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The Republic of Bashkortostan
Republic of Bashkortostan
(/bɑːʃˈkɔːrtoʊstæn/; Russian: Респу́блика Башкортоста́н, tr. Respublika Bashkortostan, IPA: [rʲɪsˈpublʲɪkə bəʂkərtɐˈstan]; Bashkir: Башҡортостан Республикаһы, Başqortostan Respublikahı), also historically known as Bashkiria (Russian: Башки́рия, tr. Bashkiriya, IPA: [bɐʂˈkʲirʲɪjə]), is a federal subject of Russia
Russia
(a republic (state)). It is located between the Volga River
Volga River
and the Ural Mountains. Its capital is the city of Ufa. With a population of 4,072,292 as of the 2010 Census, Bashkortostan
Bashkortostan
is the most populous republic in Russia.[9] Bashkurdistan, the first ethnic autonomy in Russia, was established on November 28 [O.S. November 15] 1917.[15][16][16][17] On March 20, 1919, it was transformed into the Bashkir ASSR,[4] the first Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in RSFSR.[18] In accordance with the Constitution of Bashkortostan
Bashkortostan
and Russian Federation Constitution, Bashkortostan
Bashkortostan
is a state, but has no sovereignty.[19][20] On 11 October 1990 Bashkortostan
Bashkortostan
adopted the Declaration of State Sovereignty, but subsequently abandoned it. 11 October is Republic Day
Republic Day
in Bashkortostan.

Contents

1 Terminology 2 History 3 Geography

3.1 Rivers 3.2 Lakes 3.3 Mountains 3.4 Natural resources 3.5 Climate

4 Administrative divisions 5 Politics 6 Economy

6.1 Structure of GRP

7 Demographics

7.1 Population development 7.2 Vital statistics 7.3 Ethnic groups 7.4 Languages 7.5 Religion

8 Sport 9 Education 10 Culture 11 References

11.1 Notes

12 Further reading 13 External links

Terminology[edit] The name "Bashkortostan" derives from the name of the Bashkir ethnic group, also known as Başqorts.[citation needed] While the root of the name is Turkic (being a combination of 'baş', which in Turkish can mean head, chief, main, principal, and 'qort' meaning wolf, one of the animals regarded as sacred to Turkic peoples);[citation needed] the suffix -stan
-stan
is Persian, common to many Asian country names. They speak the Bashkir language, which belongs to the Kypchak branch of the Turkic languages.[citation needed] History[edit] Main article: History of Bashkortostan The first settlements in the territory of modern Bashkortostan
Bashkortostan
date from the early Paleolithic
Paleolithic
period, but the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
spurred an upsurge in the population of this territory.[21] When people of the Abashevo culture
Abashevo culture
started settling here they possessed high skills in manufacturing bronze tools, weapons, and decorations. They were the first to establish permanent settlements in the Southern Urals. Bashkortostan
Bashkortostan
takes its name from its native people — the Bashkirs. The Slavonic name of the country — Bashkiriya — formed at the end of the 16th century. Originally it appeared in the forms Bashkir land, Bashkir’, Bashkirda and Bashkir horde. The ethnonym Bashkirs
Bashkirs
first became known in the 7th century. In the 10th century, Al-Balkhi wrote about Bashkirs
Bashkirs
as a people, divided into two groups, one of which inhabited the Southern Urals, while the other lived near the Danube river, close to the boundaries of Byzantium. His contemporary Ibn-Ruste described the Bashkirs
Bashkirs
as "an independent people, occupying territories on both sides of the Ural mountain ridge between Volga, Kama, Tobol and upstream of Yaik river".

Cave paintings in the Shulgan-Tash Nature Reserve.

Mausoleum of Turahan, 14th-century building.

Bashkirs
Bashkirs
near Hamburg
Hamburg
during the Napoleonic Wars, c. 1813.

The Red Army
Red Army
cavalry unit, made up of Bashkirs, Russian Civil War, 1919.

After the early-feudal Mongolian state had broken down in the 14th century, the territory of modern Bashkortostan
Bashkortostan
became divided between the Kazan and Siberia Khanates and the Nogai Horde. The tribes that lived there were headed by bi (tribal heads). After Kazan fell to Ivan the Terrible in 1554–1555, representatives of western and northwestern Bashkir tribes approached the Tsar
Tsar
with a request to voluntarily join Muscovy.[citation needed] Starting from the second half of the 16th century, Bashkiria's territory began taking shape as a part of the Russian state. In 1798 the Spiritual Assembly of Russian Muslims was established[by whom?]— an indication that the tsarist government recognized the rights of Bashkirs, Tatars, and other Muslim
Muslim
nations to profess Islam
Islam
and perform religious rituals. Ufa
Ufa
Governorate (guberniya), with a center in Ufa, was formed in 1865— another step towards territorial identification. After the Russian Revolution of 1917
Russian Revolution of 1917
were All-Bashkir Qoroltays (conventions) on which a decision on the need to create a national federal republic within Russia. As a result, 28 November 1917 Bashkir Regional (central) Shuro (Council) proclaims the establishment in areas with a predominantly Bashkir population of Orenburg, Perm, Samara, Ufa
Ufa
provinces territorial and national autonomy Bashkurdistan. In December 1917, delegates to the All-Bashkir (constituent) Congress, representing the interests of the population edge of all nationalities, voted unanimously for the resolution (Farman #2) of the Bashkir regional Shuro the proclamation of national-territorial autonomy (of the Republic) Bashkurdistan. The congress formed the government of Bashkurdistan, the Pre-parliament - Kese-Qoroltay and other bodies of power and administration, and decisions were made on how to proceed. In March 1919, based on the agreements of the Russian Government with the Bashkir Government was formed Bashkir Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. During the Soviet period, Bashkiria was granted broad autonomous rights— the first among other Russian regions. The administrative structure of the Bashkir ASSR was based on principles similar to those of other autonomous republics of Russia. On October 11, 1990, the Supreme Soviet of the Republic adopted the Declaration on state sovereignty of the Bashkir ASSR. On February 25, 1992, the Bashkir ASSR was renamed[by whom?] the Republic of Bashkortostan. On March 31, 1992, a Federative Compact "On separation of authorities and powers among federal organs of power of the Russian Federation and the organs of power of the Republic of Bashkortostan" was signed. On August 3, 1994, a Compact "On separation of authorities and mutual delegating of powers among the organs of power of the Russian Federation and the organs of power of the Republic of Bashkortostan" was signed. Geography[edit] Bashkortostan
Bashkortostan
contains part of the southern Urals
Urals
and the adjacent plains.

Shihan Toratau. Single hills are popular symbols of Bashkortostan.

Atysh waterfall.

Bashkir horses near Yakty-Kul lake.

Autumn Yamantau.

Area: 143,600 square kilometers (55,400 sq mi) (according to the 2002 Census) Borders: Bashkortostan
Bashkortostan
borders with Perm Krai
Perm Krai
(N), Sverdlovsk Oblast (NE), Chelyabinsk Oblast
Chelyabinsk Oblast
(NE/E/SE), Orenburg Oblast (SE/S/SW), the Republic of Tatarstan
Republic of Tatarstan
(W), and the Udmurt Republic
Udmurt Republic
(NW) Highest point: Mount Yamantau
Mount Yamantau
(1,638 m) Maximum North-South distance: 550 km Maximum East-West distance: over 430 km

Rivers[edit]

Nugush River.

There are over 13,000 rivers in the republic. Many rivers are part of the deepwater transportation system of European Russia; they provide access to ports of the Baltic and Black seas. Major rivers include:

Belaya (Aghidhel) River
Belaya (Aghidhel) River
(1,430 km) Ufa
Ufa
(Qaraidel) River (918 km) Sakmara River
Sakmara River
(760 km) Ik (Iq) River (571 km) Dyoma River
Dyoma River
(556 km) Ay River
Ay River
(549 km) Yuruzan River
Yuruzan River
(404 km) Bystry Tanyp River (345 km) Sim River
Sim River
(239 km) Nugush River
Nugush River
(235 km) Tanalyk River (225 km) Zilim River (215 km) Syun River (209 km)

Lakes[edit]

Lake Asylykül.

There are 2,700 lakes and reservoirs in the republic. Major lakes and reservoirs include:

Asylykül Lake (23.5 km²) Qandrykül Lake (15.6 km²) Urgun Lake (12.0 km²) Pavlovskoye Reservoir (120.0 km²) Nugushkoye Reservoir (25.2 km²)

Mountains[edit]

Iremel
Iremel
Mount.

The Republic contains part of the southern Urals, which stretch from the northern to the southern border. The highest mountains include:

Mount Yamantau
Mount Yamantau
(1,638 m) Mount Bolshoy Iremel
Iremel
(1,582 m) Mount Maly Iremel
Iremel
(1,449 m) Mount Arwyakryaz (1,068 m) Mount Zilmerdaq (909 m) Mount Alataw (845 m) Mount Yurmataw (842 m)

Natural resources[edit]

Bashneft
Bashneft
oil pumps.

Quarry near Sibay.

The Republic of Bashkortostan
Republic of Bashkortostan
is one of the richest territories of Russia
Russia
in mineral resources with deposits of some 3,000 mineral resources. Bashkortostan
Bashkortostan
is rich in crude oil reserves, and was one of the principal centers of oil extraction in the Russian Federation. Other major resources are natural gas, coal, ferrous metal ores, manganese, chromite, iron ores, non-ferrous metals ores (lead, tungsten), non-metallic ores (rock crystal, fluorite, Iceland spar, sulfide pyrites, barite, silicates, silica, asbestos, talcum), deposits of precious and semi-precious stones and natural stones (malachite, jade, granite). The republic has enough mineral resources to provide its power and fuel complex as well as petrochemical, chemical, agro-industrial complex, ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy, glass-making and ceramic branches with raw materials. Bashkortostan
Bashkortostan
is one of the major raw materials bases for Russia non-ferrous metallurgy. The republic has good deposits of lignite with a high degree of bitumen. This lignite can be used for obtaining a variety of different chemical products like resins, surface-active substances, gummy fertilizers, and other stimulants for plants growth. Mining-chemical raw materials (rock salt, lime, phosphorites, barytes, etc.) are quite substantial, and are utilized in the republic economy. Bashkortostan
Bashkortostan
is also rich in woods. The total territory covered with forests is about 62,000 square kilometers (24,000 sq mi). More than one-third of the republic territory is covered with woods. The following types of trees dominate: birch tree, conifers, lime, oak, and maple. The general stock of timber according to some evaluation is 717.9 million m³. Bashkortostan
Bashkortostan
forests have special sanctuaries and national parks. They cover more than 10,000 square kilometers (3,900 sq mi). Bashkortostan
Bashkortostan
is also rich in springs and sources of mineral, medicinal, and drinking water. The Asselian Age at the start of the Permian
Permian
Period of geological time is named after the Assel River in Bashkortostan.[22] Climate[edit]

Average annual temperature: +0.3 °C (32.5 °F) (mountains) to +2.8 °C (37.0 °F) (plains) Average January temperature: −16 °C (3 °F) Average July temperature: +18 °C (64 °F)

The ski resort "Abzakovo" in Abzelilovsky District. October 2009.

Morning fog in Ishimbaysky District.

Administrative divisions[edit] Main article: Administrative divisions of the Republic of Bashkortostan Politics[edit]

Building of the Government of the Republic also known as Bashkir White House.

The head of the government of the Republic of Bashkortostan
Republic of Bashkortostan
is the Head (before 1 January 2015 the title was called "President"[23]), who is elected by the people for a four-year term. According to the Constitution, the Head of the Republic of Bashkortostan
Head of the Republic of Bashkortostan
guarantees rights and liberties of the country's people and citizens, protects economic and political interests of the Republic of Bashkortostan, and secures legitimacy, law, and order within its territory. Rustem Khamitov
Rustem Khamitov
assumed office on July 19, 2010. His predecessor was Murtaza Rakhimov, elected on December 17, 1993. Before the elections, Rakhimov was the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Republic— the highest post at that time. Rakhimov was re-elected in December 2003 in a poll condemned by the OSCE for exhibiting "elements of basic fraud." The Republic's parliament is the State Assembly—Kurultai, popularly elected every five years. The one-chamber State Assembly has 110 deputies. The Republic's Constitution was adopted on December 24, 1993. Article 1 of the Constitution stipulates that Bashkortostan
Bashkortostan
is a sovereign state within Russia, it has state power beyond the limits of authority of the Russian Federation and the powers of the Russian Federation concerning the aspect of the joint authority of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Bashkortostan. The Republic of Bashkortostan
Bashkortostan
is a full-fledged subject of the Russian Federation on equal and agreed bases. The relations of the Republic of Bashkortostan
Republic of Bashkortostan
and the Russian Federation are at present based on the articles of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the Constitution of the Republic of Bashkortostan, the Federative Treaty (with amendments), and the Agreement on Separation of authorities and powers and mutual delegating of powers among the organs of state power of the Republic of Bashkortostan. The judicial power of the republic is in the hands of the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court, the Court of Appeals, District Courts, and justices of the peace. In full accord with universally recognized principles of international law, articles of the European Charter of Local Self-Government
European Charter of Local Self-Government
and the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the Republic of Bashkortostan ensures in its Constitution that local self-government is recognized and guaranteed within the republic's territory. The Republic of Bashkortostan
Republic of Bashkortostan
resolves all issues of administrative-territorial structure on its own. The list of districts and towns, municipalities, as well as the order of establishing, amending and changing borders of municipalities and their names, are stipulated by the Republic of Bashkortostan
Republic of Bashkortostan
law "On administrative-territorial structure of the Republic of Bashkortostan and territory of municipalities". The state has strong economic and cultural ties with its western neighbor the Republic of Tatarstan.[24][25][26] Economy[edit]

Tyupkildy wind park.

Sunflower field in Ishimbaysky District. Bashkortostan
Bashkortostan
has a developed agriculture.

Bashkortostan
Bashkortostan
is one of the most developed regions of the Russian Federation in terms of its gross regional output, the volume of industrial production, agricultural production, and investment in fixed assets. The extraction of crude oil in Bashkiria began in 1932. At the end of 1943 large crude oil deposits were discovered.[by whom?] During the Great Patriotic War
Great Patriotic War
of 1941 to 1945, Bashkiria became one of the major regions of the Soviet Union to accommodate plants and factories evacuated from Western Russia, as well as great masses of people, while also providing the country with weaponry, fuel, and foodstuffs. After the war, a number of industries developed further in Bashkiria, such as mining, machine-building and (especially) oil-refining. Bashkiria's industry became a solid base for the further economic growth of all European outlying territories of Russia. The economy of Bashkortostan, being one of the largest industrial centers of Russia, is very diverse. Bashkortostan
Bashkortostan
has a large agricultural sector. But the republic's most important industry is chemical processing; Bashkortostan
Bashkortostan
produces more oil than any other region of Russia, about 26 million tons annually, and provides 17% of the country's gasoline and 15% of its diesel fuel. Other important products manufactured in Bashkortostan
Bashkortostan
include alcohols, pesticides, and plastics. Bashkortostan's gross regional product in 2016 was 1.34 trillion rubles[27], making the republic the subject with the ninth highest GRP in Russia. The state had a positive trade balance, with $13.7 billion exported and $1.2 billion imported in 2013.[28] 82.9% of enterprises in Bashkortostan
Bashkortostan
are profitable,[29] higher than the nationwide average of 68.42%. Bashkortostan
Bashkortostan
has been recognized as the subject with the lowest economic risk.[30][31] Bashkortostan
Bashkortostan
is among the leaders in real estate development,[32] developed electric power industry[33] and tourism.[34] According to Forbes, Ufa
Ufa
is the best city in Russia
Russia
for business among cities with a population of over one million (2013).[35] Structure of GRP[edit] GRP structure of Bashkortostan
Bashkortostan
for 2013.[36]

Sector %

Manufacturing 36.2

Wholesale and retail trade 16.7

Transport and communications 7.3

Real estate transactions 7

Construction 6.9

Agriculture 6.5

Education 4.1

Healthcare and social services 4.1

State management and social insurance 3.8

Mining 2.8

Production of electricity, gas, water 2.4

Hotels and restaurants 1.1

Other 1.1

Some industrial products of Bashkortostan

Ka-31 helicopter, produced in Kumertau.

DT-30 amphibious ATV, made in Ishimbay.

AL-41F1 engine for PAK FA
PAK FA
fifth-generation fighter and Su-35S, produced in Ufa.

Nefaz-VDL bus of Neftekamsk
Neftekamsk
Automotive Plant.

Demographics[edit]

Bashkir village on the Inzer river.

Population development[edit]

Year Population

1897 1,991,000

1913 2,811,000

1926 2,547,000

1939 3,158,000

1959 3,340,000

1970 3,818,000

1979 3,849,000

1989 3,950,482[37]

2002 4,104,336[38]

2010 4,072,292[9]

Vital statistics[edit]

Source: Russian Federal State Statistics Service

Average population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rate

1970 3,817 63,498 28,004 35,494 16.6 7.3 9.3

1975 3,825 63,096 31,802 31,294 16.5 8.3 8.2

1980 3,850 67,743 36,067 31,676 17.6 9.4 8.2

1985 3,868 76,839 39,101 37,738 19.9 10.1 9.8

1990 3,952 63,899 38,157 25,742 16.2 9.7 6.5

1991 3,975 58,240 39,638 18,602 14.7 10.0 4.7

1992 4,005 53,271 43,539 9,732 13.3 10.9 2.4

1993 4,030 46,772 50,738 -3,966 11.6 12.6 -1.0

1994 4,050 47,296 54,267 -6,971 11.7 13.4 -1.7

1995 4,074 45,622 51,734 -6,112 11.2 12.7 -1.5

1996 4,091 45,228 49,600 -4,372 11.1 12.1 -1.1

1997 4,103 43,776 49,354 -5,578 10.7 12.0 -1.4

1998 4,113 44,465 48,470 -4,005 10.8 11.8 -1.0

1999 4,119 41,368 52,608 -11,240 10.0 12.8 -2.7

2000 4,117 41,642 53,550 -11,908 10.1 13.0 -2.9

2001 4,112 42,793 55,001 -12,208 10.4 13.4 -3.0

2002 4,104 45,481 57,836 -12,355 11.1 14.1 -3.0

2003 4,095 45,583 58,237 -12,654 11.1 14.2 -3.1

2004 4,084 45,733 57,726 -11,993 11.2 14.1 -2.9

2005 4,074 44,094 57,787 -13,693 10.8 14.2 -3.4

2006 4,064 45,055 55,319 -10,264 11.1 13.6 -2.5

2007 4,060 51,453 55,144 -3,691 12.7 13.6 -0.9

2008 4,059 54,493 55,568 -1,075 13.4 13.7 -0.3

2009 4,062 55,587 53,227 2,360 13.7 13.1 0.6 1,74

2010 4,067 57,093 54,457 2,636 14.0 13.4 0.6 1,77

2011 4,072 55,806 54,432 1,374 13.7 13.4 0.3 1,74

2012 4,064 59,180 53,624 5,556 14.6 13.2 1.4 1.86

2013 4,065 59,260 53,346 5,914 14.6 13.1 1.5 1.89

2014 4,071 60,239 53,509 6,730 14.8 13.1 1.7 1.95

2015 4,072 59,196 54,107 5,087 14.5 13.3 1.2 1.94

2016 4,069 55,708 52,283 3,425 13.7 12.8 0.9 1.86(e)

2017 4 065 49,260 50,261 -1,001 12.1 12.3 -0.2

Note: Total fertility rate 200-12 source.[39] Ethnic groups[edit] According to the 2010 Census, the ethnic composition was:[9]

Russian 36.1% Bashkirs
Bashkirs
29.5% Tatars
Tatars
25.4% Chuvashs 2.7% Mari 2.6% Ukrainian 1% Mordovian 0.5% Udmurts
Udmurts
0.5% Belarusians
Belarusians
0.3%

Ethnic group 1926 Census 1939 Census 1959 Census 1970 Census 1979 Census 1989 Census 2002 Census 2010 Census1

Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %

Bashkirs 625,845 23.5% 671,188 21.2% 737,744 22.1% 892,248 23.4% 935,880 24.3% 863,808 21.9% 1,221,302 29.8% 1,172,287 29.5%

Russians 1,064,707 39.9% 1,281,347 40.6% 1,418,147 42.4% 1,546,304 40.5% 1,547,893 40.3% 1,548,291 39.3% 1,490,715 36.3% 1,432,906 36.1%

Tatars 461,871 17.3% 777,230 24.6% 768,566 23.0% 944,505 24.7% 940,436 24.5% 1,120,702 28.4% 990,702 24.1% 1,009,295 25.4%

Chuvash 84,886 3.2% 106,892 3.4% 109,970 3.3% 126,638 3.3% 122,344 3.2% 118,509 3.0% 117,317 2.9% 107,450 2.7%

Mari 79,298 3.0% 90,163 2.9% 93,902 2.8% 109,638 2.9% 106,793 2.8% 105,768 2.7% 105,829 2.6% 103,658 2.6%

Ukrainians 76,710 2.9% 99,289 3.1% 83,594 2.5% 76,005 2.0% 75,571 2.0% 74,990 1.9% 55,249 1.3% 39,875 1.0%

Others 272,519 10.2% 132,860 4.2% 129,686 3.9% 122,737 3.2% 115,363 3.0% 111,045 2.8% 118,856 2.9% 109,249 2.7%

1 97,572 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.[40]

Languages[edit] According to the 2010 Census, spoken languages: Russian (97%), Tatar (26%), Bashkir (23%).[41] Religion[edit]

Religion in Bashkortostan
Bashkortostan
as of 2012 (Sreda Arena Atlas)[42][43]

Russian Orthodoxy

25.2%

Other Orthodox

1.1%

Old Believers

0.5%

Other Christians

3%

Islam

38.6%

Rodnovery
Rodnovery
and other native faiths

2.4%

Spiritual but not religious

14.7%

Atheism
Atheism
and irreligion

7.6%

Other and undeclared

6.9%

Sufiya Mosque
Mosque
near Salavat.

Islam
Islam
is adhered to by a plurality of the nation's population[44] of Bashkir and Tatar
Tatar
descent. The Muslims of Bashkortostan
Bashkortostan
follow Sunni Hanafi
Hanafi
school of Islamic law. Most ethnic Russians, Chuvash, and Ukrainians
Ukrainians
are Orthodox Christians. Most Mari are Pagan. Non-religious people form a substantial part of any ethnic group in Bashkortostan. There are 13,000 Jews in the republic, with a historic synagogue in Ufa, and a new Jewish Community Center built in 2008.[45] According to a 2012 survey which Interviewed 56,900 people[42] 38% of the population of Bashkortostan
Bashkortostan
is Muslim, 25.2% adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 3% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 1% are Orthodox Christian believers without belonging to any church or members of other Orthodox churches, and 2% are adherents of the Slavic native faith (Rodnovery), the Mari native religion, Chuvash Vattisen Yaly or Tengrism. In addition, 15% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 8% is atheist, and 7.8% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question.[42] Note, however, that this survey has been criticized as biased. It was conducted by the service "Sreda", which has ties to the Christian organizations.[46] For 2010, there are over 1,000 mosques in Bashkortostan,[47] 200 Orthodox churches and 60 religious buildings of other confessions.[48]

Sport[edit] Russian Premier League
Russian Premier League
football club FC Ufa
Ufa
is from Ufa. KHL
KHL
team Salavat Yulaev Ufa
Ufa
plays in the city, as does Supreme Hockey League teams Toros Neftekamsk
Toros Neftekamsk
and HC Gornyak Uchaly, Minor Hockey League
Minor Hockey League
team Tolpar Ufa
Ufa
and Russian Women's Hockey League team Agidel. National Junior Hockey League Hockey club Batyr is from Neftekamsk. Russian Volleyball Super League team Ural and volleyball team Samrau-UGNTU are from Ufa. Russian Handball Super League team Ugntu-VNZM and Russian Women's Handball Super League team Ufa-Alisa are from Ufa. Formula One driver Daniil Kvyat
Daniil Kvyat
hails from Ufa. Education[edit] About sixty scientific organizations are active in the republic. Fundamental and applied scientific research is underway at twelve institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences, twenty-nine institutes of different branches of industry, as well as numerous design bureaus and organizations, universities, and colleges. The country's system of popular education took shape over many centuries and reflects the Bashkir people's folklore, national customs, and traditions. When Islam
Islam
spread in Bashkiria in the 10th century, an educational system began to emerge gradually— primarily religious schools operated under the supervision of mosques (maktabeh and madrasah). In addition, many institutions of higher education operate in the republic, including branches of 16 leading Russian universities and colleges. Specialists graduate with degrees in about 200 trades and professions. Education is primarily in Russian and Bashkir. Culture[edit]

Bashkir State Academic Theater of Drama in Ufa.

Bashkortostan
Bashkortostan
is home to song and dance companies, a network of national theaters, museums, and libraries, and a number of annual folk festivals. The republic has seven Bashkir, four Russian, and two Tatar State Drama Theaters, a State Opera and Ballet Theater, a National Symphony Orchestra, "Bashkortostan" film studio, thirty philharmonic collectives, and the Bashkir State Folk Dance Ensemble. The Bashkir School of Dance is well respected[citation needed], with many students receiving international awards at competitions in Russia and other countries. World-renowned ballet dancer Rudolf Nureyev, as a child, was encouraged to dance in Bashkir folk performances, and began his dancing career in Ufa. Bashkir literature is the literary tradition of the Republic of Bashkortostan.[49][50][51] References[edit] Notes[edit]

^ Law #10-z ^ Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.). ^ Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. ( Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ). ^ a b Administrative-Territorial Structure of the Union Republics. 1987., p. 25 ^ Constitution of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Article 65 ^ Official website of the Head of the Republic of Bashkortostan. Biography (in Russian) ^ a b Constitution of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Article 6 ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All- Russia
Russia
Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2011-11-01.  ^ a b c d Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All- Russia
Russia
Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012.  ^ The density value was calculated by dividing the population reported by the 2010 Census by the area shown in the "Area" field. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the population. ^ Republic of Bashkortostan
Republic of Bashkortostan
Territorial Branch of the Federal State Statistics Service. Оценка численности постоянного населения Республики Башкортостан на 1 января 2014 г. по муниципальным образованиям (in Russian) ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03 июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of July 03, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.). ^ Official throughout the Russian Federation according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia. ^ Constitution of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Article 1 ^ Национально-государственное устройство Башкортостана, 1917-1925 гг: Общее введение и Том 1 // Билал Хамитович Юлдашбаев, Китап, 2002, ISBN 5295029166, 9785295029165 ^ a b Хрестоматия по истории Башкортостана: Документы и материалы с древнейших времен до 1917 года // Фарит Гумеров, "Китап", 2001 ^ Зулькарнаева Е. З., Кульшарипова Н. М. Фарман. // Башкортостан: краткая энциклопедия. — Уфа: Башкирская энциклопедия, 1996. — С. 603. — 672 с. — ISBN 5-88185-001-7. ^ БСЭ т.4 1950 год стр 347 ^ "President of Russia". Archived from the original on January 8, 2016. Retrieved January 24, 2016.  ^ "Конституция Республики Башкортостан от 24 декабря 1993 г. N ВС-22/15 / Глава 1. Основы конституционного строя Республики Башкортостан". Retrieved January 24, 2016.  ^ Главархитектура г. Уфы — История г. Уфы ^ The Nonmarine Permian: Volume 30 of Bulletin of the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, page 48. Editors Spencer G. Lucas, Kate E. Zeigler, 2005 ^ "Парламентарии Башкирии приняли Закон "О Главе Республики Башкортостан"". Bashinform NA. 2014-12-25. Retrieved 2015-01-08.  ^ "Просмотр публикации : Республика Татарстан". Retrieved January 24, 2016.  ^ 127-creatiVe. "IslamRF.ru: Татарстан и Башкортостан в первой половине 2012-го года: от альянса в экономике к сотрудничеству в сферах языка и религии". Retrieved January 24, 2016.  ^ "Президент РТ". Retrieved January 24, 2016.  ^ ВРП Башкирии в 2014 году преодолел новый рубеж — 1,3 трлн рублей ^ "Республика Башкортостан в цифрах и фактах". Retrieved January 24, 2016.  ^ Рейтинг социально-экономического положения субъектов РФ. Итоги 2014 года ^ "Вести.Ru: Башкортостан признан регионом с минимальными экономическими рисками". vesti.ru. Retrieved January 24, 2016.  ^ "Title". Retrieved January 24, 2016.  ^ "Ввод жилья в России - 2014: рейтинг регионов по итогам III квартала". Retrieved January 24, 2016.  ^ "Сайт газеты "Республика Башкортостан" - Экономика - "Позеленеет" ли энергетика?". Retrieved January 24, 2016.  ^ "Республика Башкортостан". Retrieved January 24, 2016.  ^ 30 лучших городов для бизнеса — 2013 // Forbes.ru ^ Мировой атлас данных. Республика Башкортостан. Структура ВРП ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research
Research
University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014.  ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014.  ^ "Каталог публикаций::Федеральная служба государственной статистики". Retrieved January 24, 2016.  ^ "ВПН-2010". Retrieved January 24, 2016.  ^ Russian Census 2002. 6. Владение языками (кроме русского) населением отдельных национальностей по республикам, автономной области и автономным округам Российской Федерации Archived November 4, 2006, at the Wayback Machine.(Knowledge of languages other than Russian by the population of republics, autonomous oblast and autonomous districts)(in Russian) ^ a b c "Arena: Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia". Sreda, 2012. ^ 2012 Arena Atlas Religion Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 21/04/2017. Archived. ^ "islamonline.com". Retrieved January 24, 2016.  ^ " Bashkortostan
Bashkortostan
Jews Centered", Dateline World Jewry, World Jewish Congress, July/August 2008 ^ "Социологические опросы «Среды», или кто заказывает «магию цифр»?!". Русская народная линия. Информационно-аналитическая служба. 6 September 2012.  ^ "Интерфакс-Религия: Говорить о притеснении ислама в России кощунственно, считает Талгат Таджуддин". Retrieved January 24, 2016.  ^ "25.08.2010 :: События :: Духовное управление мусульман Республики Башкортостан - Официальный сайт". Retrieved January 24, 2016.  ^ Allen J. Frank (2012). Bukhara and the Muslims of Russia: Sufism, Education, and the Paradox of Islamic Prestige. Brill. p. 11. Retrieved March 27, 2014. Tatar
Tatar
and Bashkir literary works constitute a particularly rich body of indigenous historical sources of Inner Asia, particularly for the nineteenth and twentieth centuries  ^ Julie Kavanagh (2011). Nureyev: The Life. Random House. p. 51. Retrieved March 27, 2014. A celebration of Bashkirian Literature and Art to be held in Moscow..  ^ Christopher Barnes (2004). Boris Pasternak: A Literary Biography, Volume 2. Cambridge University Press. p. 118. Retrieved March 27, 2014. The main themes of the meeting were the discussion of the state of Byelorussian and Bashkirian literature.. 

Further reading[edit]

Ilishev, Ildus G. (December 1998). "Russian federalism: Political, legal, and ethnolingual aspects — a view from the republic of Bashkortostan". Nationalities Papers. 26 (4): 723–759. doi:10.1080/00905999808408597. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bashkortostan.

The centralized portal of the authorities of the Republic of Bashkortostan
Bashkortostan
(in Russian) The Head of Republic of Bashkortostan

v t e

Administrative divisions of the Republic of Bashkortostan

Capital: Ufa

Administrative districts

Abzelilovsky Alsheyevsky Arkhangelsky Askinsky Aurgazinsky Bakalinsky Baltachevsky Baymaksky Belebeyevsky Belokataysky Beloretsky Birsky Bizhbulyaksky Blagovarsky Blagoveshchensky Burayevsky Burzyansky Buzdyaksky Chekmagushevsky Chishminsky Davlekanovsky Duvansky Dyurtyulinsky Fyodorovsky Gafuriysky Iglinsky Ilishevsky Ishimbaysky Kaltasinsky Karaidelsky Karmaskalinsky Khaybullinsky Kiginsky Krasnokamsky Kugarchinsky Kushnarenkovsky Kuyurgazinsky Mechetlinsky Meleuzovsky Mishkinsky Miyakinsky Nurimanovsky Salavatsky Sharansky Sterlibashevsky Sterlitamaksky Tatyshlinsky Tuymazinsky Uchalinsky Ufimsky Yanaulsky Yermekeyevsky Zianchurinsky Zilairsky

Cities and towns (all levels)

Agidel Baymak Belebey Beloretsk Birsk Blagoveshchensk Davlekanovo Dyurtyuli Ishimbay Kumertau Meleuz Mezhgorye Neftekamsk Oktyabrsky Salavat Sibay Sterlitamak Tuymazy Uchaly Ufa Yanaul

Urban-type settlements

Chishmy Priyutovo

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Subdivisions of Russia

Federal subjects

Republics

Adygea Altai Bashkortostan Buryatia Chechnya Chuvashia Crimea1 Dagestan Ingushetia Kabardino-Balkaria Kalmykia Karachay-Cherkessia Karelia Khakassia Komi Mari El Mordovia North Ossetia-Alania Sakha Tatarstan Tuva Udmurtia

Krais

Altai Kamchatka Khabarovsk Krasnodar Krasnoyarsk Perm Primorsky Stavropol Zabaykalsky

Oblasts

Amur Arkhangelsk Astrakhan Belgorod Bryansk Chelyabinsk Irkutsk Ivanovo Kaliningrad Kaluga Kemerovo Kirov Kostroma Kurgan Kursk Leningrad Lipetsk Magadan Moscow Murmansk Nizhny Novgorod Novgorod Novosibirsk Omsk Orenburg Oryol Penza Pskov Rostov Ryazan Sakhalin Samara Saratov Smolensk Sverdlovsk Tambov Tomsk Tula Tver Tyumen Ulyanovsk Vladimir Volgograd Vologda Voronezh Yaroslavl

Federal cities

Moscow St. Petersburg Sevastopol1

Autonomous oblast

Jewish

Autonomous okrugs

Chukotka Khanty-Mansi2 Nenets3 Yamalo-Nenets2

1Claimed by Ukraine
Ukraine
and considered by most of the international community to be part of Ukraine 2Administratively subordinated to Tyumen Oblast 3Administratively subordinated to Arkhangelsk Oblast

Internal additional non-constitutional divisions by different institutions

Economic regions (by Ministry of Economic Development) Military districts (by Ministry of Defence) Federal districts (by President) Judicial districts (by law "On arbitration courts")

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International Organization of Turkic Culture
International Organization of Turkic Culture
(TÜRKSOY)

Members

 Azerbaijan  Bashkortostan  Găgăuzia  Kazakhstan  Kyrgyzstan  Northern Cyprus  Sakha Republic  Tatarstan  Turkey  Turkmenistan  Uzbekistan

Former

 Altai Republic  Khakassi

.