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Bartolomé Esteban Murillo
Bartolomé Esteban Murillo
(born late December 1617, baptized January 1, 1618 – April 3, 1682) was a Spanish Baroque
Baroque
painter. Although he is best known for his religious works, Murillo also produced a considerable number of paintings of contemporary women and children. These lively, realist portraits of flower girls, street urchins, and beggars constitute an extensive and appealing record of the everyday life of his times.

Contents

1 Childhood 2 Career 3 Legacy 4 Public collections 5 Selected works 6 References 7 Literature 8 External links

Childhood[edit] Murillo was born to Gaspar Esteban and María Pérez.[1] He may have been born in Seville
Seville
or in Pilas, a smaller Andalusian town.[2] It is clear that he was baptized in Seville
Seville
in 1618, the youngest son in a family of fourteen. His father was a barber and surgeon. After his parents died in 1627 and 1628, he became a ward of his sister's husband, Juan Agustín Lagares.[1] Murillo seldom used his father's surname, and instead took his surname from his maternal grandmother, Elvira Murillo.[1] Career[edit]

The Holy Family with dog, c. 1645–50, Museo del Prado

Murillo began his art studies in Seville
Seville
under Juan del Castillo, who was a relative of his mother (Murillo's uncle, Antonio Pérez, was also a painter).[1] His first works were influenced by Zurbarán, Jusepe de Ribera
Jusepe de Ribera
and Alonzo Cano, and he shared their strongly realist approach. The great commercial importance of Seville
Seville
at the time ensured that he was subject to artistic influences from other regions. He became familiar with Flemish painting
Flemish painting
and the "Treatise on Sacred Images" of Molanus (Ian van der Meulen or Molano). As his painting developed, his more important works evolved towards the polished style that suited the bourgeois and aristocratic tastes of the time, demonstrated especially in his Roman Catholic religious works. In 1642, at the age of 26, he moved to Madrid, where he most likely became familiar with the work of Velázquez, and would have seen the work of Venetian and Flemish masters in the royal collections; the rich colors and softly modeled forms of his subsequent work suggest these influences.[3] In 1645 he returned to Seville
Seville
and married Beatriz Cabrera y Villalobos, with whom he eventually had eleven children.[1]

Two women at a window, c. 1655–60, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.

In that year, he painted eleven canvases for the convent of St. Francisco
Francisco
el Grande in Seville. These works depicting the miracles of Franciscan saints vary between the Zurbaránesque tenebrism of the Ecstasy of St Francis and a softly luminous style (as in Death of St Clare) that became typical of Murillo's mature work.[1] According to the art historian Manuela B. Mena Marqués, "in ... the Levitation of St Giles (usually known as the "Angel’s Kitchen", Paris, Louvre) and the Death of St Clare (Dresden, Gemäldegal. Alte Meister), the characteristic elements of Murillo’s work are already evident: the elegance and beauty of the female figures and the angels, the realism of the still-life details and the fusion of reality with the spiritual world, which is extraordinarily well developed in some of the compositions."[1] Also completed c. 1645 was the first of Murillo's many paintings of children, The Young Beggar (Musée du Louvre), in which the influence of Velázquez is apparent.[1] Following the completion of a pair of pictures for the Seville
Seville
Cathedral, he began to specialize in the themes that brought him his greatest successes: the Virgin and Child and the Immaculate Conception.[4]

The Adoration of the Shepherds, c. 1650, Museo del Prado

After another period in Madrid, from 1658 to 1660, he returned to Seville. Here he was one of the founders of the Academia de Bellas Artes (Academy of Art), sharing its direction, in 1660, with the architect Francisco
Francisco
Herrera the Younger. This was his period of greatest activity, and he received numerous important commissions, among them the altarpieces for the Augustinian monastery, the paintings for Santa María la Blanca
Santa María la Blanca
(completed in 1665), and others. He died in Seville
Seville
in 1682 at the age of 64. His death was, for a long time, wrongly attributed to a hernia caused by a fall from a scaffold while working on a fresco at Santa María la Blanca (Cadiz) [5]. However, recent research shows that during this time he did not leave Seville, disproving this theory. Legacy[edit] Murillo had many pupils and followers. The prolific imitation of his paintings ensured his reputation in Spain
Spain
and fame throughout Europe, and prior to the 19th century his work was more widely known than that of any other Spanish artist.[3] Artists influenced by his style included Gainsborough and Greuze.[1] Public collections[edit]

The Murillo Room in the Museum of Cádiz

The Museo del Prado
Museo del Prado
in Madrid; Hermitage Museum
Hermitage Museum
in Saint Petersburg, Russia; and the Wallace Collection
Wallace Collection
in London are among the museums holding works by Murillo. His painting Christ on the Cross is at the Timken Museum of Art
Timken Museum of Art
in San Diego.[6] Christ After the Flagellation is at the Krannert Art Museum, Champaign, Illinois.[7] His work is also found at the Mabee-Gerrer Museum of Art
Mabee-Gerrer Museum of Art
in Shawnee, Oklahoma, and at the Meadows Museum
Meadows Museum
at Southern Methodist University
Southern Methodist University
in Dallas, Texas.[8]

Selected works[edit]

Joseph and Potiphar's Wife, c. 1640–45, Cathedral of Seville, Spain

Young Man with a Basket of Fruit or Personification of Summer, c. 1640–50

The Girl with a Coin or Girl of Galicia, c. 1645–50

The Young Beggar, c. 1645, Musée du Louvre, Paris, France

Boys Eating Grapes and Melon, c. 1645–46, Alte Pinakothek

The Flight into Egypt, c. 1645–50

St. Jerome, c. 1650–52

St. Peter in Tears, c. 1650–55

The Virgin of the Rosary, c. 1650–55, Museo del Prado

St. Isidore of Sevilla, 1654, Cathedral of Seville, Spain

Annunciation, c. 1655–60, Hermitage Museum, Russia

Adoration of the Magi, c. 1660

Apparition of the Virgin to St. Ildefonsus, c. 1660

Three Boys, c. 1660

St. Justa, c. 1665

St. Rufina, c. 1665

Christ Healing the Paralytic at the Pool of Bethesda, 1670

St. Rose of Lima, c. 1670

The Immaculate Conception
Immaculate Conception
of the Blessed Virgin Mary, 1678

St. Raphael the Archangel
Raphael the Archangel
with Bishop Domonte, c. 1680, Pushkin Museum

The Marriage Feast at Cana, c. 1672, The Barber Institute of Fine Arts

References[edit]

^ a b c d e f g h i Marqués, Manuela B. Mena. "Murillo, Bartolomé Esteban." Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online. Oxford University Press. ^ A., O'Neill (1833). A Dictionary of Spanish Painters. London: C. O'Neill. p. 246.  ^ a b "Bartolome Esteban Murillo". Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 2007-08-30.  ^ The center medallion of the badge of the Spanish Order of Charles III is clearly modeled on Murillo's unique manner of representing the Immaculate Conception. ^ Palomino, El museo pictórico, p. 417. ^ "Christ on the Cross". Timken Museum of Art. Archived from the original on 2011-11-27.  ^ "Christ After the Flagellation". Krannert Art Museum.  ^ "Bartolomé Esteban MURILLO". Meadows Museum. Archived from the original on 2012-09-10. Retrieved 2012-12-08. 

Literature[edit]

Palomino, Antonio (1988). El museo pictórico y escala óptica III. El parnaso español pintoresco laureado. Madrid : Aguilar S.A. de Ediciones. ISBN 84-03-88005-7. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bartolomé Esteban Murillo.

Paintings in Museums and Public Art Galleries Worldwide Murillo Biography, Style and Critical Reception Murillo Gallery at MuseumSyndicate  Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Bartolomé Esteban Murillo". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  Murillo at ArtRenewalCenter

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 76584455 LCCN: n81068073 ISNI: 0000 0001 0917 9367 GND: 11858586X SUDOC: 027295184 BNF: cb14952935x (data) ULAN: 500007425 NLA: 36229539 NDL: 00450837 NKC: ola2003172390 BNE: XX1006721 KulturNav: ef92104d-ecb3-4af3-b139-8e06a4b7fd2e RKD: 58546 SN

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