Battle of the
Trench (Muslims vs Quraish)
Part of the Muslim–
Ali ibn Abi Talib
Ali ibn Abi Talib (left) and
Amr ibn Abd al-Wud
Amr ibn Abd al-Wud (right)
during the Battle of the Trench
Shawwal – Dhu al-Qi'dah, 5 AH (in the ancient (intercalated) Arabic
calendar) (January – February 627).
Surrounding perimeter of Medina
Failure of siege; decisive
The withdrawal of the confederate tribes.
the Ansar of Khazraj and Aws
Muhajirun of various origins including significant portions of
Quraysh Immigrants and Banu Qais
Quraysh of Mecca
Arab tribes of
Banu Qaynuqa and Banu Nadir
Arab tribes such as Banu Murra, Khaybar, Huyyay ibn Auf Murri,
Banu Ghatafan, Bani Assad, Banu Shuja, and more (see Confederates)
Commanders and leaders
Ali Ibn Abi Talib
Salman the Persian
Amr ibn Abd al-Wud †
Casualties and losses
Campaigns of Muhammad
Ghazwah (expeditions where he took part)
Site of the Battle of the Trench, Medina
Mosque Salman pharsi, Battle of the Trench, Medina
Battle of the
Battle of Khandaq (Battle of the Trench)
The Battle of the
Trench (Arabic: غزوة الخندق,
translit. Ghazwah al-Khandaq) also known as the Battle of the
Confederates (Arabic: غزوة الاحزاب,
translit. Ghazwah al-Ahzab), was a 30-day-long siege of Yathrib
(now Medina) by
Arab and Jewish tribes. The strength of the
confederate armies is estimated around 10,000 men with six hundred
horses and some camels, while the Medinan defenders numbered 3,000.
The largely outnumbered defenders of Medina, mainly Muslims led by
Islamic prophet Muhammad, dug a trench on the suggestion of Salman
Farsi, which together with Medina's natural fortifications,
rendered the confederate cavalry (consisting of horses and camels)
useless, locking the two sides in a stalemate. Hoping to make several
attacks at once, the confederates persuaded the Muslim-allied Medinan
Jews, Banu Qurayza, to attack the city from the south. However,
Muhammad's diplomacy derailed the negotiations, and broke up the
confederacy against him. The well-organised defenders, the sinking of
confederate morale, and poor weather conditions caused the siege to
end in a fiasco.
The siege was a "battle of wits", in which the Muslims tactically
overcame their opponents while suffering very few casualties. Efforts
to defeat the Muslims failed, and
Islam became influential in the
region. As a consequence, the
Muslim army besieged the area of the
Banu Qurayza tribe, leading to their surrender and enslavement or
The defeat caused the Meccans to lose their trade and much of their
2.1 Reason for battle
3 The Confederates
Siege of Medina
5.1 Banu Qurayza
5.2 Crisis in Medina
5.4 Collapse of the Confederacy
Siege and demise of the Banu Qurayza
8 Islamic primary sources
8.3 Biographical literature
9 See also
12 External links
The battle is named after "trench", or khandaq, that was dug by
Muslims in preparation for the battle. The word khandaq (خندق) is
the Arabised form of the Persian word kandak (meaning "that which has
been dug"). Salman farsi the Persian advised
Muhammad to dig a
trench around the city. The battle is also referred to as the Battle
of Confederates (غزوة الاحزاب). The
Qur'an uses the term
confederates (الاحزاب) in sura Al-Ahzab[Quran 33:9–32]
to denote the confederacy of non-believers and
Jews against Islam.
After their expulsion from Mecca, the Muslims fought the Meccan
Quraysh at the
Battle of Badr
Battle of Badr in 624, and at the
Battle of Uhud
Battle of Uhud in
625. Although the Muslims neither won nor were defeated at the
Battle of Uhud, their military strength was gradually growing. In
Muhammad raised a force of 300 men and 10 horses to meet the
Quraysh army of 1,000 at Badr for the second time. Although no
fighting occurred, the coastal tribes were impressed with Muslim
Muhammad also tried, with limited success, to break up many
alliances against the
Muslim expansion. Nevertheless, he was unable to
prevent the Meccan one.
As they had in the battles of Badr and Uhud, the
Muslim army again
used strategic methods against their opponents (at Badr, the Muslims
surrounded the wells, but did not deprive their opponents of water
since Ali did not want to follow the footsteps of the Meccan army; at
the Battle of Uhud, Muslims made strategic use of the hills). In this
battle they dug a trench to render the enemy cavalry ineffective.
Reason for battle
The reason for this battle was to defend
Medina from attack, after
Banu Nazir and
Banu Qaynuqa tribes formed an alliance with the Quraysh
to attack him as revenge for expelling them from
Medina during the
Banu Qaynuqa and Invasion of Banu Nadir. The
Ibn Kathir states: "The reason why the Confederates
came was that a group of the leaders of the Banu Nadir, whom the
Allah had expelled from Al-Madinah to Khaybar, including
Sallam bin Abu Al-Huqayq, Sallam bin Mishkam and Kinanah bin Ar-Rabi`,
Makkah where they met with the leaders of
Quraysh and incited
them to make war against the Prophet"
Early in 627, the
Banu Nadir met with the
Quraysh of Makkah. Huyayy
ibn Akhtab, along with other leaders from Khaybar, travelled to swear
Safwan ibn Umayya at Makkah.
The bulk of the Confederate armies were gathered by the
Makkah, led by Abu Sufyan, who fielded 4,000 foot soldiers, 300
horsemen, and 1,000–1,500 men on camels.
Banu Nadir began rousing the nomads of Najd. The Nadir enlisted
Banu Ghatafan by paying them half of their harvest. This
contingent, the second largest, added a strength of about 2,000 men
and 300 horsemen led by Unaina bin Hasan Fazari. The
Bani Assad also
agreed to join, led by Tuleha Asadi. From the Banu Sulaym, the
Nadir secured 700 men, though this force would likely have been much
larger had not some of its leaders been sympathetic towards Islam. The
Bani Amir, who had a pact with Muhammad, refused to join.
Other tribes included the Banu Murra, with 400 men led by Hars ibn Auf
Murri, and the Banu Shuja, with 700 men led by Sufyan ibn Abd Shams.
In total, the strength of the Confederate armies, though not agreed
upon by scholars, is estimated to have included around 10,000 men and
six hundred horsemen. In January 627 the army, which was led by Abu
Sufyan, marched on Medina.
In accordance with the plan the armies began marching towards Medina,
Meccans from the south (along the coast) and the others from the east.
At the same time horsemen from the
Banu Khuza'a left to warn
the invading army.
The men from
Banu Khuza'a reached
Muhammad in four days, warning him
of the Confederate armies that were to arrive in a week. Muhammad
gathered the Medinans to discuss the best strategy of overcoming the
enemy. Meeting the enemy in the open (which led to victory at Badr),
and waiting for them inside the city (a lesson learnt from the defeat
at Uhud) were both suggested. Ultimately, the outnumbered Muslims
opted to engage in a defensive battle by digging deep trenches to act
as a barrier along the northern front. The tactic of a defensive
trench was introduced by Salman the Persian. Every capable
Muhammad contributed to digging the massive trench in
six days. The ditch was dug on the northern side only, as the rest
Medina was surrounded by rocky mountains and trees, impenetrable to
large armies (especially cavalry). The digging of the ditch coincided
with a near-famine in Medina. Women and children were moved to the
inner city. The Medinans harvested all their crops early, so
the Confederate armies would have to rely on their own food
Muhammad established his military headquarters at the hillock of Sala'
and the army was arrayed there; this position would give the
Muslims an advantage if the enemy crossed the trench.
The final army that would defend the city from the invasion consisted
of 3,000 men, and included all inhabitants of
Medina over the age
of 14, except the
Banu Qurayza (the Qurayza did supply the Muslims
with some instruments for digging the trench).
Siege of Medina
The siege of
Medina began in January 627 and lasted for 27 days.
Since sieges were uncommon in Arabian warfare, the arriving
confederates were unprepared to deal with the trenches dug by the
Muslims. The Confederates tried to attack with horsemen in hopes of
forcing a passage, but the Medinans were rigidly entrenched,
preventing such a crossing. Both of the armies gathered on either
side of the trench and spent two or three weeks exchanging insults in
prose and verse, backed up with arrows fired from a comfortable
distance. According to Rodinson, there were three dead among the
attackers and five among the defenders. On the other hand, the harvest
had been gathered and the besiegers had some trouble finding food for
their horses, which proved of no use to them in the attack.
Quraysh veterans grew impatient with the deadlock. A group of
militants led by ‘Amr ibn ‘Abd Wudd (who was thought to be equal
to a thousand men in fighting) and
Ikrimah ibn Abi Jahl attempted
to thrust through the trench and managed to effect a crossing,
occupying a marshy area near the hillock of Sala. 'Amr challenged the
Muslims to a duel. In response,
Ali ibn Abi Talib
Ali ibn Abi Talib accepted the
challenge, and was sent by
Muhammad to fight. Both the fighters got
lost in the dust as the duel became intense. Finally, the soldiers
heard scream(s) which hinted decisive blows, but it was unclear which
of the two was successful. The slogan, 'Allahu Akbar' (
God is the
greatest) from the dust confirmed Ali's victory. The confederates were
forced to withdraw in a state of panic and confusion. Although the
Confederates lost only three men during the encounter, they failed to
accomplish anything important and suffered an extreme moral blow with
the loss of Amr.
The Confederate army made several other attempts to cross the trench
during the night but repeatedly failed. Although the confederates
could have deployed their infantry over the whole length of the
trench, they were unwilling to engage the Muslims at close quarter as
the former regarded the latter as superior in hand-to-hand
fighting. As the
Muslim army was well dug in behind the embankment
made from the earth which had been taken from the ditch and prepared
to bombard attackers with stones and arrows, any attack could cause
The Confederates then attempted several simultaneous attacks, in
particular by trying to persuade the
Banu Qurayza to attack the
Muslims from the south. From the Confederates, Huyayy ibn Akhtab, a
Khaybarian, the leader of the exiled tribe Banu Nadir, returned to
Medina seeking their support against the Muslims.
So far the
Banu Qurayza had tried their best to remain neutral, and
were very hesitant about joining the Confederates since they had
earlier made a pact with Muhammad. When Akhtab approached them,
their leader refused to allow him entry.
Akhtab eventually managed to enter and persuade them that the Muslims
would surely be overwhelmed. The sight of the vast Confederate
armies, surging over the land with soldiers and horses as far as the
eye could see, swung the Qurayza opinion in the favour of the
News of the Qurayzah's supposed renunciation of the pact with Muhammad
leaked out, and
Umar promptly informed Muhammad. Such suspicions were
reinforced by the movement of enemy troops towards the strongholds of
Muhammad became anxious about their conduct,
and realised the grave potential danger the Qurayza posed. Because of
his pact with the Qurayza, he had not bothered to make defensive
preparations along the Muslims' border with the tribe. The Qurayza
also possessed weaponry: 1,500 swords, 2,000 lances, 300 suits of
armour, and 500 shields.
Muhammad sent three leading Muslims to bring him details of the recent
developments. He advised the men to openly declare their findings,
should they find the
Banu Qurayza to be loyal, so as to increase the
morale of the
Muslim fighters. However, he warned against spreading
the news of a possible breach of the pact on the Qurayza's part, so as
to avoid any panic within
The leaders found that the pact indeed had been renounced and tried in
vain to convince the Qurayza to revert by reminding them of the fate
Banu Nadir and
Banu Qaynuqa at the hands of Muhammad. The
findings of the leaders were signalled to
Muhammad in a metaphor:
"Adal and Qarah". Because the people of Adal and Qarah had betrayed
the Muslims and killed them at the opportune moment,
the metaphor means the Qurayza were thought to be about to do the
Crisis in Medina
Muhammad attempted to hide his knowledge of the activities of Banu
Qurayza; however, rumours soon spread of a massive assault on the city
Medina from Qurayza's side which severely demoralised the
The Muslims found themselves in greater difficulties by day. Food was
running short, and nights were colder. The lack of sleep made matters
worse. So tense was the situation that, for the first time, the
canonical daily prayers were neglected by the
Muslim community. Only
at night, when the attacks stopped due to darkness, could they resume
their regular worship. According to Ibn Ishaq, the situation
became serious and fear was everywhere.
Quran describes the situation in surah Al-Ahzab:
Behold! they came on you from above you and from below you, and
behold, the eyes became dim and the hearts gaped up to the throats,
and ye imagined various (vain) thoughts about Allah! In that situation
were the Believers tried: they were shaken as by a tremendous shaking.
And behold! The
Hypocrites and those in whose hearts is a disease
(even) say: "
Allah and His Messenger promised us nothing but
delusion!" Behold! A party among them said: "Ye men of Yathrib! ye
cannot stand (the attack)! therefore go back!" And a band of them ask
for leave of Muhammad, saying, "Truly our houses are bare and
exposed," though they were not exposed they intended nothing but to
run away. And if an entry had been effected to them from the sides of
the (city), and they had been incited to sedition, they would
certainly have brought it to pass, with none but a brief delay! ...
They think that the Confederates have not withdrawn; and if the
Confederates should come (again), they would wish they were in the
deserts (wandering) among the Bedouins, and seeking news about you
(from a safe distance); and if they were in your midst, they would
fight but little... When the Believers saw the Confederate forces,
they said: "This is what
Allah and his Messenger had promised us, and
Allah and His Messenger told us what was true." And it only added to
their faith and their zeal in obedience.
[Quran 33:10–22 (Translated by Yusuf Ali)]
Immediately after hearing the rumours about the Qurayza,
sent 100 men to the inner city for its protection. Later he sent 300
horsemen (cavalry was not needed at the trench) as well to protect the
city. The loud voices, in which the troops prayed every night,
created the illusion of a large force.
The crisis showed
Muhammad that many of his men had reached the limits
of their endurance. He sent word to Ghatafan, trying to pay for their
defection and offering them a third of Medina's date harvest if they
withdrew. Although the Ghatafan demanded half, they eventually agreed
to negotiating with
Muhammad on those terms. Before
Muhammad began the
order of drafting the agreement, he consulted the Medinan leaders.
They sharply rejected the terms of the agreement, protesting
Medina had never sunk to such levels of ignominy. The negotiations
were broken off. While the Ghatafan did not retreat they had
compromised themselves by entering into negotiations with Medina, and
the Confederacy's internal dissension had thereby been increased.
At about that point,
Muhammad received a visit from Nuaym ibn Masud,
Arab leader who was well respected by the entire confederacy, but
who had, unknown to them, secretly converted to Islam.
him to end the siege by creating discord amongst Confederates
The whole was a battle of wits in which Muslims had the best of it;
without cost to themselves they weakened the enemy and increased the
— William Montgomery Watt
Nuaym then came up with an efficient stratagem. He first went to the
Banu Qurayza and warned them about the intentions of the rest of the
Confederacy. If the siege fails, he said, the Confederacy will not be
afraid to abandon the Jews, leaving them at the mercy of Muhammad. The
Qurayza should thus demand Confederate leaders as hostages in return
for cooperation. This advice touched upon the fears the Qurayza had
Next Nuaym went to Abu Sufyan, the Confederate leader, warning him
that the Qurayza had defected to Muhammad. He stated that the tribe
intended to ask the Confederacy for hostages, ostensibly in return for
cooperation, but really to hand over to Muhammad. Thus the Confederacy
should not give a single man as hostage. Nuaym repeated the same
message to other tribes in the Confederacy.
Collapse of the Confederacy
Nuaym's stratagem worked. After consulting, the Confederate leaders
Ikrimah to the Qurayza, signalling a united invasion of Medina.
The Qurayza, however, demanded hostages as a guarantee that the
Confederacy would not desert them. The Confederacy, considering that
the Qurayza might give the hostage to Muhammad, refused. Messages were
repeatedly sent back and forth between the parties, but each held to
its position stubbornly.
Abu Sufyan summoned Huyayy ibn Akhtab, informing him of Qurayza's
response. Huyayy was taken aback, and
Abu Sufyan branded him as a
"traitor". Fearing for his life, Huyayy fled to the Qurayza's
The Bedouins, the Ghatafan and other Confederates from
already been compromised by Muhammad's negotiations. They had taken
part in the expedition in hopes of plunder, rather than any particular
prejudice against Islam. They lost hope as chances of success
dwindled, uninterested in continuing the siege. The two confederate
armies were marked by recriminations and mutual distrust.
The provisions of the Confederate armies were running out. Horses and
camels were dying out of hunger and wounds. For days the weather had
been exceptionally cold and wet. Violent winds blew out the camp
fires, taking away from the Confederate army their source of heat. The
Muslim camp, however, was sheltered from such winds. The enemy’s
tents were torn up, their fires were extinguished, the sand and rain
beat in their faces, and they were terrified by the portents against
them. They had already well nigh fallen out among themselves. During
the night the Confederate armies withdrew, and by morning the ground
was cleared of all enemy forces.
Siege and demise of the Banu Qurayza
Main article: Invasion of Banu Qurayza
Following the retreat of the Confederate army, the Banu Qurayza
neighbourhoods were besieged by the Muslims, in revenge. After a
25-day siege of their neighbourhood the
Banu Qurayza unconditionally
surrendered. When the
Banu Qurayza tribe surrendered, the
seized their stronghold and their possessions. On the request of
the Banu Aus, who were allied to the Qurayza,
Muhammad chose one of
them, Sa'ad ibn Mu'adh, as an arbitrator to pronounce judgment upon
them. Sa'ad, who would later die of his wounds from the battle,
decreed the sentence according to the Torah, in which the men shall be
killed and women and children enslaved.
Deuteronomy 20:10–14 says:
When you march up to attack a city, make its people an offer of peace.
If they accept and open their gates, all the people in it shall be
subject to forced labor and shall work for you. If they refuse to make
peace and they engage you in battle, lay siege to that city. When the
God delivers it into your hand, put to the sword all the men
in it. As for the women, the children, the livestock and everything
else in the city, you may take these as plunder for yourselves. And
you may use the plunder the Lord your
God gives you from your
Muhammad approved of this decision, and the next day the sentence was
The men – numbering between 400 and 900 – were bound and
placed under the custody of
Muhammad ibn Maslamah, while the women and
children were placed under Abdullah ibn Salam, a former rabbi who had
converted to Islam.
Ibn Ishaq describes the killing of the
Banu Qurayza men as follows:
Then they surrendered, and the Apostle confined them in
Medina in the
quarter of d. al-Harith, a woman of B. al-Najjar. Then the Apostle
went out to the market of
Medina (which is still its market today) and
dug trenches in it. Then he sent for them and struck off their heads
in those trenches as they were brought out to him in batches. Among
them was the enemy of
Allah Huyayy b. Akhtab and Ka`b b. Asad their
chief. There were 600 or 700 in all, though some put the figure as
high as 800 or 900. As they were being taken out in batches to the
Apostle they asked Ka`b what he thought would be done with them. He
replied, 'Will you never understand? Don't you see that the summoner
never stops and those who are taken away do not return? By
Allah it is
death!' This went on until the Apostle made an end of them. Huyayy was
brought out wearing a flowered robe in which he had made holes about
the size of the finger-tips in every part so that it should not be
taken from him as spoil, with his hands bound to his neck by a rope.
When he saw the Apostle he said, 'By God, I do not blame myself for
opposing you, but he who forsakes
God will be forsaken.' Then he went
to the men and said, 'God's command is right. A book and a decree, and
massacre have been written against the Sons of Israel.' Then he sat
down and his head was struck off.
A number of individuals were spared when various Muslims intervened on
their behalf. Several accounts note Muhammad's companions as
Umar and Al-Zubayr in particular, and that each clan of
the Aws was also charged with killing a group of Qurayza men.
According to Ibn Ishaq's biography of Muhammad, one woman who had
thrown a millstone from the battlements during the siege and killed
one of the
Muslim besiegers, was also beheaded along with the men.
'Ã'isha, one of Mohammad's wives, is cited as describing the woman as
laughing and chatting with her during the massacre, down to the moment
her name was called out:
'By Allah,' she said,' that is me.' I said to her 'You poor soul, what
is to happen to you?' She said:"I must be killed." "Why?" I asked her.
"For something I did," she answered. She went away and was beheaded.
By Allah,('Ã'isha adds) I shall never forget her cheerfulness and her
great laugh when she knew that she was to be killed.'
Ibn Asakir writes in his History of Damascus that the Banu Kilab, a
Arab clients of the Banu Qurayza, were also killed.
The spoils of battle, including the enslaved women and children of the
tribe, were divided up among the Muslims that had participated in the
siege and among the emigrees from
Mecca (who had hitherto depended on
the help of the Muslims native to Medina.
As part of his share of the spoils,
Muhammad selected one of the
women, Rayhana, for himself and took her as part of his booty.
Muhammad offered to free and marry her and according to some sources
she accepted his proposal, while according to others she rejected it
and remained Muhammad's slave. She is said to have later become a
Scholars argue that
Muhammad had already decided upon this judgment
before the Qurayza's surrender, and that Sa'ad was putting his
allegiance to the
Muslim community above that to his tribe. One
reason cited by some for such punishment is that Muhammad's previous
clemency towards defeated foes was in contradiction to
Arab and Jewish
laws of the time, and was seen as a sign of weakness. Others see the
punishment as a response to what was perceived as an act of treason by
the Qurayza since they betrayed their joint defence pact with Muhammad
by giving aid and comfort to the enemies of the Muslims. Maxime
Rodinson interprets the massacre as an astute political move that
overrode all feelings of humanity, in order to remove a constant
source of threat to Medina, and dishearten his enemies.
The failure of the siege marked the beginning of Muhammad's undoubted
political ascendancy in the city of Medina. The Meccans had
exerted their utmost strength to dislodge
Muhammad from Medina, and
this defeat caused them to lose their trade with Syria and much of
their prestige with it. Watt conjectures that the Meccans at this
point began to contemplate that conversion to
Islam would be the most
Islamic primary sources
The main contemporary source of the battle is the 33rd Surah of the
Ibn Kathir mentions that
[Quran 33:10–22 (Translated by Yusuf Ali)] is about
this incident in his book Tafsir ibn Kathir, and his commentary on
this verse mentions the reason and event of the Battle, his commentary
is as follows:
Allah tells us of the blessings and favors He bestowed upon His
believing servants when He diverted their enemies and defeated them in
the year when they gathered together and plotted. That was the year of
Al-Khandaq, in Shawwal of the year 5 AH according to the well-known
correct view. Musa bin `Uqbah and others said that it was in the year
4 AH. The reason why the Confederates came was that a group of the
leaders of the Banu Nadir, whom the Messenger of
Allah had expelled
from Al-Madinah to Khaybar, including Sallam bin Abu Al-Huqayq, Sallam
bin Mishkam and Kinanah bin Ar-Rabi`, went to
Makkah where they met
with the leaders of
Quraysh and incited them to make war against the
Prophet. They promised that they would give them help and support, and
Quraysh agreed to that. Then they went to the Ghatafan tribe with the
same call, and they responded too. The
Quraysh came out with their
company of men from various tribes and their followers, under the
Abu Sufyan Sakhr bin Harb. The Ghatafan were led by
`Uyaynah bin Hisn bin Badr. In all they numbered nearly ten thousand.
When the Messenger of
Allah heard that they had set out, he commanded
the Muslims to dig a ditch (Khandaq) around Al-Madinah from the east.
This was on the advice of Salman Al-Farisi, may
Allah be pleased with
him. So the Muslims did this, working hard, and the Messenger of Allah
worked with them, carrying earth away and digging, in the process of
which there occurred many miracles and clear signs. The idolators came
and made camp to the north of Al-Madinah, near Uhud, and some of them
camped on the high ground overlooking Al-Madinah, as
(When they came upon you from above you and from below you,) The
Allah came out with the believers, who numbered nearly
three thousand, or it was said that they numbered seven hundred. They
had their backs towards (the mountain of) Sal` and were facing the
enemy, and the ditch, in which there was no water, was between the two
groups, preventing the cavalry and infantry from reaching them. The
women and children were in the strongholds of Al-Madinah. Banu
Qurayzah, who were a group among the Jews, had a fortress in the
south-east of Al-Madinah, and they had made a treaty with the Prophet
and were under his protection. They numbered nearly eight hundred
fighters. Huyay bin Akhtab An-Nadari went to them and kept trying to
persuade them until they broke the treaty and went over to the side of
the Confederates against the Messenger of
Allah . The crisis deepened
and things got worse... [
Tafsir ibn Kathir
Tafsir ibn Kathir on
The event is referenced in the Sunni,
Hadith collection Sahih
al-Bukhari, it mentions the death of Sa'd ibn Mu'adh, as follows:
On the day of Al-Khandaq (battle of the Trench) the medial arm vein of
Sa'd bin Mu'ad was injured and the Prophet pitched a tent in the
mosque to look after him. There was another tent for Banu Ghaffar in
the mosque and the blood started flowing from Sa'd's tent to the tent
of Bani Ghaffar. They shouted, "O occupants of the tent! What is
coming from you to us?" They found that Sa'd' wound was bleeding
profusely and Sa'd died in his tent. Sahih al-Bukhari, 1:8:452
Sahih al-Bukhari collection also mentions that after the battle,
Muslims were to carry out offensive attacks against their enemies:
On the day of
Al-Ahzab (i.e. clans) the Prophet said, (After this
battle) we will go to attack them (i.e. the infidels) and they will
not come to attack us." Sahih Bukhari, 5,59,435
Muhammad in order to stop the attacks called for a counter attack
against the idolaters, He asserted to his followers before: Abdullah
bin Abu Aufa reported: The Messenger of
Allah (ﷺ) at one time when
he confronted the enemy, and was waiting for the sun to set, stood up
and said, "O people! Do not long for encountering the enemy and
Allah to grant you security. But when you face the
enemy, show patience and steadfastness; and keep it in mind that
Jannah lies under the shade of the swords." Then he invoked Allah,
saying, "O Allah, Revealer of the Book, Disperser of the clouds,
Defeater of the Confederates, put our enemy to rout and help us in
over-powering them". [Al- Bukhari and Muslim].(46)
The event is also mentioned in the Sahih
Hadith collection as
'Abdullah b. Zubair reported on the Day of the Battle of the Trench: I
Umar b. Abu Salama were with women folk in the fort of Hassan (b.
Thabit). He at one time leaned for me and I cast a glance and at
another time I leaned for him and he would see and I recognised my
father as he rode on his horse with his arms towards the tribe of
Quraizah. 'Abdullah b. 'Urwa reported from Abdullah b. Zubair: I made
a mention of that to my father, whereupon he said: My son, did you see
me (on that occasion)? He said: Yes. Thereupon he said: By Allah,
Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) addressed me saying: I would
sacrifice for thee my father and my mother.
Sahih Muslim, 31:4940
The incident also is mentioned in the historical works by writers of
the third and fourth century of the
Muslim era. These include the
Muslim biographies of Muhammad, and quotes attributed to
him (the sira and hadith literature), which provide further
information on Muhammad's life. The earliest surviving written
sira (biographies of
Muhammad and quotes attributed to him) is Ibn
Ishaq's Life of God's Messenger written some 120 to 130 years
after Muhammad's death. Although the original work is lost, portions
of it survive in the recensions of
Ibn Hisham and Al-Tabari.
Another early source is the history of Muhammad's campaigns by
al-Waqidi (d. 823).
Book: Military career of Muhammad
Islamic military jurisprudence
Wall of the Arabs, known as the Khandaq of Shapur in Arabic
^ a b Watt,
Muhammad at Medina, p. 36f.
^ Islamic Occasions. "Battle of al - Ahzab (Tribes), Battle of Khandaq
(Dirch, Moat, Trench". Retrieved 20 June 2016.
^ a b c Rodinson, Muhammad: Prophet of Islam, p. 208.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Watt, Muhammad: Prophet and Statesman, pp.
^ The Sealed Nectar by Safi-ur-Rahman.
^ a b c d Nomani, Sirat al-Nabi, pp. 368–370.
Muhammad and the Origins of Islam, p. 211—214.
^ Watt, Muhammad: Prophet and Statesman, p. 135.
^ a b c d e Watt,
Muhammad at Medina, pp. 34–37.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k Ramadan, In the Footsteps of the Prophet, pp.
^ Sa'd, Ibn (1967). Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir. 2. Pakistan Historical
Society. pp. 82–84. ASIN B0007JAWMK.
^ Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, pp. 196–198. (online)
^ a b
Muhammad Saed Abdul-Rahman, Tafsir
Ibn Kathir Juz' 21 (Part 21):
Al-Ankaboot 46 to Al-Azhab 30 2nd Edition, p. 122, MSA Publication
Limited, 2009, ISBN 1861797338. (online)
^ a b c d Lings, Muhammad: his life based on the earliest sources, pp.
^ a b al-Halabi, al-Sirat al-Halbiyyah, p. 19.
^ a b c Rodinson, p. 209.
^ Glasse & Smith, New Encyclopedia of Islam: A Revised Edition of
the Concise Encyclopedia of Islam, p. 81.
^ a b Rodinson, pp. 209f.
^ Tabqaar ibn-e-Sadd 1:412, Anwaar Mohammadiya minal mawahib Page 84.
^ Zafrulla Khan, Muhammad, Seal of the Prophets, pp. 177–179.
^ Nomani, p. 382.
^ a b c d Maududi, The Meaning of the Quran, p. 64f.
^ a b c d e f Lings, pp. 221–223.
^ a b Watt, "Kurayza, Banu" Encyclopaedia of Islam.
^ Heck, "Arabia Without Spices: An Alternate Hypothesis", pp.
^ a b Peterson, Muhammad. Prophet of God, p. 123f.
^ a b c d e f g Lings, pp. 224–226.
Muhammad and the Origins of Islam, p. 221f.
^ Lings, pp. 227f.
^ a b Watt, Muhammad: Prophet and Statesman, pp. 170–176.
Deuteronomy 20:10–14, New International Version.
^ a b Guillaume, The Life of Muhammad: A Translation of Ibn Ishaq's
Sirat Rasul Allah, p. 461-464.
^ Muir, A Life of Mahomet and History of
Islam to the Era of the
Hegira, pp. 272–274.
Muhammad and the Origins of Islam, pp. 222–224.
^ Stillman, p. 141f.
^ a b c Maxime Rodinson, Mohammad, (1961) Penguin Books 1971 p.213.
^ Kister, "The Massacre of the Banu Quraiza", p. 93f.
Muhammad and the Rise of Islam, pp. 166f.
^ Muir (p. 277) (Ibn Ishaq, Biography of Muhammad).
^ Lecker, "On Arabs of the Banū Kilāb executed together with the
Banū Qurayza", p. 69.
^ Kister, "The Massacre of the Banu Quraiza", pp. 95f.
^ a b Rodinson, Muhammad: Prophet of Islam, p. 213.
^ Ramadan, p. 146.
^ Watt, Muhammad: Prophet and Statesman, p. 96.
^ [Dr. M. Sa’id Ramadan Al-Buti – "Jurisprudence of Muhammad’s
Biography", p. 73, English edition, published by Azhar University of
^ a b Watt,
Muhammad at Mecca, p. xi.
Muhammad in Europe: A Thousand Years of Western Myth-Making,
^ Donner, Narratives of Islamic Origins: The Beginnings of Islamic
Historical Writing, p. 132.
Guillaume, Alfred, The Life of Muhammad: A Translation of Ibn Ishaq's
Sirat Rasul Allah. Oxford University Press, 1955.
Buchanan, Allen E.; Margaret Moore (2003). 'States, Nations, and
Borders: The Ethics of Making Boundaries. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press. ISBN 0-521-52575-6.
Donner, Fred (1998). Narratives of Islamic Origins: The Beginnings of
Islamic Historical Writing. Darwin Press.
Huston Smith (2003). New Encyclopedia of Islam: A
Revised Edition of the Concise Encyclopedia of Islam. Rowman Altamira.
Heck, Gene W. "Arabia Without Spices: An Alternate Hypothesis", in:
Journal of the American Oriental Society 123 (2003),
Lings, Martin (1983). Muhammad: his life based on the earliest
sources. Allen & Unwin. ISBN 0-04-297042-3.
Maududi, Sayyid Abul Ala (1967). The Meaning of the Quran. Lahore:
Islamic Publications Limited. ISBN 1-56744-134-3.
Muir, William, A Life of Mahomet and History of
Islam to the Era of
the Hegira, vol. 3. London: Smith, Elder & Co, 1861.
Nomani, Shibli (1970). Sirat al-Nabi. Karachi: Pakistan Historical
Peters, Francis E. (1994).
Muhammad and the Origins of Islam. Albany:
SUNY Press. ISBN 0-7914-1875-8.
Peterson, Daniel C. (2007). Muhammad. Prophet of God. Grand Rapids,
Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing co.
Ramadan, Tariq (2007). In the Footsteps of the Prophet. New York:
Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-530880-8.
Reeves, Minou (2003).
Muhammad in Europe: A Thousand Years of Western
Myth-Making. NYU Press. ISBN 978-0-8147-7564-6.
Rodinson, Maxime (2002). Muhammad: Prophet of Islam. Tauris Parke
Paperbacks. ISBN 1-86064-827-4.
Watt, William M. (1953).
Muhammad at Mecca. Oxford University Press.
Watt, William M. (1956).
Muhammad at Medina. Oxford University Press.
Watt, William M. (1974). Muhammad: Prophet and Statesman. Oxford
University Press. ISBN 0-19-881078-4.
Muhammad (1980). Muhammad, Seal of the Prophets.
Routledge. ISBN 0-7100-0610-1.
Movie Muhammad: The Last Prophet
The Battle Of The Trench
Al-Ahzab (the Confederates) Invasion
A Restatement of the History of
Islam and Muslims;The Battle of the
Trench by Sayed Ali
Battle of Ahzab (غزوة الاحزاب)
People and things in the Quran
Allâh ("The God")
Allah found in the Quran
Beings in Paradise
Ghilmān or Wildān
The baqarah (cow) of Israelites
The dhi’b (wolf) that
Jacob feared could attack Joseph
The fīl (elephant) of the Abyssinians)
Ḥimār (Domesticated donkey)
The hud-hud (hoopoe) of Solomon
The kalb (dog) of the sleepers of the cave
The nāqaṫ (she-camel) of Saleh
The nūn (fish or whale) of Jonah
Ḥimār (Wild ass)
Qaswarah ('Lion', 'Beast of prey' or 'Hunter')
‘Ifrîṫ ("Strong one")
Mârid ("Rebellious one")
Iblīs the Shayṭān (Devil)
‘Imrān (Joachim the father of Maryam)
Isma'il Ṣādiq al-Wa‘d (Fulfiller of the Promise)
Shu‘ayb (Jethro, Reuel or Hobab?)
Sulaymān ibn Dāwūd (
Solomon son of David)
Yaḥyā ibn Zakariyyā (
John the Baptist
John the Baptist the son of Zechariah)
Dhūn-Nūn ("He of the
Fish (or Whale)" or "Owner of the
Ṣāḥib al-Ḥūṫ ("Companion of the Whale")
Yūsuf ibn Ya‘qūb (
Joseph son of Jacob)
Other names and titles of Muhammad
Al-Masīḥ (The Messiah)
Ibn Maryam (Son of Mary)
Mūsā Kalīmullāh (
Moses He who spoke to God)
Ibrāhīm Khalīlullāh (
Abraham Friend of God)
Dhūl-Qarnain (Cyrus the Great?)
Ṭâlûṫ (Saul or Gideon?)
Yūsha‘ ibn Nūn (Joshua, companion and successor of Moses)
People of Prophets
Āzar (possibly Terah)
Pharaoh of Moses' time)
Qārūn (Korah, cousin of Moses)
Slayers of Saleh's she-camel (Qaddar ibn Salif and Musda' ibn Dahr)
Adam's immediate relatives
Believer of Ya-Sin
Family of Noah
Mother Shamkhah bint Anush or Betenos
People of Aaron and Moses
Believer of Fir'aun Family (Hizbil/Hizqil ibn Sabura)
Imra’aṫ Fir‘awn (Âsiyá bint Muzâḥim or Bithiah)
Magicians of the Pharaoh
People of Abraham
Mother Abiona or Amtelai the daughter of Karnebo
People of Jesus
Disciples (including Peter)
People of Joseph
Brothers (including Binyāmin (Benjamin) and Simeon)
‘Azîz (Potiphar, Qatafir or Qittin)
Malik (King Ar-Rayyân ibn Al-Walîd))
Wife of ‘Azîz (Zulaykhah)
People of Solomon
Queen of Sheba
Implied or not specified
Caleb or Kaleb the companion of Joshua
Rahmah the wife of Ayyub
People of Paradise
People of the Burnt Garden
Aş-ḥāb as-Sabṫ (Companions of the Sabbath)
Ḥawāriyyūn (Disciples of Jesus)
Companions of Noah's Ark
Aş-ḥāb al-Kahf war-Raqīm (Companions of the Cave and Al-Raqaim?
Companions of the Elephant
People of al-Ukhdūd
People of a township in Surah Ya-Sin
Yathrib or Medina
Qawm Lûṭ (People of Sodom and Gomorrah)
Nation of Noah
Tribes, ethnicities or families
A‘rāb (Arabs or Bedouins)
ʿĀd (people of Hud)
Companions of the Rass
Qawm Ṫubba‘ (People of Tubba')
People of Saba’ or Sheba
Thamûd (people of Saleh)
Aṣ-ḥâb al-Ḥijr ("Companions of the Stoneland")
Rûm (literally "The Romans")
Banî Isrâ’îl (Children of Israel)
Mu’ṫafikāṫ (The overthrown cities of Sodom and Gomorrah)
People of Ibrahim
People of Ilyas
People of Nuh
People of Shuaib
Ahl Madyan People of Madyan)
Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah ("Companions of the Wood")
Qawm Yûnus (People of Jonah)
Ya'juj and Ma'juj/Gog and Magog
Ahl al-Bayṫ ("People of the Household")
Household of Abraham
Brothers of Yūsuf
Daughters of Abraham's nephew Lot (Ritha, Za'ura, et al.)
Progeny of Imran
Household of Moses
Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib ibn Hashim
Daughters of Muhammad
Wives of Muhammad
Household of Salih
People of Fir'aun
Current Ummah of
Islam (Ummah of Muhammad)
Aṣ-ḥāb Muḥammad (Companions of Muhammad)
Anṣār Muslims of
Medina who helped
Muhammad and his Meccan
followers, literally 'Helpers')
People of Mecca
Umm Jamil (wife of Abu Lahab)
Children of Ayyub
Dead son of Sulaiman
Qabil/Cain (son of Adam)
Wali'ah or Wa'ilah/Waala (wife of Nuh)
Walihah or Wahilah (wife of Lut)
Ya’jūj wa Ma’jūj (Gog and Magog)
Yam or Kan'an (son of Nuh)
Ahl al-Suffa (People of the Verandah)
Aus & Khazraj
People of Quba
Ahl al-dhimmah (Dhimmi)
People of the
Book (Ahl al-Kiṫāb)
Naṣārā (Christian(s) or People of the Injil)
Ahbār (Jewish scholars)
Meccan polytheists at the time of Muhammad
Mesopotamian polytheists at the time of
Abraham and Lot
Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah ("The Land The Blessed")
Al-Arḍ Al-Muqaddasah ("The Land The Holy")
Arabian Peninsula (excluding Madyan)
Al-Aḥqāf ("The Sandy Plains," or "the Wind-curved Sand-hills")
Iram dhāṫ al-‘Imād (Iram of the Pillars)
Al-Madīnah (formerly Yathrib)
Maqām Ibrāhīm (Station of Abraham)
Safa and Marwah
‘Arim Saba’ (Dam of Sheba)
Jannah (Paradise, literally 'Garden')
Munzalanm-Mubārakan ("Place-of-Landing Blessed")
Qaryaṫ Yūnus ("Township of Jonah," that is Nineveh)
Door of Hittah
Miṣr (Mainland Egypt)
Salsabîl (A river in Paradise)
Sinai Region or Tīh Desert
Al-Wād Al-Muqaddas Ṭuwan (The Holy Valley of Tuwa)
Al-Wādil-Ayman (The valley on the 'righthand' side of the Valley of
Tuwa and Mount Sinai)
Mount Sinai or Mount Tabor
Barrier of Dhul-Qarnayn
Bayt al-Muqaddas & 'Ariha
Bilād ar-Rāfidayn (Mesopotamia)
Cave of Seven Sleepers
Al-Ḥijāz (literally "The Barrier")
Black Stone (Al-Ḥajar al-Aswad) & Al-Hijr of Isma'il
Hira & Ghar al-Thawr (Cave of the Bull)
Paradise of Shaddad
Masjid (Mosque, literally "Place of Prostration")
Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām ("The Monument the Sacred")
Al-Masjid Al-Aqṣā (Al-Aqsa Mosque, literally "The
Place-of-Prostration The Farthest")
Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred
Mosque of Mecca)
Mosque in the area of Medina, possibly:
Masjid Qubâ’ (Quba Mosque)
The Prophet's Mosque
Ḥabb dhul-‘aṣf (Corn of the husk)
Ukul khamṭ (Bitter fruit or food of Sheba)
Forbidden fruit of Adam
Bushes, trees or plants
Plants of Sheba
Līnah (Tender palm tree)
Nakhl (date palm)
Rayḥān (Scented plant)
Gospel of Jesus)
Book of Muhammad)
Ṣuḥuf-i Ibrâhîm (Scroll(s) of Abraham)
Aṫ-Ṫawrâṫ (The Torah)
Ṣuḥuf-i-Mûsâ (Scroll(s) of Moses)
Tablets of Stone
Psalms of David)
Umm al-Kiṫâb ("Mother of the Book(s)")
Objects of people or beings
Heavenly Food of
Staff of Musa
Ṫābūṫ as-Sakīnah (Casket of Shekhinah)
Throne of Bilqis
Trumpet of Israfil
Idols of Israelites:
The ‘ijl (golden calf statue) of Israelites
Idols of Noah's people:
Idols of Quraysh:
Jibṫ and Ṭâghûṫ
Maṣābīḥ (literally 'lamps'):
Al-Qamar (The Moon)
Al-Arḍ (The Earth)
Ash-Shams (The Sun)
Water or fluid)
River or sea)
Battle of al-Aḥzāb ("the Confederates")
Battle of Badr
Battle of Hunayn
Battle of Khaybar
Battle of Tabouk
Battle of Uhud
Conquest of Mecca
Incident of Ifk
Sayl al-‘Arim (Flood of the Great Dam of
Marib in Sheba)
The Farewell Pilgrimage
The Farewell Pilgrimage (Hujja al-Wada')
Treaty of Hudaybiyyah
Event of Ghadir Khumm
Note: The names are sorted alphabetically. Standard form: Islamic name
/ Biblical name (title or r