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The naval Battle of Zonchio
Zonchio
(Turkish: Sapienza Deniz Muharebesi, also known as the Battle of Sapienza or the First Battle of Lepanto) took place on four separate days: 12, 20, 22 and 25 August 1499. It was a part of the Ottoman–Venetian War of 1499–1503.[2] It was the first naval battle in history in which cannons were used on ships.[citation needed] In January 1499 Kemal Reis
Kemal Reis
set sail from Constantinople
Constantinople
with a force of 10 galleys and 4 other types of ships, and in July 1499 met with the huge Ottoman fleet which was sent to him by Davud Pasha and took over its command in order to wage a large scale war against the Republic of Venice. The Ottoman fleet consisted of 67 galleys, 20 galliots and about 200 smaller vessels. After reaching Cape Zonchio
Zonchio
in the Ionian Sea
Ionian Sea
with the large Ottoman fleet in August 1499, Kemal Reis
Kemal Reis
defeated the Venetian fleet of 47 galleys, 17 galliots and about 100 smaller vessels under the command of Antonio Grimani. Grimani was 65 and although he was a proven captain in battle, he was not an experienced leader and had never commanded large battle fleets. He had only been given command because of a donation of 16,000 ducats to the state and personally funding the arming of 10 galleys. He was not told whether to fight an offensive or defensive campaign. Many captains ignored his orders to attack the Ottomans and he did not take part in the battle. His indecisiveness and reluctance to attack led to failure during the battle. On the second day, Grimani ordered the crews to kill any captains who refused to fight. Despite this, and the arrival of four French galleys, he sent just two galleys out of 170 against the Ottomans. Both somehow returned unharmed. On 25 August the Venetians captured some Ottoman galleys, then discipline broke down and the Ottomans recaptured the vessels while they were being looted; the French reinforcements abandoned the Venetians in disgust and fled to Rhodes. During the most critical stage of the battle, two Venetian carracks, captained by Andrea Loredan
Loredan
(a member of the influential Loredan family of Venice) and by Alban d'Armer, boarded one of the command ships of the Ottoman fleet. The commander of the vessel, Burak Reis, was unable to disentangle his ship from the boarders and chose to set her aflame. The sight of the three great ships burning together dealt a severe blow to the Venetian morale.[3] Antonio Grimani
Antonio Grimani
was arrested on 29 September and banished to the island of Cherso. Grimani later became the Doge of Venice
Doge of Venice
in 1521. The Ottoman Sultan Bayezid II
Bayezid II
gave 10 of the captured Venetian galleys to Kemal Reis, who later stationed his fleet at the island of Cefalonia between October and December 1499. The Ottomans and Venetians soon confronted each other for a second time at the Second Battle of Lepanto, which is also known as the Battle of Modon, and the Ottomans were victorious under Kemal Reis. See also[edit]

Military history of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
portal

Ottoman Navy History of the Republic of Venice History of the Ottoman Empire

References[edit]

^ Alan G. Jamieson, Faith and Sword: A Short History of Christian-Muslim Conflict, (Reaktion Books, 2006), 220. ^ Norwich, John J. (2003) A History of Venice Penguin, London, pages 383–385, ISBN 978-0-14-101383-1, reprint of the 1977, 2 volume, edition, entitled Venice: the rise to empire and Venice: the greatness and the fall ^ Fisher, Sydney N. The Foreign Relation of Turkey, 1481-1512. Chapter 6. .

External links[edit]

Sydney N. Fisher: The Foreign Relation of Turkey, 1481-1512, Chapter VI: War with Venice, 1499-1503 John E. Dotson: Foundations of Venetian Naval Strategy from Pietro II Orseolo to the Battle of Zonchio

Coordinates: 36°54′N 21°41′E / 36.900°N 21.683°E / 36.900; 21.683

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Bapheus Dimbos Pelekanon Demotika Ihtiman Sırp Sındığı Maritsa Dubravnica Savra Pločnik Bileća Kosovo Kırkdilim Rovine Nicopolis Ankara Çamurlu Zlatitsa Kunovica Torvioll Varna Kosovo (2nd) Constantinople

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Naval battles

Zonchio Modon Diu Algiers (1516) Formentera Peñón of Algiers (1529) Tunis Preveza Alborán Algiers (1541) Ponza Djerba

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Mostaganem Szigeth Çıldır Torches Wadi al Laban Sisak Călugăreni Giurgiu Keresztes Urmia Cecora 1st Khotyn Candia Köbölkút Saint Gotthard Ładyżyn Krasnobród Niemirów 2nd Khotyn 2nd Vienna 2nd Mohács Slankamen Cenei Ustechko Lugos Ulaş Zenta

Naval battles

Lepanto Cape Corvo Cape Celidonia Focchies 1st Dardanelles 2nd Dardanelles 3rd Dardanelles 4th Dardanelles Oinousses Andros

Old Regime (1700–1789)

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Pruth Petrovaradin Banja Luka Grocka Stavunchany Aspindza Larga Yeghevārd Ganja Kars Kozludzha Kagul

Naval battles

Imbros Matapan Çeşme 1st Kerch Strait

Modernization (1789–1908)

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Focşani Rymnik Măcin Pyramids Abukir Arpachai Batin Al-Safra Jeddah Čegar Alamana Gravia Erzurum Valtetsi Doliana Dragashani Sculeni Vasilika Peta Dervenakia Karpenisi Arachova Kamatero Phaleron Petra Kulevicha Algiers Konya Nezib Kurekdere Oltenița Eupatoria Kızıl Tepe Shipka Pass Plevna Philippopolis Taşkesen Novšiće Ulcinj Mouzaki Domokos

Naval battles

2nd Kerch Strait Kaliakra Athos Nauplia Samos Gerontas Navarino Sinop

For 20th-century battles before 1914 see List of Ottoman battles in the 20th century For the battles during World War I see List of Ottoman battles in World War I

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