the four (Belarusian, Polish, Russian, and Yiddish) official languages (decreed by Central Executive Committee of BSSR in February 1921). 1920–1930[edit] Soviet Belarus[edit] A decree of 15 July 1924 confirmed that the Belarusian, Russian, Yiddish
Yiddish
and Polish languages had equal status in Soviet Belarus.[31] In the BSSR, Tarashkyevich's grammar had been officially accepted for use in state schooling after its re-publication in unchanged form, first in 1922 by Yazep Lyosik under his own name as Practical grammar. P[art]. I, then in 1923 by the Belarusian State Publishing House under the title Belarusian language. Grammar. Ed. I. 1923, also by "Ya. Lyosik". In 1925, Lyosik added two new chapters, addressing the orthography of compound words and partly modifying the orthography of assimilated words. From this point on, Belarusian grammar had been popularized and taught in the educational system in that form. The ambiguous and insufficient development of several components of Tarashkyevich's grammar was perceived to be the cause of some problems in practical usage, and this led to discontent with the grammar. In 1924–25, Lyosik and his brother Anton Lyosik prepared and published their project of orthographic reform, proposing a number of radical changes. A fully phonetic orthography was introduced. One of the most distinctive changes brought in was the principle of akanye (Belarusian: ́аканне), wherein unstressed "o", pronounced in both Russian and Belarusian as /a/, is written as "а". The Belarusian Academic Conference on Reform of the Orthography and Alphabet was convened in 1926. After discussions on the project, the Conference made resolutions on some of the problems. However, the Lyosik brothers' project had not addressed all the problematic issues, so the Conference was not able to address all of those. As the outcome of the conference, the Orthographic Commission was created to prepare the project of the actual reform. This was instigated on 1 October 1927, headed by S. Nyekrashevich, with the following principal guidelines of its work adopted:

To consider the resolutions of the Belarusian Academic Conference (1926) non-mandatory, although highly competent material. To simplify Tarashkyevich's grammar where it was ambiguous or difficult in use, to amend it where it was insufficiently developed (e.g., orthography of assimilated words), and to create new rules if absent (orthography of proper names and geographical names).

During its work in 1927–29, the Commission had actually prepared the project for spelling reform. The resulting project had included both completely new rules and existing rules in unchanged and changed forms, some of the changes being the work of the Commission itself, and others resulting from the resolutions of the Belarusian Academic Conference (1926), re-approved by the Commission. Notably, the use of the Ь (soft sign) before the combinations "consonant+iotified vowel" ("softened consonants"), which had been previously denounced as highly redundant (e.g., in the proceedings of the Belarusian Academic Conference (1926)), was cancelled. However, the complete resolution of the highly important issue of the orthography of unstressed Е (IE) was not achieved. Both the resolutions of the Belarusian Academic Conference (1926) and the project of the Orthographic Commission (1930) caused much disagreement in the Belarusian academic environment. Several elements of the project were to be put under appeal in the "higher (political) bodies of power". West Belarus[edit] In West Belarus, under Polish rule, the Belarusian language
Belarusian language
was at a disadvantage. Schooling in the Belarusian language
Belarusian language
was obstructed, and printing in Belarusian experienced political oppression.[citation needed] The prestige of the Belarusian language
Belarusian language
in the Western Belarus
Belarus
of the period hinged significantly on the image of the BSSR being the "true Belarusian home".[32][verification needed] This image, however, was strongly disrupted by the "purges" of "national-democrats" in BSSR (1929–30) and by the subsequent grammar reform (1933). Tarashkyevich's grammar was re-published five times in Western Belarus. However, the 5th edition (1929) (reprinted verbatim in Belarus
Belarus
in 1991 and often referred to) was the version diverging from the previously published one, which Tarashkyevich had prepared disregarding the Belarusian Academic Conference (1926) resolutions.(Тарашкевіч 1991, Foreword) 1930s[edit] Soviet Belarus[edit] In 1929–30, the Communist authorities of Soviet Belarus
Belarus
made a series of drastic crackdowns against the supposed "national-democratic counter-revolution" (informally "nats-dems" (Belarusian: нац-дэмы)). Effectively, entire generations of Socialist Belarusian national activists in the first quarter of the 20th century were wiped out of political, scientific and social existence. Only the most famous cult figures (e.g. Yanka Kupala) were spared. However, a new power group in Belarusian science quickly formed during these power shifts, under the virtual leadership of the Head of the Philosophy Institute of the Belarusian Academy of Sciences, academician S. Ya. Vol’fson (С. Я. Вольфсон). The book published under his editorship, Science in Service of Nats-Dems’ Counter-Revolution (1931), represented the new spirit of political life in Soviet Belarus. 1933 reform of Belarusian grammar[edit] The Reform of Belarusian Grammar (1933) had been brought out quite unexpectedly, supposedly [Stank 1936], with the project published in the central newspaper of the Belarusian Communist Party (Zviazda) on 1933-06-28 and the decree of the Council of People's Commissars (Council of Ministers) of BSSR issued on 1933-08-28, to gain the status of law on 1933-09-16. There had been some post-facto speculations, too, that the 1930 project of the reform (as prepared by people who were no longer seen as politically "clean"), had been given for the "purification" to the "nats-dems" competition in the Academy of Sciences, which would explain the "block" nature of the differences between the 1930 and 1933 versions. Peculiarly, Yan Stankyevich in his notable critique of the reform [Stank 1936] failed to mention the 1930 project, dating the reform project to 1932. The reform resulted in the grammar officially used, with further amendments, in Byelorussian SSR
Byelorussian SSR
and modern Belarus. Sometimes this grammar is called the official grammar of the Belarusian language, to distinguish it from the pre-reform grammar, known as the classic grammar or Taraškievica
Taraškievica
(Tarashkevitsa). It is also known as narkamauka, after the word narkamat, a Belarusian abbreviation for People's Commissariat (ministry). The latter term bears a derogatory connotation. The officially announced causes for the reform were:

The pre-1933 grammar was maintaining artificial barriers between the Russian and Belarusian languages. The reform was to cancel the influences of the Polonisation corrupting the Belarusian language. The reform was to remove the archaisms, neologisms and vulgarisms supposedly introduced by the "national-democrats". The reform was to simplify the grammar of the Belarusian language.

The reform had been accompanied by a fervent press campaign directed against the "nats-dems not yet giving up." The decree had been named On Changing and Simplifying Belarusian Spelling («Аб зменах і спрашчэнні беларускага правапісу»), but the bulk of the changes had been introduced into the grammar. Yan Stankyevich in his critique of the reform talked about 25 changes, with one of them being strictly orthographical and 24 relating to both orthography and grammar. [Stank 1936] Many of the changes in the orthography proper ("stronger principle of AH-ing," "no redundant soft sign," "uniform nye and byez") were, in fact, simply implementations of earlier proposals made by people who had subsequently suffered political suppression (e.g., Yazep Lyosik, Lastowski, Nyekrashevich, 1930 project).[33][34] [Padluzhny 2004] The morphological principle in the orthography had been strengthened, which also had been proposed in 1920s.[33] The "removal of the influences of the Polonisation" had been represented, effectively, by the:

Reducing the use of the "consonant+non-iotified vowel" in assimilated Latinisms in favour of "consonant+iotified vowel," leaving only Д, Т, Р unexceptionally "hard." Changing the method of representing the sound "L" in Latinisms to another variant of the Belarusian sound Л (of 4 variants existing), rendered with succeeding non-iotified vowels instead of iotified. Introducing the new preferences of use of the letters Ф over Т for fita, and В over Б for beta, in Hellenisms. [Stank 1936]

The "removing of the artificial barriers between the Russian and Belarusian languages" (virtually the often-quoted " Russification
Russification
of the Belarusian language," which may well happen to be a term coined by Yan Stankyevich) had, according to Stankyevich, moved the normative Belarusian morphology and syntax closer to their Russian counterparts, often removing from use the indigenous features of the Belarusian language. [Stank 1936] Stankyevich also observed that some components of the reform had moved the Belarusian grammar to the grammars of other Slavonic languages, which would hardly be its goal. [Stank 1936] West Belarus[edit] In West Belarus, there had been some voices raised against the reform, chiefly by the non-Communist/non-socialist wing of the Belarusian national scene. Yan Stankyevich was named to the Belarusian Scientific Society, Belarusian National Committee and Society of the Friends of Belarusian Linguistics at Wilno University. Certain political and scientific groups and figures went on using the pre-reform orthography and grammar, however, thus multiplying and differing versions. However, the reformed grammar and orthography had been used, too, for example during the process of Siarhei Prytytski
Siarhei Prytytski
in 1936. Second World War[edit] During the Occupation of Belarus
Belarus
by Nazi Germany (1941–1944), the Belarusian collaborationists influenced newspapers and schools to use the Belarusian language. This variant did not use any of the post-1933 changes in vocabulary, orthography and grammar. Much publishing in Belarusian Latin script was done. In general, in the publications of the Soviet partisan movement in Belarus, the normative 1934 grammar was used. Post Second World War[edit] After the Second World War, several major factors influenced the development of the Belarusian language. The most important was the implementation of the "rapprochement and unification of Soviet people" policy, which resulted by the 1980s in the Russian language effectively and officially assuming the role of the principal means of communication, with Belarusian relegated to a secondary role. The post-war growth in the number of publications in the Belarusian language in BSSR drastically lagged behind those in Russian. The use of Belarusian as the main language of education was gradually limited to rural schools and humanitarian faculties. The BSSR counterpart of the USSR
USSR
law "On strengthening of ties between school and real life and on the further development of popular education in the USSR" (1958), adopted in 1959, along with introduction of a mandatory 8-year school education, made it possible for the parents of pupils to opt for non-mandatory studying of the "second language of instruction," which would be Belarusian in a Russian language
Russian language
school and vice versa. However, for example in the 1955/56 school year, there were 95% of schools with Russian as the primary language of instruction, and 5% with Belarusian as the primary language of instruction.[35] While officially much lauded, the language was popularly represented as an "uncultured, rural language of rural people"[citation needed]. That was the source of concern for the nationally minded and caused, for example, the series of publications by Barys Sachanka in 1957–61 and the text named "Letter to a Russian Friend" by Alyaksyey Kawka (1979). Interestingly, the contemporary BSSR Communist party leader Kirill Mazurov made some tentative moves to strengthen the role of Belarusian language
Belarusian language
in the second half of the 1950s.[36] However, the support for the Belarusian language
Belarusian language
could also be easily considered "too strong" and even identified with the support of "Belarusian nationalists and fascists". After the beginning of Perestroika and the relaxing of political control in the late 1980s, a new campaign in support of the Belarusian language was mounted in BSSR, expressed in the "Letter of 58" and other publications, producing a certain level of popular support and resulting in the BSSR Supreme Soviet ratifying the "Law on Languages" ("Закон аб мовах"; 26 January 1990) requiring the strengthening of the role of Belarusian in state and civic structures. 1959 reform of grammar[edit] A discussion on problems in Belarusian orthography and on the further development of the language was held from 1935–1941. From 1949–1957 this continued, although it was deemed there was a need to amend some unwarranted changes to the 1933 reform. The Orthography Commission, headed by Yakub Kolas, set up the project in about 1951, but it was approved only in 1957, and the normative rules were published in 1959.[37] This grammar had been accepted as normative for the Belarusian language
Belarusian language
since then, receiving minor practical changes in the 1985 edition. A project to correct parts of the 1959 grammar was conducted from 2006 to 2007. Post-1991[edit] After Belarus
Belarus
became independent in 1991, the Belarusian language gained in prestige and popular interest.[38][citation needed] However, the implementation of the 1992–94 "Law on Languages" took place in such a way that it provoked public protests and was dubbed "Landslide Belarusization" and "undemocratic" by those opposing it in 1992–94[citation needed]. In a controversial referendum held on 14 May 1995 the Belarusian language lost its exclusive status as the only state language. State support for Belarusian language
Belarusian language
and culture in general has dwindled since then, and Russian is dominant in everyday life in today's Belarus.[39] In a 2006 article, Roy Medvedev compared the position of the Belarusian language
Belarusian language
in Belarus
Belarus
with that of the Irish language
Irish language
in the Republic of Ireland.[40] A spelling reform of the official Belarusian language, making the spelling of some words more similar to Taraškievič's system, was decided on July 23, 2008, and went into effect on September 1, 2010.[41] Discrimination against Belarusian speakers[edit] Under the regime of the authoritarian president Alexander Lukashenko, members of the Belarusian speaking minority in Belarus
Belarus
complain about a discrimination of the Belarusian language
Belarusian language
in Belarus.[42] Despite a formally equal status of Russian and Belarusian, Russian is primarily used by the Belarusian government, and cases of discrimination against the Belarusian language
Belarusian language
are not rare, even though the discrimination is not institutionalized. Authorities occasionally make minor concessions to demands for a widening of the usage of the Belarusian language.[42] Organizations promoting Belarusian language
Belarusian language
such as the Frantsishak Skaryna Belarusian Language Society were reported being object of attacks by Belarus-based Russian neo-Nazi groups in the 1990s and 2000s.[42] The Frantsishak Skaryna Belarusian Language Society has reported about the following categories of violations of the rights of Belarusian speakers in Belarus:[43]

The right to receive public and private services in Belarusian language; The right to access legislation in Belarusian language; The right to receive education in Belarusian language; The right to an equitable presence of Belarusian language
Belarusian language
in the media; The right to receive full oral and written information in Belarusian language on the products and services proposed by commercial companies.

Belarusian speakers are facing numerous obstacles when trying to arrange Belarusian language
Belarusian language
education for their children.[44] As of 2016[update] there are no Belarusian-language universities in the country.[39] In its 2016 country human rights on Belarus
Belarus
report, the US State Department also stated that there was "discrimination against ... those who sought to use the Belarusian language."[45] "Because the government viewed many proponents of the Belarusian language
Belarusian language
as political opponents, authorities continued to harass and intimidate academic and cultural groups that sought to promote Belarusian and routinely rejected proposals to widen use of the language," the report said.[45] 2010s[edit]

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In the 2010s the situation of Belarusian has started to change slightly due to the efforts of language-advocacy institutions, of individual representatives of such educational, cultural, scientific and linguistic organizations as the Frantsishak Skaryna Belarusian Language Society, the Belarus
Belarus
Academy of Sciences, the Belarusian Writers' Union, and in response to the endeavours of pro-Belarusian public figures from the media and communication field, musicians, philosophers, entrepreneurs and benefactors.[39] And despite the language losing its exclusive position in the wake of the 1995 Belarusian referendum, new signs of the spread of Belarusian have appeared, trickling down into Belarusian society — with advertising campaigns supporting the cause (outdoor billboards promoting[39] and acquainting people with the Belarusian language, branding campaigns for the leading telecommunication providers like Velcom, etc.), the simplified version of the Belarusian Latin alphabet
Belarusian Latin alphabet
on the metro map being introduced into the messages of the transport network, dedicated advertising festivals like AD!NAK upholding marketing communication in Belarusian, and informal language-courses (such as Mova Nanova, Mova ci kava, Movavedy) having sprung up in Minsk
Minsk
and around Belarus
Belarus
and spurring further interest of people, especially of young people, in developing good Belarusian communication skills in everyday life. Taraškievica
Taraškievica
or Klasyčny pravapis (Classical orthography)[edit] Main article: Taraškievica There exists an alternative literary norm of the Belarusian language, named Taraškievica
Taraškievica
(Tarashkevica). The promoters and users of it prevalently refer to it as Klasyčny pravapis (Classic orthography). Names[edit] There are a number of names under which the Belarusian language
Belarusian language
has been known, both contemporary and historical. Some of the most dissimilar are from the Old Belarusian period. Official, romanised[edit]

Belarusian (also spelled Belarusan, Belarussian, Byelarussian) – derived from the name of the country "Belarus", officially approved for use abroad by the Belarusian authorities[which?] (ca. 1992) and promoted since then. Byelorussian (also spelled Belorussian, Bielorussian ) – derived from the Russian name of the country "Byelorussia" (Russian: Белоруссия), used officially (in the Russian language) in the times of the USSR
USSR
and, later, in Russia[citation needed]. White Ruthenian (and its equivalents in other languages) – literally, a word-by-word translation of the parts of the composite word Belarusian.

Alternative[edit]

Great Lithuanian (вялікалітоўская (мова)) – proposed and used by Yan Stankyevich since the 1960s, intended to part with the "diminishing tradition of having the name related to the Muscovite tradition of calling the Belarusian lands" and to pertain to the "great tradition of Belarusian statehood". Kryvian or Krivian (крывіцкая/крывічанская/крыўская (мова), Polish: język krewicki) – derived from the name of the Slavonic tribe Krivichi, one of the main tribes in the foundations of the forming of the Belarusian nation. Created and used in the 19th century by Belarusian Polish-speaking writers Jaroszewicz, Narbut, Rogalski, Jan Czeczot. Strongly promoted by Vaclau Lastouski.

Vernacular[edit]

Simple (простая (мова)) or local (тутэйшая (мова)) – used mainly in times preceding the common recognition of the existence of the Belarusian language, and nation in general. Supposedly, the term can still be encountered up to the end of the 1930s, e.g., in Western Belarus. Simple Black Ruthenian (Russian: простой чернорусский) – used in the beginning of the 19th century by the Russian researcher Baranovski and attributed to contemporary vernacular Belarusian.[46]

Computer representation[edit] Belarusian is represented by the ISO 639 code be or bel, or more specifically by IETF language tags be-1959acad (so-called "Academic" ["governmental"] variant of Belarusian as codified in 1959) or be-tarask (Belarusian in Taraskievica orthography).[47] See also[edit]

Languages of Belarus Belarusian orthography reform of 1933 Old Ruthenian language East Slavic languages Kievan Rus' Ruthenia Narkamauka Trasianka, a blend of Russian and Belarusian languages spoken by many in Belarus Swadesh list of Belarusian words

Notes[edit]

^ Cite error: The named reference e18 was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ Belarusian at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(19th ed., 2016) ^ Jan Jiřička. "Česko má nové oficiální národnostní menšiny. Vietnamce a Bělorusy - iDNES.cz". Zpravy.idnes.cz. Retrieved 2017-01-10.  ^ "Law of Ukraine
Ukraine
"On Principles of State Language Policy" (Current version — Revision from 01.02.2014)". Document 5029-17, Article 7: Regional or minority languages Ukraine, Paragraph 2. Zakon2.rada.gov.ua. 1 February 2014. Retrieved 30 April 2014.  ^ "To which languages does the Charter apply?". European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. Council of Europe. p. 3. Retrieved 2014-04-03.  ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Belarusian". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ Yefim Karsky. «Belarusians. II. The language of Belarusian people». В. 1. — [S.l.], 1908. ^ "Belarusian". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries.  ^ Also spoken in Azerbaijan, Canada, Estonia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, United States, Uzbekistan, per Ethnologue. ^ Belarusan English Dictionary Archived December 5, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b "Belarusan". Ethnologue.com. Retrieved 2017-01-10.  ^ Data from 1999 Belarusian general census in English Archived May 5, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Of these, about 3,370,000 (41.3%)[clarification needed] were Belarusians, and about 257,000 belonged to other ethnicities (Russians, Poles, Ukrainians, and Jews). ^ In Russia, the Belarusian language
Belarusian language
is declared as a "familiar language" by about 316,000 inhabitants, among them about 248,000 Belarusians, comprising about 30.7% of Belarusians
Belarusians
living in Russia (data from Russian Census (2002)
Russian Census (2002)
In Russian[dead link]). In Ukraine, the Belarusian language
Belarusian language
is declared as a "native language" by about 55,000 Belarusians, which comprise about 19.7% of Belarusians
Belarusians
living in Ukraine
Ukraine
(data from 2001 Ukrainian census In Ukrainian). In Poland, the Belarusian language
Belarusian language
is declared as a "language spoken at home" by about 40,000 inhabitants (data from 2002 Polish general census Table 34 (in Polish) Archived May 25, 2005, at the Wayback Machine.). ^ "Belarusian language, alphabet and pronunciation". Omniglot.com. Retrieved 2017-01-10.  ^ Карский, Е. Ф. (2006). Белорусы: 3 т. Т. 1. / Уступны артыкул М. Г. Булахава, прадмова да першага тома і каментарыі В. М. Курцовай, А. У. Унучака, І. У. Чаквіна. ; (Карскій. Бѣлоруссы. Т. I – Вильна, 1903). Мн.: БелЭн. ISBN 985-11-0360-8.  (Т.1), ISBN 985-11-0359-4 ^ Alexander M. Schenker. 1993. "Proto-Slavonic," The Slavonic Languages. (Routledge). Pp. 60-121. Pg. 60: "[The] distinction between dialect and language being blurred, there can be no unanimity on this issue in all instances..." C.F. Voegelin and F.M. Voegelin. 1977. Classification and Index of the World's Languages (Elsevier). Pg. 311, "In terms of immediate mutual intelligibility, the East Slavic zone is a single language." As members of the East Slavic group of languages, they are descended from a common ancestor. ^ Robert Lindsey. 2010. "Mutual Intelligibility of Languages in the Slavic Family". Pp. 4-10. ^ Roland Sussex, Paul V. Cubberley. (2006). The Slavic languages
Slavic languages
. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pg. 518 ^ [Dovnar 1926] Ch. XVII Sec.1 ^ [Turuk 1921], p.10 ^ [Dovnar 1926] Ch. XXII Sec.1 p.507 ^ [Dovnar 1926] Ch. XV Sect. 10. ^ Per (Dovnar 1926), (Smalyanchuk 2001) ^ [Dovnar 1926] Ch. XV Sect. 7 ^ [Dovnar 1926]. Ch. XV. Sect.3. ^ [Dovnar 1926] Ch. XV Sect. 4. ^ [Turuk 1921], p.11 ^ [Dovnar 1926] Ch. XXI Sec.4 p.480-481 ^ Turonek 1989 ^ Gennady Estraikh: Soviet Yiddish. Language Planning and Linguistic Development. Oxford: Clarendon, 1999, p. 37. ^ (words of V. Lastouski) ^ a b "Да рэформы беларускага правапісу". Пасяджэньні Беларускае Акадэмічнае Конфэрэнцыі па рэформе правапісу і азбукі. Мн.: [б. м.] 1927.  ^ Ян Станкевіч. Б. Тарашкевіч (2002). "Беларуская граматыка для школ. Выданьне пятае пераробленае і пашыранае. Вільня. 1929 г., бал. 132 + IV [1930–1931]". Ян Станкевіч. Збор твораў у двух тамах. Т. 1. Мн.: Энцыклапедыкс. ISBN 985-6599-46-6.  ^ Станкевіч С. (1994). Русіфікацыя беларускае мовы ў БССР і супраціў русіфікацыйнаму працэсу [1962]. / Прадмова В. Вячоркі. Мн.: Навука і тэхніка. ISBN 5-343-01645-6.  ^ See Modern history of Belarus
Belarus
by Mironowicz. ^ The BSSR Council of Ministers approved the project of the Commission on Orthography "On making more precise and on partially changing the acting rules of Belarusian orthography" («Аб удакладненні і частковых зменах існуючага беларускага правапісу») on 11 May 1957. The project served as a basis for the normative Rules of the Belarusian Orthography and Punctuation («Правілы беларускай арфаграфіі і пунктуацыі»), published in 1959. ^ "Internationalizing teacher education: The case of Belarus". Mar 2012. Retrieved 2017-12-19.  ^ a b c d (in Ukrainian) Belarusian language
Belarusian language
in Belarus: state status or scenery?, DW.com
DW.com
(22 February 2016) ^ Медведев, Р. (March 2006). "Непрерывное развитие языков: их влияние друг на друга и конкуренция". Наука и жизнь. Retrieved 2017-11-23. Положение дел с языком в Белоруссии сходно с положением в Ирландии.  ^ A detailed account can be found in the article be-tarask:Правілы беларускай артаграфіі і пунктуацыі (2008) ^ a b c "Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2007". House, Committee on Foreign Affairs, and Senate, Committee on Foreign Relations - 2008. 2008. p. 1163. Retrieved 29 November 2017.  ^ "A review of language policy in Belarus". Frantsishak Skaryna Belarusian Language Society. 3 April 2012. Retrieved 29 November 2017.  ^ "Parents of Belarusian-language pupils in Baranavichy petition Prosecutor General over discrimination". Viasna Human Rights Center. 19 January 2015. Retrieved 29 November 2017.  ^ a b "Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2016". US Department of State Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor. 2017. Retrieved 27 November 2017.  ^ Acc. to: Улащик Н. Введение в белорусско-литовское летописание. – Moscow, 1980. ^ "Type: language". Iana.org. 2016-10-12. Retrieved 2017-01-10. 

References[edit]

Карский Е. Ф. (1897). "Что такое древнее западнорусское наречие?". «Труды Девятого археологического съезда в Вильне, 1893». / под ред. графини Уваровой и С. С. Слуцкого, т. II. М. pp. 62–70.  In edition: Карский Е. Ф. (2006). Белорусы: 3 т. Т. 1. / Уступны артыкул М. Г. Булахава, прадмова да першага тома і каментарыі В. М. Курцовай, А. У. Унучака, І. У. Чаквіна. Мн.: БелЭн. pp. 495–504. ISBN 985-11-0360-8.  (T.1), ISBN 985-11-0359-4 Калита И. В. (2010). Современная Беларусь: языки и национальная идентичность. Ústí nad Labem. pp. 112–190. ISBN 978-80-7414-324-3.  [Lyosik 1917] [Язэп Лёсік] (1994). "Граматыка і родная мова : [Вольная Беларусь №17, 30.08.1917]". Язэп Лёсік. Творы: Апавяданні. Казкі. Артыкулы. (Уклад., прадм. і камент. А. Жынкіна. (Спадчына). Мн.: Маст. літ. ISBN 5-340-01250-6.  [Stank 1939] Ян Станкевіч (2002). "Гісторыя беларускага языка [1939]". Ян Станкевіч. Збор твораў у двух тамах. Т. 1. Мн.: Энцыклапедыкс. ISBN 985-6599-46-6.  [Zhur 1978] А. И. Журавский (1978). "Деловая письменность в системе старобелорусского литературного языка". Восточнославянское и общее языкознание. М. pp. 185–191.  [Halyen 1988] Галенчанка Г. Я. (1988). "Кнігадрукаванне ў Польшчы". Францыск Скарына і яго час. Энцыклапед. даведнік. Мн.: БелЭн. ISBN 5-85700-003-3.  [AniZhur 1988] Анічэнка У. В., Жураўскі А. І. (1988). "Беларуская лексіка ў выданнях Ф. Скарыны". Францыск Скарына і яго час. Энцыклапед. даведнік. Мн.: БелЭн. ISBN 5-85700-003-3.  Жураўскі А. І. (1993). "Беларуская мова". Энцыклапедыя гісторыі Беларусі. У 6 т. Т. 1. Мн.: БелЭн.  Яскевіч А. А. (2001). Старабеларускія граматыкі: да праблемы агульнафілалагічнай цэласнасці (2-е выд. ed.). Мн.: Беларуская навука. ISBN 985-08-0451-3.  Браніслаў Тарашкевіч (1991). Выбранае: Крытыка, публіцыстыка, пераклады / Укладанне, уступ, камент. А. Ліса. (Спадчына). Мн.: Маст. літ. ISBN 5-340-00498-8.  Арсень Ліс (1966). Браніслаў Тарашкевіч. Мн.: Навука і Тэхніка.  Тарашкевіч, Б. (1991). Беларуская граматыка для школ. [факсімільн.] Выданьне пятае пераробленае і пашыранае. Мн.: «Народная асвета».  Ян Станкевіч (2002). "Правапіс і граматыка [1918]". Ян Станкевіч. Збор твораў у двух тамах. Т. 1. Мн.: Энцыклапедыкс. ISBN 985-6599-46-6.  Ян Станкевіч (2002). "Беларуская Акадэмічная Конфэрэнцыя 14.–21.XI.1926 і яе працы дзеля рэформы беларускае абэцэды й правапісу (агульны агляд) [1927]". Ян Станкевіч. Збор твораў у двух тамах. Т. 1. Мн.: Энцыклапедыкс. ISBN 985-6599-46-6.  Ігар Бараноўскі (2004). "Помнік сьвятару-беларусу (120-ыя ўгодкі з дня нараджэньня а. Баляслава Пачопкі)". Царква. Грэка-каталіцкая газета (4 (43)). Брэст: ПП В.Ю.А. 

Further reading[edit]

Кalita I. V. Современная Беларусь: языки и национальная идентичность. Ústí nad Labem, ISBN 978-80-7414-324-3, 2010, 300 s. s. 112-190. Mayo P. (1993). "Belorussian." In Comrie B. & Corbett G. (eds.) The Slavonic languages. London & New York: Routledge. p. 887–946. ISBN 978-0-415-04755-5 McMillin A. (1980). "Belorussian." In Schenker A. & Stankiewicz E. (eds.) The Slavic literary languages, formation and development. New Haven: Yale Concilium on International and Area Studies. p. 105–117. ISBN 978-0-936586-00-7 Wexler P. (1977). A historical phonology of the Belorussian language. Heidelberg: C. Winter. ISBN 978-3-533-02575-7 Pashkievich V. (1974). Fundamental Byelorussian — Беларуская мова. Books 1,2. Toronto.

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