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Muslim conquest of the Levant

al-Qaryatayn Bosra Ajnadayn Marj Rahit Fahl Damascus Maraj-al-Debaj Emesa Yarmouk Jerusalem Hazir Aleppo Iron Bridge Germanicia

Muslim conquest of Egypt

Heliopolis Babylon Fortress Alexandria Nikiou

Muslim conquest of North Africa

Sufetula Vescera Mamma Carthage

Umayyad
Umayyad
invasions of Anatolia and Constantinople

1st Constantinople Sebastopolis Tyana 2nd Constantinople Nicaea Akroinon

Arab–Byzantine border warfare

Kamacha Abbasid invasion of 782 Kopidnadon Krasos Abbasid invasion of 806 Anzen and Amorium Mauropotamos Faruriyyah Lalakaon Bathys Ryax

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George Maniakes
in Sicily 2nd Malta

Naval warfare and raids

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Byzantine Reconquest

Campaigns of John Kourkouas Campaigns of Sayf al-Dawla

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Syria

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The Battle of Sebastopolis was fought at Sebastopolis (mostly identified with Elaiussa Sebaste
Elaiussa Sebaste
in Cilicia
Cilicia
but also with modern Sulusaray) in 692 between the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
and Umayyads
Umayyads
under the caliphate of Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan. The battle ended the peace that had existed between the two powers since 680. The Umayyad
Umayyad
army was led by Muhammad ibn Marwan. The Byzantines were led by Leontios
Leontios
and included a "special army" of 30,000 Slavs under their leader, Neboulos. The Umayyads, incensed at the breaking of the treaty, used copies of its texts in the place of a flag.[1] Though the battle seemed to be tilting to the Byzantine advantage, the defection of upwards of 20,000 Slavs ensured a Byzantine defeat.[2][3][4] One source states that the Emperor Justinian II
Justinian II
massacred the remaining Slavs, including women and children, at the Gulf of Nicomedia,[3] but modern scholars do not consider it a reliable account.[4] Notes[edit]

^ Brooks, E.W., "The Successors of Heraclius to 717" in The Cambridge Medieval History, vol. 2(Cambridge University Press, 1957), 407. ^ Ostrogorsky, George, History of the Byzantine state,(Rutgers University Press, 1969), 131. ^ a b Hendy, Michael F., Studies in the Byzantine Monetary Economy C. 300-1450, (Cambridge University Press, 2008), 631. ^ a b Haldon, John F., Byzantium in the seventh century, (Cambridge University Press, 1997), 72.

Sources[edit]

Hendy, Michael F. (2008). Studies in the Byzantine Monetary Economy C. 300-1450. Cambridge University Press.  Lilie, Ralph-Johannes (1976), Die byzantinische Reaktion auf die Ausbreitung der Araber. Studien zur Strukturwandlung des byzantinischen Staates im 7. und 8. Jhd. (in German), Munich: Institut für Byzantinistik und Neugriechische Philologie der Universität München  Stratos, A.N. (1980), Byzantium in the Seventh Century, Volume V: Justinian II, Leontius and Tiberius, 685–711, Amsterdam: Adolf M. Hakkert, pp. 34–38, ISBN 90-256-0852-3 

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