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The Info List - Battle Of Blaauwberg





British victory

Dutch Cape Colony
Dutch Cape Colony
controlled by the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
for the duration of the Napoleonic War

Belligerents

United Kingdom  Batavian Republic

Commanders and leaders

Lieutenant General Sir David Baird Lieutenant General Jan Willem Janssens

Strength

5,399 2,049

Casualties and losses

212 casualties 353 casualties

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War of the Third Coalition

Proposed Invasion of the United Kingdom Boulogne Cape Finisterre Ulm Campaign Verona Trafalgar Caldiero Cape Ortegal Amstetten Mariazell Dürenstein Dornbirn Schöngrabern Castelfranco Veneto Wischau Austerlitz Blaauwberg San Domingo Naples Gaeta Campo Tenese Maida Mileto

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Dutch colonial campaigns

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Cape Colony
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Cape Colony
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War with Japan (1941–45) Indonesian Revolution (1945–49)

The Battle of Blaauwberg, also known as the Battle of Cape Town, fought near Cape Town
Cape Town
on 8 January 1806, was a small but significant military engagement. Peace was made under the Treaty Tree
Treaty Tree
in Woodstock. It established British rule in South Africa, which was to have many ramifications for the region during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. A bi-centennial commemoration was held in January 2006.

Contents

1 Background 2 Events 3 Articles of Capitulation 4 See also 5 References 6 Books 7 Sources

Background[edit] The battle was an incident in Europe's Napoleonic Wars. At that time, the Cape Colony
Cape Colony
belonged to the Batavian Republic, a French vassal. Because the sea route around the Cape was important to the British, they decided to seize the colony in order to prevent it—and the sea route—from also coming under French control. A British fleet was despatched to the Cape in July 1805, to forestall French troopships which Napoleon
Napoleon
had sent to reinforce the Cape garrison. The colony was governed by Lieutenant General Jan Willem Janssens, who was also commander-in-chief of its military forces. The forces were small and of poor quality, and included foreign units hired by the Batavian government. They were backed up by local militia units. Events[edit]

Map of Cape Colony
Cape Colony
in Southern Africa

The first British warship reached the Cape on Christmas Eve 1805, and attacked two supply ships off the Cape Peninsula. Janssens placed his garrison on alert. When the main fleet sailed into Table Bay
Table Bay
on 4 January 1806, he mobilised the garrison, declared martial law, and called up the militia. After a delay caused by rough seas, two British infantry brigades, under the command of Lt Gen Sir David Baird, landed at Melkbosstrand, north of Cape Town, on 6 and 7 January. Janssens moved his forces to intercept them. He had decided that "victory could be considered impossible, but the honour of the fatherland demanded a fight". His intention was to attack the British on the beach and then to withdraw to the interior, where he hoped to hold out until the French troopships arrived.

HMS Diadem at the capture of the Cape of Good Hope, by Thomas Whitcombe

However, on the morning of 8 January, while Janssens's columns were still slowly moving through the veld, Baird's brigades began their march to Cape Town, and reached the slopes of the Blaauwberg mountain (now spelled "Blouberg"), a few kilometres ahead of Janssens. Janssens halted and formed a line across the veld. The battle began at sunrise, with exchanges of artillery fire. These were followed by an advance by Janssens's militia cavalry, and volleys of musket fire from both sides. One of Janssens's hired foreign units, in the centre of his line, turned and ran from the field. A British bayonet charge disposed of the units on Janssens's right flank, and he ordered his remaining troops to withdraw. Janssens began the battle with 2,049 troops, and lost 353 in casualties and desertions. Baird began the battle with 5,399 men, and had 212 casualties. From Blaauwberg, Janssens moved inland to a farm in the Tygerberg area, and from there his troops moved to the Elands Kloof in the Hottentots Holland Mountains, about 50 km from Cape Town. The British forces reached the outskirts of Cape Town
Cape Town
on 9 January. To spare the town and its civilian population from attack, the commandant of Cape Town, Lieutenant-Colonel Hieronymus Casimir von Prophalow, sent out a white flag. He handed over the outer fortifications to Baird, and terms of surrender were negotiated later in the day. The formal Articles of Capitulation for the town and the Cape Peninsula were signed the following afternoon, 10 January, at a cottage at Papendorp (now the suburb of Woodstock) which became known as "Treaty Cottage." Although the cottage has long since been demolished, Treaty Street still commemorates the event. The tree under which they signed remains to this day.

General Janssens at the Battle of Blaauwberg

However, the Batavian Governor of the Cape, General Janssens, had not yet surrendered himself and his remaining troops and was following his plan to hold out for as long as he could, in the hope that the French troopships for which he had been waiting for months would arrive and save him. He had only 1,238 men with him, and 211 deserted in the days that followed. Janssens held out in the mountains for a further week. Baird sent Brigadier General William Beresford to negotiate with him, and the two generals conferred at a farm belonging to Gerhard Croeser near the Hottentots-Holland Mountains on 16 January without reaching agreement. After further consideration, and consultation with his senior officers and advisers, Janssens decided that "the bitter cup must be drunk to the bottom". He agreed to capitulate, and the final Articles of Capitulation were signed on 18 January. Uncertainty reigns as to where the Articles of Capitulation were signed. For many years it has been claimed that it was the Goedeverwachting estate (where a copy of the treaty is on display), but more recent research, published in Dr Krynauw's book Beslissing by Blaauwberg suggests that Croeser's farm (now the Somerset West golf course) may have been the venue. An article published in the 1820s by the then resident clergyman of the Stellenbosch
Stellenbosch
district, Dr Borcherds, also points towards Croeser's farm. The terms of the capitulation were reasonably favourable to the Batavian soldiers and citizens of the Cape. Janssens and the Batavian officials and troops were sent back to the Netherlands
Netherlands
in March. The British forces occupied the Cape until 13 August 1814, when the Netherlands
Netherlands
ceded the colony to Britain as a permanent possession. It remained a British colony until it was incorporated into the Union of South Africa
South Africa
on 31 May 1910. Articles of Capitulation[edit] Summary of the Articles of Capitulation signed by Lt Col Von Prophalow, Maj Gen Baird and Cdre Popham on 10 January 1806:[1]

Cape Town, the Castle, and circumjacent fortifications were surrendered to Great Britain; the garrison became prisoners of war, but officers who were colonists or married to colonists could remain at liberty as long as they behaved themselves; officers who were to be repatriated to Europe would be paid up to the date of embarkation and would be transported at British expense; all French subjects in the colony must return to Europe; inhabitants of Cape Town
Cape Town
who had borne arms [i.e. burgher militiamen] could return to their occupations; all private property would remain free and untouched; all public property was to be inventoried and handed over; the burghers and inhabitants would retain all their rights and privileges, including freedom of worship; paper money in circulation would remain current; the Batavian government property that was to be handed over would serve as security for the paper money; prisoners of war would not be pressed into British service or be forced to enlist against their will; troops would not be quartered on the citizens of Cape Town; the two ships which had been sunk in Table Bay
Table Bay
were to be raised by those who had sunk them, repaired, and handed over.

Summary of the Articles of Capitulation signed by Lt Gen Janssens and Brig Gen Beresford on 18 January 1806 and ratified by Maj Gen Baird on 19 January:[2]

the colony and its dependencies were surrendered to Great Britain; the Batavian troops were to move to Simon's Town, with their guns, arms, baggage, and all the honours of war - the officers could retain their swords and horses, but all arms, treasure, public property, and horses were to be handed over; the Batavian troops would not be considered to be prisoners; Janssens' Hottentot (sic) troops were also to march to Simon's Town, after which they could either return home or join the British forces; the British commander-in-chief [Baird] would decide the position of those Batavian troops who were already prisoners of war; the British government would bear the expense of the Batavian troops' subsistence until they embarked; the Batavian troops would be transported to a port in the Batavian Republic; sick men who could not be transported would stay behind, at British expense, and be sent to Holland after they had recovered; the rights and privileges allowed to the citizens of Cape Town
Cape Town
would also apply to the rest of the colony, except that the British could quarter troops on residents of the country districts; once embarked, the Batavian troops would be treated the same as British troops were when on board transport ships; Janssens would be allowed to send a despatch to Holland, and the British commanders would assist in forwarding it; decisions regarding the continuation of agricultural plans by one Baron van Hogendorp would be left to the future British government; any matter arising out of the Articles of Capitulation would be decided justly and honourably without preference to either party.

See also[edit]

Cape Town Military history of South Africa Bloubergstrand, Cape Town

References[edit]

^ As published in the Kaapsche Courant 11 January 1806 ^ As published in The Cape Town
Cape Town
Gazette and African Advertiser 25 January 1806

Books[edit] Anderson, Mark Robert Dunbar (2008). BLUE BERG. Britain Takes The Cape. Cape Town: Mark Anderson. ISBN 9780620413367.  Sources[edit]

Lt Gen Janssens's Report (Cape Archives: ref VC80) Krynauw, D. Beslissing by Blaauwberg. Theal, GM. Records of the Cape Colony.

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Colonial conflicts involving the English/British Empire

17th century

Virginia (1609–46) Swally (1612) Ormuz (1622) Saint Kitts (1626) Quebec (1628) Pequot War
Pequot War
(1634–38) Acadia (1654–67) Anglo-Spanish War (1654–60) Jamaica (1655–1739) King Philip's War
King Philip's War
(1675–78) King William's War
King William's War
(1688–97) Ghana (1694–1700)

18th century

Queen Anne's War
Queen Anne's War
(1702–13) Tuscarora War (1711–15) Yamasee War
Yamasee War
(1715–17) Father Rale's War/ Dummer's War
Dummer's War
(1722–25) War of Jenkins' Ear
War of Jenkins' Ear
(1740–42) King George's War
King George's War
(1744–48) Carnatic Wars
Carnatic Wars
(1746–63) Nova Scotia (1749–55) French and Indian War
French and Indian War
(1754–63) Seven Years' War (1756–63) Anglo–Cherokee War (1758–61) Jamaica (1762) Anglo-Spanish War (1762–63) Pontiac's War
Pontiac's War
(1763–66) Lord Dunmore's War
Lord Dunmore's War
(1774) American Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War
(1775–83) First Anglo–Maratha War (1775–82) Second Anglo–Mysore War (1779–84) Gold Coast (1781–82) Sumatra (1782–84) Australian Frontier Wars (1788–1934) Nootka Sound (1789) Third Anglo–Mysore War (1789–92) Cotiote (Wayanad) War (1793–1806) Cape Colony
Cape Colony
(1795) Jamaica (1795–96) Ceylon (1795) Kandyan Wars
Kandyan Wars
(1796–1818) Malta (1798–1800) Fourth Anglo–Mysore War (1798–99) Dwyer's Guerrilla Campaign (1799–1803)

19th century

Newfoundland (1800) Castle Hill convict rebellion Second Anglo–Maratha War (1803–05) Suriname (1804) Guiana (1804) Cape Colony
Cape Colony
(1806) Río de la Plata (1806–07) Egypt (1807) Froberg mutiny
Froberg mutiny
(1807) Reunion (1809) Seychelles (1809) Mauritius (1810) Java (1810–11) Xhosa Wars
Xhosa Wars
(1811–79) Martinique (1809) Guadeloupe (1810) USA (1812–15) Nepal (1814–16) Guadeloupe (1815) Cape Colony
Cape Colony
(1815) Third Anglo-Maratha War
Third Anglo-Maratha War
(1817–18) Guiana (1823) Anglo-Ashanti wars
Anglo-Ashanti wars
(1824–1901) First Anglo-Burmese War (1824–26) Black War
Black War
(Van Diemen's Land) 1828–32) Jamaica (1831–32) Malacca (1831–33) Lower Canada (1837–38) Upper Canada (1837–38) Egyptian–Ottoman War (1839–41) First Anglo-Afghan War
First Anglo-Afghan War
(1839–42) First Opium War
First Opium War
(1839–42) New Zealand Wars
New Zealand Wars
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Eureka Rebellion
(1852) Anglo–Persian War (1856–57) Second Opium War
Second Opium War
(1856–60) Indian Rebellion (1857–59) Ambela Campaign (1863–64) Bhutan War
Bhutan War
(1864–65) Fenian Rebellion in Canada (1866–71) Abyssinia (1868) Manitoba (1870) Perak (1875–76) Anglo–Zulu War (1879) Second Anglo-Afghan War
Second Anglo-Afghan War
(1879–80) Basutoland (1880–81) First Boer War
First Boer War
(1880–81) Mahdist War
Mahdist War
(1881–99) Anglo-Egyptian War
Anglo-Egyptian War
(1882) Saskatchewan (1885) Central Africa (1886–89) Third Anglo-Burmese War
Third Anglo-Burmese War
(1885) Mashonaland (1890) Hunza-Nagar Campaign (1891) Anglo-Manipur War
Anglo-Manipur War
(1891) Matabeleland (1893–94) North Borneo (1894–1905) Chitral Expedition
Chitral Expedition
(1895) Jameson Raid
Jameson Raid
South Africa
South Africa
(1896) Anglo–Zanzibar War (1896) Matabeleland (1896–97) Benin Expedition (1897) Siege of Malakand
Siege of Malakand
(1897) First Mohmand Campaign (1897–98) Tirah Campaign
Tirah Campaign
(1897–98) Six-Day War (1899) Boxer Rebellion
Boxer Rebellion
(1898–1901) Second Boer War
Second Boer War
(1899–1902)

20th century

Somaliland (1900–20) West Africa (1901–02) Tibet expedition (1903–04) Bambatha Rebellion
Bambatha Rebellion
(1906) Nyasaland (1915) Nigeria (1915) Nigeria (1918) Third Anglo-Afghan War
Third Anglo-Afghan War
(1919) Waziristan campaign (1919–1920) Iraq (1920) Malabar Rebellion (1921) Kurdistan (1922–24) Transjordan (1923) Pink's War
Pink's War
(1925) Ikhwan Revolt
Ikhwan Revolt
(1927–30) Barzani revolt (1931–32) Second Mohmand Campaign (1935) Palestine (1936–39) Waziristan campaign (1936–1939) Ethiopia (1943) Indochina (1945–46) Indonesia (1945) Sarawak (1946–50) Malayan Emergency
Malayan Emergency
(1948–60) Mau Mau Uprising
Mau Mau Uprising
Kenya (1952–60) Oman (1954–59) Cyprus Emergency
Cyprus Emergency
(1955–59) Suez Crisis
Suez Crisis
(1956) Oman (1962–76) Brunei (1962) Sarawak (1962–90) Malaysia (1962–66) Aden (1963–67) Falklands (1982)

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Political history of South Africa

Defunct polities

Kingdom of Mapungubwe
Kingdom of Mapungubwe
(c. 1075–c. 1220) Dutch Cape Colony
Dutch Cape Colony
(1652–1806) Mthethwa Paramountcy
Mthethwa Paramountcy
(c. 1780–1817) Ndwandwe
Ndwandwe
Kingdom (c. 1780–1819) Cape Colony
Cape Colony
(1795–1910) Zulu Kingdom
Zulu Kingdom
(1816–97) Natalia Republic
Natalia Republic
(1839–43) Natal Colony (1843–1910) Orange Free State
Orange Free State
(1854–1902) South African Republic
South African Republic
(1856–1902) Griqualand East
Griqualand East
(1861–79) Griqualand West
Griqualand West
(1870–73) Goshen (1882–83) Stellaland
Stellaland
(1882–85) Nieuwe Republiek
Nieuwe Republiek
(1884–88) Upingtonia
Upingtonia
(1885–87) Klein Vrystaat
Klein Vrystaat
(1886–91) Orange River Colony
Orange River Colony
(1902–10) Transvaal Colony
Transvaal Colony
(1902–10) Union of South Africa
South Africa
(1910–61) Transkei
Transkei
(1976–94) Bophuthatswana
Bophuthatswana
(1977–94) Venda
Venda
(1979–94) Ciskei
Ciskei
(1981–94)

Events

1652–1815

Dutch settlement French Huguenot settlement Khoikhoi–Dutch Wars Xhosa Wars Battle of Muizenberg Battle of Blaauwberg Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814

1815–1910

Mfecane 1820 Settlers Great Trek Boer Republics Transvaal Civil War Mineral Revolution Witwatersrand Gold Rush South African Wars South Africa
South Africa
Act 1909

1910–1948

Maritz Rebellion Rand Rebellion Great Depression 1946 African Mine Workers' Union strike Bantustans

Apartheid
Apartheid
era

1948 general election Apartheid
Apartheid
legislation

Pass laws

Internal resistance Coloured-vote constitutional crisis Defiance Campaign Congress of the People

Freedom Charter

Women's March 1956 1957 Alexandra bus boycott Sharpeville massacre 1960 republic referendum International isolation

Academic boycott Disinvestment Sporting boycott

Olympics Rugby union

Rivonia Trial Tar Baby Option Durban Moment Border War Israeli alliance

Israel– South Africa
South Africa
Agreement

Soweto Uprising Weapons of mass destruction Project Coast Constructive engagement Church Street bombing 1983 constitutional reform referendum Langa massacre Rubicon speech Dakar Conference Third Force CODESA 1992 apartheid referendum Saint James Church massacre Bophuthatswana
Bophuthatswana
crisis Shell House massacre

Post-apartheid

1994 general election Government of National Unity Reconstruction and Development Programme Truth and Reconciliation Commission Arms Deal Floor crossing Soweto bombings African Renaissance Xenophobia Marikana massacre 2012 Western Cape farm workers' strike Nkandlagate 2014 platinum strike #RhodesMustFall protests # FeesMustFall
FeesMustFall
student protests Tshwane riots

Political culture

African nationalism Afrikaner Calvinism Afrikaner nationalism Azania Baasskap Boerehaat Black Consciousness Movement Day of the Vow Greater South Africa Honorary whites Rooi gevaar Slavery Swart gevaar Uitlander Volkstaat

Defunct organisations

Civic and political organisations

Afrikaner Bond Afrikaner Broederbond Afrikaner Party AITUP APO AVF BPC Black Sash CDA CTEG COD Congress Alliance COSG CP Dominion Party DP (1973–1977) DP (1989–2000) DPP ECC FA FD Genootskap van Regte Afrikaners GNP Het Volk HNP IDASA ID IP ISL Jeugkrag Johannesburg Reform Committee Labour Party (1910–1958) Labour Party (1969–1994) Liberal Party (1953–1968) NA NCP Natal Indian Congress NLP NNP NP NPP NRP NUSAS PFP Progressive Party (Cape Colony) Progressive Party PRP Radio Freedom Reform Party SABP SADECO SAIC SASO SAYCO SAYRCO South African Party (Cape Colony) South African Party (1911–1934) South African Party (1977–1980) TNIP Torch Commando UFP United Party Unionist Party Volksparty Workers Party WOSA

Trade unions and social movements

APF BCM BLATU CNETU CTSWU FCWU FNETU FOSATU ICU IWW MUSA NEUM NURHS PAWE SAAPAWU SACTU SAIF SARHU SATUC Die Spoorbund UDF Umkosi Wezintaba

Paramilitary and terrorist organisations

APLA ARM BBB Boeremag Greyshirts MK Ossewabrandwag Orde van die Dood SANF

Histories of political parties

African National Congress Democratic Alliance Pan Africanist Congress of Azania

Category

Coordinates: 33°45′22″S 18°27′56″E / 33.75611°S 18.46556°E / -33.756

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