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According to Catholic doctrine, popes are successors of Saint Peter.

The history of the papacy, the office held by the pope as head of the Roman Catholic Church, according to Catholic doctrine, spans from the time of Peter to the present day. During the Early Church, the bishops of Rome
Rome
enjoyed no temporal power until the time of Constantine. After the fall of Rome
Rome
(the "Middle Ages", about 476), the papacy was influenced by the temporal rulers of the surrounding Italian Peninsula; these periods are known as the Ostrogothic Papacy, Byzantine Papacy, and Frankish Papacy. Over time, the papacy consolidated its territorial claims to a portion of the peninsula known as the Papal States. Thereafter, the role of neighboring sovereigns was replaced by powerful Roman families during the saeculum obscurum, the Crescentii
Crescentii
era, and the Tusculan Papacy. From 1048 to 1257, the papacy experienced increasing conflict with the leaders and churches of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
and the Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire). The latter culminated in the East–West Schism, dividing the Western Church and Eastern Church. From 1257–1377, the pope, though the bishop of Rome, resided in Viterbo, Orvieto, and Perugia, and then Avignon. The return of the popes to Rome
Rome
after the Avignon Papacy
Avignon Papacy
was followed by the Western Schism: the division of the western church between two and, for a time, three competing papal claimants. The Renaissance Papacy
Renaissance Papacy
is known for its artistic and architectural patronage, forays into European power politics, and theological challenges to papal authority. After the start of the Protestant Reformation, the Reformation Papacy
Reformation Papacy
and Baroque
Baroque
Papacy led the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
through the Counter-Reformation. The popes during the Age of Revolution witnessed the largest expropriation of wealth in the church's history, during the French Revolution
French Revolution
and those that followed throughout Europe. The Roman Question, arising from Italian unification, resulted in the loss of the Papal States
Papal States
and the creation of Vatican City.

Contents

1 During the Roman Empire (until 493)

1.1 Early Christianity 1.2 From Constantine (312–493)

2 Middle Ages
Middle Ages
(493–1417)

2.1 Ostrogothic Papacy
Ostrogothic Papacy
(493–537) 2.2 Byzantine Papacy
Byzantine Papacy
(537–752) 2.3 Frankish influence (756–857) 2.4 Influence of powerful Roman families (904–1048) 2.5 Conflicts with the Emperor and East (1048–1257) 2.6 The wandering popes (1257–1309) 2.7 Avignon Papacy
Avignon Papacy
(1309–1377) 2.8 Western Schism
Western Schism
(1378–1417)

3 Early Modern and Modern Era (1417–present)

3.1 Renaissance Papacy
Renaissance Papacy
(1417–1534) 3.2 Reformation
Reformation
and Counter-Reformation
Counter-Reformation
(1517–1580) 3.3 Baroque
Baroque
Papacy (1585–1689) 3.4 During the Age of Revolution (1775–1848) 3.5 Roman Question
Roman Question
(1870–1929) 3.6 From the creation of Vatican City
Vatican City
(1929)

3.6.1 World War II (1939–1945) 3.6.2 From Vatican II (1962–present)

4 See also 5 Notes 6 References

During the Roman Empire (until 493)[edit] Early Christianity[edit] Further information: Primacy of Simon Peter
Primacy of Simon Peter
and Persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire Catholics recognize the pope as the successor to Saint Peter, whom Jesus
Jesus
designated as the "rock" upon which the Church was to be built.[1][2] Although Peter never bore the title of "pope" (pappas), Catholics recognize him as the first bishop of Rome.[3] Official declarations of the Church speak of the popes as holding within the college of the bishops a position analogous to that held by Peter within the "college" of the Apostles, namely Prince of the Apostles, of which the college of the Bishops, a distinct entity, is viewed by some to be the successor.[4][5] Many deny that Peter and those claimed to be his immediate successors had universally-recognized supreme authority over all the early churches. Many of the bishops of Rome
Rome
in the first three centuries of the Christian era are obscure figures. Several suffered martyrdom along with members of their flock in periods of persecution. Most of them engaged in intense theological arguments with other bishops. From Constantine (312–493)[edit] Main article: Bishops of Rome
Rome
under Constantine I

Raphael's The Baptism of Constantine
The Baptism of Constantine
depicts Sylvester I instead of his actual baptizer Eusebius of Nicomedia, an Arian
Arian
bishop.

The legend surrounding the victory of Constantine I
Constantine I
in the Battle of the Milvian Bridge (312) relates his vision of the Chi Rho
Chi Rho
and the text in hoc signo vinces in the sky, and reproducing this symbol on the shields of his troops. The following year, Constantine and Licinius
Licinius
proclaimed the toleration of Christianity
Christianity
with the Edict of Milan, and in 325, Constantine convened and presided over the First Council of Nicaea, the first ecumenical council. None of this, however, has particularly much to do with the pope, who did not even attend the Council; in fact, the first bishop of Rome
Rome
to be contemporaneously referred to as Pope
Pope
is Damasus I (366–84).[6] Moreover, between 324 and 330, Constantine moved the capital of the Roman empire from Rome
Rome
to Byzantium, a former Greek city on the Bosporus. The power of Rome
Rome
was transferred to Byzantium which later, in 330 became Constantinople
Constantinople
and today is Istanbul.[7] The "Donation of Constantine", an 8th-century forgery used to enhance the prestige and authority of popes, places the pope more centrally in the narrative of Constantinian Christianity. The legend of the Donation claims that Constantine offered his crown to Sylvester I (314–35), and even that Sylvester baptized Constantine. In reality, Constantine was baptized (nearing his death in May 337) by Eusebius of Nicomedia, an Arian
Arian
bishop.[8][citation needed] Although the "Donation" never occurred, Constantine did hand over the Lateran Palace
Lateran Palace
to the bishop of Rome, and around 310 AD began the construction of Basilica of Constantine in Germany, called Aula Palatina. Middle Ages
Middle Ages
(493–1417)[edit] Ostrogothic Papacy
Ostrogothic Papacy
(493–537)[edit] Main article: Ostrogothic Papacy The Ostrogothic Papacy
Ostrogothic Papacy
period ran from 493 to 537. The papal election of March 483 was the first to take place without the existence of a Western Roman emperor. The papacy was strongly influenced by the Ostrogothic Kingdom, if the pope was not outright appointed by the Ostrogothic King. The selection and administration of popes during this period was strongly influenced by Theodoric the Great
Theodoric the Great
and his successors Athalaric
Athalaric
and Theodahad. This period terminated with Justinian I's (re)conquest of Rome
Rome
during the Gothic War, inaugurating the Byzantine Papacy
Byzantine Papacy
(537–752). The role of the Ostrogoths became clear in the first schism, when, on November 22, 498, two men were elected pope. The subsequent triumph of Pope
Pope
Symmachus (498–514) over Antipope Laurentius is the first recorded example of simony in papal history.[9] Symmachus also instituted the practice of popes naming their own successors, which held until an unpopular choice was made in 530, and discord continued until the selection in 532 of John II, the first to rename himself upon succession.[citation needed] Theodoric was tolerant towards the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and did not interfere in dogmatic matters. He remained as neutral as possible towards the pope, though he exercised a preponderant influence in the affairs of the papacy.[10] Ostrogothic influence ended with the reconquest of Rome
Rome
by Justinian, who had had pro-Gothic Pope
Pope
Silverius (536–537) deposed and replaced with his own choice, Pope
Pope
Vigilius (537–555). Byzantine Papacy
Byzantine Papacy
(537–752)[edit]

Justinian I
Justinian I
re-conquered Rome
Rome
and appointed the next three popes.

Main articles: Byzantine Papacy
Byzantine Papacy
and Papal States The Byzantine Papacy
Byzantine Papacy
was a period of Byzantine domination of the papacy from 537 to 752, when popes required the approval of the Byzantine for episcopal consecration, and many popes were chosen from the apocrisiarii (liaisons from the pope to the emperor) or the inhabitants of Byzantine Greece, Syria, or Sicily. Justinian I conquered the Italian peninsula in the Gothic War (535–54) and appointed the next three popes, a practice that would be continued by his successors and later be delegated to the Exarchate of Ravenna. With the exception of Pope
Pope
Martin I, no pope during this period questioned the authority of the Byzantine monarch to confirm the election of the bishop of Rome
Rome
before consecration could occur; however, theological conflicts were common between pope and emperor in the areas such as monotheletism and iconoclasm. Greek speakers from Greece, Syria, and Byzantine Sicily replaced members of the powerful Roman nobles in the papal chair during this period. Rome
Rome
under the Greek popes constituted a "melting pot" of Western and Eastern Christian traditions, reflected in art as well as liturgy. Pope
Pope
Gregory I (590–604) was a major figure in asserting papal primacy and gave the impetus to missionary activity in northern Europe, including England. The Duchy of Rome
Duchy of Rome
was a Byzantine district in the Exarchate of Ravenna, ruled by an imperial functionary with the title dux. Within the exarchate, the two chief districts were the country about Ravenna where the exarch was the centre of Byzantine opposition to the Lombards, and the Duchy of Rome, which embraced the lands of Latium north of the Tiber and of Campania to the south as far as the Garigliano. There the pope himself was the soul of the opposition. The pains were taken, as long as possible, to retain control of the intervening districts and with them communication over the Apennine mountains. In 728, the Lombard King Liutprand took the Castle of Sutri, on the road to Perugia, but restored it to Pope
Pope
Gregory II "as a gift to the blessed Apostles
Apostles
Peter and Paul". The popes continued to acknowledge the imperial Government. In 738, the Lombard duke Transamund of Spoleto captured the Castle of Gallese, which protected the road to Perugia. By a large payment, Pope Gregory III induced the duke to restore the castle to him. Frankish influence (756–857)[edit] Main article: Frankish Papacy In 751, Aistulf
Aistulf
took Ravenna and threatened Rome. In response to this threat, Pope
Pope
Stephen II made an unusual journey north of the Alps to visit the Frankish king, Pepin III, to seek his help against the invading Lombards. The pope anointed Pepin at the abbey of St Denis, near Paris, together with Pepin's two young sons Charles and Carloman. Pepin duly invaded northern Italy in 754, and again in 756. Pepin was able to drive the Lombards
Lombards
from the territory belonging to Ravenna but he did not restore it to its rightful owner, the Byzantine emperor. Instead, he handed over large areas of central Italy to the pope and his successors. The land given to pope Stephen in 756, in the so-called Donation of Pepin, made the papacy a temporal power and for the first time created an incentive for secular leaders to interfere with papal succession. This territory would become the basis for the Papal States, over which the popes ruled until the Papal States
Papal States
were incorporated into the new Kingdom of Italy
Kingdom of Italy
in 1870. For the next eleven centuries, the story of Rome
Rome
would be almost synonymous with the story of the papacy. The Lombard kingdom reached its height in the 7th and 8th century. Paganism and Arianism
Arianism
were at first prevalent among the Lombards
Lombards
but were gradually supplanted by Catholicism. Roman culture and Latin speech were gradually adopted and the Catholic bishops emerged as chief magistrates in the cities. Lombard law combined Germanic and Roman traditions. After Aistulf's death, King Desiderius renewed the attack on Rome. In 772, Pope
Pope
Adrian I enlisted the support of Charlemagne, Pepin's successor, who intervened, and, after defeating the Lombards, added their kingdom to his own. After being physically attacked by his enemies in the streets of Rome, Pope
Pope
Leo III made his way in 799 through the Alps to visit Charlemagne at Paderborn. It is not known what was agreed between the two, but Charlemagne traveled to Rome
Rome
in 800 to support the pope. In a ceremony in St Peter's Basilica, on Christmas Day, Leo was supposed to anoint Charlemagne's son as his heir. But unexpectedly (it is maintained), as Charlemagne
Charlemagne
rose from prayer, the pope placed a crown on his head and acclaimed him emperor. It is reported that Charlemagne
Charlemagne
expressed displeasure but nevertheless accepted the honour. The displeasure was probably diplomatic, for the legal emperor was supposed to be seated in Constantinople. Nevertheless, this public alliance between the pope and the ruler of a confederation of Germanic tribes was a reflection of the reality of political power in the west. This coronation launched the concept of the new Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
which would play an important role throughout the Middle Ages. The Holy Roman Empire became formally established only in the next century. But the concept is implicit in the title adopted by Charlemagne
Charlemagne
in 800: 'Charles, most serene Augustus, crowned by God, great and pacific emperor, governing the Roman empire.' Influence of powerful Roman families (904–1048)[edit] Main articles: Saeculum obscurum, Crescentii, and Tusculan Papacy The period beginning with the installation of Pope
Pope
Sergius III in 904 and lasting for sixty years until the death of Pope
Pope
John XII in 964 is sometimes referred to as Saeculum obscurum or the "dark age." Historian Will Durant
Will Durant
refers to the period from 867 to 1049 as the "nadir of the papacy".[11] During this period, the popes were controlled by a powerful and corrupt aristocratic family, the Theophylacti, and their relatives.[12] Conflicts with the Emperor and East (1048–1257)[edit] Main article: History of the papacy
History of the papacy
(1048–1257) The Imperial crown once held by the Carolingian emperors was disputed between their fractured heirs and local overlords; none emerged victorious until Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor
Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor
invaded Italy. Italy became a constituent kingdom of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
in 962, from which point the emperors were German. As emperors consolidated their position, northern Italian city-states would become divided by Guelphs and Ghibellines. Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor
Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor
found three rival popes when he visited Rome
Rome
in 1048 because of the unprecedented actions of Pope
Pope
Benedict IX. He deposed all three and installed his own preferred candidate: Pope
Pope
Clement II. The history of the papacy from 1048 to 1257 would continue to be marked by conflict between popes and the Holy Roman Emperor, most prominently the Investiture Controversy, a dispute over who—pope or emperor—could appoint bishops within the Empire. Henry IV's Walk to Canossa in 1077 to meet Pope
Pope
Gregory VII (1073–85), although not dispositive within the context of the larger dispute, has become legendary. Although the emperor renounced any right to lay investiture in the Concordat of Worms
Concordat of Worms
(1122), the issue would flare up again. Long-standing divisions between East and West also came to a head in the East–West Schism
East–West Schism
and the Crusades. The first seven Ecumenical Councils had been attended by both Western and Eastern prelates, but growing doctrinal, theological, linguistic, political and geographic differences finally resulted in mutual denunciations and excommunications. Pope
Pope
Urban II (1088–99) speech at the Council of Clermont in 1095 became the rallying cry of the First Crusade. Unlike the previous millennium, the process for papal selection became somewhat fixed during this period. Pope
Pope
Nicholas II promulgated In nomine Domini in 1059, which limited suffrage in papal elections to the College of Cardinals. The rules and procedures of papal elections evolved during this period, laying the groundwork for the modern papal conclave. The driving force behind these reforms was Cardinal Hildebrand, who later became Gregory VII. The wandering popes (1257–1309)[edit]

The papal palace in Viterbo...

...and Orvieto

Main articles: Viterbo
Viterbo
Papacy, Orvieto
Orvieto
Papacy, and Perugia
Perugia
Papacy The pope is the bishop of Rome, but nowhere is it written that he has to stay there (in fact, only 200 years prior, cardinals would have been required to reside in Rome). Political instability in thirteenth-century Italy forced the papal court to move to several different locations. Destinations included Viterbo, Orvieto, and Perugia. The popes brought the Roman Curia
Roman Curia
with them, and the College of Cardinals met in the city where the last pope had died to hold papal elections. Host cities enjoyed a boost to their prestige and certain economic advantages, but the municipal authorities risked being subsumed into the administration of the Papal States
Papal States
if they allowed the pope to overstay his welcome. According to Eamon Duffy, "aristocratic factions within the city of Rome
Rome
once again made it an insecure base for a stable papal government. Innocent IV was exiled from Rome
Rome
and even Italy for six years, and all but two of the papal elections of the thirteenth century had to take place outside Rome. The skyline of Rome
Rome
itself was now dominated by the fortified war-towers of the aristocracy (a hundred were built in Innocent IV's pontificate alone) and the popes increasingly spent their time in the papal palaces at Viterbo
Viterbo
and Orvieto."[13] Avignon Papacy
Avignon Papacy
(1309–1377)[edit]

The Palais des Papes
Palais des Papes
in Avignon

Main article: Avignon Papacy During this period, seven popes, all French, resided in Avignon starting in 1309: Pope
Pope
Clement V (1305–14), Pope
Pope
John XXII (1316–34), Pope
Pope
Benedict XII (1334–42), Pope
Pope
Clement VI (1342–52), Pope
Pope
Innocent VI (1352–62), Pope
Pope
Urban V (1362–70), Pope
Pope
Gregory XI (1370–78). In 1378, Gregory XI moved the papal residence back to Rome
Rome
and died there. Western Schism
Western Schism
(1378–1417)[edit]

The division of European allegiances at a point during the Western Schism. Caution: this map is highly inaccurate in some regions and borders, see its talk page.

Main article: Western Schism After seventy years in France the papal curia was naturally French in its ways and, to a large extent, in its staff. Back in Rome
Rome
some degree of tension between French and Italian factions was inevitable. This tension was brought to a head by the death of the French Pope Gregory XI within a year of his return to Rome. The Roman crowd, said to be in threatening mood, demanded a Roman pope or at least an Italian one. In 1378, the conclave elected an Italian from Naples, Pope
Pope
Urban VI. His intransigence in office soon alienated the French cardinals. And the behaviour of the Roman crowd enabled them to declare, in retrospect, that his election was invalid, voted under duress. The French cardinals withdrew to a conclave of their own, where they elected one of their number, Robert of Geneva. He took the name Clement VII. By 1379, he was back in the palace of popes in Avignon, while Urban VI remained in Rome. This was the beginning of the period of difficulty from 1378 to 1417 which Catholic scholars refer to as the "Western Schism" or, "the great controversy of the antipopes" (also called "the second great schism" by some secular and Protestant
Protestant
historians), when parties within the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
were divided in their allegiances among the various claimants to the office of pope. The Council of Constance, in 1417, finally resolved the controversy. For nearly forty years the Church had two papal curias and two sets of cardinals, each electing a new pope for Rome
Rome
or Avignon when death created a vacancy. Each pope lobbied for support among kings and princes who played them off against each other, changing allegiance when according to political advantage. In 1409, a council was convened at Pisa to resolve the issue. The council declared both existing popes to be schismatic (Gregory XII from Rome, Benedict XIII from Avignon) and appointed a new one, Alexander V. But the existing popes had not been persuaded to resign, so the church had three popes. Another council was convened in 1414 at Constance. In March 1415, the Pisan pope, John XXIII, fled from Constance in disguise; he was brought back a prisoner and deposed in May. The Roman pope, Gregory XII, resigned voluntarily in July. The Avignon pope, Benedict XIII, refused to come to Constance. In spite of a personal visit from the emperor Sigismund, he would not consider resignation. The council finally deposed him in July 1417. Denying their right to do so, he withdrew to an impregnable castle on the coast of Spain. Here he continued to act as pope, creating new cardinals and issuing decrees, until his death in 1423. The council in Constance, having finally cleared the field of popes and antipopes, elected Pope
Pope
Martin V as pope in November. Early Modern and Modern Era (1417–present)[edit] Renaissance Papacy
Renaissance Papacy
(1417–1534)[edit] Main article: Renaissance
Renaissance
Papacy

Pope
Pope
Leo X with his cousins Giulio de' Medici (left, the future Pope Clement VII) and Luigi de' Rossi (right), whom he appointed as cardinal-nephews.

From the election of Pope
Pope
Martin V of the Council of Constance
Council of Constance
in 1417 to the Reformation, Western Christianity
Christianity
was largely free from schism as well as significant disputed papal claimants. Martin V returned the papacy to Rome
Rome
in 1420. Although there were important divisions over the direction of the religion, these were resolved through the then-settled procedures of the papal conclave. Unlike their European peers, popes were not hereditary monarchs, so they could only promote their family interests through nepotism.[14] The word nepotism originally referred specifically to the practice of creating cardinal-nephews, when it appeared in the English language about 1669.[15] According to Duffy, "the inevitable outcome of all of this was a creation of a wealthy cardinalatial class, with strong dynastic connections."[16] The College was dominated by cardinal-nephews—relatives of the popes that elevated them, crown-cardinals—representatives of the Catholic monarchies of Europe, and members of the powerful Italian families. The wealthy popes and cardinals increasingly patronized Renaissance
Renaissance
art and architecture, (re)building the landmarks of Rome
Rome
from the ground up. The Papal States
Papal States
began to resemble a modern nation state during this period, and the papacy took an increasingly active role in European wars and diplomacy. Pope
Pope
Julius II become known as "the Warrior Pope" for his use of bloodshed to increase the territory and property of the papacy.[17] The popes of this period used the papal military not only to enrich themselves and their families, but also to enforce and expand upon the longstanding territorial and property claims of the papacy as an institution.[18] Although, before the Western Schism, the papacy had derived much of its revenue from the "vigorous exercise of its spiritual office," during this period the popes were financially dependent on the revenues from the Papal States
Papal States
themselves. With ambitious expenditures on war and construction projects, popes turned to new sources of revenue from the sale of indulgences and bureaucratic and ecclesiastical offices.[19] Pope
Pope
Clement VII's diplomatic and military campaigns resulted in the Sack of Rome
Rome
in 1527.[20] Popes were more frequently called upon to arbitrate disputes between competing colonial powers than to resolve complicated theological disputes. Columbus' discovery in 1492 upset the unstable relations between the kingdoms of Portugal
Portugal
and Castile, whose jockeying for possession of colonial territories along the African coast had for many years been regulated by the papal bulls of 1455, 1456, and 1479. Alexander VI responded with three bulls, dated May 3 and 4, which were highly favorable to Castile; the third Inter caetera
Inter caetera
(1493), awarded Spain the sole right to colonize most of the New World. According to Eamon Duffy, "the Renaissance
Renaissance
papacy invokes images of a Hollywood spectacular, all decadence and drag. Contemporaries viewed Renaissance
Renaissance
Rome
Rome
as we now view Nixon's Washington, a city of expense-account whores and political graft, where everything and everyone had a price, where nothing and nobody could be trusted. The popes themselves seemed to set the tone."[16] For example, Leo X was said to have remarked: "Let us enjoy the papacy, since God has given it to us."[14] Several of these popes took mistresses and fathered children and engaged in intrigue or even murder.[16] Alexander VI had four acknowledged children: Cesare Borgia, Lucrezia Borgia, Gioffre Borgia, and Giovanni Borgia before he became Pope. Reformation
Reformation
and Counter-Reformation
Counter-Reformation
(1517–1580)[edit] Main article: Reformation
Reformation
Papacy Baroque
Baroque
Papacy (1585–1689)[edit] The pontificate of Pope
Pope
Sixtus V (1585–1590) opened up the final stage of the Catholic Reformation, characteristic of the Baroque
Baroque
age of the early seventeenth century, shifting away from compelling to attracting. His reign focused on rebuilding Rome
Rome
as a great European capital and Baroque
Baroque
city, a visual symbol for the Catholic Church. During the Age of Revolution (1775–1848)[edit] Main article: Popes during the Age of Revolution Roman Question
Roman Question
(1870–1929)[edit] Main article: Roman Question

The breach of the Porta Pia during the Capture of Rome

The provisional capital of Italy had been Florence since 1865. After defeating the papal forces in 1870, the Italian government moved to the banks of the Tiber a year later. Victor Emmanuel installed himself in the Quirinal Palace. Rome
Rome
became once again, for the first time in thirteen centuries, the capital city of a united Italy. Rome
Rome
was unusual among capital cities only in that it contained the power of the pope and a small parcel of land (Vatican City) beyond national control. This anomaly was not formally resolved until the Lateran pacts of 1929. The last eight years of his long pontificate – the longest in Church history – Pope
Pope
Pius IX spent as prisoner of the Vatican. Catholics were forbidden to vote or being voted in national elections. However, they were permitted to participate in local elections, where they achieved successes.[21] Pius himself was active, during those years, by creating new diocesan seats and appointing bishops to numerous dioceses, which had been unoccupied for years. Asked if he wanted his successor to follow his Italian policies, the old pontiff replied:

My successor may be inspired by my love to the Church and my wish to do the right thing. Everything changed around me. My system and my policies had their time, I am too old to change direction. This will be the task of my successor.[22]

Pope
Pope
Leo XIII, considered a great diplomat, managed to improve relations with Russia, Prussia, German France, England and other countries. However, in light of a hostile anti-Catholic climate in Italy, he continued the policies of Pius IX towards Italy, without major modifications.[23] He had to defend the freedom of the Church against Italian persecutions and attacks in the area of education, expropriation and violation of Catholic Churches, legal measures against the Church and brutal attacks, culminating in anticlerical groups attempting to throw the body of the deceased Pope
Pope
Pius IX into the Tiber river on July 13, 1881.[24] The pope even considered moving the papacy to Trieste
Trieste
or Salzburg, two cities under Austrian control, an idea which the Austrian monarch Franz Josef I
Franz Josef I
gently rejected.[25] His encyclicals changed Church positions on relations with temporal authorities, and, in the 1891 encyclical Rerum novarum
Rerum novarum
addressed for the first time social inequality and social justice issues with Papal authority. He was greatly influenced by Wilhelm Emmanuel von Ketteler, a German bishop who openly propagated siding with the suffering working classes[26] Since Leo XIII, Papal teachings expand on the right and obligation of workers and the limitations of private property: Pope
Pope
Pius XI Quadragesimo anno, the Social teachings of Pope Pius XII
Pius XII
on a huge range of social issues, John XXIII
John XXIII
Mater et magistra in 1961, Pope
Pope
Paul VI, the encyclical Populorum progressio on World development issues, and Pope
Pope
John Paul II, Centesimus annus, commemorating the 100th anniversary of Rerum novarum
Rerum novarum
of Pope
Pope
Leo XIII. The eclipse of papal temporal power during the 19th century was accompanied by a recovery of papal prestige. The monarchist reaction in the wake of the French Revolution
French Revolution
and the later emergence of constitutional governments served alike, though in different ways, to sponsor that development. The reinstated monarchs of Catholic Europe saw in the papacy a conservative ally rather than a jurisdictional rival. Later, when the institution of constitutional governments broke the ties binding the clergy to the policies of royal regimes, Catholics were freed to respond to the renewed spiritual authority of the pope. The popes of the 19th and 20th centuries exercised their spiritual authority with increasing vigor and in every aspect of religious life. By the crucial pontificate of Pope
Pope
Pius IX (1846–1878), for example, papal control over worldwide Catholic missionary activity was firmly established for the first time in history. From the creation of Vatican City
Vatican City
(1929)[edit] Further information: Vatican City

A map of Vatican City, as established by the Lateran Treaty
Lateran Treaty
(1929)

The pontificate of Pope
Pope
Pius XI was marked by great diplomatic activity and the issuance of many important papers, often in the form of encyclicals. In diplomatic affairs, Pius was aided at first by Pietro Gasparri
Pietro Gasparri
and after 1930 by Eugenio Pacelli
Eugenio Pacelli
(who succeeded him as Pope
Pope
Pius XII). Cardinal Gasparri's masterpiece was the Lateran Treaty (1929), negotiated for the Vatican by Francesco Pacelli. Nevertheless, the Fascist government and the pope were in open disagreement over the restriction of youth activities; this culminated in a strong papal letter (Non abbiamo bisogno, 1931), arguing the impossibility of being at once a Fascist and a Catholic. Relations between Mussolini and the Holy See
Holy See
were cool ever after. Negotiations for the settlement of the Roman Question
Roman Question
began in 1926 between the government of Italy and the Holy See, and in 1929 they culminated in the agreements of the three Lateran Pacts, signed for King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy
Victor Emmanuel III of Italy
by Prime Minister Benito Mussolini and for Pope
Pope
Pius XI by Cardinal Secretary of State
Cardinal Secretary of State
Pietro Gasparri
Pietro Gasparri
in the Lateran Palace
Lateran Palace
(hence the name by which they are known). The Lateran Treaty
Lateran Treaty
included a political treaty, which created the state of the Vatican City
Vatican City
and guaranteed full and independent sovereignty to the Holy See. The pope was pledged to perpetual neutrality in international relations and to abstention from mediation in a controversy unless specifically requested by all parties. The concordat established Catholicism
Catholicism
as the religion of Italy. And the financial agreement was accepted as settlement of all the claims of the Holy See
Holy See
against Italy arising from the loss of temporal power in 1870. A national concordat with Germany was one of Pacelli's main objectives as secretary of state. As nuncio during the 1920s, he had made unsuccessful attempts to obtain German agreement for such a treaty, and between 1930 and 1933 he attempted to initiate negotiations with representatives of successive German governments, but the opposition of Protestant
Protestant
and Socialist parties, the instability of national governments and the care of the individual states to guard their autonomy thwarted this aim. In particular, the questions of denominational schools and pastoral work in the armed forces prevented any agreement on the national level, despite talks in the winter of 1932.[27][28] Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
was appointed Chancellor on 30 January 1933 and sought to gain international respectability and to remove internal opposition by representatives of the Church and the Catholic Centre Party. He sent his vice chancellor Franz von Papen, a Catholic nobleman and former member of the Centre Party, to Rome
Rome
to offer negotiations about a Reichskonkordat.[29] On behalf of Cardinal Pacelli, his long-time associate Prelate Ludwig Kaas, the out-going chairman of the Centre Party, negotiated first drafts of the terms with Papen.[30] The concordat was finally signed, by Pacelli for the Vatican and von Papen for Germany, on 20 July and ratified on September 10, 1933.[31] Between 1933 and 1939, Pacelli issued 55 protests of violations of the Reichskonkordat. Most notably, early in 1937, Pacelli asked several German cardinals, including Cardinal Michael von Faulhaber
Michael von Faulhaber
to help him write a protest of Nazi violations of the Reichskonkordat; this was to become Pius XI's encyclical Mit brennender Sorge. The encyclical, condemning the view that "exalts race, or the people, or the State, or a particular form of State ... above their standard value and divinizes them to an idolatrous level", was written in German instead of Latin
Latin
and read in German churches on Palm Sunday
Palm Sunday
1937.[32] World War II (1939–1945)[edit] Main articles: Vatican City
Vatican City
during World War II and Pope
Pope
Pius XII
Pius XII
and the Holocaust When Germany invaded Poland
Poland
on September 1, 1939, the Vatican declared neutrality to avoid being drawn into the conflict and also to avoid occupation by the Italian military. In 1944, the German Army occupied Rome. Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
proclaimed that he would respect Vatican neutrality. However, several incidents, such as giving aid to downed Allied airmen, nearly caused Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
to invade the Vatican. Rome was liberated by the Allies after several months of occupation. The Church policies after World War II of Pope
Pope
Pius XII
Pius XII
focused on material aid to war-torn Europe with its 15 million displaced persons and refugees, an internal internationalization of the Roman Catholic Church, and the development of its worldwide diplomatic relations. His encyclical Evangelii praecones[33] increased the local decision-making of Catholic missions, many of which became independent dioceses. Pius XII demanded recognition of local cultures as fully equal to European culture.[34][35] He internationalized the College of Cardinals
College of Cardinals
by eliminating the Italian majority and appointed cardinals from Asia, South America and Australia. In Western Africa[36] Southern Africa[37] British Eastern Africa, Finland, Burma and French Africa Pope
Pope
Pius established independent dioceses in 1955. While after years of rebuilding the Church thrived in the West and most of the developing world, it faced most serious persecutions in the East. Sixty million Catholics came under Soviet dominated regimes in 1945, with tens of thousands of priests and religious killed, and millions deported into Soviet and Chinese Gulags. The communist regimes in Albania, Bulgaria, Romania and China practically eradicated the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
in their countries[38] From Vatican II (1962–present)[edit]

The opening of the Second Session of the Second Vatican Council

Further information: Second Vatican Council The continuing strength of the forces within the church favoring theological innovation and energetic reform became unmistakably evident at the Second Vatican Council, convened by Pope
Pope
John XXIII (1958–1963), and found expression especially in its decrees on ecumenism, religious liberty, the liturgy, and the nature of the church. The ambivalence of some of those decrees, however, and the disciplinary turmoil and doctrinal dissension following the ending of the council, brought about new challenges to papal authority. On October 11, 1962, Pope
Pope
John XXIII
John XXIII
opened the Second Ecumenical Vatican Council. The 21st ecumenical council of the Catholic Church emphasized the universal call to holiness and brought many changes in practices, including an increased emphasis on ecumenism; fewer rules on penances, fasting and other devotional practices; and initiating a revision of the services, which were to be slightly simplified and made supposedly more accessible by allowing the use of native languages instead of Latin. Opposition to changes inspired by the Council gave rise to the movement of Traditionalist Catholics who disagree with changing the old forms of worship. On December 7, 1965, a Joint Catholic-Orthodox Declaration of Pope Paul VI and the Ecumenical Patriarch Athenagoras I lifted the mutual excommunication against Catholic and Orthodox which had been in force since the Great Schism of 1054. The bishops agreed that the pope exercises supreme authority over the church, but defined "collegiality", meaning that all bishops share in this authority. Local bishops have equal authority as successors of the Apostles
Apostles
and as members of a larger organization, the Church founded by Jesus
Jesus
Christ and entrusted to the apostles. The pope serves as a symbol of unity and has additional authority to ensure the continuation of that unity. During the Second Vatican Council, Catholic bishops drew back a bit from statements which might anger Christians of other faiths.[39] Cardinal Augustin Bea, the President of the Christian Unity Secretariat had always the full support of Pope Paul VI in his attempts to ensure that the Council language is friendly and open to the sensitivities of Protestant
Protestant
and Orthodox Churches, whom he had invited to all sessions at the request of Pope John XXIII. Bea also was strongly involved in the passage of Nostra aetate, which regulates relation of the Church with the Jewish faith and members of other religions[40] The establishment of national conferences of bishops tended to erode papal authority to some degree, and Pope
Pope
Paul VI's encyclical Humanae Vitae (1968), reaffirming the prohibition of artificial birth control, was met with both evasion and defiance in the USA and Western Europe but warmly welcomed in South America, Eastern and Southern Europe.[41] Pope
Pope
Paul VI (1963–1978), however, continued the ecumenical efforts of Pope
Pope
John XXIII
John XXIII
in his contacts with Protestant
Protestant
and Orthodox churches. He also continued John XXIII's attempts to make discreet moves in the direction of pragmatic accommodation with the Communist regimes of eastern Europe, a policy that were possible in the eras of Khrushchev and Brezhnev. Paul VI also reorganized the curia and spoke strongly for peace and social justice. Pope
Pope
Paul VI faced criticism throughout his papacy from both traditionalists and liberals for steering a middle course during Vatican II and in the course of the implementation of its reforms thereafter.[42] His passion for peace during the Vietnam War
Vietnam War
was not understood by all. The urgent task of overcoming World poverty and start real development resulted partly in benign neglect of papal teachings by the influential and the rich. On basic Church teachings, this pope was unwavering. On the tenth anniversary of Humanae Vitae, he strongly reconfirmed his teachings.[43] In his style and methodology, he was a disciple of Pius XII, whom he deeply revered.[44] He suffered under the attacks of his predecessor for his alleged silences, knowing from personal association with the late pope the real concerns and compassion of Pius XII.[44] Pope
Pope
Paul is not credited to have had the encyclopaedic culture of Pius XII, nor his phenomenal memory, his amazing gift for languages, his brilliant style in writing,[45] nor did he have the Charisma and outpouring love, sense of humor and human warmth of John XXIII. He took on himself the unfinished reform work of these two popes, bringing them diligently with great humility and common sense and without much fanfare to conclusion.[43] In doing so, Paul VI saw himself following in the footsteps of the Apostle Paul, torn to several directions as Saint Paul, who always said, I am attracted to two sides at once, because the Cross always divides.[46] He became the first pope to visit all five continents.[47] Paul VI systematically continued and completed the efforts of his predecessors, to turn the Euro-centric Church into a Church for the whole world, by integrating the bishops from all continents in its government and in the Synods which he convened. His August 6, 1967 Motu Proprio
Motu Proprio
Pro Comperto Sane opened the Roman Curia
Roman Curia
to the bishops of the world. Until then, only Cardinals could be leading members of the Curia.[47] An inner joy seems to have been a characteristic of Paul VI. His confessor, the Jesuit
Jesuit
Paolo Dezza arrived at the Vatican every Friday evening at seven p.m. to hear confession of Paul VI. The only words he ever spoke about his long service to Paul VI during his pontificate were, that this pope is a man of great joy.[48] After the death of Pope
Pope
Paul VI, Dezza was more outspoken, saying that "if Paul VI was not a saint, when he was elected pope, he became one during his pontificate. I was able to witness not only with what energy and dedication he toiled for Christ and the Church but also and above all, how much he suffered for Christ and the Church. I always admired not only his deep inner resignation but also his constant abandonment to divine providence.".[49] It is this character trait, which led to the opening of the process of beatification and canonization for Paul VI.

Pope
Pope
John Paul II (1978–2005)

With the accession of Pope
Pope
John Paul II after the mysterious death of Pope
Pope
John Paul I (who only survived as pope for 33 days), the church had, for the first time since Pope
Pope
Adrian VI in the 16th century, a non-Italian pope. John Paul II has been credited with helping to bring down communism in eastern Europe by sparking what amounted to a peaceful revolution in his Polish homeland. Lech Wałęsa, one of the several founders of the Solidarity worker movement that ultimately toppled communism, credited John Paul with giving Poles the courage to rise up.[50] The last Soviet premier Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
acknowledged publicly the role of John Paul II in the fall of Communism.[51] The pope himself stated after the fall of Communism that "the claim to build a world without God has been shown to be an illusion" (Prague, April 21, 1990). But this world without God exists in Capitalism
Capitalism
too. Therefore, as did his predecessors, John Paul repeated the content of Christianity, its religious and moral message, its defense of the human person, and warned against the dangers of capitalism. "Unfortunately, not everything the West proposes as a theoretical vision or as a concrete lifestyle reflects Gospel values." The long pontificate of John Paul is credited with re-creating a sense of stability and even identity to the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
after years of questioning and searching.[52] His teaching was firm and unwavering on issues which seemed to be in doubt under his predecessor including the ordination of women, liberation theology and priestly celibacy.[53] He virtually stopped the liberal laicisation of problem priests policy of Pope
Pope
Paul VI,[54] which inadvertently may have contributed to problems in the USA.[55] His authoritative style was reminiscent of Pope
Pope
Pius XII, whose teaching he repeated in his own words, such as the identity of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
with the Body of Christ and his condemnations of capitalism "viruses": secularism, indifferentism, hedonistic consumerism, practical materialism, and also formal atheism.[56] As always after a long pontificate, a new page was opened in the history of the Church with the election of a new pope. Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI was elected in 2005. In his inaugural homily, the new Pontiff explained his view of a relation with Christ:

Pope
Pope
Francis

“ Are we not perhaps all afraid in some way? If we let Christ enter fully into our lives, if we open ourselves totally to Him, are we not afraid that He might take something away from us? [...] No! If we let Christ into our lives, we lose nothing, nothing, absolutely nothing of what makes life free, beautiful and great. No! Only in this friendship do we experience beauty and liberation [...] When we give ourselves to Him, we receive a hundredfold in return. Yes, open, open wide the doors to Christ – and you will find true life.[57] ”

On February 11, 2013, Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI announced that he would tender his resignation on February 28, 2013, less than three weeks later. On March 13, 2013, Pope
Pope
Francis—the first Jesuit
Jesuit
pope and the first pope from the Americas—was elected to the papacy. See also[edit]

Catholicism
Catholicism
portal

List of popes Index of Vatican City-related articles

Notes[edit]

^ "The Hierarchical Constitution of the Church, §881". Catechism of the Catholic Church, Second Edition. Libreria Editrice Vaticana. 2012. Retrieved 19 October 2014.  ^ Kirsch, Johann Peter. "St. Peter, Prince of the Apostles." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 11. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1911. 21 Jul. 2014 ^  Joyce, G. H. (1913). "Pope". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  ^ Avery Dulles (1987). The Catholicity of the Church. Oxford University Press. p. 140. ISBN 0-19-826695-2 . ^ "Second Vatican Council". p. 22.  ^ Baumgartner, 2003, p. 6. ^ http://factsanddetails.com/world/cat56/sub368/item2083.html ^ Constantine the Great ^ Richards, 1979, p. 70. ^ Löffler, Klemens. "Ostrogoths." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 11. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1911. 21 Jul. 2014 ^ Durant, Will. The Age of Faith. New York: Simon and Schuster. 1972, p. 537. ^ Brook, Lindsay (2003). "Popes and Pornocrats: Rome
Rome
in the early middle ages". Foundations. 1 (1): 5–21.  ^ Duffy, 2006, p. 156. ^ a b Spielvogel, 2008, p. 369. ^ Oxford English Dictionary. September 2003. "Nepotism" ^ a b c Duffy, 2006, p. 193. ^ Spielvogel, 2008, p. 368. ^ Duffy, 2006, p. 190. ^ Duffy, 2006, p. 194. ^ Duffy, 2006, p. 206. ^ Schmidlin 119. ^ Schmidlin 109. ^ Schmidlin 409. ^ Schmidlin 413. ^ Schmidlin 414. ^ in his book Die Arbeiterfrage und das Chistentum ^ Ludwig Volk Das Reichskonkordat vom 20. Juli 1933, p. 34f., 45–58. ^ Klaus Scholder "The Churches and the Third Reich" volume 1: especially Part 1, chapter 10; Part 2, chapter 2 ^ Volk, p. 98-101. Feldkamp, 88–93. ^ Volk, p. 101,105. ^ Volk, p. 254. ^ Phayer 2000, p. 16; Sanchez 2002, p. 16-17. ^ issued on June 2, 1951 ^ Audience for the directors of mission activities in 1944 A.A.S., 1944, p. 208. ^ Evangelii praecones. p. 56. ^ in 1951, ^ 1953 ^ see Persecutions of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and Pius XII ^ Peter Heblethwaite, Paul VI ^ October 28, 1965 ^ see Humanae Vitae ^ Graham, Paul VI, A Great Pontificate, Brescia, November 7, 1983, 75 ^ a b Graham, 76 ^ a b Graham 76. ^ Pallenberg, Inside the Vatican, 107, ^ Guitton, 159 ^ a b Josef Schmitz van Vorst, 68 ^ Hebblethwaite,339 ^ Hebblethwaite, 600 ^ "The pope started this chain of events that led to the end of communism," Wałęsa said. "Before his pontificate, the world was divided into blocs. Nobody knew how to get rid of communism. "He simply said: Don't be afraid, change the image of this land." ^ "What has happened in Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
in recent years would not have been possible without the presence of this Pope, without the great role even political that he has played on the world scene" (quoted in La Stampa, March 3, 1992). ^ George Weigel, Witness to Hope, biography of Pope
Pope
John Paul II ^ Redemptor Hominis Orinatio 'Sacercotalis ^ Peter Hebblethwaite, Paul VI New York, 1993 ^ According to some critics like Hans Küng in his 2008 autobiography ^ see Anni sacri ^ Vatican .va
.va
– Homily on Christ Archived 2009-03-09 at the Wayback Machine.

References[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to History of the papacy.

Collins, Roger (2009). Keepers of the Keys: A History of the Papacy. Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-01195-0.  Pennington, Arthur Robert (1882). Epochs of the Papacy: From Its Rise to the Death of Pope
Pope
Pius IX. in 1878. G. Bell and Sons.  Duffy, Eamon (2006). Saints & Sinners (3 ed.). New Haven Ct: Yale Nota Bene/Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-11597-0.  Mcbrien, Richard (1997). Lives of the Popes: The Pontiffs from St. Peter to John Paul II. San Francisco: Harper SanFrancisco. ISBN 0-06-065304-3.  Maxwell-Stuart, P. (1997). Chronicle of the Popes: The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Papacy over 2000 Years. London: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-500-01798-0.  Rendina, Claudio (2002). The Popes: Histories and Secrets. Washington: Seven Locks Press. ISBN 1-931643-13-X.  Barraclough, Geoffrey (1979). The Medieval Papacy. New York: Norton. ISBN 0-393-95100-6.  Buttler, Scott; Norman Dahlgren; David Hess (1997). Jesus, Peter & the Keys: A Scriptural Handbook on the Papacy. Santa Barbara: Queenship Publishing Company. ISBN 1-882972-54-6.  Toropov, Brandon (2002). The Complete Idiot's Guide to the Popes and the Papacy. Indianapolis: Alpha Books. ISBN 0-02-864290-2.  Sullivan, Francis (2001). From Apostles
Apostles
to Bishops: The Development of the Episcopacy in the Early Church. New York: Newman Press. ISBN 0-8091-0534-9.  McCabe, Joseph (1939). A History of the Popes. London.: Watts & Co. 

v t e

Popes of the Catholic Church

List of popes

graphical canonised

Papal names Tombs

extant non-extant

Antipope Pope
Pope
emeritus

Papal resignation

Pope-elect

1st–4th centuries During the Roman Empire (until 493) including under Constantine (312–337)

Peter Linus Anacletus Clement I Evaristus Alexander I Sixtus I Telesphorus Hyginus Pius I Anicetus Soter Eleutherius Victor I Zephyrinus Callixtus I Urban I Pontian Anterus Fabian Cornelius Lucius I Stephen I Sixtus II Dionysius Felix I Eutychian Caius Marcellinus Marcellus I Eusebius Miltiades Sylvester I Mark Julius I Liberius Damasus I Siricius Anastasius I

5th–8th centuries Ostrogothic Papacy
Ostrogothic Papacy
(493–537) Byzantine Papacy
Byzantine Papacy
(537–752) Frankish Papacy
Frankish Papacy
(756–857)

Innocent I Zosimus Boniface I Celestine I Sixtus III Leo I Hilarius Simplicius Felix III Gelasius I Anastasius II Symmachus Hormisdas John I Felix IV Boniface II John II Agapetus I Silverius Vigilius Pelagius I John III Benedict I Pelagius II Gregory I Sabinian Boniface III Boniface IV Adeodatus I Boniface V Honorius I Severinus John IV Theodore I Martin I Eugene I Vitalian Adeodatus II Donus Agatho Leo II Benedict II John V Conon Sergius I John VI John VII Sisinnius Constantine Gregory II Gregory III Zachary Stephen II Paul I Stephen III Adrian I Leo III

9th–12th centuries Papal selection before 1059 Saeculum obscurum (904–964) Crescentii
Crescentii
era (974–1012) Tusculan Papacy
Tusculan Papacy
(1012–1044/1048) Imperial Papacy (1048–1257)

Stephen IV Paschal I Eugene II Valentine Gregory IV Sergius II Leo IV Benedict III Nicholas I Adrian II John VIII Marinus I Adrian III Stephen V Formosus Boniface VI Stephen VI Romanus Theodore II John IX Benedict IV Leo V Sergius III Anastasius III Lando John X Leo VI Stephen VII John XI Leo VII Stephen VIII Marinus II Agapetus II John XII Benedict V Leo VIII John XIII Benedict VI Benedict VII John XIV John XV Gregory V Sylvester II John XVII John XVIII Sergius IV Benedict VIII John XIX Benedict IX Sylvester III Benedict IX Gregory VI Clement II Benedict IX Damasus II Leo IX Victor II Stephen IX Nicholas II Alexander II Gregory VII Victor III Urban II Paschal II Gelasius II Callixtus II Honorius II Innocent II Celestine II Lucius II Eugene III Anastasius IV Adrian IV Alexander III Lucius III Urban III Gregory VIII Clement III Celestine III Innocent III

13th–16th centuries Viterbo
Viterbo
(1257–1281) Orvieto
Orvieto
(1262–1297) Perugia
Perugia
(1228–1304) Avignon Papacy
Avignon Papacy
(1309–1378) Western Schism
Western Schism
(1378–1417) Renaissance Papacy
Renaissance Papacy
(1417–1534) Reformation Papacy
Reformation Papacy
(1534–1585) Baroque
Baroque
Papacy (1585–1689)

Honorius III Gregory IX Celestine IV Innocent IV Alexander IV Urban IV Clement IV Gregory X Innocent V Adrian V John XXI Nicholas III Martin IV Honorius IV Nicholas IV Celestine V Boniface VIII Benedict XI Clement V John XXII Benedict XII Clement VI Innocent VI Urban V Gregory XI Urban VI Boniface IX Innocent VII Gregory XII Martin V Eugene IV Nicholas V Callixtus III Pius II Paul II Sixtus IV Innocent VIII Alexander VI Pius III Julius II Leo X Adrian VI Clement VII Paul III Julius III Marcellus II Paul IV Pius IV Pius V Gregory XIII Sixtus V Urban VII Gregory XIV Innocent IX Clement VIII

17th–20th centuries Revolutionary Papacy (1775–1848) Roman Question
Roman Question
(1870–1929) Vatican City
Vatican City
(1929–present) World War II (1939–1945) Cold War (1945–1991)

Leo XI Paul V Gregory XV Urban VIII Innocent X Alexander VII Clement IX Clement X Innocent XI Alexander VIII Innocent XII Clement XI Innocent XIII Benedict XIII Clement XII Benedict XIV Clement XIII Clement XIV Pius VI Pius VII Leo XII Pius VIII Gregory XVI Pius IX Leo XIII Pius X Benedict XV Pius XI Pius XII John XXIII Paul VI John Paul I John Paul II

21st century

Benedict XVI Francis

History of the papacy

Antiquity and Early Middle Ages

During the Roman Empire (until 493)

Under Constantine (312–337)

Ostrogothic Papacy
Ostrogothic Papacy
(493–537) Byzantine Papacy
Byzantine Papacy
(537–752) Frankish Papacy
Frankish Papacy
(756–857) Saeculum obscurum (904–964) Crescentii
Crescentii
era (974–1012)

High and Late Middle Ages

Tusculan Papacy
Tusculan Papacy
(1012–1044 / 1048) Imperial Papacy (1048–1257) Wandering Papacy

Viterbo, 1257–1281 Orvieto, 1262–1297 Perugia, 1228–1304

Avignon Papacy
Avignon Papacy
(1309–1378) Western Schism
Western Schism
(1378–1417)

Early Modern and Modern Era

Renaissance Papacy
Renaissance Papacy
(1417–1534) Reformation Papacy
Reformation Papacy
(1534–1585) Baroque
Baroque
Papacy (1585–1689) Revolutionary Papacy (1775–1848) Roman Question
Roman Question
(1870–1929) Vatican City
Vatican City
(1929–present)

WWII (1939–1945)

Book Category Pope
Pope
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Catholicism
portal

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General

History of the Catholic Church

By country or region

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Catholic Church
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Christianity
in civilization

Church beginnings, Great Church

Jesus John the Baptist Apostles

Peter John Paul

Saint Stephen Great Commission Council of Jerusalem Apostolic Age Apostolic Fathers Ignatius of Antioch Irenaeus Pope
Pope
Victor I Tertullian

Constantine to Pope
Pope
Gregory I

Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
and Christianity Arianism Archbasilica of St. John Lateran First Council of Nicaea Pope
Pope
Sylvester I First Council of Constantinople Biblical canon Jerome Vulgate Council of Ephesus Council of Chalcedon Benedict of Nursia Second Council of Constantinople Pope
Pope
Gregory I Gregorian chant

Early Middle Ages

Third Council of Constantinople Saint Boniface Byzantine Iconoclasm Second Council of Nicaea Charlemagne Pope
Pope
Leo III Fourth Council of Constantinople East–West Schism

High Middle Ages

Pope
Pope
Urban II Investiture Controversy Crusades First Council of the Lateran Second Council of the Lateran Third Council of the Lateran Pope
Pope
Innocent III Latin
Latin
Empire Francis of Assisi Fourth Council of the Lateran Inquisition First Council of Lyon Second Council of Lyon Bernard of Clairvaux Thomas Aquinas

Late Middle Ages

Pope
Pope
Boniface VIII Avignon Papacy Pope
Pope
Clement V Council of Vienne Knights Templar Catherine of Siena Pope
Pope
Alexander VI

Reformation Counter-Reformation

Reformation Counter-Reformation Thomas More Pope
Pope
Leo X Society of Jesus Ignatius of Loyola Francis Xavier Dissolution of the Monasteries Council of Trent Pope
Pope
Pius V Tridentine Mass Teresa of Ávila John of the Cross Philip Neri Robert Bellarmine

Baroque
Baroque
Period to the French Revolution

Pope
Pope
Innocent XI Pope
Pope
Benedict XIV Suppression of the Society of Jesus Anti-clericalism Pope
Pope
Pius VI Shimabara Rebellion Edict of Nantes Dechristianization of France during the French Revolution

19th century

Pope
Pope
Pius VII Pope
Pope
Pius IX Dogma of the Immaculate Conception
Immaculate Conception
of the Virgin Mary Our Lady of La Salette Our Lady of Lourdes First Vatican Council Papal infallibility Pope
Pope
Leo XIII Mary of the Divine Heart Prayer of Consecration to the Sacred Heart Rerum novarum

20th century

Pope
Pope
Pius X Our Lady of Fátima Persecutions of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and Pius XII Pope
Pope
Pius XII Pope
Pope
Pius XII
Pius XII
Consecration to the Immaculate Heart of Mary Dogma of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary Lateran Treaty Pope
Pope
John XXIII Second Vatican Council Pope
Pope
Paul VI Pope
Pope
John Paul I Pope
Pope
John Paul II World Youth Day

1995 2000

21st century

Catholic Church
Catholic Church
sexual abuse cases Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI World Youth Day

2002 2005 2008 2011 2013 2016

Pope
Pope
Francis

Pope
Pope
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History

History of the papacy Papal States Duchy of Rome Donation of Sutri Donation of Pepin "Prisoner in the Vatican" Lateran Palace Circus of Nero Old St. Peter's Basilica Savoyard era First Vatican Council Lateran Treaty Second Vatican Council

Geography

Apostolic Palace

Papal Apartments Raphael Rooms

Castel Gandolfo Domus Sanctae Marthae
Domus Sanctae Marthae
( Pope
Pope
Francis' residence) Gardens Mater Ecclesiae Monastery ( Pope
Pope
Emeritus Benedict XVI's residence) Paul VI Audience Hall

The Resurrection

Passetto di Borgo St. Peter's Basilica St. Peter's Square Saint Peter's tomb Sistine Chapel

ceiling

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Holy See
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Vatican City
portal Cathol

.