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Battle of the Trench
Trench
(Muslims vs Quraish)

Part of the Muslim– Quraysh
Quraysh
Wars

Combat between Ali ibn Abi Talib
Ali ibn Abi Talib
(left) and Amr ibn Abd al-Wud
Amr ibn Abd al-Wud
(right) during the Battle of the Trench

Date Shawwal – Dhu al-Qi'dah, 5 AH (in the ancient (intercalated) Arabic calendar)[1] (January – February 627).

Location Surrounding perimeter of Medina

Result Failure of siege; decisive Muslim
Muslim
victory. The withdrawal of the confederate tribes.

Belligerents

Muslims Including

the Ansar of Khazraj and Aws The Muhajirun of various origins including significant portions of Quraysh
Quraysh
Immigrants and Banu Qais

Confederates including

the Quraysh
Quraysh
of Mecca the Jewish/ Arab
Arab
tribes of Banu Qaynuqa and Banu Nadir Other Arab
Arab
tribes such as Banu Murra, Khaybar, Huyyay ibn Auf Murri, Banu Ghatafan, Bani Assad, Banu Shuja, and more (see Confederates)

Commanders and leaders

Muhammad Ali Ibn Abi Talib Salman the Persian[2] Abu Sufyan Amr ibn Abd al-Wud †

Strength

3,000[3] 10,000[3]

Casualties and losses

Light[4] Extremely heavy[4]

v t e

Campaigns of Muhammad

Ghazwah (expeditions where he took part)

Abwa Buwat Safwan Dul 1st Badr Kudr Sawiq Qaynuqa Thi Bahran Uhud Asad Nadir 2nd Nejd 2nd Badr Jandal Trench Qurayza Lahyan Mustaliq Treaty Khaybar Fadak Qura Dhat Baqra Mecca Hunayn Autas Ta'if Tabouk

Site of the Battle of the Trench, Medina

Mosque
Mosque
Salman pharsi, Battle of the Trench, Medina

Battle of the Trench
Trench
(Medina)

Battle of Khandaq (Battle of the Trench)

The Battle of the Trench
Trench
(Arabic: غزوة الخندق‎, translit. Ghazwah al-Khandaq) also known as the Battle of the Confederates (Arabic: غزوة الاحزاب‎, translit. Ghazwah al-Ahzab), was a 30-day-long siege of Yathrib (now Medina) by Arab
Arab
and Jewish tribes. The strength of the confederate armies is estimated around 10,000 men with six hundred horses and some camels, while the Medinan defenders numbered 3,000. The largely outnumbered defenders of Medina, mainly Muslims led by Islamic prophet Muhammad, dug a trench on the suggestion of Salman Farsi,[5] which together with Medina's natural fortifications, rendered the confederate cavalry (consisting of horses and camels) useless, locking the two sides in a stalemate. Hoping to make several attacks at once, the confederates persuaded the Muslim-allied Medinan Jews, Banu Qurayza, to attack the city from the south. However, Muhammad's diplomacy derailed the negotiations, and broke up the confederacy against him. The well-organised defenders, the sinking of confederate morale, and poor weather conditions caused the siege to end in a fiasco. The siege was a "battle of wits", in which the Muslims tactically overcame their opponents while suffering very few casualties. Efforts to defeat the Muslims failed, and Islam
Islam
became influential in the region. As a consequence, the Muslim
Muslim
army besieged the area of the Banu Qurayza tribe, leading to their surrender and enslavement or execution. The defeat caused the Meccans to lose their trade and much of their prestige.[4]

Contents

1 Name 2 Background

2.1 Reason for battle

3 The Confederates 4 Muslim
Muslim
defence 5 Siege
Siege
of Medina

5.1 Banu Qurayza 5.2 Crisis in Medina 5.3 Muslim
Muslim
response 5.4 Collapse of the Confederacy

6 Aftermath: Siege
Siege
and demise of the Banu Qurayza 7 Implications 8 Islamic primary sources

8.1 Quran 8.2 Hadith 8.3 Biographical literature

9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 External links

Name[edit] The battle is named after "trench", or khandaq, that was dug by Muslims in preparation for the battle. The word khandaq (خندق) is the Arabised form of the Persian word kandak (meaning "that which has been dug").[6] Salman farsi the Persian advised Muhammad
Muhammad
to dig a trench around the city. The battle is also referred to as the Battle of Confederates (غزوة الاحزاب). The Qur'an
Qur'an
uses the term confederates (الاحزاب) in sura Al-Ahzab[Quran 33:9–32] to denote the confederacy of non-believers and Jews
Jews
against Islam. Background[edit] After their expulsion from Mecca, the Muslims fought the Meccan Quraysh
Quraysh
at the Battle of Badr
Battle of Badr
in 624,[7] and at the Battle of Uhud
Battle of Uhud
in 625.[8] Although the Muslims neither won nor were defeated at the Battle of Uhud, their military strength was gradually growing. In April 626 Muhammad
Muhammad
raised a force of 300 men and 10 horses to meet the Quraysh
Quraysh
army of 1,000 at Badr for the second time. Although no fighting occurred, the coastal tribes were impressed with Muslim power. Muhammad
Muhammad
also tried, with limited success, to break up many alliances against the Muslim
Muslim
expansion. Nevertheless, he was unable to prevent the Meccan one.[9] As they had in the battles of Badr and Uhud, the Muslim
Muslim
army again used strategic methods against their opponents (at Badr, the Muslims surrounded the wells, but did not deprive their opponents of water since Ali did not want to follow the footsteps of the Meccan army; at the Battle of Uhud, Muslims made strategic use of the hills). In this battle they dug a trench to render the enemy cavalry ineffective.[10] Reason for battle[edit] The reason for this battle was to defend Medina
Medina
from attack, after Banu Nazir and Banu Qaynuqa tribes formed an alliance with the Quraysh to attack him as revenge for expelling them from Medina
Medina
during the Invasion of Banu Qaynuqa and Invasion of Banu Nadir.[11][12] The Muslim
Muslim
scholar Ibn Kathir
Ibn Kathir
states: "The reason why the Confederates came was that a group of the leaders of the Banu Nadir, whom the Messenger of Allah
Allah
had expelled from Al-Madinah to Khaybar, including Sallam bin Abu Al-Huqayq, Sallam bin Mishkam and Kinanah bin Ar-Rabi`, went to Makkah
Makkah
where they met with the leaders of Quraysh
Quraysh
and incited them to make war against the Prophet"[13] The Confederates[edit] Early in 627, the Banu Nadir
Banu Nadir
met with the Quraysh
Quraysh
of Makkah. Huyayy ibn Akhtab, along with other leaders from Khaybar, travelled to swear allegiance with Safwan ibn Umayya at Makkah.[14] The bulk of the Confederate armies were gathered by the Quraysh
Quraysh
of Makkah, led by Abu Sufyan, who fielded 4,000 foot soldiers, 300 horsemen, and 1,000–1,500 men on camels.[15] The Banu Nadir
Banu Nadir
began rousing the nomads of Najd. The Nadir enlisted the Banu Ghatafan by paying them half of their harvest.[6][9] This contingent, the second largest, added a strength of about 2,000 men and 300 horsemen led by Unaina bin Hasan Fazari. The Bani Assad also agreed to join, led by Tuleha Asadi.[15] From the Banu Sulaym, the Nadir secured 700 men, though this force would likely have been much larger had not some of its leaders been sympathetic towards Islam. The Bani Amir, who had a pact with Muhammad, refused to join.[14] Other tribes included the Banu Murra, with 400 men led by Hars ibn Auf Murri, and the Banu Shuja, with 700 men led by Sufyan ibn Abd Shams. In total, the strength of the Confederate armies, though not agreed upon by scholars, is estimated to have included around 10,000 men and six hundred horsemen. In January 627 the army, which was led by Abu Sufyan, marched on Medina.[3] In accordance with the plan the armies began marching towards Medina, Meccans from the south (along the coast) and the others from the east. At the same time horsemen from the Banu Khuza'a left to warn Medina
Medina
of the invading army.[14] Muslim
Muslim
defence[edit] The men from Banu Khuza'a reached Muhammad
Muhammad
in four days, warning him of the Confederate armies that were to arrive in a week.[14] Muhammad gathered the Medinans to discuss the best strategy of overcoming the enemy. Meeting the enemy in the open (which led to victory at Badr), and waiting for them inside the city (a lesson learnt from the defeat at Uhud) were both suggested.[10] Ultimately, the outnumbered Muslims opted to engage in a defensive battle by digging deep trenches to act as a barrier along the northern front. The tactic of a defensive trench was introduced by Salman the Persian. Every capable Muslim
Muslim
in Medina
Medina
including Muhammad
Muhammad
contributed to digging the massive trench in six days.[16] The ditch was dug on the northern side only, as the rest of Medina
Medina
was surrounded by rocky mountains and trees, impenetrable to large armies (especially cavalry). The digging of the ditch coincided with a near-famine in Medina. Women and children were moved to the inner city.[6][16] The Medinans harvested all their crops early, so the Confederate armies would have to rely on their own food reserves.[10][16] Muhammad
Muhammad
established his military headquarters at the hillock of Sala' and the army was arrayed there;[6] this position would give the Muslims an advantage if the enemy crossed the trench.[9] The final army that would defend the city from the invasion consisted of 3,000 men,[17] and included all inhabitants of Medina
Medina
over the age of 14, except the Banu Qurayza (the Qurayza did supply the Muslims with some instruments for digging the trench).[9] Siege
Siege
of Medina[edit] The siege of Medina
Medina
began in January 627 and lasted for 27 days.[1] Since sieges were uncommon in Arabian warfare, the arriving confederates were unprepared to deal with the trenches dug by the Muslims. The Confederates tried to attack with horsemen in hopes of forcing a passage, but the Medinans were rigidly entrenched, preventing such a crossing.[4] Both of the armies gathered on either side of the trench and spent two or three weeks exchanging insults in prose and verse, backed up with arrows fired from a comfortable distance. According to Rodinson, there were three dead among the attackers and five among the defenders. On the other hand, the harvest had been gathered and the besiegers had some trouble finding food for their horses, which proved of no use to them in the attack.[18] The Quraysh
Quraysh
veterans grew impatient with the deadlock. A group of militants led by ‘Amr ibn ‘Abd Wudd (who was thought to be equal to a thousand men in fighting[19]) and Ikrimah ibn Abi Jahl attempted to thrust through the trench and managed to effect a crossing, occupying a marshy area near the hillock of Sala. 'Amr challenged the Muslims to a duel. In response, Ali ibn Abi Talib
Ali ibn Abi Talib
accepted the challenge, and was sent by Muhammad
Muhammad
to fight. Both the fighters got lost in the dust as the duel became intense. Finally, the soldiers heard scream(s) which hinted decisive blows, but it was unclear which of the two was successful. The slogan, 'Allahu Akbar' ( God
God
is the greatest) from the dust confirmed Ali's victory. The confederates were forced to withdraw in a state of panic and confusion.[20] Although the Confederates lost only three men during the encounter, they failed to accomplish anything important and suffered an extreme moral blow with the loss of Amr.[4] The Confederate army made several other attempts to cross the trench during the night but repeatedly failed. Although the confederates could have deployed their infantry over the whole length of the trench, they were unwilling to engage the Muslims at close quarter as the former regarded the latter as superior in hand-to-hand fighting.[4] As the Muslim
Muslim
army was well dug in behind the embankment made from the earth which had been taken from the ditch and prepared to bombard attackers with stones and arrows, any attack could cause great casualties.[18] Banu Qurayza[edit] The Confederates then attempted several simultaneous attacks, in particular by trying to persuade the Banu Qurayza to attack the Muslims from the south.[4] From the Confederates, Huyayy ibn Akhtab, a Khaybarian, the leader of the exiled tribe Banu Nadir, returned to Medina
Medina
seeking their support against the Muslims.[21] So far the Banu Qurayza had tried their best to remain neutral,[9] and were very hesitant about joining the Confederates since they had earlier made a pact with Muhammad.[22] When Akhtab approached them, their leader refused to allow him entry.[23] Akhtab eventually managed to enter and persuade them that the Muslims would surely be overwhelmed.[4] The sight of the vast Confederate armies, surging over the land with soldiers and horses as far as the eye could see, swung the Qurayza opinion in the favour of the Confederacy.[23] News of the Qurayzah's supposed renunciation of the pact with Muhammad leaked out, and Umar
Umar
promptly informed Muhammad. Such suspicions were reinforced by the movement of enemy troops towards the strongholds of the Qurayza.[10][23] Muhammad
Muhammad
became anxious about their conduct,[24] and realised the grave potential danger the Qurayza posed. Because of his pact with the Qurayza, he had not bothered to make defensive preparations along the Muslims' border with the tribe.[22] The Qurayza also possessed weaponry: 1,500 swords, 2,000 lances, 300 suits of armour, and 500 shields.[25] Muhammad
Muhammad
sent three leading Muslims to bring him details of the recent developments. He advised the men to openly declare their findings, should they find the Banu Qurayza to be loyal, so as to increase the morale of the Muslim
Muslim
fighters. However, he warned against spreading the news of a possible breach of the pact on the Qurayza's part, so as to avoid any panic within Muslim
Muslim
ranks.[22][23] The leaders found that the pact indeed had been renounced and tried in vain to convince the Qurayza to revert by reminding them of the fate of the Banu Nadir
Banu Nadir
and Banu Qaynuqa at the hands of Muhammad.[23] The findings of the leaders were signalled to Muhammad
Muhammad
in a metaphor: "Adal and Qarah". Because the people of Adal and Qarah had betrayed the Muslims and killed them at the opportune moment, Maududi
Maududi
believes the metaphor means the Qurayza were thought to be about to do the same.[22] Crisis in Medina[edit] Muhammad
Muhammad
attempted to hide his knowledge of the activities of Banu Qurayza; however, rumours soon spread of a massive assault on the city of Medina
Medina
from Qurayza's side which severely demoralised the Medinans.[26] The Muslims found themselves in greater difficulties by day. Food was running short, and nights were colder. The lack of sleep made matters worse.[27] So tense was the situation that, for the first time, the canonical daily prayers were neglected by the Muslim
Muslim
community. Only at night, when the attacks stopped due to darkness, could they resume their regular worship.[26] According to Ibn Ishaq, the situation became serious and fear was everywhere.[28] Quran
Quran
describes the situation in surah Al-Ahzab:

“ Behold! they came on you from above you and from below you, and behold, the eyes became dim and the hearts gaped up to the throats, and ye imagined various (vain) thoughts about Allah! In that situation were the Believers tried: they were shaken as by a tremendous shaking. And behold! The Hypocrites and those in whose hearts is a disease (even) say: " Allah
Allah
and His Messenger promised us nothing but delusion!" Behold! A party among them said: "Ye men of Yathrib! ye cannot stand (the attack)! therefore go back!" And a band of them ask for leave of Muhammad, saying, "Truly our houses are bare and exposed," though they were not exposed they intended nothing but to run away. And if an entry had been effected to them from the sides of the (city), and they had been incited to sedition, they would certainly have brought it to pass, with none but a brief delay! ... They think that the Confederates have not withdrawn; and if the Confederates should come (again), they would wish they were in the deserts (wandering) among the Bedouins, and seeking news about you (from a safe distance); and if they were in your midst, they would fight but little... When the Believers saw the Confederate forces, they said: "This is what Allah
Allah
and his Messenger had promised us, and Allah
Allah
and His Messenger told us what was true." And it only added to their faith and their zeal in obedience. [Quran 33:10–22 (Translated by Yusuf Ali)] ”

Muslim
Muslim
response[edit] Immediately after hearing the rumours about the Qurayza, Muhammad
Muhammad
had sent 100 men to the inner city for its protection. Later he sent 300 horsemen (cavalry was not needed at the trench) as well to protect the city.[10] The loud voices, in which the troops prayed every night, created the illusion of a large force.[23] The crisis showed Muhammad
Muhammad
that many of his men had reached the limits of their endurance. He sent word to Ghatafan, trying to pay for their defection and offering them a third of Medina's date harvest if they withdrew. Although the Ghatafan demanded half, they eventually agreed to negotiating with Muhammad
Muhammad
on those terms. Before Muhammad
Muhammad
began the order of drafting the agreement, he consulted the Medinan leaders. They sharply rejected the terms of the agreement,[27] protesting Medina
Medina
had never sunk to such levels of ignominy. The negotiations were broken off. While the Ghatafan did not retreat they had compromised themselves by entering into negotiations with Medina, and the Confederacy's internal dissension had thereby been increased.[4] At about that point, Muhammad
Muhammad
received a visit from Nuaym ibn Masud, an Arab
Arab
leader who was well respected by the entire confederacy, but who had, unknown to them, secretly converted to Islam. Muhammad
Muhammad
asked him to end the siege by creating discord amongst Confederates [citation needed].

“ The whole was a battle of wits in which Muslims had the best of it; without cost to themselves they weakened the enemy and increased the dissension. ”

— William Montgomery Watt[4]

Nuaym then came up with an efficient stratagem. He first went to the Banu Qurayza and warned them about the intentions of the rest of the Confederacy. If the siege fails, he said, the Confederacy will not be afraid to abandon the Jews, leaving them at the mercy of Muhammad. The Qurayza should thus demand Confederate leaders as hostages in return for cooperation. This advice touched upon the fears the Qurayza had already harboured.[10][27] Next Nuaym went to Abu Sufyan, the Confederate leader, warning him that the Qurayza had defected to Muhammad. He stated that the tribe intended to ask the Confederacy for hostages, ostensibly in return for cooperation, but really to hand over to Muhammad. Thus the Confederacy should not give a single man as hostage. Nuaym repeated the same message to other tribes in the Confederacy.[10][27] Collapse of the Confederacy[edit] Nuaym's stratagem worked. After consulting, the Confederate leaders sent Ikrimah to the Qurayza, signalling a united invasion of Medina. The Qurayza, however, demanded hostages as a guarantee that the Confederacy would not desert them. The Confederacy, considering that the Qurayza might give the hostage to Muhammad, refused. Messages were repeatedly sent back and forth between the parties, but each held to its position stubbornly.[10][27] Abu Sufyan
Abu Sufyan
summoned Huyayy ibn Akhtab, informing him of Qurayza's response. Huyayy was taken aback, and Abu Sufyan
Abu Sufyan
branded him as a "traitor". Fearing for his life, Huyayy fled to the Qurayza's strongholds.[10][27] The Bedouins, the Ghatafan and other Confederates from Najd
Najd
had already been compromised by Muhammad's negotiations. They had taken part in the expedition in hopes of plunder, rather than any particular prejudice against Islam. They lost hope as chances of success dwindled, uninterested in continuing the siege. The two confederate armies were marked by recriminations and mutual distrust.[27] The provisions of the Confederate armies were running out. Horses and camels were dying out of hunger and wounds. For days the weather had been exceptionally cold and wet. Violent winds blew out the camp fires, taking away from the Confederate army their source of heat. The Muslim
Muslim
camp, however, was sheltered from such winds. The enemy’s tents were torn up, their fires were extinguished, the sand and rain beat in their faces, and they were terrified by the portents against them. They had already well nigh fallen out among themselves. During the night the Confederate armies withdrew, and by morning the ground was cleared of all enemy forces.[29] Aftermath: Siege
Siege
and demise of the Banu Qurayza[edit] Main article: Invasion of Banu Qurayza Following the retreat of the Confederate army, the Banu Qurayza neighbourhoods were besieged by the Muslims, in revenge. After a 25-day siege of their neighbourhood the Banu Qurayza unconditionally surrendered. When the Banu Qurayza tribe surrendered, the Muslim
Muslim
army seized their stronghold and their possessions.[30] On the request of the Banu Aus, who were allied to the Qurayza, Muhammad
Muhammad
chose one of them, Sa'ad ibn Mu'adh, as an arbitrator to pronounce judgment upon them. Sa'ad, who would later die of his wounds from the battle, decreed the sentence according to the Torah, in which the men shall be killed and women and children enslaved. Deuteronomy
Deuteronomy
20:10–14 says:

When you march up to attack a city, make its people an offer of peace. If they accept and open their gates, all the people in it shall be subject to forced labor and shall work for you. If they refuse to make peace and they engage you in battle, lay siege to that city. When the Lord your God
God
delivers it into your hand, put to the sword all the men in it. As for the women, the children, the livestock and everything else in the city, you may take these as plunder for yourselves. And you may use the plunder the Lord your God
God
gives you from your enemies.[31]

Muhammad
Muhammad
approved of this decision, and the next day the sentence was carried out.[30] The men – numbering between 400 and 900[32] – were bound and placed under the custody of Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Maslamah, while the women and children were placed under Abdullah ibn Salam, a former rabbi who had converted to Islam.[10][33] Ibn Ishaq describes the killing of the Banu Qurayza men as follows:

“ Then they surrendered, and the Apostle confined them in Medina
Medina
in the quarter of d. al-Harith, a woman of B. al-Najjar. Then the Apostle went out to the market of Medina
Medina
(which is still its market today) and dug trenches in it. Then he sent for them and struck off their heads in those trenches as they were brought out to him in batches. Among them was the enemy of Allah
Allah
Huyayy b. Akhtab and Ka`b b. Asad their chief. There were 600 or 700 in all, though some put the figure as high as 800 or 900. As they were being taken out in batches to the Apostle they asked Ka`b what he thought would be done with them. He replied, 'Will you never understand? Don't you see that the summoner never stops and those who are taken away do not return? By Allah
Allah
it is death!' This went on until the Apostle made an end of them. Huyayy was brought out wearing a flowered robe in which he had made holes about the size of the finger-tips in every part so that it should not be taken from him as spoil, with his hands bound to his neck by a rope. When he saw the Apostle he said, 'By God, I do not blame myself for opposing you, but he who forsakes God
God
will be forsaken.' Then he went to the men and said, 'God's command is right. A book and a decree, and massacre have been written against the Sons of Israel.' Then he sat down and his head was struck off.[32][34][35] ”

A number of individuals were spared when various Muslims intervened on their behalf.[36] Several accounts note Muhammad's companions as executioners, Umar
Umar
and Al-Zubayr in particular, and that each clan of the Aws was also charged with killing a group of Qurayza men.[37][38] According to Ibn Ishaq's biography of Muhammad, one woman who had thrown a millstone from the battlements during the siege and killed one of the Muslim
Muslim
besiegers, was also beheaded along with the men. 'Ã'isha, one of Mohammad's wives, is cited as describing the woman as laughing and chatting with her during the massacre, down to the moment her name was called out:

'By Allah,' she said,' that is me.' I said to her 'You poor soul, what is to happen to you?' She said:"I must be killed." "Why?" I asked her. "For something I did," she answered. She went away and was beheaded. By Allah,('Ã'isha adds) I shall never forget her cheerfulness and her great laugh when she knew that she was to be killed.'[36][39]

Ibn Asakir writes in his History of Damascus that the Banu Kilab, a clan of Arab
Arab
clients of the Banu Qurayza, were also killed.[40] The spoils of battle, including the enslaved women and children of the tribe, were divided up among the Muslims that had participated in the siege and among the emigrees from Mecca
Mecca
(who had hitherto depended on the help of the Muslims native to Medina.[41][42] As part of his share of the spoils, Muhammad
Muhammad
selected one of the women, Rayhana, for himself and took her as part of his booty.[42] Muhammad
Muhammad
offered to free and marry her and according to some sources she accepted his proposal, while according to others she rejected it and remained Muhammad's slave.[43] She is said to have later become a Muslim.[24] Scholars argue that Muhammad
Muhammad
had already decided upon this judgment before the Qurayza's surrender, and that Sa'ad was putting his allegiance to the Muslim
Muslim
community above that to his tribe.[4] One reason cited by some for such punishment is that Muhammad's previous clemency towards defeated foes was in contradiction to Arab
Arab
and Jewish laws of the time, and was seen as a sign of weakness. Others see the punishment as a response to what was perceived as an act of treason by the Qurayza since they betrayed their joint defence pact with Muhammad by giving aid and comfort to the enemies of the Muslims.[10] Maxime Rodinson interprets the massacre as an astute political move that overrode all feelings of humanity, in order to remove a constant source of threat to Medina, and dishearten his enemies.[36] Implications[edit] The failure of the siege marked the beginning of Muhammad's undoubted political ascendancy in the city of Medina.[44] The Meccans had exerted their utmost strength to dislodge Muhammad
Muhammad
from Medina, and this defeat caused them to lose their trade with Syria and much of their prestige with it. Watt conjectures that the Meccans at this point began to contemplate that conversion to Islam
Islam
would be the most prudent option.[4] Islamic primary sources[edit] Quran[edit] The main contemporary source of the battle is the 33rd Surah of the Quran. The Sunni Muslim
Muslim
Mufassir Ibn Kathir
Ibn Kathir
mentions that [Quran 33:10–22 (Translated by Yusuf Ali)] is about this incident in his book Tafsir ibn Kathir, and his commentary on this verse mentions the reason and event of the Battle, his commentary is as follows:

Allah
Allah
tells us of the blessings and favors He bestowed upon His believing servants when He diverted their enemies and defeated them in the year when they gathered together and plotted. That was the year of Al-Khandaq, in Shawwal of the year 5 AH according to the well-known correct view. Musa bin `Uqbah and others said that it was in the year 4 AH. The reason why the Confederates came was that a group of the leaders of the Banu Nadir, whom the Messenger of Allah
Allah
had expelled from Al-Madinah to Khaybar, including Sallam bin Abu Al-Huqayq, Sallam bin Mishkam and Kinanah bin Ar-Rabi`, went to Makkah
Makkah
where they met with the leaders of Quraysh
Quraysh
and incited them to make war against the Prophet. They promised that they would give them help and support, and Quraysh
Quraysh
agreed to that. Then they went to the Ghatafan tribe with the same call, and they responded too. The Quraysh
Quraysh
came out with their company of men from various tribes and their followers, under the leadership of Abu Sufyan
Abu Sufyan
Sakhr bin Harb. The Ghatafan were led by `Uyaynah bin Hisn bin Badr. In all they numbered nearly ten thousand. When the Messenger of Allah
Allah
heard that they had set out, he commanded the Muslims to dig a ditch (Khandaq) around Al-Madinah from the east. This was on the advice of Salman Al-Farisi, may Allah
Allah
be pleased with him. So the Muslims did this, working hard, and the Messenger of Allah worked with them, carrying earth away and digging, in the process of which there occurred many miracles and clear signs. The idolators came and made camp to the north of Al-Madinah, near Uhud, and some of them camped on the high ground overlooking Al-Madinah, as Allah
Allah
says: (When they came upon you from above you and from below you,) The Messenger of Allah
Allah
came out with the believers, who numbered nearly three thousand, or it was said that they numbered seven hundred. They had their backs towards (the mountain of) Sal` and were facing the enemy, and the ditch, in which there was no water, was between the two groups, preventing the cavalry and infantry from reaching them. The women and children were in the strongholds of Al-Madinah. Banu Qurayzah, who were a group among the Jews, had a fortress in the south-east of Al-Madinah, and they had made a treaty with the Prophet and were under his protection. They numbered nearly eight hundred fighters. Huyay bin Akhtab An-Nadari went to them and kept trying to persuade them until they broke the treaty and went over to the side of the Confederates against the Messenger of Allah
Allah
. The crisis deepened and things got worse... [ Tafsir ibn Kathir
Tafsir ibn Kathir
on Quran
Quran
33:10][13]

Hadith[edit] The event is referenced in the Sunni, Hadith
Hadith
collection Sahih al-Bukhari, it mentions the death of Sa'd ibn Mu'adh, as follows:

“ On the day of Al-Khandaq (battle of the Trench) the medial arm vein of Sa'd bin Mu'ad was injured and the Prophet pitched a tent in the mosque to look after him. There was another tent for Banu Ghaffar in the mosque and the blood started flowing from Sa'd's tent to the tent of Bani Ghaffar. They shouted, "O occupants of the tent! What is coming from you to us?" They found that Sa'd' wound was bleeding profusely and Sa'd died in his tent. Sahih al-Bukhari, 1:8:452 ”

The Sahih al-Bukhari
Sahih al-Bukhari
collection also mentions that after the battle, Muslims were to carry out offensive attacks against their enemies:[45]

On the day of Al-Ahzab
Al-Ahzab
(i.e. clans) the Prophet said, (After this battle) we will go to attack them (i.e. the infidels) and they will not come to attack us." Sahih Bukhari, 5,59,435

Muhammad
Muhammad
in order to stop the attacks called for a counter attack against the idolaters, He asserted to his followers before: Abdullah bin Abu Aufa reported: The Messenger of Allah
Allah
(ﷺ) at one time when he confronted the enemy, and was waiting for the sun to set, stood up and said, "O people! Do not long for encountering the enemy and supplicate to Allah
Allah
to grant you security. But when you face the enemy, show patience and steadfastness; and keep it in mind that Jannah
Jannah
lies under the shade of the swords." Then he invoked Allah, saying, "O Allah, Revealer of the Book, Disperser of the clouds, Defeater of the Confederates, put our enemy to rout and help us in over-powering them". [Al- Bukhari and Muslim].(46)

The event is also mentioned in the Sahih Muslim
Muslim
Hadith
Hadith
collection as follows:

“ 'Abdullah b. Zubair reported on the Day of the Battle of the Trench: I and Umar
Umar
b. Abu Salama were with women folk in the fort of Hassan (b. Thabit). He at one time leaned for me and I cast a glance and at another time I leaned for him and he would see and I recognised my father as he rode on his horse with his arms towards the tribe of Quraizah. 'Abdullah b. 'Urwa reported from Abdullah b. Zubair: I made a mention of that to my father, whereupon he said: My son, did you see me (on that occasion)? He said: Yes. Thereupon he said: By Allah, Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) addressed me saying: I would sacrifice for thee my father and my mother. Sahih Muslim, 31:4940

Biographical literature[edit] The incident also is mentioned in the historical works by writers of the third and fourth century of the Muslim
Muslim
era.[46] These include the traditional Muslim
Muslim
biographies of Muhammad, and quotes attributed to him (the sira and hadith literature), which provide further information on Muhammad's life.[47] The earliest surviving written sira (biographies of Muhammad
Muhammad
and quotes attributed to him) is Ibn Ishaq's Life of God's Messenger written some 120 to 130 years after Muhammad's death. Although the original work is lost, portions of it survive in the recensions of Ibn Hisham and Al-Tabari.[48] Another early source is the history of Muhammad's campaigns by al-Waqidi (d. 823).[46] See also[edit]

Book: Military career of Muhammad

Islamic military jurisprudence Wall of the Arabs, known as the Khandaq of Shapur in Arabic

Notes[edit]

^ a b Watt, Muhammad
Muhammad
at Medina, p. 36f. ^ Islamic Occasions. "Battle of al - Ahzab (Tribes), Battle of Khandaq (Dirch, Moat, Trench". Retrieved 20 June 2016.  ^ a b c Rodinson, Muhammad: Prophet of Islam, p. 208. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Watt, Muhammad: Prophet and Statesman, pp. 167–174. ^ The Sealed Nectar by Safi-ur-Rahman. ^ a b c d Nomani, Sirat al-Nabi, pp. 368–370. ^ Peters, Muhammad
Muhammad
and the Origins of Islam, p. 211—214. ^ Watt, Muhammad: Prophet and Statesman, p. 135. ^ a b c d e Watt, Muhammad
Muhammad
at Medina, pp. 34–37. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Ramadan, In the Footsteps of the Prophet, pp. 137–145. ^ Sa'd, Ibn (1967). Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir. 2. Pakistan Historical Society. pp. 82–84. ASIN B0007JAWMK.  ^ Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, pp. 196–198. (online) ^ a b Muhammad
Muhammad
Saed Abdul-Rahman, Tafsir Ibn Kathir
Ibn Kathir
Juz' 21 (Part 21): Al-Ankaboot 46 to Al-Azhab 30 2nd Edition, p. 122, MSA Publication Limited, 2009, ISBN 1861797338. (online) ^ a b c d Lings, Muhammad: his life based on the earliest sources, pp. 215f. ^ a b al-Halabi, al-Sirat al-Halbiyyah, p. 19. ^ a b c Rodinson, p. 209. ^ Glasse & Smith, New Encyclopedia of Islam: A Revised Edition of the Concise Encyclopedia of Islam, p. 81. ^ a b Rodinson, pp. 209f. ^ Tabqaar ibn-e-Sadd 1:412, Anwaar Mohammadiya minal mawahib Page 84. ^ Zafrulla Khan, Muhammad, Seal of the Prophets, pp. 177–179. ^ Nomani, p. 382. ^ a b c d Maududi, The Meaning of the Quran, p. 64f. ^ a b c d e f Lings, pp. 221–223. ^ a b Watt, "Kurayza, Banu" Encyclopaedia of Islam. ^ Heck, "Arabia Without Spices: An Alternate Hypothesis", pp. 547–567. ^ a b Peterson, Muhammad. Prophet of God, p. 123f. ^ a b c d e f g Lings, pp. 224–226. ^ Peters Muhammad
Muhammad
and the Origins of Islam, p. 221f. ^ Lings, pp. 227f. ^ a b Watt, Muhammad: Prophet and Statesman, pp. 170–176. ^ Deuteronomy
Deuteronomy
20:10–14, New International Version. ^ a b Guillaume, The Life of Muhammad: A Translation of Ibn Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah, p. 461-464. ^ Muir, A Life of Mahomet and History of Islam
Islam
to the Era of the Hegira, pp. 272–274. ^ Peters, Muhammad
Muhammad
and the Origins of Islam, pp. 222–224. ^ Stillman, p. 141f. ^ a b c Maxime Rodinson, Mohammad, (1961) Penguin Books 1971 p.213. ^ Kister, "The Massacre of the Banu Quraiza", p. 93f. ^ Inamdar, Muhammad
Muhammad
and the Rise of Islam, pp. 166f. ^ Muir (p. 277) (Ibn Ishaq, Biography of Muhammad). ^ Lecker, "On Arabs of the Banū Kilāb executed together with the Banū Qurayza", p. 69. ^ Kister, "The Massacre of the Banu Quraiza", pp. 95f. ^ a b Rodinson, Muhammad: Prophet of Islam, p. 213. ^ Ramadan, p. 146. ^ Watt, Muhammad: Prophet and Statesman, p. 96. ^ [Dr. M. Sa’id Ramadan Al-Buti – "Jurisprudence of Muhammad’s Biography", p. 73, English edition, published by Azhar University of Egypt
Egypt
(1988)] ^ a b Watt, Muhammad
Muhammad
at Mecca, p. xi. ^ Reeves, Muhammad
Muhammad
in Europe: A Thousand Years of Western Myth-Making, p. 6–7. ^ Donner, Narratives of Islamic Origins: The Beginnings of Islamic Historical Writing, p. 132.

References[edit]

Primary sources

Guillaume, Alfred, The Life of Muhammad: A Translation of Ibn Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah. Oxford University Press, 1955. ISBN 0-19-636033-1

Secondary sources

Buchanan, Allen E.; Margaret Moore (2003). 'States, Nations, and Borders: The Ethics of Making Boundaries. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-52575-6.  Donner, Fred (1998). Narratives of Islamic Origins: The Beginnings of Islamic Historical Writing. Darwin Press. ISBN 0-87850-127-4.  Glasse, Cyril; Huston Smith
Huston Smith
(2003). New Encyclopedia of Islam: A Revised Edition of the Concise Encyclopedia of Islam. Rowman Altamira. ISBN 0759101906.  Heck, Gene W. "Arabia Without Spices: An Alternate Hypothesis", in: Journal of the American Oriental Society 123 (2003), p. 547–567. Lings, Martin (1983). Muhammad: his life based on the earliest sources. Allen & Unwin. ISBN 0-04-297042-3.  Maududi, Sayyid Abul Ala (1967). The Meaning of the Quran. Lahore: Islamic Publications Limited. ISBN 1-56744-134-3.  Muir, William, A Life of Mahomet and History of Islam
Islam
to the Era of the Hegira, vol. 3. London: Smith, Elder & Co, 1861. Nomani, Shibli (1970). Sirat al-Nabi. Karachi: Pakistan Historical Society.  Peters, Francis E. (1994). Muhammad
Muhammad
and the Origins of Islam. Albany: SUNY Press. ISBN 0-7914-1875-8.  Peterson, Daniel C. (2007). Muhammad. Prophet of God. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing co. ISBN 0-8028-0754-2.  Ramadan, Tariq (2007). In the Footsteps of the Prophet. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-530880-8.  Reeves, Minou (2003). Muhammad
Muhammad
in Europe: A Thousand Years of Western Myth-Making. NYU Press. ISBN 978-0-8147-7564-6.  Rodinson, Maxime (2002). Muhammad: Prophet of Islam. Tauris Parke Paperbacks. ISBN 1-86064-827-4.  Watt, William M. (1953). Muhammad
Muhammad
at Mecca. Oxford University Press. ASIN: B000IUA52A.  Watt, William M. (1956). Muhammad
Muhammad
at Medina. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-577307-1.  Watt, William M. (1974). Muhammad: Prophet and Statesman. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-881078-4.  Zafrulla Khan, Muhammad
Muhammad
(1980). Muhammad, Seal of the Prophets. Routledge. ISBN 0-7100-0610-1.  Movie Muhammad: The Last Prophet

External links[edit]

The Battle Of The Trench Al-Ahzab
Al-Ahzab
(the Confederates) Invasion A Restatement of the History of Islam
Islam
and Muslims;The Battle of the Trench
Trench
by Sayed Ali Battle of Ahzab (غزوة الاحزاب)

v t e

People and things in the Quran

Characters

Non-humans

Allâh ("The God")

Names of Allah
Allah
found in the Quran

Beings in Paradise

Ghilmān or Wildān Ḥūr

Animals

Related

The baqarah (cow) of Israelites The dhi’b (wolf) that Jacob
Jacob
feared could attack Joseph The fīl (elephant) of the Abyssinians) Ḥimār (Domesticated donkey) The hud-hud (hoopoe) of Solomon The kalb (dog) of the sleepers of the cave The nāqaṫ (she-camel) of Saleh The nūn (fish or whale) of Jonah

Non-related

Ḥimār (Wild ass) Qaswarah
Qaswarah
('Lion', 'Beast of prey' or 'Hunter')

Jinns

‘Ifrîṫ ("Strong one") Mârid ("Rebellious one")

Iblīs the Shayṭān (Devil)

Qarīn

Prophets

Mentioned

Ādam (Adam) Al-Yasa‘ (Elisha) Ayyūb (Job) Dāwūd (David) Dhūl-Kifl (Ezekiel?) Hārūn (Aaron) Hūd (Eber?) Idrīs (Enoch?) Ilyās (Elijah) ‘Imrān (Joachim the father of Maryam) Is-ḥāq (Isaac) Ismā‘īl (Ishmael)

Dhabih Ullah

Isma'il Ṣādiq al-Wa‘d (Fulfiller of the Promise) Lūṭ (Lot) Ṣāliḥ Shu‘ayb (Jethro, Reuel or Hobab?) Sulaymān ibn Dāwūd ( Solomon
Solomon
son of David) ‘ Uzair
Uzair
(Ezra?) Yaḥyā ibn Zakariyyā ( John the Baptist
John the Baptist
the son of Zechariah) Ya‘qūb (Jacob)

Isrâ’îl (Israel)

Yūnus (Jonah)

Dhūn-Nūn ("He of the Fish
Fish
(or Whale)" or "Owner of the Fish
Fish
(or Whale)") Ṣāḥib al-Ḥūṫ ("Companion of the Whale")

Yūsuf ibn Ya‘qūb ( Joseph
Joseph
son of Jacob) Zakariyyā (Zechariah)

Ulu-l-‘Azm

Muḥammad

Aḥmad Other names and titles of Muhammad

ʿĪsā (Jesus)

Al-Masīḥ (The Messiah) Ibn Maryam (Son of Mary)

Mūsā Kalīmullāh ( Moses
Moses
He who spoke to God) Ibrāhīm Khalīlullāh ( Abraham
Abraham
Friend of God) Nūḥ (Noah)

Debatable ones

Dhūl-Qarnain (Cyrus the Great?) Luqmân Maryam (Mary) Ṭâlûṫ (Saul or Gideon?)

Implied

Irmiyā (Jeremiah) Ṣamû’îl (Samuel) Yūsha‘ ibn Nūn (Joshua, companion and successor of Moses)

People of Prophets

Evil ones

Āzar (possibly Terah) Fir‘awn ( Pharaoh
Pharaoh
of Moses' time) Hāmān Jâlûṫ (Goliath) Qārūn (Korah, cousin of Moses) As-Sāmirī Abî Lahab Slayers of Saleh's she-camel (Qaddar ibn Salif and Musda' ibn Dahr)

Good ones

Adam's immediate relatives

Martyred son Wife

Believer of Ya-Sin Family of Noah

Father Lamech Mother Shamkhah bint Anush or Betenos

Luqman's son People of Aaron and Moses

Believer of Fir'aun Family (Hizbil/Hizqil ibn Sabura) Imra’aṫ Fir‘awn (Âsiyá bint Muzâḥim or Bithiah) Khidr Magicians of the Pharaoh Moses' wife Moses' sister-in-law Mother Sister

People of Abraham

Mother Abiona or Amtelai the daughter of Karnebo Ishmael's mother Isaac's mother

People of Jesus

Disciples (including Peter) Mary's mother Zechariah's wife

People of Joseph

Brothers (including Binyāmin (Benjamin) and Simeon) Egyptians

‘Azîz (Potiphar, Qatafir or Qittin) Malik (King Ar-Rayyân ibn Al-Walîd)) Wife of ‘Azîz (Zulaykhah)

Mother

People of Solomon

Mother Queen of Sheba Vizier

Zayd

Implied or not specified

Abrahah Bal'am/Balaam Barsisa Caleb or Kaleb the companion of Joshua Luqman's son Nebuchadnezzar II Nimrod Rahmah the wife of Ayyub Shaddad

Groups

Mentioned

Aş-ḥāb al-Jannah

People of Paradise People of the Burnt Garden

Aş-ḥāb as-Sabṫ (Companions of the Sabbath) Christian
Christian
apostles

Ḥawāriyyūn (Disciples of Jesus)

Companions of Noah's Ark Aş-ḥāb al-Kahf war-Raqīm (Companions of the Cave and Al-Raqaim? Companions of the Elephant People of al-Ukhdūd People of a township in Surah Ya-Sin People of Yathrib
Yathrib
or Medina Qawm Lûṭ (People of Sodom and Gomorrah) Nation of Noah

Tribes, ethnicities or families

A‘rāb (Arabs or Bedouins)

ʿĀd (people of Hud) Companions of the Rass Qawm Ṫubba‘ (People of Tubba')

People of Saba’ or Sheba

Quraysh Thamûd (people of Saleh)

Aṣ-ḥâb al-Ḥijr ("Companions of the Stoneland")

Ajam Ar- Rûm (literally "The Romans") Banî Isrâ’îl (Children of Israel) Mu’ṫafikāṫ (The overthrown cities of Sodom and Gomorrah) People of Ibrahim People of Ilyas People of Nuh People of Shuaib

Ahl Madyan People of Madyan) Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
("Companions of the Wood")

Qawm Yûnus (People of Jonah) Ya'juj and Ma'juj/Gog and Magog Ahl al-Bayṫ ("People of the Household")

Household of Abraham

Brothers of Yūsuf Daughters of Abraham's nephew Lot (Ritha, Za'ura, et al.) Progeny of Imran Household of Moses Household of Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib ibn Hashim

Daughters of Muhammad Wives of Muhammad

Household of Salih

People of Fir'aun Current Ummah of Islam
Islam
(Ummah of Muhammad)

Aṣ-ḥāb Muḥammad (Companions of Muhammad)

Muhajirun (Emigrants) Anṣār Muslims of Medina
Medina
who helped Muhammad
Muhammad
and his Meccan followers, literally 'Helpers')

People of Mecca

Umm Jamil (wife of Abu Lahab)

Children of Ayyub Dead son of Sulaiman Qabil/Cain (son of Adam) Wali'ah or Wa'ilah/Waala (wife of Nuh) Walihah or Wahilah (wife of Lut) Ya’jūj wa Ma’jūj (Gog and Magog) Yam or Kan'an (son of Nuh)

Implicitly mentioned

Amalek Ahl al-Suffa (People of the Verandah) Banu Nadir Banu Qaynuqa Banu Qurayza Iranian people Umayyad Dynasty Aus & Khazraj People of Quba

Religious groups

Ahl al-dhimmah (Dhimmi) Kâfirûn (Infidels) Zoroastrians Munāfiqūn (Hypocrites) Muslims People of the Book
Book
(Ahl al-Kiṫāb)

Naṣārā (Christian(s) or People of the Injil)

Ruhban ( Christian
Christian
monks) Qissis ( Christian
Christian
priest)

Yahūd (Jews)

Ahbār (Jewish scholars) Rabbani/Rabbi

Sabians

Polytheists

Meccan polytheists at the time of Muhammad Mesopotamian polytheists at the time of Abraham
Abraham
and Lot

Locations

Mentioned

Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
("The Land The Blessed")

Al-Arḍ Al-Muqaddasah ("The Land The Holy")

In the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
(excluding Madyan)

Al-Aḥqāf ("The Sandy Plains," or "the Wind-curved Sand-hills")

Iram dhāṫ al-‘Imād (Iram of the Pillars)

Al-Madīnah (formerly Yathrib) ‘Arafāṫ Al-Ḥijr (Hegra) Badr Ḥunayn Makkah
Makkah
(Mecca)

Bakkah Ka‘bah (Kaaba) Maqām Ibrāhīm (Station of Abraham) Safa and Marwah

Saba’ (Sheba)

‘Arim Saba’ (Dam of Sheba)

Rass

Jahannam
Jahannam
(Hell) Jannah
Jannah
(Paradise, literally 'Garden') In Mesopotamia:

Al-Jūdiyy

Munzalanm-Mubārakan ("Place-of-Landing Blessed")

Bābil (Babylon) Qaryaṫ Yūnus ("Township of Jonah," that is Nineveh)

Door of Hittah Madyan (Midian) Majma' al-Bahrain Miṣr (Mainland Egypt) Salsabîl (A river in Paradise) Sinai Region or Tīh Desert

Al-Wād Al-Muqaddas Ṭuwan (The Holy Valley of Tuwa)

Al-Wādil-Ayman (The valley on the 'righthand' side of the Valley of Tuwa and Mount Sinai)

Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai
or Mount Tabor

Implied

Antioch

Antakya

Arabia Ayla Barrier of Dhul-Qarnayn Bayt al-Muqaddas
Bayt al-Muqaddas
& 'Ariha Bilād ar-Rāfidayn (Mesopotamia) Canaan Cave of Seven Sleepers Dār al-Nadwa Al-Ḥijāz (literally "The Barrier")

Black Stone
Black Stone
(Al-Ḥajar al-Aswad) & Al-Hijr of Isma'il Cave of Hira
Hira
& Ghar al-Thawr (Cave of the Bull) Ta'if

Hudaybiyyah Jordan River Nile
Nile
River Palestine River Paradise
Paradise
of Shaddad

Religious locations

Bay'a (Church) Mihrab Monastery Masjid (Mosque, literally "Place of Prostration")

Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
("The Monument the Sacred") Al-Masjid Al-Aqṣā (Al-Aqsa Mosque, literally "The Place-of-Prostration The Farthest") Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred Mosque
Mosque
of Mecca) Masjid al-Dirar A Mosque
Mosque
in the area of Medina, possibly:

Masjid Qubâ’ (Quba Mosque) The Prophet's Mosque

Salat (Synagogue)

Plant
Plant
matter

Fruits

Ḥabb dhul-‘aṣf (Corn of the husk) Rummān (Pomegranate) Ṫīn (Fig) Ukul khamṭ (Bitter fruit or food of Sheba) Zayṫūn (Olive) In Paradise

Forbidden fruit of Adam

Bushes, trees or plants

Plants of Sheba

Athl (Tamarisk) Sidr (lote-tree)

Līnah (Tender palm tree) Nakhl (date palm) Rayḥān (Scented plant) Sidraṫ al-Munṫahā Zaqqūm

Texts

Al-Injîl (The Gospel
Gospel
of Jesus) Al-Qur’ân (The Book
Book
of Muhammad) Ṣuḥuf-i Ibrâhîm (Scroll(s) of Abraham) Aṫ-Ṫawrâṫ (The Torah)

Ṣuḥuf-i-Mûsâ (Scroll(s) of Moses) Tablets of Stone

Az-Zabûr (The Psalms
Psalms
of David) Umm al-Kiṫâb ("Mother of the Book(s)")

Objects of people or beings

Heavenly Food of Christian
Christian
Apostles Noah's Ark Staff of Musa Ṫābūṫ as-Sakīnah (Casket of Shekhinah) Throne of Bilqis Trumpet of Israfil

Mentioned idols (cult images)

'Ansāb Idols of Israelites:

Baal The ‘ijl (golden calf statue) of Israelites

Idols of Noah's people:

Nasr Suwā‘ Wadd Yaghūth Ya‘ūq

Idols of Quraysh:

Al-Lāṫ Al-‘Uzzá Manāṫ

Jibṫ and Ṭâghûṫ

Celestial bodies

Maṣābīḥ (literally 'lamps'):

Al-Qamar (The Moon) Kawâkib (Planets)

Al-Arḍ (The Earth)

Nujūm (Stars)

Ash-Shams (The Sun)

Liquids

Mā’ ( Water
Water
or fluid)

Nahr (River) Yamm ( River
River
or sea)

Sharâb (Drink)

Events

Battle of al-Aḥzāb ("the Confederates") Battle of Badr Battle of Hunayn Battle of Khaybar Battle of Tabouk Battle of Uhud Conquest of Mecca Incident of Ifk Laylat al-Mabit Mubahala Sayl al-‘Arim
Sayl al-‘Arim
(Flood of the Great Dam of Marib
Marib
in Sheba) The Farewell Pilgrimage
The Farewell Pilgrimage
(Hujja al-Wada') Treaty of Hudaybiyyah Umrah al-Qaza Yawm al-Dār

Implied

Event of Ghadir Khumm

Note: The names are sorted alphabetically. Standard form: Islamic name / Biblical name (title or r

.