Republic of Bashkortostan
Republic of Bashkortostan (/bɑːʃˈkɔːrtoʊstæn/; Russian:
Респу́блика Башкортоста́н, tr. Respublika
Bashkortostan, IPA: [rʲɪsˈpublʲɪkə bəʂkərtɐˈstan];
Bashkir: Башҡортостан Республикаһы,
Başqortostan Respublikahı), also historically known as Bashkiria
(Russian: Башки́рия, tr. Bashkiriya,
IPA: [bɐʂˈkʲirʲɪjə]), is a federal subject of
republic (state)). It is located between the
Volga River and the Ural
Mountains. Its capital is the city of Ufa. With a population of
4,072,292 as of the 2010 Census,
Bashkortostan is the most populous
republic in Russia.
Bashkurdistan, the first ethnic autonomy in Russia, was established on
November 28 [O.S. November 15] 1917. On
March 20, 1919, it was transformed into the Bashkir ASSR, the
first Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in RSFSR.
In accordance with the Constitution of
Bashkortostan and Russian
Bashkortostan is a state, but has no
sovereignty. On 11 October 1990
Bashkortostan adopted the
Declaration of State Sovereignty, but subsequently abandoned it. 11
Republic Day in Bashkortostan.
3.4 Natural resources
4 Administrative divisions
6.1 Structure of GRP
7.1 Population development
7.2 Vital statistics
7.3 Ethnic groups
12 Further reading
13 External links
The name "Bashkortostan" derives from the name of the Bashkir ethnic
group, also known as Başqorts. While the root of the
name is Turkic (being a combination of 'baş', which in Turkish can
mean head, chief, main, principal, and 'qort' meaning wolf, one of the
animals regarded as sacred to Turkic peoples); the
-stan is Persian, common to many Asian country names. They
speak the Bashkir language, which belongs to the Kypchak branch of the
Turkic languages.
Main article: History of Bashkortostan
The first settlements in the territory of modern
from the early
Paleolithic period, but the
Bronze Age spurred an
upsurge in the population of this territory. When people of the
Abashevo culture started settling here they possessed high skills in
manufacturing bronze tools, weapons, and decorations. They were the
first to establish permanent settlements in the Southern Urals.
Bashkortostan takes its name from its native people — the Bashkirs.
The Slavonic name of the country — Bashkiriya — formed at the end
of the 16th century. Originally it appeared in the forms Bashkir land,
Bashkir’, Bashkirda and Bashkir horde. The ethnonym
became known in the 7th century. In the 10th century, Al-Balkhi wrote
Bashkirs as a people, divided into two groups, one of which
inhabited the Southern Urals, while the other lived near the Danube
river, close to the boundaries of Byzantium. His contemporary
Ibn-Ruste described the
Bashkirs as "an independent people, occupying
territories on both sides of the Ural mountain ridge between Volga,
Kama, Tobol and upstream of Yaik river".
Cave paintings in the Shulgan-Tash Nature Reserve.
Mausoleum of Turahan, 14th-century building.
Hamburg during the Napoleonic Wars, c. 1813.
Red Army cavalry unit, made up of Bashkirs, Russian Civil War,
After the early-feudal Mongolian state had broken down in the 14th
century, the territory of modern
Bashkortostan became divided between
the Kazan and Siberia Khanates and the Nogai Horde. The tribes that
lived there were headed by bi (tribal heads). After Kazan fell to Ivan
the Terrible in 1554–1555, representatives of western and
northwestern Bashkir tribes approached the
Tsar with a request to
voluntarily join Muscovy.
Starting from the second half of the 16th century, Bashkiria's
territory began taking shape as a part of the Russian state. In 1798
the Spiritual Assembly of Russian Muslims was established[by whom?]—
an indication that the tsarist government recognized the rights of
Bashkirs, Tatars, and other
Muslim nations to profess
perform religious rituals.
Ufa Governorate (guberniya), with a center
in Ufa, was formed in 1865— another step towards territorial
Russian Revolution of 1917
Russian Revolution of 1917 were All-Bashkir Qoroltays
(conventions) on which a decision on the need to create a national
federal republic within Russia. As a result, 28 November 1917 Bashkir
Regional (central) Shuro (Council) proclaims the establishment in
areas with a predominantly Bashkir population of Orenburg, Perm,
Ufa provinces territorial and national autonomy Bashkurdistan.
In December 1917, delegates to the All-Bashkir (constituent) Congress,
representing the interests of the population edge of all
nationalities, voted unanimously for the resolution (Farman #2) of the
Bashkir regional Shuro the proclamation of national-territorial
autonomy (of the Republic) Bashkurdistan. The congress formed the
government of Bashkurdistan, the Pre-parliament - Kese-Qoroltay and
other bodies of power and administration, and decisions were made on
how to proceed.
In March 1919, based on the agreements of the Russian Government with
the Bashkir Government was formed Bashkir Autonomous Soviet Socialist
Republic. During the Soviet period, Bashkiria was granted broad
autonomous rights— the first among other Russian regions. The
administrative structure of the Bashkir ASSR was based on principles
similar to those of other autonomous republics of Russia.
On October 11, 1990, the Supreme Soviet of the Republic adopted
the Declaration on state sovereignty of the Bashkir ASSR. On
February 25, 1992, the Bashkir ASSR was renamed[by whom?] the
Republic of Bashkortostan.
On March 31, 1992, a Federative Compact "On separation of
authorities and powers among federal organs of power of the Russian
Federation and the organs of power of the Republic of Bashkortostan"
was signed. On August 3, 1994, a Compact "On separation of
authorities and mutual delegating of powers among the organs of power
of the Russian Federation and the organs of power of the Republic of
Bashkortostan" was signed.
Bashkortostan contains part of the southern
Urals and the adjacent
Shihan Toratau. Single hills are popular symbols of Bashkortostan.
Bashkir horses near Yakty-Kul lake.
Area: 143,600 square kilometers (55,400 sq mi) (according to
the 2002 Census)
Bashkortostan borders with
Perm Krai (N), Sverdlovsk Oblast
Chelyabinsk Oblast (NE/E/SE),
Orenburg Oblast (SE/S/SW), the
Republic of Tatarstan
Republic of Tatarstan (W), and the
Udmurt Republic (NW)
Mount Yamantau (1,638 m)
Maximum North-South distance: 550 km
Maximum East-West distance: over 430 km
There are over 13,000 rivers in the republic. Many rivers are part of
the deepwater transportation system of European Russia; they provide
access to ports of the Baltic and Black seas.
Major rivers include:
Belaya (Aghidhel) River
Belaya (Aghidhel) River (1,430 km)
Ufa (Qaraidel) River (918 km)
Sakmara River (760 km)
Ik (Iq) River (571 km)
Dyoma River (556 km)
Ay River (549 km)
Yuruzan River (404 km)
Bystry Tanyp River (345 km)
Sim River (239 km)
Nugush River (235 km)
Tanalyk River (225 km)
Zilim River (215 km)
Syun River (209 km)
There are 2,700 lakes and reservoirs in the republic. Major lakes and
Asylykül Lake (23.5 km²)
Qandrykül Lake (15.6 km²)
Urgun Lake (12.0 km²)
Pavlovskoye Reservoir (120.0 km²)
Nugushkoye Reservoir (25.2 km²)
The Republic contains part of the southern Urals, which stretch from
the northern to the southern border. The highest mountains include:
Mount Yamantau (1,638 m)
Iremel (1,582 m)
Iremel (1,449 m)
Mount Arwyakryaz (1,068 m)
Mount Zilmerdaq (909 m)
Mount Alataw (845 m)
Mount Yurmataw (842 m)
Bashneft oil pumps.
Quarry near Sibay.
Republic of Bashkortostan
Republic of Bashkortostan is one of the richest territories of
Russia in mineral resources with deposits of some 3,000 mineral
Bashkortostan is rich in crude oil reserves, and was one of
the principal centers of oil extraction in the Russian Federation.
Other major resources are natural gas, coal, ferrous metal ores,
manganese, chromite, iron ores, non-ferrous metals ores (lead,
tungsten), non-metallic ores (rock crystal, fluorite, Iceland spar,
sulfide pyrites, barite, silicates, silica, asbestos, talcum),
deposits of precious and semi-precious stones and natural stones
(malachite, jade, granite).
The republic has enough mineral resources to provide its power and
fuel complex as well as petrochemical, chemical, agro-industrial
complex, ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy, glass-making and ceramic
branches with raw materials.
Bashkortostan is one of the major raw materials bases for Russia
non-ferrous metallurgy. The republic has good deposits of lignite with
a high degree of bitumen. This lignite can be used for obtaining a
variety of different chemical products like resins, surface-active
substances, gummy fertilizers, and other stimulants for plants growth.
Mining-chemical raw materials (rock salt, lime, phosphorites, barytes,
etc.) are quite substantial, and are utilized in the republic economy.
Bashkortostan is also rich in woods. The total territory covered with
forests is about 62,000 square kilometers (24,000 sq mi).
More than one-third of the republic territory is covered with woods.
The following types of trees dominate: birch tree, conifers, lime,
oak, and maple. The general stock of timber according to some
evaluation is 717.9 million m³.
Bashkortostan forests have
special sanctuaries and national parks. They cover more than 10,000
square kilometers (3,900 sq mi).
Bashkortostan is also rich in springs and sources of mineral,
medicinal, and drinking water.
Asselian Age at the start of the
Permian Period of geological time
is named after the Assel River in Bashkortostan.
Average annual temperature: +0.3 °C (32.5 °F) (mountains)
to +2.8 °C (37.0 °F) (plains)
Average January temperature: −16 °C (3 °F)
Average July temperature: +18 °C (64 °F)
The ski resort "Abzakovo" in Abzelilovsky District. October 2009.
Morning fog in Ishimbaysky District.
Main article: Administrative divisions of the Republic of
Building of the Government of the Republic also known as Bashkir White
The head of the government of the
Republic of Bashkortostan
Republic of Bashkortostan is the
Head (before 1 January 2015 the title was called "President"), who
is elected by the people for a four-year term. According to the
Head of the Republic of Bashkortostan
Head of the Republic of Bashkortostan guarantees
rights and liberties of the country's people and citizens, protects
economic and political interests of the Republic of Bashkortostan, and
secures legitimacy, law, and order within its territory.
Rustem Khamitov assumed office on July 19, 2010. His predecessor
was Murtaza Rakhimov, elected on December 17, 1993. Before the
elections, Rakhimov was the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the
Republic— the highest post at that time. Rakhimov was re-elected in
December 2003 in a poll condemned by the OSCE for exhibiting "elements
of basic fraud."
The Republic's parliament is the State Assembly—Kurultai, popularly
elected every five years. The one-chamber State Assembly has 110
The Republic's Constitution was adopted on December 24, 1993.
Article 1 of the Constitution stipulates that
Bashkortostan is a
sovereign state within Russia, it has state power beyond the limits of
authority of the Russian Federation and the powers of the Russian
Federation concerning the aspect of the joint authority of the Russian
Federation and the Republic of Bashkortostan. The Republic of
Bashkortostan is a full-fledged subject of the Russian Federation on
equal and agreed bases.
The relations of the
Republic of Bashkortostan
Republic of Bashkortostan and the Russian
Federation are at present based on the articles of the Constitution of
the Russian Federation, the Constitution of the Republic of
Bashkortostan, the Federative Treaty (with amendments), and the
Agreement on Separation of authorities and powers and mutual
delegating of powers among the organs of state power of the Republic
The judicial power of the republic is in the hands of the
Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court, the Court of Appeals,
District Courts, and justices of the peace.
In full accord with universally recognized principles of international
law, articles of the
European Charter of Local Self-Government
European Charter of Local Self-Government and the
Constitution of the Russian Federation, the Republic of Bashkortostan
ensures in its Constitution that local self-government is recognized
and guaranteed within the republic's territory.
Republic of Bashkortostan
Republic of Bashkortostan resolves all issues of
administrative-territorial structure on its own. The list of districts
and towns, municipalities, as well as the order of establishing,
amending and changing borders of municipalities and their names, are
stipulated by the
Republic of Bashkortostan
Republic of Bashkortostan law "On
administrative-territorial structure of the Republic of Bashkortostan
and territory of municipalities".
The state has strong economic and cultural ties with its western
neighbor the Republic of Tatarstan.
Tyupkildy wind park.
Sunflower field in Ishimbaysky District.
Bashkortostan has a developed
Bashkortostan is one of the most developed regions of the Russian
Federation in terms of its gross regional output, the volume of
industrial production, agricultural production, and investment in
The extraction of crude oil in Bashkiria began in 1932. At the end of
1943 large crude oil deposits were discovered.[by whom?] During the
Great Patriotic War
Great Patriotic War of 1941 to 1945, Bashkiria became one of the major
regions of the Soviet Union to accommodate plants and factories
evacuated from Western Russia, as well as great masses of people,
while also providing the country with weaponry, fuel, and foodstuffs.
After the war, a number of industries developed further in Bashkiria,
such as mining, machine-building and (especially) oil-refining.
Bashkiria's industry became a solid base for the further economic
growth of all European outlying territories of Russia.
The economy of Bashkortostan, being one of the largest industrial
centers of Russia, is very diverse.
Bashkortostan has a large
agricultural sector. But the republic's most important industry is
Bashkortostan produces more oil than any other
region of Russia, about 26 million tons annually, and provides 17% of
the country's gasoline and 15% of its diesel fuel. Other important
products manufactured in
Bashkortostan include alcohols, pesticides,
Bashkortostan's gross regional product in 2016 was 1.34 trillion
rubles, making the republic the subject with the ninth highest GRP
in Russia. The state had a positive trade balance, with $13.7 billion
exported and $1.2 billion imported in 2013. 82.9% of enterprises
Bashkortostan are profitable, higher than the nationwide
average of 68.42%.
Bashkortostan has been recognized as the subject
with the lowest economic risk.
Bashkortostan is among the leaders in real estate development,
developed electric power industry and tourism.
According to Forbes,
Ufa is the best city in
Russia for business among
cities with a population of over one million (2013).
Structure of GRP
GRP structure of
Bashkortostan for 2013.
Wholesale and retail trade
Transport and communications
Real estate transactions
Healthcare and social services
State management and social insurance
Production of electricity, gas, water
Hotels and restaurants
Some industrial products of Bashkortostan
Ka-31 helicopter, produced in Kumertau.
DT-30 amphibious ATV, made in Ishimbay.
AL-41F1 engine for
PAK FA fifth-generation fighter and Su-35S,
produced in Ufa.
Nefaz-VDL bus of
Neftekamsk Automotive Plant.
Bashkir village on the Inzer river.
Source: Russian Federal State Statistics Service
Average population (x 1000)
Crude birth rate (per 1000)
Crude death rate (per 1000)
Natural change (per 1000)
Total fertility rate
Note: Total fertility rate 200-12 source.
According to the 2010 Census, the ethnic composition was:
1 97,572 people were registered from administrative databases, and
could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of
ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared
According to the 2010 Census, spoken languages: Russian (97%), Tatar
(26%), Bashkir (23%).
Bashkortostan as of 2012 (Sreda Arena Atlas)
Rodnovery and other native faiths
Spiritual but not religious
Atheism and irreligion
Other and undeclared
Mosque near Salavat.
Islam is adhered to by a plurality of the nation's population of
Tatar descent. The Muslims of
Bashkortostan follow Sunni
Hanafi school of Islamic law.
Most ethnic Russians, Chuvash, and
Ukrainians are Orthodox Christians.
Most Mari are Pagan. Non-religious people form a substantial part of
any ethnic group in Bashkortostan. There are 13,000 Jews in the
republic, with a historic synagogue in Ufa, and a new Jewish Community
Center built in 2008.
According to a 2012 survey which Interviewed 56,900 people 38% of
the population of
Bashkortostan is Muslim, 25.2% adheres to the
Russian Orthodox Church, 3% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 1%
Orthodox Christian believers without belonging to any church or
members of other Orthodox churches, and 2% are adherents of the Slavic
native faith (Rodnovery), the Mari native religion, Chuvash Vattisen
Yaly or Tengrism. In addition, 15% of the population declares to be
"spiritual but not religious", 8% is atheist, and 7.8% follows other
religions or did not give an answer to the question. Note,
however, that this survey has been criticized as biased. It was
conducted by the service "Sreda", which has ties to the Christian
For 2010, there are over 1,000 mosques in Bashkortostan, 200
Orthodox churches and 60 religious buildings of other confessions.
Russian Premier League
Russian Premier League football club FC
Ufa is from Ufa.
Ufa plays in the city, as does Supreme Hockey League
Toros Neftekamsk and HC Gornyak Uchaly,
Minor Hockey League
Minor Hockey League team
Russian Women's Hockey League team Agidel. National
Junior Hockey League Hockey club
Batyr is from Neftekamsk. Russian
Volleyball Super League team Ural and volleyball team Samrau-UGNTU are
Russian Handball Super League team Ugntu-VNZM and Russian
Women's Handball Super League team Ufa-Alisa are from Ufa. Formula One
Daniil Kvyat hails from Ufa.
About sixty scientific organizations are active in the republic.
Fundamental and applied scientific research is underway at twelve
institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences, twenty-nine institutes
of different branches of industry, as well as numerous design bureaus
and organizations, universities, and colleges.
The country's system of popular education took shape over many
centuries and reflects the Bashkir people's folklore, national
customs, and traditions. When
Islam spread in Bashkiria in the 10th
century, an educational system began to emerge gradually— primarily
religious schools operated under the supervision of mosques (maktabeh
In addition, many institutions of higher education operate in the
republic, including branches of 16 leading Russian universities and
colleges. Specialists graduate with degrees in about 200 trades and
Education is primarily in Russian and Bashkir.
Bashkir State Academic Theater of Drama in Ufa.
Bashkortostan is home to song and dance companies, a network of
national theaters, museums, and libraries, and a number of annual folk
festivals. The republic has seven Bashkir, four Russian, and two Tatar
State Drama Theaters, a State Opera and Ballet Theater, a National
Symphony Orchestra, "Bashkortostan" film studio, thirty philharmonic
collectives, and the Bashkir State Folk Dance Ensemble.
The Bashkir School of Dance is well respected, with
many students receiving international awards at competitions in Russia
and other countries. World-renowned ballet dancer Rudolf Nureyev, as a
child, was encouraged to dance in Bashkir folk performances, and began
his dancing career in Ufa.
Bashkir literature is the literary tradition of the Republic of
^ Law #10-z
^ Президент Российской
Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая
2000 г. «О полномочном представителе
Президента Российской Федерации в
федеральном округе». Вступил в
силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован:
"Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст.
2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian
Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the
Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian
Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
^ Госстандарт Российской
Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995
г. «Общероссийский классификатор
2. Экономические районы», в ред.
Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (
Gosstandart of the Russian
Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian
Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as
amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
^ a b Administrative-Territorial Structure of the Union Republics.
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^ Федеральная служба государственной
статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21).
"Территория, число районов, населённых
пунктов и сельских администраций по
субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory,
Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by
Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)".
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населения 2010 года (2010 All-
Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June
^ The density value was calculated by dividing the population reported
by the 2010 Census by the area shown in the "Area" field. Please note
that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the
infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the
Republic of Bashkortostan
Republic of Bashkortostan Territorial Branch of the Federal State
Statistics Service. Оценка численности
постоянного населения Республики
Башкортостан на 1 января 2014 г. по
муниципальным образованиям (in Russian)
^ Правительство Российской
закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об
исчислении времени», в ред.
Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03
июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в
Федеральный закон "Об исчислении
времени"». Вступил в силу по
истечении шестидесяти дней после дня
официального опубликования (6 августа
2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская
газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian
Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31,
2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ
of July 03, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating
Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the
^ Official throughout the Russian Federation according to
Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
^ Constitution of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Article 1
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Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers].
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"Численность населения России,
субъектов Российской Федерации в
составе федеральных округов, районов,
городских поселений, сельских
населённых пунктов – районных
центров и сельских населённых пунктов
с населением 3 тысячи и более
человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal
Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural
Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with
Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская
перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia
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^ "Каталог публикаций::Федеральная
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^ Russian Census 2002. 6. Владение языками (кроме
русского) населением отдельных
национальностей по республикам,
автономной области и автономным
округам Российской Федерации Archived
November 4, 2006, at the Wayback Machine.(Knowledge of languages other
than Russian by the population of republics, autonomous oblast and
autonomous districts)(in Russian)
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Bashkortostan Jews Centered", Dateline World Jewry, World Jewish
Congress, July/August 2008
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кто заказывает «магию цифр»?!". Русская
Информационно-аналитическая служба. 6
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притеснении ислама в России
кощунственно, считает Талгат
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управление мусульман Республики
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^ Allen J. Frank (2012). Bukhara and the Muslims of Russia: Sufism,
Education, and the Paradox of Islamic Prestige. Brill. p. 11.
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Tatar and Bashkir literary works constitute
a particularly rich body of indigenous historical sources of Inner
Asia, particularly for the nineteenth and twentieth centuries
^ Julie Kavanagh (2011). Nureyev: The Life. Random House. p. 51.
Retrieved March 27, 2014. A celebration of Bashkirian Literature and
Art to be held in Moscow..
^ Christopher Barnes (2004). Boris Pasternak: A Literary Biography,
Volume 2. Cambridge University Press. p. 118. Retrieved March 27,
2014. The main themes of the meeting were the discussion of the state
of Byelorussian and Bashkirian literature..
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bashkortostan.
The centralized portal of the authorities of the Republic of
Bashkortostan (in Russian)
The Head of Republic of Bashkortostan
Administrative divisions of the Republic of Bashkortostan
Cities and towns
Subdivisions of Russia
Ukraine and considered by most of the international
community to be part of Ukraine
2Administratively subordinated to Tyumen Oblast
3Administratively subordinated to Arkhangelsk Oblast
Internal additional non-constitutional divisions by different
Economic regions (by Ministry of Economic Development)
Military districts (by Ministry of Defence)
Federal districts (by President)
Judicial districts (by law "On arbitration courts")
International Organization of Turkic Culture
International Organization of Turkic Culture (TÜRKSOY)