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The Info List - Battle Of Vienna





Decisive Christian Coalition victory[1]

Siege of Vienna
Siege of Vienna
lifted Ottomans suffer heavy losses and are severely weakened Coalition of Christians establishes Holy League under Pope Innocent XI to further push back the Ottomans

Territorial changes Ottomans fail to take Vienna, Coalition (later the Holy League) forces invade territories in Hungary
Hungary
and the Balkans under Ottoman rule

Belligerents

Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth  Holy Roman Empire

Austria Bavaria Franconia  Saxony Swabia

Habsburg Hungary
Hungary
Zaporozhian Cossacks

Wallachia
Wallachia
(Secretly)

Ottoman Empire Vassal states:

Crimean Khanate  Moldavia   Wallachia
Wallachia
(Official) Principality of Upper Hungary

Commanders and leaders

John III Sobieski (Supreme Commander of the Christian Coalition Army) Hetman Jabłonowski Hetman Sieniawski Count Marcin Kątski (Relief Force) Ernst Rüdiger von Starhemberg (Garrison) Charles of Lorraine John George III
John George III
of Saxony Georg Friedrich of Waldeck Julius Francis, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg Maximilian II Emanuel of Bavaria Eugene of Savoy Livio Odescalchi Antonio Caraffa Şerban Cantacuzino

Sultan Mehmed IV Grand Vizier
Grand Vizier
Kara Mustafa
Kara Mustafa
Pasha Kara Mehmed of Diyarbakir Ibrahim of Buda Abaza Sari Hüseyin Pasha of Karahisar Murad Giray Gheorghe Duca

Strength

Viennese garrison: 11,000 soldiers[2] + 5,000 volunteers[2] 312 guns but only 141 operational[2] (strength on 10 September 1683)

Relief force: 47,000 Germans and Austrians with some 112 guns[3] 27,000 Poles with 28 guns[4]

Total: 90,000 but some left behind to guard bridges near Tulln
Tulln
and camps, plus 2,000 Imperial cavalry (not included above) left behind the Danube.[5] [Note 1] – alternative estimates

140,000 as of 10 September 1683,[10] down from 170,000 at the start of the campaign, according to documents on the order of battle found in Kara Mustafa's tent.[11] [Note 2] – alternative estimates

Approximately 150 guns[7]

Casualties and losses

Casualties during battle: 4,500,[16]:661 3,500 dead or wounded (1,300 Poles)[17]

Casualties during siege: 12,000[7]

Dead during battle: 8,000–15,000,[16]:661

Captured: 5,000[16]:661

v t e

Great Turkish War

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The Battle of Vienna
Vienna
(German: Schlacht am Kahlen Berge or Kahlenberg; Polish: bitwa pod Wiedniem or odsiecz wiedeńska (The Relief of Vienna); Modern Turkish: İkinci Viyana Kuşatması, Ottoman Turkish: Beç Ḳalʿası Muḥāṣarası) took place at Kahlenberg
Kahlenberg
Mountain near Vienna
Vienna
on 12 September 1683[1] after the imperial city had been besieged by the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
for two months. The battle was fought by the Habsburg Monarchy, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
and the Holy Roman Empire, under the command of King John III Sobieski
John III Sobieski
against the Ottomans and their vassal and tributary states. The battle marked the first time the Commonwealth and the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
had cooperated militarily against the Ottomans, and it is often seen as a turning point in history, after which "the Ottoman Turks ceased to be a menace to the Christian world".[18] In the ensuing war that lasted until 1699, the Ottomans lost almost all of Hungary
Hungary
to the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I.[18] The battle was won by the combined forces of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
of the German Nation and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, the latter represented only by the forces of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland (the march of the Lithuanian army was delayed, and they reached Vienna after it had been relieved).[19] The Viennese garrison was led by Ernst Rüdiger Graf von Starhemberg, an Austrian subject of Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I. The overall command was held by the senior leader, the King of Poland, John III Sobieski, who led the relief forces. The opposing military forces were those of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and Ottoman fiefdoms commanded by Grand Vizier
Grand Vizier
Merzifonlu Kara Mustafa Pasha. The Ottoman army
Ottoman army
numbered approximately 90,000[7] to 300,000[12][13][14][15][better source needed] men (according to documents on the order of battle found in Kara Mustafa's tent, initial strength at the start of the campaign was 170,000 men[11]). They began the siege on 14 July 1683. Ottoman forces consisted, among other units, of 60 ortas of Janissaries (12,000 men paper-strength) with an observation army of approximately 70,000[20] men watching the countryside. The decisive battle took place on 12 September, after the united relief army had arrived. Historians suggest the battle marked the turning point in the Ottoman–Habsburg wars, a 300-year struggle between the Holy Roman and Ottoman Empires. In fact, during the 16 years following the battle, the Austrian Habsburgs gradually recovered and dominated southern Hungary
Hungary
and Transylvania, which had been largely cleared of Ottoman forces. The battle is also noted for including the largest known cavalry charge in history.

Contents

1 Prelude 2 Events during the siege 3 Staging the battle 4 Battle 5 Aftermath 6 Significance 7 Cultural legacy

7.1 Astronomical legacy 7.2 Religious significance 7.3 Musical legacy 7.4 Culinary
Culinary
legends

8 See also 9 References 10 Notes 11 Further reading 12 External links

Prelude[edit] Capturing the city of Vienna
Vienna
had long been a strategic aspiration of the Ottoman Empire, because of its interlocking control over Danubian (Black Sea to Western Europe) southern Europe and the overland (Eastern Mediterranean to Germany) trade routes. During the years preceding this second siege (the first was the 1529 Siege of Vienna) under the auspices of grand viziers from the influential Köprülü family, the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
undertook extensive logistical preparations, including the repair and establishment of roads and bridges leading into the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
and its logistical centers, as well as the forwarding of ammunition, cannon and other resources from all over the Empire to these centers and into the Balkans. Since 1679 the plague had been raging in Vienna.[21] On the political front, the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
had been providing military assistance to the Hungarians and non-Catholic minorities in Habsburg-occupied portions of Hungary. There, in the years preceding the siege, widespread unrest had grown into open rebellion against Leopold I's pursuit of Counter-Reformation
Counter-Reformation
principles and his desire to crush Protestantism. In 1681 Protestants and other anti-Habsburg Kuruc
Kuruc
forces, led by Imre Thököly, were reinforced with a significant force from the Ottomans,[16]:657 who recognized Thököly as King of "Upper Hungary" (the eastern part of today's Slovakia
Slovakia
and parts of northeastern Hungary, which he had earlier taken by force from the Habsburgs). This support included explicitly promising the "Kingdom of Vienna" to the Hungarians if it fell into Ottoman hands. Yet before the siege, a state of peace had existed for 20 years between the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
and the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
as a result of the Peace of Vasvár.

The Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
in 1683.

In 1681 and 1682 clashes between the forces of Imre Thököly
Imre Thököly
and the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
(the border of which was then northern Hungary) intensified, and the incursions of Habsburg forces into central Hungary
Hungary
provided the crucial argument of Grand Vizier
Grand Vizier
Kara Mustafa Pasha in convincing Sultan Mehmet IV
Mehmet IV
and his Divan
Divan
to allow the movement of the Ottoman army. Mehmet IV
Mehmet IV
authorized Mustafa Pasha to operate as far as Győr
Győr
(then known as Yanıkkale, and in German as Raab) and Komárom
Komárom
(in Turkish Komaron, Komorn in German) Castles, both in northwestern Hungary, and to besiege them. The Ottoman army was mobilized on 21 January 1682 and war was declared on 6 August 1682. The logistics of the time meant it would have been risky or impossible to launch an invasion in August or September 1682, since a three-month campaign would have taken the Ottomans to Vienna
Vienna
just as winter set in. However, the 15-month gap between mobilization and the launch of a full-scale invasion provided ample time for Vienna
Vienna
to prepare its defense and for Leopold to assemble troops from the Holy Roman Empire and form an alliance with Poland, Venice and Pope Innocent XI. This undoubtedly contributed to the failure of the Ottoman campaign. The decisive alliance of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
with Poland was concluded in the 1683 Treaty of Warsaw, by which Leopold promised support to Sobieski if the Ottomans attacked Kraków, and in return the Polish army would come to the relief of Vienna
Vienna
if it were attacked.[16]:656, 659

Anti-Habsburg Kuruc
Kuruc
rebels in Hungary.

On 31 March 1683 another declaration, sent by Grand Vizier
Grand Vizier
Merzifonlu Kara Mustafa Pasha
Kara Mustafa Pasha
on behalf of Mehmet IV, arrived at the Imperial Court in Vienna. The next day the forward march of Ottoman army elements began from Edirne
Edirne
in Rumelia. Ottoman troops reached Belgrade by early May. They were joined by a Transylvanian army under Prince Mihaly Apafi
Mihaly Apafi
and a Hungarian force under Imre Thököly; they laid siege to Győr
Győr
and the remaining army of 150,000 moved toward the city of Vienna.[16]:660 About 40,000 Crimean Tatar troops arrived 40 kilometres (25 mi) east of Vienna
Vienna
on 7 July,[16]:660 twice as many as the Imperial troops in the area. Emperor Leopold fled Vienna for Passau
Passau
with his court and 60,000 Viennese, while Charles V, Duke of Lorraine, withdrew his force of 20,000 towards Linz.[16]:660 The main Ottoman army
Ottoman army
arrived at Vienna
Vienna
on 14 July; the city's only defense force was now that of Count Ernst Rüdiger von Starhemberg's 15,000 men.[16]:660 The King of Poland, John III Sobieski, prepared a relief expedition to Vienna
Vienna
during the summer of 1683, so honoring his obligations to the treaty (he left his own nation virtually undefended when departing from Kraków
Kraków
on 15 August). He covered this with a stern warning to Imre Thököly, the leader of Upper Hungary, whom he threatened with destruction if he tried to take advantage of the situation—which Thököly in fact attempted. Jan Kazimierz Sapieha the Younger
Jan Kazimierz Sapieha the Younger
delayed the march of the Lithuanian army, devastating the Hungarian Highlands (now Slovakia) instead, and arrived in Vienna
Vienna
only after it had been relieved.[19] Immediately, tensions rose between Poland and the various German states—mainly Austria—over the relief of the city. Payment of troops' wages and supplies while marching was predominant among these. Sobieski insisted that he should not have to pay for his march to Vienna, since it was by his efforts that the city had been saved; nor could the Viennese neglect the other German troops who had marched. The Habsburg leadership hurriedly found as much money as possible to pay for these and arranged deals with the Polish to limit their costs.[22] Events during the siege[edit]

The Ottoman Army surrounds Vienna.

The main Ottoman army
Ottoman army
finally laid siege to Vienna
Vienna
on 14 July. On the same day, Kara Mustafa
Kara Mustafa
sent the traditional demand for surrender to the city.[23] Ernst Rüdiger Graf von Starhemberg, leader of the remaining 15,000 troops and 8,700 volunteers with 370 cannons, refused to capitulate. Only days before he had received news of the mass slaughter at Perchtoldsdorf,[24] a town south of Vienna, where the citizens had handed over the keys of the city after having been given a similar choice but were killed anyway. Siege operations started on 17 July.[16]:660 The Viennese had demolished many of the houses around the city walls and cleared the debris, leaving an empty plain that would expose the Ottomans to defensive fire if they tried to rush the city.[16]:660 Kara Mustafa Pasha
Kara Mustafa Pasha
solved that problem by ordering his forces to dig long lines of trenches directly toward the city, to help protect them from the defenders as they advanced steadily toward the city.

Sipahis of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
at Vienna.

The Ottomans had 130 field guns and 19 medium-caliber cannon, insufficient in the face of the defenders' 370 cannons.[7] Mining tunnels were dug under the massive city walls, which would then be filled with sufficient quantities of black powder to blow up the walls.[16]:660 According to Andrew Wheatcroft, the outer palisade was around 150 years old and mostly rotten, so the defenders set to work knocking very large tree trunks into the ground to surround the walls. This seriously disrupted the Ottoman plan, adding almost another three weeks to the time it would take to get past the old palisade.[25] This, combined with the delay in advancing their army after declaring war, eventually allowed a relief force to arrive in September.[16]:660 Historians have speculated that Kara Mustafa
Kara Mustafa
wanted to take the city intact with its riches and declined an all-out attack, not wishing to activate the right of plunder that would accompany an assault.[26]

The Ottomans before the walls of Vienna.

The Ottoman siege of Vienna.

The Ottoman siege cut virtually every means of food supply into Vienna.[27] Fatigue became so common that von Starhemberg ordered any soldier found asleep on watch to be shot. Increasingly desperate, the forces holding Vienna
Vienna
were on their last legs when, in August, Imperial forces under Charles V, Duke of Lorraine, defeated Thököly at Bisamberg, 5 km (3.1 mi) northwest of Vienna. On 6 September the Poles under Sobieski crossed the Danube
Danube
30 km (19 mi) northwest of Vienna
Vienna
at Tulln, to unite with imperial troops and the additional forces from Saxony, Bavaria, Baden, Franconia
Franconia
and Swabia. Louis XIV of France
Louis XIV of France
declined to help his Habsburg rival, having just annexed Alsace. An alliance between Sobieski and Emperor Leopold I resulted in the addition of the Polish hussars
Polish hussars
to the existing allied army. The leadership of the forces of European allies was entrusted to the Polish king, who had under his command 70,000–80,000 soldiers facing an Ottoman army
Ottoman army
of 150,000.[16]:661 Sobieski's courage and remarkable aptitude for the command was already known in Europe. During early September 5,000 experienced Ottoman sappers had repeatedly blown up large portions of the walls between the Burg bastion, the Löbel bastion and the Burg ravelin, creating gaps of about 12m in width. The Viennese tried to counter this by digging their own tunnels to intercept the depositing of large amounts of gunpowder in subterranean caverns. The Ottomans finally managed to occupy the Burg ravelin and the low wall in that area on 8 September. Anticipating a breach in the city walls, the remaining Viennese prepared to fight in the inner city. Staging the battle[edit]

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The relief of Vienna
Vienna
on 12 September 1683.

The relief army had to act quickly to save the city and prevent another long siege. Despite the binational composition of the army and the short space of only six days, an effective leadership structure was established, centered on the King of Poland
King of Poland
and his heavy cavalry (Polish Hussars). The Holy League settled the issues of payment by using all available funds from the government, loans from several wealthy bankers and noblemen and large sums of money from the Pope.[22] Also, the Habsburgs and Poles agreed that the Polish government would pay for its own troops while still in Poland, but that the Emperor would pay them once they crossed into imperial territory. However, the Emperor had to recognize Sobieski’s claim to first rights of plunder of the enemy camp in the event of a victory.[22]

Sobieski at Vienna
Vienna
by Juliusz Kossak.

Kara Mustafa Pasha
Kara Mustafa Pasha
was less effective at ensuring the motivation and loyalty of his forces, and in preparing for the expected relief-army attack. He had entrusted defense of the rear to the Khan of Crimea and his cavalry force, which numbered between 30,000–40,000. There is doubt as to how much the Tatars participated in the final battle before Vienna. Their Khan refused to attack the relief force as it crossed the Danube
Danube
on pontoon bridges and also refused to attack them as they emerged from the Wienerwald. The Ottomans also could not rely on their Wallachian and Moldavian allies. George Ducas, Prince of Moldavia, was captured, while Șerban Cantacuzino's forces joined the retreat after Sobieski's cavalry charge. The confederated troops signaled their arrival on the Kahlenberg
Kahlenberg
above Vienna
Vienna
with bonfires. Before the battle a Mass was celebrated, said by Marco d'Aviano, the religious adviser of Emperor Leopold I. Battle[edit]

Polish hussars
Polish hussars
armor, dating to the first half of the 17th century, Polish Army Museum, Warsaw.

The battle started before all units were fully deployed. At 4:00 am on 12 September 1683, the Ottomans attacked, seeking to interfere with the deployment of Holy League troops.[16]:661 The Germans were the first to strike back. Charles of Lorraine moved forward with the imperial army on the left and other imperial forces in the center and, after heavy fighting and multiple Ottoman counterattacks, took several key positions, especially the fortified villages of Nussdorf and Heiligenstadt. By noon the imperial army had already severely mauled the Ottomans and come close to a breakthrough.[28] Though shattered, the Ottoman army
Ottoman army
did not crumble at that moment.[29] Mustafa Pasha launched his counterattacks with most of his force, but held back some of the elite Janissary
Janissary
and Sipahi
Sipahi
units for a simultaneous assault on the city. The Ottoman commanders had intended to take Vienna
Vienna
before Sobieski arrived, but time ran out. Their sappers had prepared a large, final detonation under the Löbelbastei[30] to breach the walls. In total, ten mines were set to explode, but they were located by the defenders and disarmed.

King John III Sobieski
John III Sobieski
blessing the Polish attack on the Ottomans in Battle of Vienna; painting by Juliusz Kossak.

In the early afternoon a large battle started on the other side of the battlefield as the Polish infantry advanced on the Ottoman right flank. Instead of concentrating on the battle with the relief army, the Ottomans continued their efforts to force their way into the city. That meant the Poles could make good progress, and by 4:00 pm they had taken the village of Gersthof, which would serve as a base for their massive cavalry charge.[9] The Ottomans were in a desperate position, between Polish and imperial forces. Charles of Lorraine and John III Sobieski both decided, on their own, to continue the offensive and finish off the enemy.[29] The imperial forces resumed the offensive on the left front at 3:30 pm. At first they encountered fierce resistance and were stopped. This did not last long, however, and by 5:00 pm they had made further gains and taken the villages of Unterdöbling and Oberdöbling. They were now very close to the central Ottoman position (the "Türkenschanze").[29] As they were preparing to storm it, they could see the Polish cavalry in action.

Battle of Vienna, painting by Pauwel Casteels.

It is recorded that the Polish cavalry slowly emerged from the forest to the cheers of the onlooking infantry, which had been anticipating their arrival. At 4:00 pm the hussars first entered into action, battering the Ottoman lines and approaching the Türkenschanze, which was now threatened from three sides (the Poles from the west, the Saxons and the Bavarians from the northwest and the Austrians from the north). At that point the Ottoman vizier decided to leave this position and retreat to his headquarters in the main camp further south. However, by then many Ottomans were already leaving the battlefield.[9] The allies were now ready for the last blow. At around 6:00 pm the Polish king ordered the cavalry attack in four groups, three Polish and one from the Holy Roman Empire—18,000 horsemen charged down the hills, the largest cavalry charge in history.[31][32] Sobieski led the charge[16]:661 at the head of 3,000 Polish heavy lancers, the famed "Winged Hussars". The Lipka Tatars
Lipka Tatars
who fought on the Polish side wore a sprig of straw in their helmets to distinguish them from the Tatars fighting on the Ottoman side. The charge easily broke the lines of the Ottomans, who were exhausted and demoralized and soon started to flee the battlefield. The cavalry headed straight for the Ottoman camps and Kara Mustafa's headquarters, while the remaining Viennese garrison sallied out of its defenses to join in the assault.[16]:661

Polish soldiers 1674–96.

The Ottoman troops were tired and dispirited following the failure of the attempt at sapping, the assault on the city and the advance of the Holy League infantry on the Türkenschanze.[16]:661 The cavalry charge was the final deadly blow. Less than three hours after the cavalry attack, the Christian forces had won the battle and saved Vienna. The first Christian officer who entered Vienna
Vienna
was Margrave Ludwig of Baden, at the head of his dragoons.[9] Afterwards Sobieski paraphrased Julius Caesar's famous quotation (Veni, vidi, vici) by saying "Veni, vidi, Deus vicit"—"I came, I saw, God conquered".[16]:661 Aftermath[edit]

Return from Vienna
Vienna
by Józef Brandt, Polish army
Polish army
returning with Ottoman loot.

Contemporary Ottoman historian Silahdar Findiklili Mehmed Agha (1658–1723) described the battle as an enormous defeat and failure for the Ottoman Empire, the most disastrous since the foundation of Ottoman statehood in 1299.[33] The Ottomans lost at least 20,000 men during the siege,[citation needed] while their losses during the battle with Sobieski's forces amounted to around 15,000 dead (according to Podhorodecki)[17] or 8,000–15,000 dead and 5,000 captured (according to Tucker).[16]:661 Casualties of the allied relief force under Sobieski's command were much smaller, amounting to approximately 3,500 dead and wounded, including 1,300 Poles.[17] Tucker's estimate is slightly higher: 4,500.[16]:661 The Viennese garrison and the civilian populace lost, due to all causes, about half of their initial number during the siege.[7]

Chasuble
Chasuble
sewn with Ottoman tents captured by the Polish Army in Vienna, 1683.

The Holy League troops and the Viennese took a large amount of loot from the Ottoman army, which Sobieski vividly described in a letter to his wife a few days after the battle:

Ours are treasures unheard of . . . tents, sheep, cattle and no small number of camels . . . it is victory as nobody ever knew before, the enemy now completely ruined, everything lost for them. They must run for their sheer lives . . . General Starhemberg hugged and kissed me and called me his saviour.[34]

Starhemberg immediately ordered the repair of Vienna's severely damaged fortifications to guard against a possible Ottoman counterstrike. However, this proved unnecessary. Soon the Ottomans disposed of their defeated commander. On 25 December 1683 Kara Mustafa Pasha
Kara Mustafa Pasha
was executed in Belgrade
Belgrade
in the approved manner—by strangulation with a silk rope pulled by several men on each end—by order of the commander of the Janissaries. Despite the victory of the Christian allies, there was still tension among the various commanders and their armies. For example, Sobieski demanded that Polish troops be allowed to have first choice of the spoils of the Ottoman camp. German and Austrian troops were left with smaller portions of the loot.[35] Also, the Protestant Saxons, who had arrived to relieve the city, were apparently subjected to verbal abuse by the Catholic populace of the Viennese countryside. The Saxons left the battle immediately, without partaking in the sharing of spoils, and refused to continue pursuit.[35] Sobieski went on to liberate Grau and northwestern Hungary
Hungary
after the Battle of Parkany, but dysentery halted his pursuit of the Ottomans.[16]:662 Charles V took Belgrade
Belgrade
and most of Serbia in 1686 and established Habsburg control over southern Hungary
Hungary
and most of Transylvania in 1687.[16]:663–64 Significance[edit]

Sobieski meeting Leopold I, by Artur Grottger/

The victory at Vienna
Vienna
set the stage for the reconquering of Hungary and (temporarily) some of the Balkan lands in the following years by Louis of Baden, Maximilian Emmanuel of Bavaria and Prince Eugene of Savoy. The Ottomans fought on for another 16 years, losing control of Hungary
Hungary
and Transylvania in the process before finally desisting. The Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
signed the Treaty of Karlowitz
Treaty of Karlowitz
with the Ottoman Empire in 1699. The battle marked the historic end of the expansion of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
into Europe.

Sobieski Sending Message of Victory to the Pope, by Jan Matejko.

The actions of Louis XIV of France
Louis XIV of France
furthered French–German enmity; in the following month, the War of the Reunions
War of the Reunions
broke out in the western part of the weakened Holy Roman Empire. Cultural legacy[edit] Astronomical legacy[edit] After the battle of Vienna
Vienna
the newly identified constellation Scutum (Latin for shield) was originally named Scutum Sobiescianum by the astronomer Johannes Hevelius, in honour of King John III Sobieski.[36] While there are some stars named after non-astronomers, this is the only constellation that was originally named after a real non-astronomer who was still alive when the constellation was named, and the name of which is still in use (three other constellations, satisfying the same requirements, never gained enough popularity to last). Religious significance[edit]

Plaque at the Polish Congregatio Resurrectionis church on Kahlenberg.

Because Sobieski had entrusted his kingdom to the protection of the Blessed Virgin (Our Lady of Częstochowa) before the battle, Pope Innocent XI commemorated his victory by extending the feast of the Holy Name of Mary, which until then had been celebrated solely in Spain and the Kingdom of Naples, to the entire Church; it used to be celebrated on the Sunday within the Octave of the Nativity of Mary
Nativity of Mary
and was, when Pope St. Pius X intended to make room for the celebration of the actual Sundays, transferred to 12 September, the day of the victory. The Pope also upgraded the papal coat of arms by adding the Polish crowned White Eagle. After victory in the Battle of Vienna, the Polish king was also granted by the Pope the title of "Defender of the Faith" ("Defensor Fidei").[37] In honor of Sobieski, the Austrians erected a church atop the Kahlenberg
Kahlenberg
hill north of Vienna. Musical legacy[edit] Austrian composer Johann Joseph Fux memorialized the battle in his Partita Turcaria, which bore the subtitle, "Musical portrait of the siege of Vienna
Vienna
by the Turks in 1683".[38] It is said that the victors found in the Ottomans' abandoned luggage the tárogató, a double-reed woodwind instrument that was to become the Hungarian national symbol for freedom after Francis II Rákóczi's defeat against the Habsburgs in 1711.[39] The battle, specifically the cavalry charge, is the subject of the song "Winged Hussars" by the Swedish metal band Sabaton, as part of the album The Last Stand. The battle is the subject of the song "Fire on the Mountain (1683)" by the band Twilight Of The Gods in their first album "Fire on the Mountain". Culinary
Culinary
legends[edit]

Plaque memorializing the 300th anniversary of successful defense against the Ottomans at the gates of Vienna

Several culinary legends are related to the Battle of Vienna. One legend is that the croissant was invented in Vienna, either in 1683 or during the earlier siege in 1529, to celebrate the defeat of the Ottoman attack on the city, with the shape referring to the crescents on the Ottoman flags. This version of the origin of the croissant is supported by the fact that croissants in France
France
are a variant of Viennoiserie, and by the French popular belief that Vienna-born Marie Antoinette
Marie Antoinette
introduced the pastry to France
France
in 1770. Another legend from Vienna
Vienna
has the first bagel as being a gift to King John III Sobieski
John III Sobieski
to commemorate the King's victory over the Ottomans. It was fashioned in the form of a stirrup to commemorate the victorious charge by the Polish cavalry. The veracity of this legend is uncertain, as there is a reference in 1610 to a bread with a similar-sounding name, which may or may not have been the bagel. There is an often recited story that, after the battle, the Viennese discovered many bags of coffee in the abandoned Ottoman encampment. The story goes on that, using this captured stock, Franciszek Jerzy Kulczycki opened the first coffeehouse in Vienna
Vienna
and one of his ideas was to serve coffee with milk, a practice that was unknown in the Islamic world.[40][41] However, this story was first mentioned in 1783; the first coffeehouse in Vienna
Vienna
had been established by the Armenian Johannes Theodat in 1685.[42] See also[edit]

Vienna
Vienna
portal Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
portal Crusades portal

Ottoman wars in Europe Great Turkish War History of Vienna

References[edit]

^ a b c Finkel, Caroline. Osman's Dream: The Story of the Ottoman Empire, 1300–1923. Basic Books. pp. 286–87. ISBN 978-0-465-02396-7.  ^ a b c Podhorodecki, Leszek (2001), Wiedeń 1683, Bellona, p. 83 . ^ Podhorodecki, Leszek (2001), Wiedeń 1683, Bellona, p. 106 . ^ Podhorodecki, Leszek (2001), Wiedeń 1683, Bellona, p. 105 . ^ Podhorodecki, Leszek (2001), Wiedeń 1683, Bellona, pp. 83, 106 . ^ Tucker, Spencer (2010). Battles That Changed History: An Encyclopedia of World Conflict. ABC-CLIO. p. 215.  ^ a b c d e f g Bruce Alan Masters, Gábor Ágoston: Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire, Infobase Publishing, 2009, ISBN 1438110251, 584. ^ a b Austria's Wars of Emergence, Michael Hochedlinger ^ a b c d The Enemy at the Gate, Andrew Wheatcroft. 2008. ^ Forst de Battaglia, Otto (1982), Jan Sobieski, Mit Habsburg gegen die Türken, Styria Vlg. Graz, p. 215 of 1983 Polish translated edition . ^ a b Wimmer, Jan (1983), Wiedeń 1683, MON, p. 306 . ^ a b Harbottle, Thomas (1905), Dictionary of Battles, E.P. Sutton & Co, p. 262 . ^ a b Clare, Israel (1876), The Centennial Universal History: A Clear and Concise History of All Nations, with a Full History of the United States to the Close of the First 100 Years of Our National Independence., J. C. McCurdy & Co., p. 252 . ^ a b Drane, Augusta (1858), The Knights of st. John: with The battle of Lepanto and Siege of Vienna., Burns and Lambert, p. 136 . ^ a b American Architect and Building News. 29.767 (1890): 145. Print. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Tucker, S.C., 2010, A Global Chronology of Conflict, Vol. Two, Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, LLC, ISBN 9781851096671 ^ a b c Podhorodecki, Leszek (2001), Wiedeń 1683, Bellona, pp. 140–41 . ^ a b Leitsch, Walter (July 1983). "1683: The Siege of Vienna". History Today. 33 (7). Retrieved 19 December 2014. The defeat of the Ottoman Army outside the gates of Vienna
Vienna
300 years ago is usually regarded as the beginning of the decline of the Ottoman Empire. But Walter Leitsch asks whether it was such a turning point in the history of Europe? ... However, it marks a turning point: not only was further Ottoman advance on Christian territories stopped, but in the following war that lasted up to 1698 almost all of Hungary
Hungary
was reconquered by the army of Emperor Leopold I. From 1683 the Ottoman Turks ceased to be a menace to the Christian world. ... The battle of Vienna
Vienna
was a turning point in one further respect: the success was due to the co-operation between the troops of the Emperor, some Imperial princes and the Poles. ... However the co-operation between the two non-maritime neighbours of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
in Europe, the Emperor and Poland, was something new. ... Walter Leitsch is Professor of East European History and Director of the Institute of East and Southeast European Research at the University of Vienna.  ^ a b Davies, Norman (1982), God's Playground, a History of Poland: The Origins to 1795, Columbia University Press, p. 487 . ^ Bruce, George (1981). Harbottle's Dictionary of Battles. Van Nostrand Reinhold.  ^ Nähere Untersuchung der Pestansteckung, p. 42, Pascal Joseph von Ferro, Joseph Edler von Kurzbek, royal publisher, Vienna
Vienna
1787. ^ a b c Stoye, John. The Siege of Vienna: The Last Great Trial between Cross & Crescent. 2011 ^ The original document was destroyed during World War II. For the German translation, see here ^ Palmer, Alan, The Decline and Fall of the Ottoman Empire, p.12, Published by Barnes & Noble Publishing, 1992. ISBN 1-56619-847-X ^ Melvyn Bragg, Andrew Wheatcroft, Dr. Claire Norton and Jeremy Black (historian) (14 May 2009). "The Siege of Vienna". In Our Time. 17:30 minutes in. BBC Radio 4.  ^ Bates, Brandon J. (2003). "The Beginning of the End: The Failure of the Siege of Vienna
Siege of Vienna
of 1683" (PDF). Brigham Young University. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 August 2006. Retrieved 28 August 2006.  ^ Ripperton, Lisa. "The Siege of Vienna". The Baldwin Project. Retrieved 28 August 2006.  ^ Wheatcroft, Andrew (2008). The Enemy at the Gate, Preface p. xix, p. 1. ^ a b c idem ^ "Duell im Dunkeln" (in German). 2DF. 6 November 2005. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 28 August 2006.  ^ A'Barrow, Stephen R (2016). Death of a Nation: A New History of Germany. Book Guild Publishing. p. 73. ISBN 9781910508817.  ^ Overy, Richard (2014). A History of War in 100 Battles. Oxford University Press. p. 58. ISBN 9780199390717.  ^ Abrahamowicz, Zygmunt (1973), Kara mustafa pod Wiedniem. Źródła muzułmańskie do dziejów wyprawy wiedeńskiej ( Kara Mustafa
Kara Mustafa
at Vienna. Muslim primary sources to history of the Vienna
Vienna
campaign), Wydawnictwo Literackie, p. 164 . ^ "Letter from King Sobieski to his Wife". Letters from King Sobieski to his wife. University of Gdansk, Department of Cultural Studies, Faculty of Philology. Retrieved 4 August 2011.  ^ a b Stoye, John (2011) [2007]. The Siege of Vienna: The Last Great Trial between Cross & Crescent. Pegasus Books. p. 175.  ^ Grzechnik, Slawek K. "Hussaria – Polish Winged Cavalry". Archived from the original on 15 June 2006. Retrieved 28 August 2006.  ^ "Chcą nam odebrać Victorię wiedeńską?". pch24.pl. Retrieved 10 September 2016.  ^ "ATMA Classique". ATMA Classique.  ^ "Taragot, tarogato, 11thMUSE.com". www.11thmuse.com.  ^ Pendergrast, Mark. Uncommon Grounds, p.10. Basic Books, 2000. ISBN 0-465-05467-6 ^ Millar, Simon. Vienna
Vienna
1683, p. 93. Osprey Publishing, 2008. ISBN 1-84603-231-8. ^ Karl Teply, Die Einführung des Kaffees in Wien. Verein für Geschichte der Stadt Wien, vol. 6 ( Vienna
Vienna
1980), p. 104.

Notes[edit]

^ Viennese garrison: 15,000 soldiers[6] + 8,700 volunteers,[7] 370 cannons; Relief force: 50,000–60,000 Germans,[8] 15,000–20,000 Poles[8][9] ^ The lowest estimate is 90,000,[7] while according to older estimates even up to 300,000[12][13][14][15]

Further reading[edit]

Stéphane Gaber, Et Charles V arrêta la marche des Turcs, Presses universitaires de Nancy, 1986, ISBN 2-86480-227-9. Bruce, George (1981). Harbottle's Dictionary of Battles. Van Nostrand Reinhold.  Cezary Harasimowicz Victoria Warsaw 2007, novel ISBN 978-83-925589-0-3 James Michener Poland, A Novel, see Chapter V From the South Alan Palmer, The Decline and Fall of the Ottoman Empire, Published by Barnes & Noble Publishing, 1992. ISBN 1-56619-847-X.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Battle of Vienna.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: A Letter From the King of Poland
King of Poland
to His Queen. In Which is Incerted Many Particulars Relating to the Victories Obtained Against the Turks. With a Prayer of the Turks against the Christians

Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Army in the 17th century from kismeta.com The Battle of Vienna
Vienna
at the Wilanów Museum Palace (in German) German TV: Türken vor Wien (in German) Arte TV: Türken vor Wien Winged Hussars, Radoslaw Sikora, Bartosz Musialowicz, BUM Magazine, 2016.

v t e

Polish wars and conflicts

Piast Poland

Battle of Cedynia German–Polish War (1002–18) Bolesław I's intervention in the Kievan succession crisis 1072 war against Bohemia Battle of Głogów 1146 war against Germany 1156 war against Germany First Mongol invasion of Poland
First Mongol invasion of Poland
(1240/41) Second Mongol invasion of Poland
Second Mongol invasion of Poland
(1259/60) Third Mongol invasion of Poland
Third Mongol invasion of Poland
(1287/88)

Battle of Legnica

Polish–Teutonic War (1326–32)

Battle of Płowce

Galicia–Volhynia Wars

Jagiellon Poland

Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War

Battle of Grunwald

Polish–Teutonic War (1414) Polish–Teutonic War (1422) Polish–Teutonic War (1431–35) Battle of Grotniki 1444 war against the Ottomans

Battle of Varna

Thirteen Years' War War of the Priests Polish–Moldavian War Polish–Lithuanian–Muscovite War (1512–22)

Battle of Orsha

Polish–Teutonic War (1519–21) Polish–Lithuanian–Muscovite War (1534–37) Ottoman–Tatar Invasion of Lithuania and Poland

Commonwealth

Northern Seven Years' War Danzig rebellion

Battle of Lubieszów

Siege of Danzig (1577) Livonian War

Livonian campaign of Stephen Báthory

War of the Polish Succession
War of the Polish Succession
(1587–88)

Battle of Byczyna

1589 Tatar Invasion Kosiński Uprising 1593 Tatar Invasion Nalyvaiko Uprising Moldavian Magnate Wars Polish–Ottoman War (1620–21) Polish–Swedish wars War against Sigismund

Battle of Stångebro

Polish–Swedish War (1600–29)

Polish–Swedish War (1600–11)

Battle of Kircholm

Polish–Swedish War (1617–18) Polish–Swedish War (1621–25) Polish–Swedish War (1626–29)

Polish–Muscovite War (1605–18)

Battle of Kłuszyn

Zebrzydowski Rebellion Thirty Years' War

Battle of Humenné

Polish–Ottoman War (1620–21)

Battle of Chocim (1621)

1624 Tatar Invasion Zhmaylo Uprising Fedorovych Uprising Smolensk War

Siege of Smolensk (1632–33)

Polish–Ottoman War (1633–34) Pawluk Uprising Ostrzanin Uprising 1644 Tatar Invasion Khmelnytsky Uprising

Battle of Berestechko

Russo-Polish War (1654–67) Second Northern War

The Deluge

Polish–Cossack–Tatar War (1666–71) Polish–Ottoman War (1672–76)

Battle of Chocim (1673)

Polish–Ottoman War (1683–99)

Battle of Vienna

Great Northern War War of the Polish Succession War of the Bar Confederation Polish–Russian War of 1792 Kościuszko Uprising

Poland partitioned

Napoleonic Wars Peninsular War War of the Fourth Coalition

Prussian campaign

War of the Fifth Coalition

Polish–Austrian War

War of the Sixth Coalition

French invasion of Russia

Greater Poland Uprising (1848) November Uprising January Uprising World War I

Second Republic

Polish–Ukrainian War Greater Poland Uprising Polish–Czechoslovak War First Silesian Uprising Polish–Soviet War

Battle of Warsaw

Second Silesian Uprising Polish–Lithuanian War Third Silesian Uprising

Second World War

World War II German Invasion of Poland Polish contribution to World War II Italian Campaign Ghetto uprisings

Warsaw Ghetto Uprising Białystok Ghetto Uprising Częstochowa Ghetto Uprising

Operation Tempest

Operation Ostra Brama Lwów uprising Warsaw Uprising

People's Republic

Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia

Third Republic

War in Afghanistan Iraq War

2003 invasion of Iraq Occupation of Iraq

v t e

Major sieges by the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
by century

14th

1326 Prusa 1331 Nicaea 1333 Nicomedia 1360s Adrianople 1385 Sofia 1393 Tarnovo

15th

1422 Constantinople 1422–30 Thessalonica 1448 Svetigrad 1453 Constantinople 1456 Belgrade 1461 Trebizond 1462 Mytilene 1470 Negroponte 1478 Scutari 1480 Rhodes 1481 Otranto

16th

1517 Cairo 1521 Belgrade 1522 Rhodes 1529 Peñón of Algiers 1529 Vienna 1532 Güns (Kőszeg) 1532 Maribor 1534 Tunis 1534 Baghdad 1537 Klis 1537 Corfu 1538 Diu 1538 Aden 1539 Castelnuovo 1541 Buda 1543 Nice 1543 Esztergom 1547 Van 1551 Tripoli 1552 Muscat 1552 Hormuz 1552 Temesvár 1552 Eger 1556 Oran 1563 Oran 1565 Malta 1566 Szigetvar 1574 Tunis 1578 Gvozdansko 1593 Sisak 1596 Eger

17th

1638 Baghdad 1663 Uyvar 1664 Novi Zrin 1648–69 Candia 1672 Kamenets 1683 Vienna

18th–19th

1739 Belgrade 1825–26 Missolonghi

Ottoman defeats shown in italics.

v t e

Battles involving the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
by era

Rise (1299–1453)

Land battles

Bapheus Dimbos Pelekanon Demotika Ihtiman Sırp Sındığı Maritsa Dubravnica Savra Pločnik Bileća Kosovo Kırkdilim Rovine Nicopolis Ankara Çamurlu Zlatitsa Kunovica Torvioll Varna Kosovo (2nd) Constantinople

Naval battles

Gallipoli

Classical Age (1453–1550)

Land battles

Albulena Târgoviște Jajce Ohrid Vaslui Valea Albă Shkodra Breadfield Otlukbeli Krbava Çaldıran Mercidabık Han Yunus Ridanieh Tlemcen Mohács Sokhoista

Naval battles

Zonchio Modon Diu Algiers (1516) Formentera Peñón of Algiers (1529) Tunis Preveza Alborán Algiers (1541) Ponza Djerba

Transformation (1550-1700)

Land battles

Mostaganem Szigeth Çıldır Torches Wadi al Laban Sisak Călugăreni Giurgiu Keresztes Urmia Cecora 1st Khotyn Candia Köbölkút Saint Gotthard Ładyżyn Krasnobród Niemirów 2nd Khotyn 2nd Vienna 2nd Mohács Slankamen Cenei Ustechko Lugos Ulaş Zenta

Naval battles

Lepanto Cape Corvo Cape Celidonia Focchies 1st Dardanelles 2nd Dardanelles 3rd Dardanelles 4th Dardanelles Oinousses Andros

Old Regime (1700–1789)

Land battles

Pruth Petrovaradin Banja Luka Grocka Stavunchany Aspindza Larga Yeghevārd Ganja Kars Kozludzha Kagul

Naval battles

Imbros Matapan Çeşme 1st Kerch Strait

Modernization (1789–1908)

Land battles

Focşani Rymnik Măcin Pyramids Abukir Arpachai Batin Al-Safra Jeddah Čegar Alamana Gravia Erzurum Valtetsi Doliana Dragashani Sculeni Vasilika Peta Dervenakia Karpenisi Arachova Kamatero Phaleron Petra Kulevicha Algiers Konya Nezib Kurekdere Oltenița Eupatoria Kızıl Tepe Shipka Pass Plevna Philippopolis Taşkesen Novšiće Ulcinj Mouzaki Domokos

Naval battles

2nd Kerch Strait Kaliakra Athos Nauplia Samos Gerontas Navarino Sinop

For 20th-century battles before 1914 see List of Ottoman battles in the 20th century For the battles during World War I
World War I
see List of Ottoman battles in World War I

Ottoman victories

.