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The Battle of Hatfield Chase
Hatfield Chase
(Old English: Hæðfeld; Old Welsh: Meigen) was fought on 12 October 633[1] at Hatfield Chase
Hatfield Chase
near Doncaster
Doncaster
(today part of South Yorkshire, England). It pitted the Northumbrians against an alliance of Gwynedd and Mercia. The Northumbrians were led by Edwin and the Gwynedd-Mercian alliance was led by Cadwallon ap Cadfan
Cadwallon ap Cadfan
and Penda. The site was a marshy area about 8 miles (13 km) northeast of Doncaster
Doncaster
on the south bank of the River Don. It was a decisive victory for Gwynedd and the Mercians: Edwin was killed and his army defeated, leading to the temporary collapse of Northumbria. Background[edit] Edwin, the most powerful ruler in Britain at the time, had seemingly defeated Cadwallon a few years before the battle. Bede
Bede
refers to Edwin establishing his rule over what he called the Mevanian islands, one of which was Anglesey,[2] and another source refers to Cadwallon being besieged on the island of Priestholm (AC: Glannauc),[3] which is off the coast of Anglesey. Later, Cadwallon defeated and drove the Northumbrians from his territories and then allied with Penda (Cadwallon being the stronger member of the alliance). Penda's status in Mercia
Mercia
at this time is uncertain— Bede
Bede
suggests he was not yet king, but became king soon after Hatfield;[4] the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, however, says that he became king in 626.[5] Results of the battle[edit] The battle was a disaster for Northumbria. With both Edwin and his son Osfrith killed, and his other son Eadfrith captured by Penda (and later killed), the kingdom was divided between its constituent kingdoms of Bernicia
Bernicia
and Deira. Eanfrith, a son of the former king Æthelfrith, returned from exile to take power in Bernicia, while Edwin's cousin Osric took over Deira. Cadwallon continued to wage a war of ruthless slaughter against the Northumbrians, and was not stopped until he was defeated by Oswald at the Battle of Heavenfield (also known as Deniseburna, AC : Cantscaul) a year after Hatfield. [6] The historian D. P. Kirby suggested that the defeat of Edwin was the outcome of a wide-ranging alliance of interests opposed to him, including the deposed Bernician line of Æthelfrith; but considering the subsequent hostility between Cadwallon and Æthelfrith's sons, such an alliance must not have survived the battle for long.[7] Notes and references[edit]

^ Bede
Bede
gives the date as 12 October in his Ecclesiastical History of the English People (book II, chapter 20), but the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle gives the date as 14 October. Bede
Bede
also gives the year as 633; however, a question about what Bede
Bede
considered the starting point of the years as he used them has raised the possibility that the battle may have actually taken place in 632. ^ Bede
Bede
Ecclesiastical History, book II, chapter 5; D. P. Kirby, The Earliest English Kings (1991, 2000), page 71. ^ Annales Cambriae, year 629; Kirby, page 71. ^ Bede, Ecclesiastical History, book II, chapter 20. ^ Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
626. ^ Bede, Ecclesiastical History, book II, chapter 20; book III, chapter 1; book III, chapter 2. ^ Kir

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