Barnaba Chiaramonti
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Pope Pius VII (14 August 1742 – 20 August 1823), born Barnaba Niccolò Maria Luigi Chiaramonti, was head of the
Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Catholic Church
and ruler of the
Papal States The Papal States ( ; it, Stato Pontificio), officially the State of the Church ( it, Stato della Chiesa, ; la, Status Ecclesiasticus; also '), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula The Italian Peninsula (Italian Ital ...
from 14 March 1800 to his death in 1823. Chiaramonti was also a
monk A monk (, from el, μοναχός, ''monachos'', "single, solitary" via Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (f ...

monk
of the
Order of Saint Benedict The Benedictines, officially the Order of Saint Benedict ( la, Ordo Sancti Benedicti, abbreviated as OSB), are a Christian monasticism, monastic Religious order (Catholic), religious order of the Catholic Church following the Rule of Saint Be ...
in addition to being a well-known
theologian Theology is the systematic study of the nature of the divine Divinity or the divine are things that are either related to, devoted to, or proceeding from a deity A deity or god is a supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed ...
and bishop. Chiaramonti was made
Bishop of Tivoli The Diocese of Tivoli ( la, Dioecesis Tiburtina) is a Latin Church ecclesiastical territory or diocese of the Catholic Church in Latium, Italy, which has existed since the 2nd century. In 2002 territory was added to it from the Subiaco, Italy, T ...
in 1782, and resigned that position upon his appointment as
Bishop of Imola The Roman Catholic Diocese of Imola ( la, Diocesis Imolensis) is a territory in Romagna Romagna ( rgn, Rumâgna) is an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group ...
in 1785. That same year, he was made a
cardinal Cardinal or The Cardinal may refer to: Christianity * Cardinal (Catholic Church), a senior official of the Catholic Church * Cardinal (Church of England), two members of the College of Minor Canons of St. Paul's Cathedral Navigation * Cardin ...
. In 1789, the
French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) was a period of radical political and societal change in France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its ...

French Revolution
took place, and as a result a series of anti-clerical governments came into power in the country. In 1796, during the
French Revolutionary Wars The French Revolutionary Wars (french: Guerres de la Révolution française) were a series of sweeping military conflicts lasting from 1792 until 1802 and resulting from the French Revolution. They pitted French First Republic, France against Gr ...
, French troops under
Napoleon Bonaparte Napoleon Bonaparte ; co, Napulione Buonaparte. (born Napoleone di Buonaparte; 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) r ...

Napoleon Bonaparte
invaded Rome and captured
Pope Pius VI Pope Pius VI (born Count Giovanni Angelo Braschi, 25 December 171729 August 1799) was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion bapt ...

Pope Pius VI
, taking him as a prisoner to France, where he died in 1799. The following year, after a ''
sede vacante ''Sede vacante'' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of t ...

sede vacante
'' period lasting approximately six months, Chiaramonti was elected to the papacy, taking the name Pius VII. Pius at first attempted to take a cautious approach in dealing with Napoleon. With him he signed the
Concordat of 1801 The Concordat of 1801 was an agreement Agreement may refer to: Agreements between people and organizations * Gentlemen's agreement, not enforceable by law * Trade agreement, between countries * Consensus, a decision-making process * Contract, ...
, through which he succeeded in guaranteeing religious freedom for Catholics living in France, and was present at his coronation as
Emperor of the French Emperor of the French (French: ''Empereur des Français'') was the title of the monarch A monarch is a head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foake ...
in 1804. In 1809, however, during the
Napoleonic Wars The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major World war, global conflicts pitting the First French Empire, French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon, Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of Coalition forces of the Napoleonic W ...
, Napoleon once again invaded the
Papal States The Papal States ( ; it, Stato Pontificio), officially the State of the Church ( it, Stato della Chiesa, ; la, Status Ecclesiasticus; also '), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula The Italian Peninsula (Italian Ital ...
, resulting in his excommunication through the papal bull ''
Quum memoranda ''Quum memoranda'' was a papal bull issued by Pope Pius VII in 1809. It was a response to a decree issued by Emperor Napoleon, on 17 May 1809, which incorporated the remnants of the Papal States into the First French Empire, French Empire, during ...
''. Pius VII was taken prisoner and transported to France. He remained there until 1814 when, after the French were defeated, he was permitted to return to Rome, where he was greeted warmly as a hero and defender of the faith. Pius lived the remainder of his life in relative peace. His papacy saw a significant growth of the
Catholic Church in the United States The Catholic Church in the United States is the ecclesiastical communities in full communion Full communion is a communion or relationship of full understanding among different Christian denomination A Christian denomination is a distinct ...
, where Pius established several new dioceses. Pius VII died in 1823 at age 81. In 2007,
Pope Benedict XVI Pope Benedict XVI ( la, Benedictus XVI; it, Benedetto XVI; german: Benedikt XVI.; born Joseph Aloisius Ratzinger, , on 16 April 1927) is a retired prelate A prelate () is a high-ranking member of the clergy Clergy are formal leader ...

Pope Benedict XVI
began the process towards
canonizing Canonization is the declaration of a deceased person as an officially recognized saint, specifically, the official act of a Christianity, Christian communion declaring a person worthy of Cult (religious practice), public cult and entering his ...
him as a saint, and he was granted the title
Servant of God "Servant of God" is a title used in the Catholic Church to indicate that an individual is on the first step toward possible canonization as a saint. Terminology The expression "servant of God" appears nine times in the Bible, the first five in ...
.


Biography


Early life

Barnaba Niccolò Maria Luigi Chiaramonti was born in
Cesena Cesena (; rgn, Cisêna) is a city and ''comune'' in the Emilia-Romagna region, served by Autostrada A14 (Italy), Autostrada A14, and located near the Apennine Mountains, about from the Adriatic Sea. The total population is 97,137. History ...

Cesena
in 1742, the youngest son of
Count Count (feminine: countess) is a historical title of nobility Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately below Royal family, royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy (class), aristocracy. Nobility ...

Count
Scipione Chiaramonti (30 April 1698 - 13 September 1750). His mother, Giovanna Coronata (d. 22 November 1777), was the daughter of the
Marquess A marquess (; french: marquis ), es, marqués, pt, marquês. is a nobleman Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately below Royal family, royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy (class), arist ...
Ghini; through her, the future Pope Pius VII was related to the Braschi family of
Pope Pius VI Pope Pius VI (born Count Giovanni Angelo Braschi, 25 December 171729 August 1799) was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion bapt ...

Pope Pius VI
after marriage on 10 November 1713. Though his family was of noble status, they were not wealthy but rather, were of middle-class stock. His maternal grandparents were Barnaba Eufrasio Ghini and Isabella de' conti Aguselli. His paternal grandparents were Giacinto Chiaramonti (1673-1725) and Ottavia Maria Altini; his paternal great-grandparents were Scipione Chiaramonti (1642-1677) and Ottavia Maria Aldini. His paternal great-great grandparents were Chiaramonte Chiaramonti and Polissena Marescalchi. His siblings were Giacinto Ignazio (19 September 1731 - 7 June 1805), Tommaso (19 December 1732 - 8 December 1799) and Ottavia (1 June 1738 - 7 May 1814). Like his brothers, he attended the Collegio dei Nobili in
Ravenna Ravenna ( , , also ; rgn, Ravèna) is the capital city of the Province of Ravenna The province of Ravenna ( it, provincia di Ravenna; ) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, admin ...

Ravenna
but decided to join the
Order of Saint Benedict The Benedictines, officially the Order of Saint Benedict ( la, Ordo Sancti Benedicti, abbreviated as OSB), are a Christian monasticism, monastic Religious order (Catholic), religious order of the Catholic Church following the Rule of Saint Be ...
at the age of 14 on 2 October 1756 as a novice at the Abbey of Santa Maria del Monte in Cesena. Two years after this on 20 August 1758, he became a professed member and assumed the name of ''Gregorio''. He taught at Benedictine colleges in
Parma Parma (; egl, Pärma, ) is a city in the northern Italian region of Emilia-Romagna famous for its architecture, Giuseppe Verdi, music, art, prosciutto (ham), Parmigiano-Reggiano, cheese and surrounding countryside. With a population of 198,292 ...

Parma
and
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, Italy).svg , map_caption = The te ...

Rome
, and was
ordained Ordination is the process by which individuals are Consecration, consecrated, that is, set apart and elevated from the laity class to the clergy, who are thus then authorization, authorized (usually by the religious denomination, denominational hi ...
a
priest A priest is a religious leader Clergy are formal leaders within established religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social w ...
on 21 September 1765.


Episcopate and cardinalate

A series of promotions resulted after his relative, Giovanni Angelo Braschi, was elected
Pope Pius VI Pope Pius VI (born Count Giovanni Angelo Braschi, 25 December 171729 August 1799) was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion bapt ...

Pope Pius VI
(1775–99). A few years before this election occurred, in 1773, Chiaramonti became the personal confessor to Braschi. In 1776, Pius VI appointed the 34-year-old Dom Gregory, who had been teaching at the
Monastery A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monk A monk (, from el, μοναχός, ''monachos'', "single, solitary" via Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical l ...

Monastery
of
Sant'Anselmo Sant'Anselmo all'Aventino ("Saint Anselm on the Aventine") is a Roman Catholic church, monastery, and Pontifical University located on Cavalieri di Malta Square on the Aventine Hill in Rome's Ripa (rione of Rome), Ripa rione. It is named in honor ...
in Rome, as honorary
abbot Abbot (from Aramaic Aramaic (: ''Arāmāyā''; : ; : ; ) is a language that originated among the in the ancient , at the end of the , and later became one of the most prominent languages of the . During its three thousand years long ...

abbot
''
in commendam In canon law Canon law (from grc, κανών, , a 'straight measuring rod, ruler A ruler, sometimes called a rule or line gauge, is a device used in geometry and technical drawing, as well as the engineering and construction industries, ...
'' of his monastery. Although this was an ancient practice, it drew complaints from the monks of the community, as monastic communities generally felt it was not in keeping with the
Rule of St. Benedict The ''Rule of Saint Benedict'' ( la, Regula Sancti Benedicti) is a book of precepts written in 516 by Benedict of Nursia ( AD 480–550) for monks living communally under the authority of an abbot. The spirit of Saint Benedict's Rule is summed u ...
. In December 1782, the pope appointed Dom Gregory as the
Bishop of Tivoli The Diocese of Tivoli ( la, Dioecesis Tiburtina) is a Latin Church ecclesiastical territory or diocese of the Catholic Church in Latium, Italy, which has existed since the 2nd century. In 2002 territory was added to it from the Subiaco, Italy, T ...
, near
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, Italy).svg , map_caption = The te ...

Rome
. Pius VI soon named him, in February 1785, the Cardinal-Priest of San Callisto, and as the
Bishop of Imola The Roman Catholic Diocese of Imola ( la, Diocesis Imolensis) is a territory in Romagna Romagna ( rgn, Rumâgna) is an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group ...
, an office he held until 1816. When the
French Revolutionary Army The French Revolutionary Army (french: Armée révolutionnaire française) was the French force that fought the French Revolutionary Wars The French Revolutionary Wars (french: Guerres de la Révolution française) were a series of sweeping m ...
invaded Italy in 1797, Cardinal Chiaramonti counseled temperance and submission to the newly created
Cisalpine Republic The Cisalpine Republic ( it, Repubblica Cisalpina) was a sister republic A sister republic (french: république sœur) was a republic established by French armies or by local revolutionaries and assisted by the First French Republic during the ...
. In a letter that he addressed to the people of his diocese, Chiaramonti asked them to comply "... in the current circumstances of change of government (...)" to the authority of the victorious general Commander-in-Chief of the French army. In his
Christmas Christmas is an annual festival commemorating Nativity of Jesus, the birth of Jesus Christ, observed primarily on December 25 as a religious and cultural celebration among billions of people Observance of Christmas by country, around the world ...

Christmas
homily A homily (from Greek ὁμιλία, ''homilía'') is a commentary that follows a reading of scripture, giving the "public explanation of a sacred doctrine" or text. The works of and (known as ) are considered exemplary examples of Christian homil ...

homily
that year, he asserted that there was no opposition between a
democratic Democrat, Democrats, or Democratic may refer to: Politics *A proponent of democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' and ''kratos'' 'rule') is a form of government in which people, the people ...

democratic
form of government and being a good Catholic: "Christian virtue makes men good democrats.... Equality is not an idea of philosophers but of Christ...and do not believe that the Catholic religion is against democracy."Thomas Bokenkotter, ''Church and Revolution: Catholics in the Struggle for Democracy and Social Justice'' (NY: Doubleday, 1998), 32


Papacy


Election

Following the death of Pope Pius VI, by then virtually France's prisoner, at Valence in 1799, the
conclave A papal conclave is a gathering of the College of Cardinals The College of Cardinals, or more formally the Sacred College of Cardinals, is the body of all cardinals Cardinal or The Cardinal may refer to: Christianity * Cardinal ( ...
to elect his successor met on 30 November 1799 in the Benedictine Monastery of San Giorgio in Venice. There were three main candidates, two of whom proved to be unacceptable to the
Habsburgs The House of Habsburg (), alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English (german: Haus Habsburg ; es, Casa de Habsburgo ; hu, Habsburg-család), also known as the House of Austria (german: link=no, Haus Österreich; es, link=no, Casa de Austria), ...
, whose candidate,
Alessandro Mattei Alessandro Mattei (20 February 1744, Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazi ...

Alessandro Mattei
, could not secure sufficient votes. However,
Carlo Bellisomi Carlo Antonio Giuseppe Bellisomi (30 July 1736 in Pavia – 9 August 1808 in Cesena, Emilia-Romagna) was an Italian Roman Catholic cardinal and apostolic nuncio. Life He was made a priest on 29 May 1763 and on 11 September 1775 titular bishop ...

Carlo Bellisomi
also was a candidate, though not favoured by Austrian cardinals; a "virtual veto" was imposed against him in the name of
Franz II Francis II (german: Franz II.; 12 February 1768 – 2 March 1835) was the last Holy Roman Emperor (from 1792 to 1806) and, as Francis I, the first Emperor of Austria, from 1804 to 1835. He assumed the title of Emperor of Austria in response to ...
and carried out by Cardinal Franziskus Herzan von Harras. After several months of stalemate,
Jean-Sifrein Maury Jean-Sifrein Maury (; 26 June 1746 – 10 May 1817) was a French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République fra ...

Jean-Sifrein Maury
proposed Chiaramonti as a compromise candidate. On 14 March 1800, Chiaramonti was elected pope, certainly not the choice of die-hard opponents of the
French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) was a period of radical political and societal change in France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its ...

French Revolution
, and took as his pontifical name Pius VII in honour of his immediate predecessor. He was crowned on 21 March, in the adjacent monastery church, by means of a rather unusual
ceremony A ceremony (, ) is a unified ritual A ritual is a sequence of activities involving gestures, words, actions, or objects, performed according to a set sequence. Rituals may be prescribed by the traditions of a community, including a religious ...
, wearing a
papier-mâché Papier-mâché (, ; , literally "paper-mash") is a composite material A composite material (also called a composition material or shortened to composite, which is the common name) is a material Material is a substance Substance may refe ...
papal tiara The papal tiara is a crown (headgear), crown that was worn by popes of the Catholic Church from as early as the 8th century to the mid-20th. It was last used by Pope Paul VI in 1963 and only at the beginning of his reign. The name "tiara" refer ...

papal tiara
. The French had seized the tiaras held by the Holy See when occupying Rome and forcing Pius VI into exile. The new pope then left for Rome, sailing on a barely seaworthy
Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked Eastern Alps, East Alpine country in the southern part of Central Europe. It is composed of nine States o ...

Austria
n ship, the ''Bellona'', which lacked even a
galley A galley is a type of ship A ship is a large watercraft that travels the world's oceans and other sufficiently deep Sea lane, waterways, carrying goods or passengers, or in support of specialized missions, such as defense, research, and fis ...
. The twelve-day voyage ended at
Pesaro Pesaro () is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a Administrative division, local administrative division of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides essential public services: ...

Pesaro
and he proceeded to Rome.


Negotiations and exile

One of Pius VII's first acts was appointing the minor cleric
Ercole Consalvi Ercole Consalvi (8 June 1757 – 24 January 1824) was a deacon and cardinal (Catholicism), cardinal of the Catholic Church, who served twice as Cardinal Secretary of State for the Papal States and who played a crucial role in the post-Napoleoni ...

Ercole Consalvi
, who had performed so ably as secretary to the recent conclave, to the
College of Cardinals The College of Cardinals, or more formally the Sacred College of Cardinals, is the body of all Cardinal (Catholicism), cardinals of the Catholic Church. List of current cardinals, its current membership is 215. Cardinals are appointed by the ...
and to the office of
Cardinal Secretary of State The Secretary of State of His Holiness ( it, Segretario di Stato di Sua Santità), commonly known as the Cardinal Secretary of State, presides over the Holy See The Holy See ( lat, Sancta Sedes, ; it, Santa Sede ), also called the See ...
. Consalvi immediately left for France, where he was able to negotiate the
Concordat of 1801 The Concordat of 1801 was an agreement Agreement may refer to: Agreements between people and organizations * Gentlemen's agreement, not enforceable by law * Trade agreement, between countries * Consensus, a decision-making process * Contract, ...
with the
First Consul The Consulate (French: ''Le Consulat'') was the top-level Government of France from the fall of the French Directory, Directory in the 18 Brumaire, coup of Brumaire on 10 November 1799 until the start of the First French Empire, Napoleonic Empi ...
Napoleon Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader. He rose to prominence during the French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) refers to the period that began with the Estates General o ...

Napoleon
. While not effecting a return to the old Christian order, the treaty did provide certain civil guarantees to the Church, acknowledging "the Catholic, Apostolic, and Roman religion" as that of the "majority of French citizens". See drop-down essay on "The Third Republic and the 1905 Law of Laïcité" The main terms of the concordat between France and the pope included: * A proclamation that "Catholicism was the religion of the great majority of the French" but was not the official religion, maintaining religious freedom, in particular with respect to
Protestants Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Criticism of the Catholic Church, errors in the Catholic Church. Protestants originating in the Ref ...
. * The Pope had the right to depose
bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Moravian Chu ...

bishop
s. * The state would pay clerical salaries and the clergy swore an oath of allegiance to the state. * The church gave up all claims to church lands that were taken after 1790. * Sunday was reestablished as a "festival", effective
Easter Easter,Traditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the ''Book of Common Prayer''; "Easter Sunday", used by James Ussher''The Whole Works of the Most Rev. James Ussher, Volume 4'' and Samuel Pepys''The Diary of Samuel Pe ...

Easter
Sunday, 18 April 1802. As pope, he followed a policy of cooperation with the French-established Republic and Empire. He was present at the coronation of Napoleon I in 1804. He even participated in France's
Continental Blockade The Continental Blockade (), or Continental System, was the foreign policy of Napoleon, Napoleon Bonaparte against the United Kingdom during the Napoleonic Wars. As a response to the naval blockade of the French coasts enacted by the British gover ...
of
Great Britain Great Britain is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atoll An atoll (), ...

Great Britain
, over the objections of his Secretary of State Consalvi, who was forced to resign. Despite this, France occupied and
annexed upCivilians and coalition military forces wave Kuwaiti and Saudi Arabian flags as they celebrate the reversal of the annexation of Kuwait by Iraq (28 February 1991). Annexation (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging t ...
the
Papal States The Papal States ( ; it, Stato Pontificio), officially the State of the Church ( it, Stato della Chiesa, ; la, Status Ecclesiasticus; also '), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula The Italian Peninsula (Italian Ital ...
in 1809 and took Pius VII as their prisoner, exiling him to
Savona Savona (; local lij, Sann-a , lij, label=Genoese dialect, Genoese, Savonn-a) is a seaport and ''comune ''in the west part of the northern Italy, Italian region of Liguria, capital of the Province of Savona, in the Riviera di Ponente on th ...

Savona
. On 15 November 1809 Pius VII consecrated the church at La Voglina, Valenza Po, Piemonte with the intention of the villa La Voglina becoming his spiritual base whilst in exile. Unfortunately his residency was short lived once Napoleon became aware of his intentions of establishing a permanent base and he was soon exiled to France. Despite this, the pope continued to refer to Napoleon as "my dear son" but added that he was "a somewhat stubborn son, but a son still". This exile ended only when Pius VII signed the Concordat of Fontainebleau in 1813. One result of this new treaty was the release of the exiled cardinals, including Consalvi, who, upon re-joining the papal retinue, persuaded Pius VII to revoke the concessions he had made in it. This Pius VII began to do in March 1814, which led the French authorities to re-arrest many of the opposing prelates. Their confinement, however, lasted only a matter of weeks, as Napoleon
abdicated Abdication is the act of formally relinquishing monarchical A monarchy is a form of government in which a person, the monarch, is head of state for life or until abdication. The legitimacy (political)#monarchy, political legitimacy an ...
on 11 April of that year. As soon as Pius VII returned to Rome, he immediately revived the
Inquisition The Inquisition, in historical ecclesiastical terminology also referred to as the "Holy Inquisition", was a group of institutions within the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the , with 1. ...

Inquisition
and the Index of Condemned Books. , who was kidnapped along with Pope Pius VII, took the office of Pro-Secretary of State in 1808 and maintained his memoirs during his exile. His memoirs, written originally in Italian, have been translated into English (two volumes) and describe the ups and down of their exile and the triumphant return to Rome in 1814. Pius VII's imprisonment did in fact come with one bright side for him. It gave him an aura that recognized him as a living martyr, so that when he arrived back in Rome in May 1814, he was greeted most warmly by the Italians as a hero.


Relationship with Napoleon I

From the time of his election as pope to the fall of
Napoleon Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader. He rose to prominence during the French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) refers to the period that began with the Estates General o ...
in 1815, Pius VII's reign was completely taken up in dealing with France. He and the Emperor were continually in conflict, often involving the French military leader's wishes for concessions to his demands. Pius VII wanted his own release from exile as well as the return of the Papal States, and, later on, the release of the 13 "Black Cardinals", i.e., the cardinals, including Consalvi, who had snubbed the marriage of Napoleon to Marie Louise, believing that his previous marriage was still valid, and had been exiled and impoverished in consequence of their stand, along with several exiled or imprisoned prelates, priests, monks, nuns and other various supporters.


Restoration of the Jesuits

On 7 March 1801, Pius VII issued the brief "Catholicae fidei" that approved the existence of the
Society of Jesus , image = Ihs-logo.svg , caption = Christogram A Christogram (Latin ') is a monogram or combination of letters that forms an abbreviation for the name of Jesus Christ, traditionally used as a Christian symbolism ...
in the
Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, succeeding the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad that ended the Great Northern War. ...
and appointed its first superior general as Franciszek Kareu. This was the first step in the restoration of the order. On 31 July 1814, he signed the papal bull ''Sollicitudo omnium ecclesiarum'' which universally restored the Society of Jesus. He appointed
Tadeusz Brzozowski Tadeusz Brzozowski (October 21, 1749February 5, 1820) was a Polish scholar, teacher, administrator and a Jesuit , image = Ihs-logo.svg , caption = Christogram A Christogram (Latin ') is a monogram or combina ...

Tadeusz Brzozowski
as the Superior General of the order.


Opposition to slavery

Pius VII joined the declaration of the 1815
Congress of Vienna The Congress of Vienna (, ) of 1814–1815 was an international diplomatic conference to reconstitute the European political order after the downfall of the French Emperor Napoleon I Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) w ...

Congress of Vienna
, represented by Cardinal Secretary of State
Ercole Consalvi Ercole Consalvi (8 June 1757 – 24 January 1824) was a deacon and cardinal (Catholicism), cardinal of the Catholic Church, who served twice as Cardinal Secretary of State for the Papal States and who played a crucial role in the post-Napoleoni ...

Ercole Consalvi
, and urged the suppression of the slave trade. This pertained particularly to places such as
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
and
Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who ...

Portugal
where slavery was economically very important. The pope wrote a letter to
King Louis XVIII Louis XVIII (Louis Stanislas Xavier; 17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824), known as the Desired (), was List of French Monarchs, King of France from 1814 to 1824, except for the Hundred Days in 1815. He spent twenty-three years in exile ...
of France dated 20 September 1814 and to the King
John VI of Portugal , house = Braganza , father = Peter III of Portugal Peter may refer to: People * List of people named Peter {{expand list, date=August 2020 Peter is a common name A name is a term used for identification by an external observ ...
in 1823 to urge the end of slavery. He condemned the slave trade and defined the sale of people as an injustice to the dignity of the human person. In his letter to the King of Portugal, he wrote: "the pope regrets that this trade in blacks, that he believed having ceased, is still exercised in some regions and even more cruel way. He begs and begs the King of Portugal that it implement all its authority and wisdom to extirpate this unholy and abominable shame."


Reinstitution of Jewish Ghetto

Under Napoleonic rule, the Jewish
Roman Ghetto The Roman Ghetto or Ghetto of Rome ( it, Ghetto di Roma) was a Jewish ghettos in Europe, Jewish ghetto established in 1555 in the Sant'Angelo (rione of Rome), Rione Sant'Angelo, in Rome, Italy, in the area surrounded by present-day Via del Portic ...
had been abolished and Jews were free to live and move where they would. Following the restoration of Papal rule, Pius VII re-instituted the confinement of Jews to the Ghetto, having the doors closed at nighttime.


Other activities

Pius VII issued an encyclical "Diu satis" in order to advocate a return to the values of the
Gospel Gospel originally meant the Christian message ("the gospel#REDIRECT The gospel In Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Te ...

Gospel
and universalized the feast of
Our Lady of Sorrows Our Lady of Sorrows ( la, Beata Maria Virgo Perdolens), Our Lady of Dolours, the Sorrowful Mother or Mother of Sorrows ( la, Mater Dolorosa, link=no), and Our Lady of Piety, Our Lady of the Seven Sorrows or Our Lady of the Seven Dolours are Tit ...
for 15 September. He condemned
Freemasonry Freemasonry or Masonry refers to fraternal organisations that trace their origins to the local guilds of stonemasons Stonemasonry or stonecraft is the creation of building A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and walls ...

Freemasonry
and the movement of the
Carbonari The Carbonari () was an informal network of secret revolutionary societies active in Italy from about 1800 to 1831. The Italian Carbonari may have further influenced other revolutionary groups in France France (), officially the Frenc ...

Carbonari
in the encyclical
Ecclesiam a Jesu Christo Ecclesiam a Jesu Christo was a Papal bull promulgated by Pius VII in 1821. It stated that Freemasonry, Freemasons must be excommunicated for their oath bound secrecy of the society and conspiracies against church and state. It also linked Freemaso ...
in 1821. Pius VII asserted that Freemasons must be excommunicated and it linked them with the Carbonari, an anti-clerical revolutionary group in Italy. All members of the Carbonari were also excommunicated. Pius VII was multilingual and had the ability to speak Italian, French, English and
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
.


Cultural innovations

Pius VII was a man of culture and attempted to reinvigorate Rome with archaeological excavations in Ostia which revealed ruins and icons from ancient times. He also had walls and other buildings rebuilt and restored the
Arch of Titus The Arch of Titus ( it, Arco di Tito; la, Arcus Titi) is a 1st-century AD honorific arch, located on the Via Sacra, Rome, just to the south-east of the Roman Forum. It was constructed in 81 AD by the Roman emperor, Emperor Domitian shortly af ...

Arch of Titus
. He ordered the construction of fountains and piazzas and erected the obelisk at
Monte Pincio The Pincian Hill (; it, Pincio ; la, Mons Pincius) is a hill A hill is a landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of the solid surface of the Earth or other planetary body A planet is an astronomical body A ...
. The pope also made sure Rome was a place for artists and the leading artists of the time like
Antonio Canova Antonio Canova (; 1 November 1757 – 13 October 1822) was an Italians, Italian Neoclassical sculpture, Neoclassical sculptor, famous for his marble sculptures. Often regarded as the greatest of the Neoclassical artists,. his sculpture was in ...

Antonio Canova
and
Peter von Cornelius Peter von Cornelius (23 September 1783, Düsseldorf – 6 March 1867, Berlin) was a Germany, German Painting, painter; one of the main representatives of the Nazarene movement. Life Early years Cornelius was born in Düsseldorf. From the age ...

Peter von Cornelius
. He also enriched the
Vatican Library The Vatican Apostolic Library ( la, Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana, it, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana), more commonly known as the Vatican Library or informally as the Vat, is the library A library is a collection of materials, books o ...
with numerous manuscripts and books. It was Pius VII who adopted the yellow and white flag of the Holy See as a response to the Napoleonic invasion of 1808.


Canonizations and beatifications

Throughout his pontificate, Pius VII canonized a total of five saints. On 24 May 1807, Pius VII canonized
Angela Merici Angela Merici or Angela de Merici ( , ; 21 March 1474 – 27 January 1540) was an Italian religious educator, who is honored as a saint In religious belief, a saint is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of Q-D-Š, ho ...
,
Benedict the Moor Benedict the Moor, O.F.M., ( it, Benedetto da San Fratello, 1526 – April 4, 1589) was an African born in Italy Franciscan The Franciscans are a group of related Mendicant orders, mendicant Christianity, Christian Catholic religious order, re ...
, Colette Boylet,
Francis Caracciolo Francis Caracciolo (October 13, 1563 – June 4, 1608), born Ascanio Pisquizio, was an Italian Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised ...
and
Hyacintha Mariscotti Hyacintha Mariscotti, T.O.R., or Hyacintha of Mariscotti ( it, Giacinta Marescotti) was an Italian nun of the Third Order Regular of St. Francis. She was born in 1585 of a noble family at Vignanello, in the Province of Viterbo, and died 30 Janua ...
. He beatified a total of 27 individuals including Joseph Oriol,
Berardo dei Marsi Blessed Berardo dei Marsi (1079 – 3 November 1130) was a Catholic Italian cardinal. He was proclaimed Blessed in 1802 as he was deemed to be holy and that miracles were performed through his intercession. Biography Berardo dei Marsi was born in ...
,
Giuseppe Maria Tomasi Joseph Mary Tomasi ( it, Giuseppe Maria Tomasi di Lampedusa)(12 September 1649 – 1 January 1713) was an Italian Theatine Catholic priest, scholar, reformer and cardinal (Catholicism), cardinal. His scholarship was a significant source o ...

Giuseppe Maria Tomasi
and Crispin of Viterbo.


Consistories

Pius VII created 99 cardinals in nineteen consistories including notable ecclesial figures of that time such as Ercole Consalvi,
Bartolomeo Pacca Bartolomeo Pacca (27 December 1756, Benevento – 19 April 1844) was an Italy, Italian Cardinal (Catholicism), cardinal, scholar, and statesman as Cardinal Secretary of State. Pacca served as Apostolic Nunciature to Cologne, apostolic nuncio to ...

Bartolomeo Pacca
, and
Carlo Odescalchi Carlo Odescalchi, (5 March 1785 – 17 August 1841) was an Italy, Italian prince and priest, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Ferrara-Comacchio, Archbishop of Ferrara, Cardinal (Catholicism), cardinal of the Catholic Church and Cardinal Vicar, Vicar ...
. The pope also named his two immediate successors as cardinals:
Annibale della Genga Pope Leo XII (2 August 1760 – 10 February 1829), born Annibale Francesco Clemente Melchiorre Girolamo Nicola della Genga (), was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 28 September 1823 to his death in 1829. Leo XI ...

Annibale della Genga
and
Francesco Saverio Castiglioni Pope Pius VIII (20 November 1761 – 30 November 1830), born Francesco Saverio Maria Felice Castiglioni, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 31 March 1829 to his death in 1830. Pius VIII's pontificate was the shortes ...

Francesco Saverio Castiglioni
(the latter of whom it is said Pius VII and his successor would refer to as "Pius VIII").


The possible miracle of Pius VII

On 15 August 1811 - the
Feast of the Assumption The Assumption of Mary (name in full Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary) is, according to the beliefs of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denomination ...
- it is recorded that the pope celebrated Mass and was said to have entered a trance and began to levitate in a manner that drew him to the altar. This particular episode aroused great wonder and awe among attendants which included the French soldiers guarding him who were in disbelief of what had occurred.


Relationship with the United States

On the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
' undertaking of the
First Barbary War The First Barbary War (1801–1805), also known as the Tripolitan War and the Barbary Coast War, was the first of two Barbary Wars The Barbary Wars were a series of two wars fought by the United States, Sweden, and the Kingdom of Sicily agai ...
to suppress the Muslim
Barbary pirates The Barbary pirates, or Barbary corsairs or Ottoman corsairs, were Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God) is an Abrahamic religio ...
along the southern
Mediterranean The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western Europe, Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa ...
coast, ending their kidnapping of Europeans for ransom and
slavery Slavery and enslavement are both the state and the condition of being a slave, who is someone forbidden to quit their service for an enslaver, and who is treated by the enslaver as their property Property is a system of rights that give ...
, Pius VII declared that the United States "had done more for the cause of Christianity than the most powerful nations of Christendom have done for ages." For the United States, he established several new dioceses in 1808 for
Boston Boston (, ), officially the City of Boston, is the capital city, capital and List of municipalities in Massachusetts, most populous city of the Commonwealth (U.S. state), Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States and 21st List of Unit ...

Boston
,
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
,
Philadelphia Philadelphia (colloquially known simply as Philly) is the largest city in the Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is ...

Philadelphia
and
Bardstown Bardstown is a list of Kentucky cities, home rule-class city in Nelson County, Kentucky, Nelson County, Kentucky, United States. The population was recorded as 11,700 by the 2010 United States Census, 2010 census. It is the list of counties in K ...
. In 1821, he also established the dioceses of
Charleston Charleston most commonly refers to: * Charleston, South Carolina Charleston is the largest city in the U.S. state of South Carolina, the county seat of Charleston County, South Carolina, Charleston County, and the principal city in the Charle ...

Charleston
,
Richmond Richmond most commonly refers to: * Richmond, Virginia, the US state's capital * Richmond, London, a part of south-west London Richmond may also refer to: People * Richmond (surname) * Earl of Richmond * Duke of Richmond * Richmond C. Beatty ( ...

Richmond
and
Cincinnati Cincinnati ( ) is a city in the U.S. state In the , a state is a , of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a , each state holds al jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory where it shares its with the ...

Cincinnati
.


Condemnation of heresy

On 3 June 1816, Pius VII condemned the works of
Melkite The term Melkite (), also written Melchite, refers to various Eastern Christianity, Eastern Christian churches of the Byzantine Rite and their members originating in the Middle East. The term comes from the common Central Semitic Semitic root, roo ...
bishop
Germanos Adam Germanos Adam (born in 1725 in Aleppo, Syria – died on 10 November 1809 in Zouk Mikael, Lebanon) was the Melkite Greek Catholic Church, Melkite Catholic bishop of the Melkite Greek Catholic Archeparchy of Aleppo during the late 18th century and ...
. Adam's writings supported
conciliarism Conciliarism was a reform movement in the 14th-, 15th- and 16th-century Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, largest Christian chu ...
, the view that the authority of
ecumenical council An ecumenical council (or oecumenical council; also general council) is a conference of ecclesiastical dignitaries and theological experts convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice in which those entitled to vote a ...
s was greater than that of the papacy.


Death and burial

In 1822, Pius VII reached his 80th birthday and his health was visibly declining. On 6 July 1823, he fractured his hip in a fall in the papal apartments and was bedridden from that point onward. In his final weeks he would often lose consciousness and would mutter the names of the cities that he had been ferried away to by the French forces. With the
Cardinal Secretary of State The Secretary of State of His Holiness ( it, Segretario di Stato di Sua Santità), commonly known as the Cardinal Secretary of State, presides over the Holy See The Holy See ( lat, Sancta Sedes, ; it, Santa Sede ), also called the See ...
Ercole Consalvi Ercole Consalvi (8 June 1757 – 24 January 1824) was a deacon and cardinal (Catholicism), cardinal of the Catholic Church, who served twice as Cardinal Secretary of State for the Papal States and who played a crucial role in the post-Napoleoni ...

Ercole Consalvi
at his side, Pius VII died on 20 August at 5 a.m. He was briefly interred in the Vatican grottoes but was later buried in a monument in
Saint Peter's Basilica The Papal Basilica of Saint Peter in the Vatican ( it, Basilica Papale di San Pietro in Vaticano), or simply Saint Peter's Basilica ( la, Basilica Sancti Petri), is a Church (building), church built in the Renaissance architecture, Renaissanc ...

Saint Peter's Basilica
after his funeral on 25 August.


Beatification process

An application to commence beatification proceedings were lodged to the
Holy See The Holy See ( lat, Sancta Sedes, ; it, Santa Sede ), also called the See of Rome or Apostolic See, is the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian ...
on 10 July 2006 and received the approval of Cardinal
Camillo Ruini Camillo Ruini (; born 19 February 1931) is an Italian prelate of the Catholic Church who was made a Cardinal (Catholicism), cardinal in 1991. He served as president of the Conferenza Episcopale Italiana, Italian Episcopal Conference from 1991 ...
( Vicar of Rome) who transferred the request to the
Congregation for the Causes of Saints , type = Congregation , seal = Coat of arms Holy See.svg , seal_size = 100px , seal_caption = Coat of arms of the Holy See , logo = , picture =Via della Conciliazione din Roma1.jpg , picture_caption = Palazzo delle Congregazioni in Piazza ...
. The Congregation - on 24 February 2007 - approved the opening of the cause responding to the call of the Ligurian bishops. On 15 August 2007, the Holy See contacted the diocese of Savona-Noli with the news that
Pope Benedict XVI Pope Benedict XVI ( la, Benedictus XVI; it, Benedetto XVI; german: Benedikt XVI.; born Joseph Aloisius Ratzinger, , on 16 April 1927) is a retired prelate A prelate () is a high-ranking member of the clergy Clergy are formal leader ...

Pope Benedict XVI
had declared "
nihil obstat ''Nihil obstat'' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of th ...
" (nothing stands against) the cause of beatification of the late pontiff, thus opening the diocesan process for this pope's beatification. He now has the title of
Servant of God "Servant of God" is a title used in the Catholic Church to indicate that an individual is on the first step toward possible canonization as a saint. Terminology The expression "servant of God" appears nine times in the Bible, the first five in ...
. The official text declaring the opening of the cause was: "''Summus Pontifex Benedictus XVI declarat, ex parte Sanctae Sedis, nihil obstare quominus in Causa Beatificationis et Canonizationis Servi Dei Pii Barnabae Gregorii VII Chiaramonti''". Work on the cause commenced the following month in gathering documentation on the late pope. He has since been elected as the patron of the
Diocese of Savona The Italian Catholic Diocese of Savona-Noli ( la, Dioecesis Savonensis-Naulensis) in northern Italy, was historically the Diocese of Savona, from the tenth century. In 1820 the Roman Catholic Diocese of Noli, Diocese of Noli was united to the Dioce ...
and the patron of prisoners. In late 2018 the Bishop of Savona announced that the cause for Pius VII would continue following the completion of initial preparation and investigation. The bishop named a new postulator and a diocesan tribunal which would begin work into the cause. The formal introduction to the cause (a diocesan investigation into the late pontiff's life) was held at a Mass celebrated in the Savona diocese on 31 October 2021. The first
postulator A postulator is the person who guides a cause for beatification or canonization through the judicial processes required by the Roman Catholic Church. The qualifications, role and function of the postulator are spelled out in the ''Norms to be Obse ...
for the cause was Father Giovanni Farris (2007–18) and the current postulator since 2018 is Fr. Giovanni Margara.


Monuments

Pope Pius VII's monument (1831) in
St. Peter's Basilica The Papal Basilica of Saint Peter in the Vatican ( it, Basilica Papale di San Pietro in Vaticano), or simply Saint Peter's Basilica ( la, Basilica Sancti Petri), is a Church (building), church built in the Renaissance architecture, Renaissanc ...

St. Peter's Basilica
, adorning his tomb, was created by the
Danish Danish may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Denmark * A national or citizen of Denmark, also called a "Dane," see Demographics of Denmark * Danish people or Danes, people with a Danish ancestral or ethnic identity * Dani ...

Danish
sculptor
Bertel Thorvaldsen Bertel Thorvaldsen (; 19 November 1770 – 24 March 1844) was a Danish Danish may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Denmark * A national or citizen of Denmark, also called a "Dane", see Demographics of Denmark * Danish ...

Bertel Thorvaldsen
.


Bibliography


Encyclicals An encyclical was originally a circular Circular may refer to: * The shape of a circle * Circular (album), ''Circular'' (album), a 2006 album by Spanish singer Vega * Circular letter (disambiguation) ** Flyer (pamphlet), a form of advertisement ...

* Diu Satis
Text (EN)


* Ex quo Ecclesiam

* Il trionfo

* Vineam quam plantavit


Motu proprio In law, ''motu proprio'' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the pow ...

* Le più colte
Text (IT)


See also

*
Apostolic Prefecture of the United States The Apostolic Prefecture of the United States ( la, Praefectura Apostolica Civitatum Foederatarum Americae Septentrionalis) was the earliest Roman Catholic ecclesiastical jurisdiction Ecclesiastical jurisdiction signifies jurisdiction Jurisdi ...
* Cardinals created by Pius VII * Jacob Anton Zallinger zum Thurn, papal councillor in German affairs (1805 - 1806) * John Carroll, first US bishop *
List of popes This chronological list of pope The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () or the Roman pontiff (), is the bishop of Diocese of Rome, Rome, chief pastor of the worldwid ...
*
Scipione Chiaramonti Scipione Chiaramonti (21 June 1565 – 3 October 1652) was an Italian philosopher and noted opponent of Galileo. Early life The Chiaramonti family was noble and wealthy, claiming to have originated in Clermont and moved to Italy in the fourte ...


Notes


References


Citations


Sources


''Catholic Encyclopedia'' "Pope Pius VII"



Further reading

* * Anderson, Robin. ''Pope Pius VII'', TAN Books & Publishers, Inc., 2001. * Browne-Olf, Lillian. ''Their Name Is Pius'' (1941) pp 59–130
online
* Caiani, Ambrogio. 2021. ''To Kidnap a Pope: Napoleon and Pius VII''. Yale University Press. *Hales, E. E. Y. "Napoleon's duel with the Pope" ''History Today'' (May 1958) 8#5 pp 328–33. * Hales, E. E. Y. ''The Emperor and the Pope: The Story of Napoleon and Pius VII'' (1961
online
* Thompson, J. M.''Napoleon Bonaparte: His Rise and Fall'' (1951) pp 251–75 * * * Michael Matheus, Lutz Klinkhammer (eds.): ''Eigenbild im Konflikt. Krisensituationen des Papsttums zwischen Gregor VII. und Benedikt XV.'' Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt, 2009, .


External links

* * {{DEFAULTSORT:Pius 07 Pope Pius VII, Italian popes Bishops of Imola Bishops of Tivoli People from Cesena 1742 births, Pius VII, Pope 1823 deaths, Pius VII, Pope Cardinal-nephews 18th-century Italian Roman Catholic priests 19th-century Italian Roman Catholic priests Order of Saint Benedict Benedictine bishops Benedictine popes Burials at St. Peter's Basilica Italian Benedictines Popes 19th-century popes 19th-century venerated Christians Italian Servants of God Benedictine Servants of God Papal Servants of God Cardinals created by Pope Pius VI