(27 ships of the line and six others)
(France: 18 ships of the line and eight others
Spain: 15 ships of the line)
Casualties and losses
10 ships captured,
one ship destroyed,
11 ships captured,
Apx. 3,000 prisoners drowned in a storm after the battle
25 January 1797
Cape St. Vincent
26 April 1797
16 October 1799
7 April 1800
Cape Santa Maria
25 November 1804
7 December 1804
4 April 1808
13 October 1796
19 December 1796
19 January 1799
6 February 1799
7 July 1799
10 December 1800
6 May 1801
Algeciras (1st • 2nd)
St. George's Caye
Río de la Plata
1st Buenos Aires
2nd Buenos Aires
23 August 1806
War of the Third Coalition
Proposed Invasion of the United Kingdom
10 August 1805
Battle of Trafalgar
Battle of Trafalgar (21 October 1805) was a naval engagement
fought by the British
Royal Navy against the combined fleets of the
French and Spanish Navies, during the War of the Third Coalition
(August–December 1805) of the
Napoleonic Wars (1796–1815).
Twenty-seven British ships of the line led by Admiral Lord Nelson
aboard HMS Victory defeated thirty-three French and Spanish ships
of the line under the French Admiral Villeneuve in the Atlantic Ocean
off the southwest coast of Spain, just west of Cape Trafalgar, near
the town of Los Caños de Meca. The Franco-Spanish fleet lost
twenty-two ships, without a single British vessel being lost. It was
the most decisive naval battle of the war.
The British victory spectacularly confirmed the naval supremacy that
Britain had established during the eighteenth century and was achieved
in part through Nelson's departure from the prevailing naval tactical
orthodoxy. Conventional practice, at the time, was to engage an
enemy fleet in a single line of battle parallel to the enemy, to
facilitate signalling in battle and disengagement, and to maximise
fields of fire and target areas. Nelson instead divided his smaller
force into two columns directed perpendicularly against the enemy
fleet, with decisive results.
During the battle, Nelson was shot by a French musketeer; he died
shortly thereafter, becoming one of Britain's greatest war heroes.
Villeneuve was captured along with his ship Bucentaure. Admiral
Federico Gravina, the senior Spanish flag officer, escaped with the
remnant of the fleet and succumbed months later to wounds sustained
during the battle. Villeneuve attended Nelson's funeral while a
captive on parole in Britain.
1.1 Pursuit of Villeneuve
1.3 Supply situation
2 The fleets
3 The battle
3.1 Nelson's plan
3.3.1 Cosmao and MacDonnell sortie
3.3.2 The British cast off the prizes
4 Results of the battle
6 100th anniversary
7 200th anniversary
8 In popular culture
9 See also
12 Further reading
13 External links
Main article: Trafalgar Campaign
Vice Admiral Horatio Lord Nelson, by Lemuel Francis Abbott
Vice Admiral Cuthbert Collingwood
Pierre-Charles Villeneuve, the French Admiral
Federico Gravina, the Spanish Admiral
In 1805, the First French Empire, under
Napoleon Bonaparte, was the
dominant military land power on the European continent, while the
Royal Navy controlled the seas. During the course of the
war, the British imposed a naval blockade on France, which affected
trade and kept the French from fully mobilising their naval
resources. Despite several successful evasions of the blockade by
the French navy, it failed to inflict a major defeat upon the British,
who were able to attack French interests at home and abroad with
Third Coalition declared war on France, after the short-lived
Peace of Amiens,
Napoleon was determined to invade Britain. To do so,
he needed to ensure that the
Royal Navy would be unable to disrupt the
invasion flotilla, which would require control of the English
The main French fleets were at Brest in Brittany and at
Toulon on the
Mediterranean coast. Other ports on the French Atlantic coast
harboured smaller squadrons.
Spain were allied, so the
Spanish fleet based in
Cádiz and Ferrol was also available.
The British possessed an experienced and well-trained corps of naval
officers. By contrast, some of the best officers in the French
navy had either been executed or had left the service during the early
part of the French Revolution.
Pierre-Charles Villeneuve had taken command of the French
Mediterranean fleet following the death of Latouche Treville. There
had been more competent officers, but they had either been employed
elsewhere or had fallen from Napoleon's favour. Villeneuve had
shown a distinct lack of enthusiasm for facing Nelson and the Royal
Navy after the French defeat at the
Battle of the Nile
Battle of the Nile in 1798.
Napoleon's naval plan in 1805 was for the French and Spanish fleets in
Cádiz to break through the blockade and join
forces in the Caribbean. They would then return, assist the fleet in
Brest to emerge from the blockade, and together clear the English
Royal Navy ships, ensuring a safe passage for the invasion
Pursuit of Villeneuve
Early in 1805,
Vice Admiral Lord Nelson commanded the British fleet
blockading Toulon. Unlike William Cornwallis, who maintained a close
blockade off Brest with the Channel Fleet, Nelson adopted a loose
blockade in the hope of luring the French out for a major battle.
However, Villeneuve's fleet successfully evaded Nelson's when the
British were blown off station by storms. Nelson commenced a search of
the Mediterranean, erroneously supposing that the French intended to
make for Egypt. However, Villeneuve took his fleet through the Strait
of Gibraltar, rendezvoused with the Spanish fleet, and sailed as
planned for the Caribbean. Once Nelson realised that the French had
crossed the Atlantic Ocean, he set off in pursuit.
Villeneuve returned from the
Caribbean to Europe, intending to break
the blockade at Brest, but after two of his Spanish ships were
captured during the Battle of Cape Finisterre by a squadron under
Vice-Admiral Sir Robert Calder, Villeneuve abandoned this plan and
sailed back to Ferrol in northern Spain. There he received orders
Napoleon to return to Brest according to the main plan.
Napoleon's invasion plans for Britain depended on having a
sufficiently large number of ships of the line before Boulogne in
France. This would require Villeneuve's force of 33 ships to join
Vice-Admiral Ganteaume's force of 21 ships at Brest, along with a
squadron of five ships under Captain Allemand, which would have given
him a combined force of 59 ships of the line.
When Villeneuve set sail from Ferrol on 10 August, he was under orders
Napoleon to sail northward toward Brest. Instead, he worried that
the British were observing his manoeuvres, so on 11 August, he sailed
Cádiz on the southwestern coast of Spain. With
no sign of Villeneuve's fleet, on 25 August, the three French army
corps' invasion force near Boulogne broke camp and marched into
Germany, where it was later engaged. This ended the immediate threat
The same month, Nelson returned home to Britain after two years of
duty at sea. He remained ashore for 25 days and was warmly
received by his countrymen. Word reached Britain on 2 September
about the combined French and Spanish fleet in
Nelson had to wait until 15 September before his ship, HMS Victory,
was ready to sail.
On 15 August, Cornwallis decided to detach 20 ships of the line from
the fleet guarding the
English Channel and to have them sail southward
to engage the enemy forces in Spain. This left the Channel
drastically reduced of large vessels, with only 11 ships of the line
present. This detached force formed the nucleus of the British
fleet that would fight at Trafalgar. This fleet, under the command of
Vice-Admiral Calder, reached
Cádiz on 15 September. Nelson joined the
fleet on 28 September to take command.
The British fleet used frigates (faster, but too fragile for the line
of battle), to keep a constant watch on the harbour, while the main
force remained out of sight, approximately 50 miles (80 km)
west of the shore. Nelson's hope was to lure the combined
Franco-Spanish force out and engage it in a decisive battle. The force
watching the harbour was led by Captain Blackwood, commanding HMS
Euryalus. His squadron of seven ships comprised five frigates, a
schooner, and a brig.
At this point, Nelson's fleet badly needed provisioning. On 2 October,
five ships of the line, HMS Queen, Canopus, Spencer, Zealous, Tigre,
and the frigate HMS Endymion were dispatched to
Thomas Louis for supplies.
Battle of Trafalgar
Battle of Trafalgar By William Lionel Wyllie, Juno Tower, CFB Halifax,
Nova Scotia, Canada
These ships were later diverted for convoy duty in the Mediterranean,
although Nelson had expected them to return. Other British ships
continued to arrive, and by 15 October the fleet was up to full
strength for the battle. Nelson also lost Calder's flagship, the
98-gun Prince of Wales, which he sent home as Calder had been recalled
Admiralty to face a court martial for his apparent lack of
aggression during the engagement off Cape Finisterre on 22 July.
Meanwhile, Villeneuve's fleet in
Cádiz was also suffering from a
serious supply shortage that could not be easily rectified by the
cash-poor French. The blockade maintained by the British fleet had
made it difficult for the Franco-Spanish allies to obtain stores, and
their ships were ill-equipped. Villeneuve's ships were also more than
two thousand men short of the force needed to sail. These were not the
only problems faced by the Franco-Spanish fleet. The main French ships
of the line had been kept in harbour for years by the British blockade
with only brief sorties. The French crews included few experienced
sailors, and, as most of the crew had to be taught the elements of
seamanship on the few occasions when they got to sea, gunnery was
neglected. The hasty voyage across the Atlantic and back used up vital
supplies. Villeneuve's supply situation began to improve in October,
but news of Nelson's arrival made Villeneuve reluctant to leave port.
Indeed, his captains had held a vote on the matter and decided to stay
On 16 September,
Napoleon gave orders for the French and Spanish ships
Cádiz to put to sea at the first favourable opportunity, join with
seven Spanish ships of the line then at Cartagena, go to
land the soldiers they carried to reinforce his troops there, then
fight decisively if they met a numerically inferior British fleet.
See also: Order of battle at the Battle of Trafalgar
Total ships of the line
On 21 October, Admiral Nelson had 27 ships of the line under his
command. Nelson's flagship, HMS Victory, captained by Thomas Masterman
Hardy, was one of three 100-gun first rates in his fleet. He also had
four 98-gun second rates and twenty third rates. One of the third
rates was an 80-gun vessel, and sixteen were 74-gun vessels. The
remaining three were 64-gun ships, which were being phased out of the
Royal Navy at the time of the battle. Nelson also had four frigates of
38 or 36 guns, a 12-gun schooner and a 10-gun cutter.
Against Nelson, Vice-Admiral Villeneuve—sailing on his flagship
Bucentaure—fielded 33 ships of the line, including some of the
largest in the world at the time. The Spanish contributed four
first-rates to the fleet. Three of these ships, one at 130 guns
(Santisima Trinidad) and two at 112 guns (Príncipe de Asturias, Santa
Ana), were much larger than anything under Nelson's command. The
fourth first-rate carried 100 guns. The fleet had six 80-gun
third-rates, (four French and two Spanish), and one Spanish 64-gun
third-rate. The remaining 22 third-rates were 74-gun vessels, of which
fourteen were French and eight Spanish. In total, the Spanish
contributed 15 ships of the line and the French 18. The fleet also
included five 40-gun frigates and two 18-gun brigs, all French.
The prevailing tactical orthodoxy at the time involved manoeuvring to
approach the enemy fleet in a single line of battle and then engaging
broadside in parallel lines. Before this time the fleets had
usually been involved in a mixed mêlée. One reason for the
development of the line of battle system was to facilitate control of
the fleet: if all the ships were in line, signalling in battle became
possible. The line also allowed either side to disengage by
breaking away in formation; if the attacker chose to continue, their
line would be broken as well. This often led to inconclusive
battles, or allowed the losing side to minimise its losses; but Nelson
wanted a conclusive action.
Nelson's solution to the problem was to cut the opposing line in
three. Approaching in two columns, sailing perpendicular to the
enemy's line, one towards the centre of the opposing line and one
towards the trailing end, his ships would break the enemy formation
into three, surround one third, and force them to fight to the
end. Nelson hoped specifically to cut the line just in front of
the French flagship, Bucentaure; the isolated ships in front of the
break would not be able to see the flagship's signals, hopefully
taking them out of combat while they re-formed. The intention of going
straight at the enemy echoed the tactics used by Admiral Duncan at the
Battle of Camperdown
Battle of Camperdown and Admiral Jervis at the Battle of Cape St
Vincent, both in 1797.
Battle of Trafalgar
Battle of Trafalgar by Clarkson Stanfield
The plan had three principal advantages. First, the British fleet
would close with the Franco-Spanish as quickly as possible, reducing
the chance that they would be able to escape without fighting.
Second, it would quickly bring on a mêlée and frantic battle by
breaking the Franco-Spanish line and inducing a series of individual
ship-to-ship actions, in which the British were likely to prevail.
Nelson knew that the superior seamanship, faster gunnery and better
morale of his crews were great advantages. Third, it would bring a
decisive concentration on the rear of the Franco-Spanish fleet. The
ships in the van of the enemy fleet would have to turn back to support
the rear, which would take a long time. Additionally, once the
Franco-Spanish line had been broken, their ships would be relatively
defenceless against powerful broadsides from the British fleet, and it
would take them a long time to reposition to return fire.
The main drawback of attacking head-on was that as the leading British
ships approached, the Franco-Spanish fleet would be able to direct
raking broadside fire at their bows, to which they would be unable to
reply. To lessen the time the fleet was exposed to this danger, Nelson
had his ships make all available sail (including stuns'ls), yet
another departure from the norm. He was also well aware that
French and Spanish gunners were ill-trained and would have difficulty
firing accurately from a moving gun platform. The Combined Fleet was
sailing across a heavy swell, causing the ships to roll heavily and
exacerbating the problem. Nelson's plan was indeed a gamble, but a
carefully calculated one.
During the period of blockade off the coast of
Spain in October,
Nelson instructed his captains, over two dinners aboard Victory, on
his plan for the approaching battle. The order of sailing, in which
the fleet was arranged when the enemy was first sighted, was to be the
order of the ensuing action so that no time would be wasted in forming
a precise line. The attack was to be made in two lines. One, led
by his second-in-command Vice-Admiral Cuthbert Collingwood, was to
sail into the rear of the enemy line, while the other, led by Nelson,
was to sail into the centre and vanguard. The intention was to
split the enemy line and engage in close quarter action, a form of
combat in which, Nelson believed, the British fleet would have the
advantage. In preparation for the battle, Nelson ordered the ships of
his fleet to be painted in a distinctive yellow and black pattern
(later known as the Nelson Chequer) that would make them easy to
distinguish from their opponents.
Nelson was careful to point out that something had to be left to
chance. Nothing is sure in a sea battle, so he left his captains free
from all hampering rules by telling them that "No captain can do very
wrong if he places his ship alongside that of the enemy." In
short, circumstances would dictate the execution, subject to the
guiding rule that the enemy's rear was to be cut off and superior
force concentrated on that part of the enemy's line.
Admiral Villeneuve himself expressed his belief that Nelson would use
some sort of unorthodox attack, stating specifically that he
believed—accurately—that Nelson would drive right at his line. But
his long game of cat and mouse with Nelson had worn him down, and he
was suffering from a loss of nerve. Arguing that the inexperience of
his officers meant he would not be able to maintain formation in more
than one group, he chose not to act on his assessment.
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The Combined Fleet of French and Spanish warships anchored in Cádiz
and under the leadership of Admiral Villeneuve was in disarray. On 16
September 1805 Villeneuve received orders from
Napoleon to sail the
Combined Fleet from
Cádiz to Naples. At first, Villeneuve was
optimistic about returning to the Mediterranean, but soon had second
thoughts. A war council was held aboard his flagship, Bucentaure, on 8
October. While some of the French captains wished to obey
Napoleon's orders, the Spanish captains and other French officers,
including Villeneuve, thought it best to remain in Cádiz.
Villeneuve changed his mind yet again on 18 October 1805, ordering the
Combined Fleet to sail immediately even though there were only very
The sudden change was prompted by a letter Villeneuve had received on
18 October, informing him that Vice-Admiral
François Rosily had
Madrid with orders to take command of the Combined
Fleet. Stung by the prospect of being disgraced before the fleet,
Villeneuve resolved to go to sea before his successor could reach
Cádiz. At the same time, he received intelligence that a detachment
of six British ships (Admiral Louis' squadron), had docked at
Gibraltar, thus weakening the British fleet. This was used as the
pretext for sudden change.
The weather, however, suddenly turned calm following a week of gales.
This slowed the progress of the fleet leaving the harbour, giving the
British plenty of warning. Villeneuve had drawn up plans to form a
force of four squadrons, each containing both French and Spanish
ships. Following their earlier vote on 8 October to stay put, some
captains were reluctant to leave Cádiz, and as a result they failed
to follow Villeneuve's orders closely and the fleet straggled out of
the harbour in no particular formation.
It took most of 20 October for Villeneuve to get his fleet organised;
it eventually set sail in three columns for the Straits of Gibraltar
to the southeast. That same evening, Achille spotted a force of 18
British ships of the line in pursuit. The fleet began to prepare for
battle and during the night, they were ordered into a single line. The
following day, Nelson's fleet of 27 ships of the line and four
frigates was spotted in pursuit from the northwest with the wind
behind it. Villeneuve again ordered his fleet into three columns, but
soon changed his mind and ordered a single line. The result was a
sprawling, uneven formation.
At 5:40 a.m. on 21 October, the British were about 21 miles
(34 km) to the northwest of Cape Trafalgar, with the
Franco-Spanish fleet between the British and the Cape. At circa
6 a.m., Nelson gave the order to prepare for battle. At
8 am the British frigate Euryalus, which had been keeping watch
on the Combined Fleet overnight, observed the British fleet still
"forming the lines" in which it would attack.
At 8 a.m., Villeneuve ordered the fleet to wear together (turn
about) and return to Cádiz. This reversed the order of the allied
line, placing the rear division under Rear-Admiral Pierre Dumanoir le
Pelley in the vanguard. The wind became contrary at this point, often
shifting direction. The very light wind rendered manoeuvring virtually
impossible for all but the most expert seamen. The inexperienced crews
had difficulty with the changing conditions, and it took nearly an
hour and a half for Villeneuve's order to be completed. The French and
Spanish fleet now formed an uneven, angular crescent, with the slower
ships generally to leeward and closer to the shore.
By 11 a.m. Nelson's entire fleet was visible to Villeneuve, drawn
up in two parallel columns. The two fleets would be within range of
each other within an hour. Villeneuve was concerned at this point
about forming up a line, as his ships were unevenly spaced and in an
irregular formation. The Franco-Spanish fleet was drawn out nearly
five miles (8 km) long as Nelson's fleet approached.
As the British drew closer, they could see that the enemy was not
sailing in a tight order, but rather in irregular groups. Nelson could
not immediately make out the French flagship as the French and Spanish
were not flying command pennants.
Nelson was outnumbered and outgunned, the enemy totalling nearly
30,000 men and 2,568 guns to his 17,000 men and 2,148 guns. The
Franco-Spanish fleet also had six more ships of the line, and so could
more readily combine their fire. There was no way for some of Nelson's
ships to avoid being "doubled on" or even "trebled on".
As the two fleets drew closer, anxiety began to build among officers
and sailors; one British sailor described the time before thus:
"During this momentous preparation, the human mind had ample time for
meditation, for it was evident that the fate of England rested on this
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Nelson's signal, "England expects that every man will do his duty",
flying from Victory on the bicentenary of the Battle of Trafalgar
The battle progressed largely according to Nelson's plan. At 11:45,
Nelson sent the famous flag signal, "England expects that every man
will do his duty".
His Lordship came to me on the poop, and after ordering certain
signals to be made, about a quarter to noon, he said, "Mr. Pasco, I
wish to say to the fleet, ENGLAND CONFIDES THAT EVERY MAN WILL DO HIS
DUTY" and he added "You must be quick, for I have one more to make
which is for close action." I replied, "If your Lordship will permit
me to substitute 'expects' for 'confides' the signal will soon be
completed, because the word 'expects' is in the vocabulary, and
'confides' must be spelt," His Lordship replied, in haste, and with
seeming satisfaction, "That will do, Pasco, make it directly."
The term "England" was widely used at the time to refer to the United
Kingdom; the British fleet included significant contingents from
Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. Unlike the photographic depiction
(right), this signal would have been shown on the mizzen mast only and
would have required 12 lifts.
As the battle opened, the French and Spanish were in a ragged curved
line headed north. As planned, the British fleet was approaching the
Franco-Spanish line in two columns. Leading the northern, windward
column in Victory was Nelson, while Collingwood in the 100-gun Royal
Sovereign led the second, leeward, column. The two British columns
approached from the west at nearly a right angle to the allied line.
Nelson led his column into a feint toward the van of the
Franco-Spanish fleet and then abruptly turned toward the actual point
of attack. Collingwood altered the course of his column slightly so
that the two lines converged at this line of attack.
Artist's conception of HMS Sandwich fighting the French flagship
Bucentaure (completely dismasted) at Trafalgar. Bucentaure is also
fighting HMS Temeraire (on the left) and being fired into by HMS
Victory (behind her). In fact, this is a mistake by Auguste Mayer, the
painter; HMS Sandwich never fought at Trafalgar.
Just before his column engaged the allied forces, Collingwood said to
his officers: "Now, gentlemen, let us do something today which the
world may talk of hereafter." Because the winds were very light during
the battle, all the ships were moving extremely slowly, and the
foremost British ships were under heavy fire from several of the
allied ships for almost an hour before their own guns could bear.
At noon, Villeneuve sent the signal "engage the enemy", and Fougueux
fired her first trial shot at Royal Sovereign. Royal
Sovereign had all sails out and, having recently had her bottom
cleaned, outran the rest of the British fleet. As she approached the
allied line, she came under fire from Fougueux, Indomptable, San
Justo, and San Leandro, before breaking the line just astern of
Admiral Alava's flagship Santa Ana, into which she fired a devastating
double-shotted raking broadside.
Artist's conception of the situation at noon as Royal Sovereign was
breaking into the Franco-Spanish line
The second ship in the British lee column, Belleisle, was engaged by
L'Aigle, Achille, Neptune, and Fougueux; she was soon completely
dismasted, unable to manoeuvre and largely unable to fight, as her
sails blinded her batteries, but kept flying her flag for
45 minutes until the following British ships came to her rescue.
For 40 minutes, Victory was under fire from Héros, Santísima
Trinidad, Redoutable, and Neptune; although many shots went astray,
others killed and wounded a number of her crew and shot her wheel
away, so that she had to be steered from her tiller belowdecks.
Victory could not yet respond. At 12:45, Victory cut the enemy line
between Villeneuve's flagship Bucentaure and Redoutable; she came
close to Bucentaure, firing a devastating raking broadside through her
stern which killed and wounded many on her gundecks. Villeneuve
thought that boarding would take place, and with the Eagle of his ship
in hand, told his men, "I will throw it onto the enemy ship and we
will take it back there!" However Victory engaged the 74-gun
Redoutable; Bucentaure was left to be dealt with by the next three
ships of the British windward column: Temeraire, Conqueror, and
Painter Denis Dighton's imagining of Nelson being shot on the
quarterdeck of Victory
A general mêlée ensued and, during that fight, Victory locked masts
with the French Redoutable. The crew of Redoutable, which included a
strong infantry corps (with three captains and four lieutenants),
gathered for an attempt to board and seize Victory. A musket bullet
fired from the mizzentop of Redoutable struck Nelson in the left
shoulder, passed through his spine at the sixth and seventh thoracic
vertebrae, and lodged two inches below his right scapula in the
muscles of his back. Nelson exclaimed, "They finally succeeded, I am
dead." He was carried below decks.
Painter Nicholas Pocock's conception of the situation at 1300h
Victory's gunners were called on deck to fight boarders, and she
ceased firing. The gunners were forced back below decks by French
grenades. As the French were preparing to board Victory, Temeraire,
the second ship in the British windward column, approached from the
starboard bow of Redoutable and fired on the exposed French crew with
a carronade, causing many casualties.
At 13:55, Captain Lucas, of Redoutable, with 99 fit men out of 643 and
severely wounded himself, surrendered. The French Bucentaure was
isolated by Victory and Temeraire, and then engaged by HMS Neptune,
HMS Leviathan, and Conqueror; similarly, Santísima Trinidad was
isolated and overwhelmed, surrendering after three hours.
Painter Nicholas Pocock's conception of the situation at 1700h
As more and more British ships entered the battle, the ships of the
allied centre and rear were gradually overwhelmed. The allied van,
after long remaining quiescent, made a futile demonstration and then
sailed away. The British took 22 vessels of the Franco-Spanish fleet
and lost none. Among the captured French ships were L'Aigle,
Algésiras, Berwick, Bucentaure, Fougueux, Intrépide, Redoutable, and
Swiftsure. The Spanish ships taken were Argonauta, Bahama, Monarca,
Neptuno, San Agustín, San Ildefonso, San Juan Nepomuceno, Santísima
Trinidad, and Santa Ana. Of these, Redoutable sank, and Santísima
Trinidad and Argonauta were scuttled by the British. Achille exploded,
Intrépide and San Augustín burned, and L'Aigle, Berwick, Fougueux,
and Monarca were wrecked in a gale following the battle.
As Nelson lay dying, he ordered the fleet to anchor, as a storm was
predicted. However, when the storm blew up, many of the severely
damaged ships sank or ran aground on the shoals. A few of them were
recaptured, some by the French and Spanish prisoners overcoming the
small prize crews, others by ships sallying from Cádiz. Surgeon
William Beatty heard Nelson murmur, "Thank God I have done my duty";
when he returned, Nelson's voice had faded, and his pulse was very
weak. He looked up as Beatty took his pulse, then closed his eyes.
Nelson's chaplain, Alexander Scott, who remained by Nelson as he died,
recorded his last words as "God and my country." It has been
suggested by Nelson historian Craig Cabell that Nelson was actually
reciting his own prayer as he fell into his death coma, as the words
'God' and 'my country' are closely linked therein. Nelson died at
half-past four, three hours after being hit.
Battle of Trafalgar
Battle of Trafalgar (1805) French and Spanish casualty rates by ship
in sailing order, up to 84% for Fougueux
Battle of Trafalgar
Battle of Trafalgar British casualty rates by ship, with 19% for
Victory leading the weather column and greatest rate 35% for Colossus
amidst the lee column
Data for this chart are in Trafalgar order of battle and casualties.
Blue = French (the two ships that took no casualties were both
Red = Spanish
The number is the order in the line
Data for this chart are in Trafalgar order of battle and casualties.
Yellow = HMS Africa
Green = The Weather Column, led by Nelson
Grey = Lee Column, led by Collingwood
The number is the order in the column.
Towards the end of the battle, and with the combined fleet being
overwhelmed, the still relatively un-engaged portion of the van under
Rear-Admiral Dumanoir Le Pelley tried to come to the assistance of the
collapsing centre. After failing to fight his way through, he decided
to break off the engagement, and led four French ships, his flagship
the 80-gun Formidable, the 74-gun ships Scipion, Duguay Trouin and
Mont Blanc away from the fighting. He headed at first for the Straits
of Gibraltar, intending to carry out Villeneuve's original orders and
make for Toulon. On 22 October he changed his mind, remembering a
powerful British squadron under Rear-Admiral
Thomas Louis was
patrolling the straits, and headed north, hoping to reach one of the
French Atlantic ports. With a storm gathering in strength off the
Spanish coast, he sailed westwards to clear Cape St Vincent, prior to
heading north-west, swinging eastwards across the Bay of Biscay, and
aiming to reach the French port at Rochefort. These four ships
remained at large until their encounter with and attempt to chase a
British frigate brought them in range of a British squadron under Sir
Richard Strachan, which captured them all on 4 November 1805 at the
Battle of Cape Ortegal.
Cosmao and MacDonnell sortie
The gale after Trafalgar, depicted by Thomas Buttersworth. In Cádiz
harbour; the ships that the Franco-Spanish squadron recaptured from
the British can be seen. In the centre of the image the dismasted
Spanish First Rate Santa Ana, flying Spanish colours, is visible. In
the distance other ships of the combined fleet can be seen in various
degrees of distress, with some sinking.
Only eleven ships escaped to Cádiz, and, of those, only five were
considered seaworthy. The seriously wounded Admiral Gravina passed
command of the remainder of the fleet over to Captain
Julien Cosmao on
23 October. From shore, the allied commanders could see an opportunity
for a rescue mission existed. Cosmao claimed in his report that the
rescue plan was entirely his idea, but Vice-Admiral Escano recorded a
meeting of Spanish and French Commodores at which a planned rescue was
discussed and agreed upon.
Enrique MacDonell and Cosmao were of equal
rank and both raised commodore's pennants before hoisting anchor.
Both sets of mariners were determined to make an attempt to recapture
some of the prizes. Cosmao ordered the rigging of his ship, the
74-gun Pluton, to be repaired and reinforced her crew (which had been
depleted by casualties from the battle), with sailors from the French
frigate Hermione. Taking advantage of a favourable northwesterly
wind, Pluton, the 80-gun Neptune and Indomptable, the Spanish
100-gun Rayo and 74-gun San Francisco de Asís, together with five
French frigates and two brigs, sailed out of the harbour towards the
The British cast off the prizes
Soon after leaving port, the wind shifted to west-southwest, raising a
heavy sea with the result that most of the British prizes broke their
tow ropes, and drifting far to leeward, were only partially resecured.
The combined squadron came in sight at noon, causing Collingwood to
summon his most battle-ready ships to meet the threat. In doing so, he
ordered them to cast off towing their prizes. He had formed a
defensive line of ten ships by three o'clock in the afternoon and
approached the Franco-Spanish squadron, covering the remainder of
their prizes which stood out to sea. The Franco-Spanish
squadron chose not to approach within gunshot and then declined to
attack. Collingwood also chose not to seek action, and in the
confusion of the powerful storm, the French frigates managed to retake
two Spanish ships of the line which had been cast off by their British
captors, the 112-gun Santa Ana and 80-gun Neptuno, taking them in tow
and making for Cádiz. On being taken in tow, the Spanish crews
rose up against their British prize crews, putting them to work as
Painting depicting the French frigate Thémis towing the re-taken
Spanish first-rate ship of the line Santa Ana into Cádiz. Auguste
Mayer, 19th century.
Despite this initial success the Franco-Spanish force, hampered by
battle damage, struggled in the heavy seas. Neptuno was eventually
wrecked off Rota in the gale, while Santa Ana reached port. The
French 80-gun ship Indomptable was wrecked on the 24th or 25th off the
town of Rota on the northwest point of the bay of Cádiz. At the
time Indomptable had 1,200 men on board, but no more than 100 were
saved. San Francisco de Asís was driven ashore in
Cádiz Bay, near
Fort Santa-Catalina, although her crew was saved. Rayo, an old
three-decker with more than 50 years of service, anchored off
Sanlúcar, a few leagues to the northwest of Rota. There, she lost her
masts; they had been damaged by shot earlier. Heartened by the
approach of the squadron, the French crew of the former flagship
Bucentaure also rose up and retook the ship from the British prize
crew but she was wrecked later on 23 October. Aigle escaped from the
British ship HMS Defiance, but was wrecked off the port of Santa
María on 23 October; while the French prisoners on Berwick cut the
tow cables, but caused her to founder off Sanlúcar on 22 October. The
crew of Algésiras rose up and managed to sail into Cádiz.
Observing that some of the leewardmost of the prizes were escaping
towards the Spanish coast, Leviathan asked for and was granted
permission by Collingwood to try to retrieve the prizes and bring them
to anchor. Leviathan chased Monarca, but on 24 October she came across
Rayo, dismasted but still flying Spanish colours, at anchor off the
shoals of Sanlúcar. At this point the 74-gun HMS Donegal, en
Gibraltar under Captain Pulteney Malcolm, was seen
approaching from the south on the larboard tack with a moderate breeze
from northwest-by-north and steered directly for the Spanish
three-decker. At about ten o'clock, just as Monarca had got within
little more than a mile of Rayo, Leviathan fired a warning shot wide
of Monarca, to oblige her to drop anchor. The shot fell between
Monarca and Rayo. The latter, conceiving that it was probably intended
for her, hauled down her colours, and was taken by HMS Donegal, who
anchored alongside and took off the prisoners. Leviathan resumed
her pursuit of Monarca, eventually catching up and forcing her to
surrender. On boarding her, her British captors found that she was in
a sinking state, and so removed the British prize crew, and nearly all
of her original Spanish crew members. The nearly empty Monarca parted
her cable and was wrecked during the night. Despite the efforts of her
British prize crew, Rayo was driven onshore on 26 October and wrecked,
with the loss of twenty-five men. The remainder of the prize crew were
made prisoners by the Spanish.
In the aftermath of the storm, Collingwood wrote:
The condition of our own ships was such that it was very doubtful what
would be their fate. Many a time I would have given the whole group of
our capture, to ensure our own... I can only say that in my life I
never saw such efforts as were made to save these [prize] ships, and
would rather fight another battle than pass through such a week as
— Vice-Admiral Cuthbert Collingwood to the Admiralty, November
On balance, the allied counter-attack achieved little. In forcing the
British to suspend their repairs to defend themselves, it influenced
Collingwood's decision to sink or set fire to the most damaged of his
remaining prizes. Cosmao retook two Spanish ships of the line, but
it cost him one French and two Spanish vessels to do so. Fearing their
loss, the British burnt or sank Santisima Trinidad, Argonauta, San
Antonio and Intrepide. Only four of the British prizes, the French
Swiftsure and the Spanish Bahama, San Ildefonso and San Juan
Nepomuceno survived to be taken to Britain. After the end of the
battle and storm only nine ships of the line were left in
Results of the battle
Nelson's overwhelming triumph over the combined Franco-Spanish fleet
ensured Britain's protection from invasion for the remainder of the
When Rosily arrived in Cádiz, he found only five French ships, rather
than the 18 he was expecting. The surviving ships remained bottled up
Cádiz until 1808 when
Napoleon invaded Spain. The French ships
were then seized by the Spanish forces and put into service against
HMS Victory made her way to
Gibraltar for repairs, carrying Nelson's
body. She put into Rosia Bay,
Gibraltar and after emergency repairs
were carried out, returned to Britain. Many of the injured crew were
brought ashore at
Gibraltar and treated in the Naval Hospital. Men who
subsequently died from injuries sustained at the battle are buried in
or near the Trafalgar Cemetery, at the south end of Main Street,
Royal Marine officer was killed on board Victory; Captain Charles
Royal Marine Lieutenant Lewis Buckle Reeve was seriously
wounded and lay next to Nelson.
The battle took place the day after the Battle of Ulm, and Napoleon
did not hear about it for weeks—the
Grande Armée had left Boulogne
to fight Britain's allies before they could combine a huge force. He
had tight control over the Paris media and kept the defeat a closely
guarded secret for over a month, at which point newspapers proclaimed
it to have been a tremendous victory. In a counter-propaganda
move, a fabricated text declaring the battle a "spectacular victory"
for the French and Spanish was published in Herald and attributed to
Le Moniteur Universel.
Vice-Admiral Villeneuve was taken prisoner aboard his flagship and
taken back to Britain. After his parole in 1806, he returned to
France, where he was found dead in his inn room during a stop on the
way to Paris, with six stab wounds in the chest from a dining knife.
It was officially recorded that he had committed suicide.
Despite the British victory over the Franco-Spanish navies, Trafalgar
had negligible impact on the remainder of the War of the Third
Coalition. Less than two months later,
Napoleon decisively defeated
Third Coalition at the Battle of Austerlitz, knocking Austria out
of the war and forcing the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire.
Although Trafalgar meant
France could no longer challenge Britain at
Napoleon proceeded to establish the
Continental System in an
attempt to deny Britain trade with the continent. The Napoleonic Wars
continued for another ten years after Trafalgar.
Nelson's body was preserved in a barrel of brandy for the trip home to
a hero's funeral.
A broadside from the 1850s recounts the story
Following the battle, the
Royal Navy was never again seriously
challenged by the French fleet in a large-scale engagement. Napoleon
had already abandoned his plans of invasion before the battle and they
were never revived. The battle did not mean, however, that the French
naval challenge to Britain was over. First, as the French control over
the continent expanded, Britain had to take active steps with the
Battle of Copenhagen in 1807 and elsewhere in 1808 to prevent the
ships of smaller European navies from falling into French hands. This
effort was largely successful, but did not end the French threat as
Napoleon instituted a large-scale shipbuilding programme that produced
a fleet of 80 ships of the line at the time of his fall from power in
1814, with more under construction. In comparison, Britain had 99
ships of the line in active commission in 1814, and this was close to
the maximum that could be supported. Given a few more years, the
French could have realised their plans to commission 150 ships of the
line and again challenge the Royal Navy, compensating for the
inferiority of their crews with sheer numbers. For almost
10 years after Trafalgar, the
Royal Navy maintained a close
blockade of French bases and anxiously observed the growth of the
French fleet. In the end, Napoleon's Empire was destroyed before the
ambitious buildup could be completed.
Detail from a modern reproduction of an 1805 poster commemorating the
Nelson became – and remains – Britain's greatest naval war hero,
and an inspiration to the Royal Navy, yet his unorthodox tactics were
seldom emulated by later generations. The first monument to be erected
in Britain to commemorate Nelson may be that raised on Glasgow Green
in 1806, albeit possibly preceded by a monument at Taynuilt, near Oban
in Scotland dated 1805, both also commemorating the many Scots crew
and captains at the battle. The 144-foot-tall (44 m)
Nelson Monument on
Glasgow Green was designed by David Hamilton and
paid for by public subscription. Around the base are the names of his
major victories: Aboukir (1798), Copenhagen (1801) and Trafalgar
(1805). In 1808,
Nelson's Pillar was erected by leading members of the
Anglo-Irish aristocracy in
Dublin to commemorate Nelson and his
achievements (between 10% and 20% of the sailors at Trafalgar had been
from Ireland), and remained until it was destroyed in a
bombing by "Old IRA" members in 1966. Nelson's Monument in
Edinburgh was built between 1807 and 1815 in the form of an upturned
telescope, and in 1853 a time ball was added which still drops at noon
GMT to give a time signal to ships in
Leith and the Firth of Forth. In
summer this coincides with the one o'clock gun being fired. The
Britannia Monument in
Great Yarmouth was raised by 1819. Nelson's
Column, Montreal began public subscriptions soon after news of the
victory at Trafalgar arrived; the column was completed in the autumn
of 1809 and still stands in Place Jacques Cartier.
Nelson on top of his column in
Trafalgar Square in London
Trafalgar Square was named in honour of Nelson's
victory, and his statue on Nelson's Column, finished in 1843, towers
triumphantly over it. The statue of Lord Nelson in Bridgetown,
Barbados, in what was also once known as Trafalgar Square, was erected
The disparity in losses has been attributed by some historians less to
Nelson's daring tactics than to the difference in fighting readiness
of the two fleets. Nelson's fleet was made up of ships of the line
which had spent a considerable amount of sea time during the months of
blockades of French ports, whilst the French fleet had generally been
at anchor in port. However, Villeneuve's fleet had just spent months
at sea crossing the Atlantic twice, which supports the proposition
that the main difference between the two fleets' combat effectiveness
was the morale of the leaders. The daring tactics employed by Nelson
were to ensure a strategically decisive result. The results vindicated
his naval judgement.
Royal Navy proceeded to dominate the sea until the Second World
War. Although the victory at Trafalgar was typically given as the
reason at the time, modern historical analyses suggest that relative
economic strength was an important underlying cause of British naval
In 1905, there were events up and down the country to commemorate the
centenary, although none were attended by any member of the Royal
Family, apparently to avoid upsetting the French, with whom the United
Kingdom had recently entered the Entente cordiale. King Edward VII
did support the Nelson Centenary Memorial Fund of the British and
Foreign Sailors Society, which sold Trafalgar centenary souvenirs
marked with the Royal cypher. A gala was held on 21 October at the
Royal Albert Hall
Royal Albert Hall in aid of the fund, which included a specially
commissioned film by
Alfred John West
Alfred John West entitled "Our Navy". The
event ended with
God Save the King
God Save the King and La Marseillaise The first
performance of Sir Henry Wood's
Fantasia on British Sea Songs occurred
on the same day at a special Promenade Concert.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Trafalgar 200.
In 2005 a series of events around the UK, part of the Sea Britain
theme, marked the bicentenary of the Battle of Trafalgar. The 200th
anniversary of the battle was also commemorated on six occasions in
Portsmouth during June and July, at
St Paul's Cathedral
St Paul's Cathedral (where Nelson
is entombed), in
Trafalgar Square in London in October (T Square 200),
and across the UK.
On 28 June, the Queen was involved in the largest Fleet Review in
modern times in the Solent, in which 167 ships from 35 nations took
part. The Queen inspected the international fleet from the Antarctic
patrol ship HMS Endurance. The fleet included six aircraft carriers
– (modern capital ships): Charles De Gaulle, Illustrious,
Invincible, Ocean, Príncipe de Asturias and Saipan. In the evening a
symbolic re-enactment of the battle was staged with fireworks and
various small ships playing parts in the battle.
Lieutenant John Lapenotière's historic voyage in HMS Pickle bringing
the news of the victory from the fleet to Falmouth and thence by post
chaise to the
Admiralty in London was commemorated by the inauguration
The Trafalgar Way
The Trafalgar Way and further highlighted by the New Trafalgar
Dispatch celebrations from July to September in which an actor played
the part of Lapenotière and re-enacted parts of the historic journey.
On the actual anniversary day, 21 October, naval manoeuvres were
conducted in Trafalgar Bay near
Cádiz involving a combined fleet from
Britain, Spain, and France. Many descendants of people present at the
battle, including members of Nelson's family, were at the
In popular culture
Battle of Trafalgar
Battle of Trafalgar by
J. M. W. Turner
J. M. W. Turner (oil on canvas,
1822–1824) combines events from several moments during the battle
Le Chevalier de Sainte-Hermine (1869), by Alexandre Dumas, is an
adventure story in which the main character is alleged to be the one
who shot Nelson.
In James Clavell's 1966 novel Tai-Pan, the Scots chieftain of Hong
Kong, Dirk Struan, reflects on his experiences as a powder monkey
onboard HMS Royal Sovereign at Trafalgar.
In the unfinished novel
Hornblower and the Crisis
Hornblower and the Crisis (1967) in the
Horatio Hornblower series by C. S. Forester, Hornblower was to deliver
false orders to Villeneuve causing him to send his fleet out of Cádiz
and hence fight the battle. In Hornblower and the Atropos (1953),
Hornblower is put in charge of Admiral Nelson's funeral in London.
In Series 1, episode 11 of
Monty Python's Flying Circus
Monty Python's Flying Circus (1969),
several Gumby characters argue that the battle was fought on dry land
near Cudworth in Yorkshire, with Sir
Francis Drake and the German
fleet as combatants.
Bee Gees ninth studio album was inspired by the battle and titled
In the Star Trek: The Next Generation episode "The Best of Both
Worlds" (1990), Captain
Jean-Luc Picard discusses with his confidant
Guinan the naval tradition of touring a ship before a battle. Guinan
points out that a captain would only do so for a hopeless battle;
Picard mentions that Horatio Nelson toured
HMS Victory before
Trafalgar. When Guinan points out that Nelson was killed in the
battle, Picard retorts that the British still won. In the film Star
Trek Generations (1994), a painting reveals that one of Picard's
ancestors fought at Trafalgar for the French.
Sharpe's Trafalgar (2000), by Bernard Cornwell, Sharpe finds
himself at the battle aboard the fictitious HMS Pucelle.
Jonathan Willcocks composed a major choral work, "A Great and Glorious
Victory," to mark the bicentenary of the battle in October 2005.
In the 2006 novel His Majesty's Dragon, the first of the historical
fantasy Temeraire series by Naomi Novik, in which aerial
dragon-mounted combat units form major divisions of European
militaries during the Napoleonic Wars, Trafalgar is actually a massive
Napoleon to distract British forces away from the aerial and
seaborne invasion of Britain near Dover. Nelson survives, though he is
burned by dragon fire.
Napoleonic Wars portal
Royal Navy ships
List of early warships of the English navy
List of ships captured at the Battle of Trafalgar
Bibliography of 18th-19th century Royal Naval history
^ Adkin 2007, p. 524.
^ a b Adkins 2004, p. 190.
^ "Napoleonic Wars". Westpoint.edu. U.S. Army. Retrieved 1 July
^ Bennet, Geoffrey (2004). The Battle of Trafalgar. England: Pen &
Sword Books Limited, CPI UK, South Yorkshire.
^ Kongstam, Angus (2003) . "The New Alexander". Historical Atlas
of the Napoleonic Era. London: Mercury Books. p. 46.
^ Stilwell (Ed.) (2005) pp. 22–24
^ Willis (2013) p. 247
^ Adkins & Adkins (2006) p. 134
^ Stilwell (Ed.) (2005) p. 107
^ When offered his pick from the
Navy List by Lord Barham (the First
Lord of the Admiralty), Nelson replied "Choose yourself, my lord, the
same spirit actuates the whole profession; you cannot choose wrong"
(Allen 1853, p. 210).
^ Stilwell (Ed.) (2005) p. 104
^ Best (2005) p. 97
^ a b Best (2005) p. 121
^ a b Lavery (2009) p. 171
^ Admirals of the time, due to the slowness of communications, were
given considerable autonomy to make strategic as well as tactical
^ Best (2005) p. 137
^ Best (2005) p. 141
^ Best (2005) p. 142
^ Stilwell (Ed.) (2005) p. 32
^ Best (2005) p. 157
^ Best (2005) p.145
^ Best (2005) pp. 161–62
^ Lee (2005) p. 268
^ Lee (2005) p. 273
^ Lee (2005) p. 283
^ Lee (2005) pp. 283–84
^ Best (2005) p. 170
^ a b Lee (2005) p. 288
^ Best (2005) p. 190
^ James p. 22
^ Lee (2005) p. 278
^ a b Fremont-Barnes (2007) p. 66
^ Ireland (2000) p. 52
^ Best (2005) p. 154
^ a b Best (2005) p. 182
^ a b White (2002) p. 238
^ a b White (2005) p. 174
^ White (2005) p. 173
^ Tracy (2008) p. 215
^ Willis (2013) p. 266
^ White (2002) p. 239
^ Best (2005) pp. 182–83
^ Stilwell (Ed.) (2005) pp. 115–16
^ Best (2005) p. 178
^ Best (2005) p. 179
^ Schom 1990, pp. 301–06.
^ Lee (2005) pp. 289–90
^ Signal log of HMS Bellerophon, 21 October 1805
^ "The Battle of Trafalgar: The Logbook of the Euryalus, 21st October
1805". chasingnelson.blogspot.co.uk. 22 October 2013. Retrieved 11
^ a b Adkins 2004a, p. [page needed].
^ a b "England Expects". aboutnelson.co.uk. Retrieved 16 September
^ "England Expects". The Nelson Society. Archived from the original on
24 March 2005. Retrieved 24 March 2005.
^ "Auguste Mayer's picture as described by the official website of the
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^ Fraser 1906, pp. 114, 211–13.
^ Corbett 1919, p. 440
^ a b c d Thiers 1850, p. 45
^ a b Hibbert 1994, p. 376.
^ Hayward, p. 63.
^ a b c Adkin 2007, p. 530.
^ a b Craig, Phil; Clayton, Tim; Craig, Tim Clayton & Phil (2012).
Trafalgar: The men, the battle, the storm. Hodder & Stoughton.
^ a b Yonge 1863, p. 335.
^ a b Fremont-Barnes 2005, p. 81.
^ Fremont-Barnes 2005, p. 82.
^ Pocock 2005, p. 175.
^ a b c Yonge 1863, p. 336.
^ TB staff.
^ a b c James, p. 362[full citation needed]
^ (Adkins, p. 235)
^ a b James, p. 363[full citation needed]
^ James (Vol. IV) pp. 89–90
^ James (Vol. IV) p. 91
^ Tracy 2008, p. 249.
^ Ward, Prothero & Leathers 1906, p. 234.
^ Reeve's Naval General Service Medal with Trafalgar clasp and Muster
HMS Victory are on show at the Royal Marines Museum,
Southsea, Britain (BBC staff 2008).
^ Adkins, Roy (2004). Trafalgar (2010 ed.). Abacus. p. 279.
^ See for example: NC staff (July–December 1805). "First Bulletin of
the Grand Naval Army [From the Moniteur] As it appeared in the Herald.
Battle of Trafalgar". Naval Chronicle. Fleet Street, London: J. Gold.
14. cited by ACS staff 2009.
^ Westmacott, Charles Molloy; Jones, Stephen (1806). The Spirit of the
Public Journals: Being an Impartial Selection of the Most Exquisite
Essays and Jeux D'esprits, Principally Prose, that Appear in the
Newspapers and Other Publications, Volume 9. James Ridgeway.
p. 322. Retrieved 27 Mar 2015. Footnote of one claim: "This
turned out to be really afferted afterwards by the French newspapers".
The authors hence believe the rest to be a fabrication.
^ Harding 1999, pp. 96–117.
^ Glover 1967, pp. 233–52.
^ a b Spicer 2005
^ Five of Nelson's 27 captains of the Fleet were Scottish as were
almost 30% of the crew (
MercoPress staff 2005)
^ Cowan 2005.
^ Poppyland staff 2012.
^ Nicolson 2005, p. 9–10.
^ Nelson's Navy: The Ships, Men, and Organization, 1793–1815 Brian
^ Review of "Nelson Remembered – The Nelson Centenary 1905" by David
^ A.J. West and the Trafalgar Centenary 1905
^ Review of "History, Commemoration and National Preoccupation:
Trafalgar 1805–2005" (British Academy Occasional Paper)
^ Arthur Jacobs, Henry J. Wood: Maker of the Proms, Methuen 1994 (p.
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Battle of Trafalgar
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Press. ISBN 1-84513-018-9.
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Brown. ISBN 0-316-72511-0.
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Books. ISBN 9780143037958.
Adkins, Roy; Adkins Lesley (2006). The War For All The World's Oceans.
Lancaster Place, London.: Little, Brown Book Group.
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Corbett, By Sir Julian Stafford (1919). The campaign of Trafalgar. 2.
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West on Trafalgar 2005". Culture24. Retrieved February 2012.
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Elmundo staff (21 October 2005). "Los países que combatieron en
Trafalgar homenajean a sus caídos en el 200 aniversario de la batalla
(Countries that fought at Trafalgar pay tribute to their fallen on the
200th anniversary of the battle)" (in Spanish). Elmundo.es.
Fraser, Edward (1906). The enemy at Trafalgar: ... New York:
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Royal Navy display in
Faslane". Falkland Islands: MercoPress. Retrieved February 2012.
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Nicolson, Adam (2005). Men of Honour: Trafalgar and the Making of the
English Hero (U.S. title Seize the Fire: Heroism, Duty, and the Battle
of Trafalgar). Harper Collins. ISBN 0-00-719209-6.
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Admiral Lord Nelson". Culture24. Retrieved February 2012. Check
date values in: access-date= (help); External link in publisher=
Stilwell, Alexander (Ed.) (2005) . The Trafalgar Companion.
Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1 84176 835 9. CS1 maint:
Extra text: authors list (link)
TB staff. "La Batalla de Trafalgar. Lo que queda tras la batalla (The
Battle of Trafalgar. What remains after the battle)". Todo a Babor (in
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Royal Navy at War
in the Age of Nelson. London: Atlantic Books Ltd.
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earliest period to the present time. II.
This article incorporates text from a publication now in
the public domain: Hanny, David (1911). "Trafalgar, Battle of".
In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 27 (11th ed.). Cambridge
University Press. pp. 153–155.
Clayton, Tim; Craig, Phil. Trafalgar: The Men, the Battle, the Storm.
Hodder & Stoughton. ISBN 0-340-83028-X.
Desbrière, Edouard, The Naval Campaign of 1805: Trafalgar, 1907,
Paris. English translation by Constance Eastwick, 1933.
Cayuela Fernández, José Gregorio, Trafalgar. Hombres y naves entre
dos épocas, 2004, Ariel (Barcelona) ISBN 84-344-6760-7
Frasca, Francesco, Il potere marittimo in età moderna, da Lepanto a
Trafalgar, 1 st ed. 2008, Lulu Enterprises UK Ltd,
ISBN 978-1-4092-4348-9, 2 nd ed. 2008, Lulu Enterprises UK Ltd,
ISBN 978-1-84799-550-6, 3 rd ed. 2009, Lulu Enterprises UK Ltd,
ISBN 978-1-4092-6088-2, 4th ed. 2009, Lulu Enterprises UK Ltd,
Gardiner, Robert (2006). The campaign of Trafalgar, 1803–1805.
Mercury Books. ISBN 1-84560-008-8.
Harbron, John D., Trafalgar and the Spanish Navy, 1988, London,
Howarth, David, Trafalgar: The Nelson Touch, 2003, Phoenix Press,
Huskisson, Thomas, Eyewitness to Trafalgar, reprinted in 1985 as a
limited edition of 1000; Ellisons' Editions,
ISBN 0-946092-09-5—the author was half-brother of William
Lambert, Andrew, War at Sea in the Age of Sail, Chapter 8, 2000,
London, ISBN 1-55278-127-5
Pocock, Tom, Horatio Nelson, Chapter XII, 1987, London,
Pope, Dudley, England Expects (US title Decision at Trafalgar), 1959,
Weidenfeld and Nicolson.
Warner, Oliver, Trafalgar. First published 1959 by Batsford –
republished 1966 by Pan.
Warwick, Peter (2005). Voices from the Battle of Trafalgar. David
& Charles Publishing. ISBN 0-7153-2000-9.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Battle of Trafalgar.
Read about French Muster Rolls from the
Battle of Trafalgar
Battle of Trafalgar on The
National Archives' website.
HMS Victory at
Portsmouth Historic Dockyard
Royal Navy Web Site
Nelson's Memorandum – battle plan – in the British Library
Battle of Trafalgar
Battle of Trafalgar educational presentation by
A. J. West's "Our Navy": Wreath laying on HMS Victory, October 1905
BBC Battlefield Academy:
Battle of Trafalgar
Battle of Trafalgar game created by Solaris
Media (now Playniac) for the bicentenary.
BBC video (42 min.) of the re-enactment of the
Battle of Trafalgar
Battle of Trafalgar off
Portsmouth on 28 June 2005
Concert Overture – Trafalgar 1805
The London Gazette Extraordinary, 6 November 1805 original published
dispatches, Naval History: Great Britain, EuroDocs: Primary Historical
Documents From Western Europe, Brigham Young University Library.
Retrieved 27 July 2006
BBC staff (21 October 2008). "Hero's medal marks Trafalgar Day". BBC
News. Archived from the original on 11 January 2009. Retrieved 6
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