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The National Front (Malay: Barisan Nasional; abbrev: BN) is a right-wing political party in Malaysia
Malaysia
that was founded in 1973 as a coalition of right-wing and centre parties. It is the largest party in the Parliament of Malaysia. Party Chairman Najib Razak
Najib Razak
has been Prime Minister of Malaysia
Malaysia
from 3 April 2009. In state level, it is also the largest party in the 10 of 13 state legislative assemblies of Malaysia. The Barisan Nasional
Barisan Nasional
employs the same inter-communal governing model of its predecessor the Alliance coalition but on a wider scale, with up to 14 communal political parties involved in the coalition at one point.[1] It dominated Malaysian politics for over thirty years after it was founded, but since 2008 has faced stronger challenges from opposition parties, notably the Pakatan Rakyat
Pakatan Rakyat
& Pakatan Harapan alliances. Along with its predecessor (Alliance), it is considered the longest continuing ruling coalition party in the democratic world.[7]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Formation 1.2 1977–2007 1.3 2008–present

2 Organisation 3 Barisan Nasional
Barisan Nasional
Supreme Council 4 Elected representatives

4.1 Dewan Negara
Dewan Negara
(Senate)

4.1.1 Senators

4.2 Dewan Rakyat
Dewan Rakyat
(House of Representatives)

4.2.1 Members of Parliament of the 13th Malaysian Parliament

4.3 Dewan Undangan Negeri
Dewan Undangan Negeri
(State Legislative Assembly)

4.3.1 Malaysian State Assembly Representatives

5 Barisan Nasional
Barisan Nasional
state governments 6 General election results 7 State election results 8 References

8.1 Literature

9 External links

History[edit] Formation[edit] The Barisan Nasional
Barisan Nasional
is the direct successor to the three-party Alliance coalition formed of the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO), the Malaysian Chinese Association
Malaysian Chinese Association
(MCA), and the Malaysian Indian Congress (MIC). It was founded in the aftermath of the 1969 general election and the 13 May riots. The Alliance Party lost ground in the 1969 election to the opposition parties, in particular the two newly formed parties Democratic Action Party
Democratic Action Party
and Gerakan, and Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party
Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party
(PAS). Although the Alliance won a majority of seats, it gained less than half the popular vote, and the resulting tension between different communities led to riots and the declaration of a state of emergency.[8] After the Malaysian Parliament reconvened in 1971, negotiations began with former opposition parties such as Gerakan and People's Progressive Party, both of which joined the Alliance in 1972, quickly followed by Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS). In 1973, the Alliance Party was replaced by Barisan Nasional.[1][9] The Barisan Nasional, which included regional parties from Sabah
Sabah
and Sarawak
Sarawak
( Sabah
Sabah
Alliance Party, Sarawak
Sarawak
United Peoples' Party (SUPP), Parti Pesaka Bumiputera Bersatu
Parti Pesaka Bumiputera Bersatu
(PBB)), was formed as a grand coalition of 11 parties under the leadership of the prime minister Tun Abdul Razak.[10] It registered in June 1974 to contest the 1974 general election, which it won with considerable success. 1977–2007[edit] In 1977, PAS was expelled from the Barisan Nasional
Barisan Nasional
following a revolt within the Kelantan
Kelantan
state legislature against a chief minister appointed by the federal government.[1] Barisan Nasional
Barisan Nasional
nevertheless won the 1978 general election convincingly, and it continued to dominate Malaysian politics in the 1980s and 1990s despite some losses in state elections, such as the loss of Kelantan
Kelantan
to PAS, and Sabah
Sabah
to Parti Bersatu Sabah. By 2003, Barisan Nasional
Barisan Nasional
had grown to a coalition formed of more than a dozen communal parties. It performed particularly well in the 2004 general election, winning 198 out of 219 seats. Although Barisan Nasional
Barisan Nasional
never achieved more than 67% of the popular vote in elections from 1974 until 2008, it maintained consecutive two-thirds majority of seats in the Dewan Rakyat
Dewan Rakyat
until 2008, benefitting from Malaysia's first-past-the-post voting system.[11] 2008–present[edit] In the 2008 general elections, Barisan Nasional
Barisan Nasional
lost more than one-third of the parliamentary seats to Pakatan Rakyat, a loose alliance of opposition parties. This marked Barisan's first failure to secure a two-thirds supermajority in Parliament since 1969. Five state governments, Kelantan, Kedah, Penang, Perak, and Selangor, fell to Pakatan Rakyat. Perak
Perak
however was later returned via court ruling following a constitutional crisis. Since 2008, the coalition has seen its non-Malay component parties greatly diminished in the Peninsula.[12] The losses continued in the 2013 general election, and it recorded its worst ever election result. BN regained Kedah, but lost several more seats in Parliament along with the popular vote to Pakatan. It won only 47% of the popular vote, nevertheless it managed to gain 60% of the 222 parliamentary seats, thereby retaining control of the parliament.[13] Organisation[edit] As of 2013, the vast majority of Barisan Nasional's seats are held by its two largest Bumiputera-based political parties—the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO), and Parti Pesaka Bumiputera Bersatu (PBB). For most of its history, both the Malaysian Chinese Association and Malaysian Indian Congress
Malaysian Indian Congress
have played major roles in Barisan Nasional, but their representation in Parliament and state legislatures has become much more diminished. Nevertheless, practically each component party purports to represent – and limit membership – to a certain race: UMNO
UMNO
for the Malays, MCA for the Chinese and so on. In the view of some scholars:

Since its inception the Alliance remained a coalition of communal parties. Each of the component parties operated to all intents and purposes, save that of elections, as a separate party. Their membership was communal, except perhaps Gerakan, and their success was measured in terms of their ability to achieve the essentially parochial demands of their constituents.[14]

Although both the Alliance and BN registered themselves as political parties, membership is only possible indirectly through one of the constituent parties. In the Alliance, one could hold direct membership, but this was abolished with the formation of the Barisan Nasional. The BN defines itself as a "confederation of political parties which subscribe to the objects of the Barisan Nasional". Although in elections, all candidates stand under the BN symbol, and there is a BN manifesto, each individual constituent party also issues its own manifesto, and there is intra-coalition competition for seats prior to nomination day.[15] As of January 2017, Barisan Nasional's member parties include:

United Malays National Organisation
United Malays National Organisation
(UMNO) Malaysian Chinese Association
Malaysian Chinese Association
(MCA) Malaysian Indian Congress
Malaysian Indian Congress
(MIC) Parti Pesaka Bumiputera Bersatu
Parti Pesaka Bumiputera Bersatu
(PBB) Sarawak
Sarawak
United People's Party (SUPP) Malaysian People's Movement Party
Malaysian People's Movement Party
(Gerakan/PGRM) People's Progressive Party (myPPP) Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) United Sabah
Sabah
People's Party (PBRS) United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organisation
United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organisation
(UPKO) United Sabah
Sabah
Party (PBS) Sarawak
Sarawak
Progressive Democratic Party (SPDP) Parti Rakyat Sarawak
Sarawak
(PRS)

Barisan Nasional
Barisan Nasional
Supreme Council[edit] Source: Organisational Chart of Barisan Nasional

Chairman:

Najib Razak
Najib Razak
(UMNO)

Deputy Chairman:

Ahmad Zahid Hamidi
Ahmad Zahid Hamidi
(UMNO)

Vice-Chairman:

Liow Tiong Lai
Liow Tiong Lai
(MCA) Subramaniam Sathasivam
Subramaniam Sathasivam
(MIC) Abang Abdul Rahman Zohari Abang Openg
Abang Abdul Rahman Zohari Abang Openg
(PBB) Sim Kui Hian
Sim Kui Hian
(SUPP) Mah Siew Keong
Mah Siew Keong
(Gerakan) M. Kayveas (myPPP) Teo Chee Kang (LDP) Joseph Kurup (PBRS) Wilfred Madius Tangau
Wilfred Madius Tangau
(UPKO) Joseph Pairin Kitingan
Joseph Pairin Kitingan
(PBS) Tiong King Sing (SPDP) James Jemut Masing (PRS)

Secretary-General:

Tengku Adnan Tengku Mansor (UMNO)

Treasurer-General:

Salleh Said Keruak
Salleh Said Keruak
(UMNO)

Women Leader:

Shahrizat Abdul Jalil
Shahrizat Abdul Jalil
(UMNO)

Youth Leader:

Khairy Jamaluddin
Khairy Jamaluddin
(UMNO)

Strategic Communications Director:

Abdul Rahman Dahlan (UMNO)

Executive Secretary:

Abu Khamis (UMNO)

Supreme Council Members:

Hishammuddin Hussein
Hishammuddin Hussein
(UMNO) Mustapa Mohamed
Mustapa Mohamed
(UMNO) Wee Ka Siong (MCA) Ong Ka Chuan (MCA) Devamany S. Krishnasamy (MIC) Sakthivel Alagappan (MIC) Douglas Uggah Embas (PBB) Stephen Rundi Utom (PBB) Richard Riot Jaem (SUPP) Sebastian Ting Chiew Yew (SUPP) Cheah Soon Hai (GERAKAN) Liang Teck Meng
Liang Teck Meng
(GERAKAN) Maglin Dennis D'Cruz (myPPP) Mohan Kandasamy (myPPP) Chin Su Phin (LDP) Yong Wui Chung (LDP) Arthur Joseph Kurup (PBRS) Johnson Tee (PBRS) Siringan Gubat (UPKO) Donald Peter Mojuntin (UPKO) Maximus Ongkili
Maximus Ongkili
(PBS) Johnny Mositun (PBS) Nelson Balang Rining (SPDP) Anthony Nogeh Gumbek (SPDP) Joseph Entulu Belaun (PRS) Joseph Salang Gandum (PRS)

Najib Razak
Najib Razak
at a pre-election rally in 2013

Elected representatives[edit] Dewan Negara
Dewan Negara
(Senate)[edit] Senators[edit] Main article: List of members of the Dewan Negara Dewan Rakyat
Dewan Rakyat
(House of Representatives)[edit] Members of Parliament of the 13th Malaysian Parliament[edit] Main article: Members of the Dewan Rakyat, 13th Malaysian Parliament

Results

Perlis

P001 – Padang Besar – Zahidi Zainul Abidin (UMNO) P002 – Kangar
Kangar
Shaharuddin Ismail (UMNO) P003 – Arau Shahidan Kassim
Shahidan Kassim
(UMNO)

Kedah

P004 – Langkawi
Langkawi
Nawawi Ahmad
Nawawi Ahmad
(UMNO) P005 – Jerlun – Othman Aziz (UMNO) P006 – Kubang Pasu – Mohd Johari Baharum (UMNO) P007 – Padang Terap
Padang Terap
Mahdzir Khalid (UMNO) P011 – Pendang
Pendang
Othman Abdul
Othman Abdul
(UMNO) P012 – Jerai – Jamil Khir Baharom
Jamil Khir Baharom
(UMNO) P013 – Sik – Mansor Abd Rahman (UMNO) P014 – Merbok Ismail Daut (UMNO) P016 – Baling
Baling
Abdul Azeez Abdul Rahim
Abdul Azeez Abdul Rahim
(UMNO) P018 – Kulim- Bandar Baharu
Bandar Baharu
Abd. Aziz Sheikh Fadzir (UMNO)

Kelantan

P026 – Ketereh Annuar Musa (UMNO) P027 – Tanah Merah – Ikmal Hisham Abdul Aziz (UMNO) P029 – Machang – Ahmad Jazlan Yaakub (UMNO) P030 – Jeli
Jeli
Mustapa Mohamed
Mustapa Mohamed
(UMNO) P032 – Gua Musang
Gua Musang
Tengku Razaleigh Hamzah
Tengku Razaleigh Hamzah
(UMNO)

Terengganu

P033 – Besut
Besut
Idris Jusoh
Idris Jusoh
(UMNO) P034 – Setiu
Setiu
Che Mohamad Zulkifly Jusoh (UMNO) P038 – Hulu Terengganu
Terengganu
– Jailani Johari (UMNO) P040 – Kemaman
Kemaman
Ahmad Shabery Cheek
Ahmad Shabery Cheek
(UMNO)

Penang

P041 – Kepala Batas – Reezal Merican Naina Merican (UMNO) P042 – Tasek Gelugor
Tasek Gelugor
Shabudin Yahaya (UMNO) P053 – Balik Pulau
Balik Pulau
– Hilmi Yahaya (UMNO)

Perak

P054 – Gerik
Gerik
– Hasbullah Osman (UMNO) P055 – Lenggong
Lenggong
Shamsul Anuar Nasarah (UMNO) P056 – Larut – Hamzah Zainudin (UMNO) P058 – Bagan Serai
Bagan Serai
– Noor Azmi Ghazali (UMNO) P061 – Padang Rengas Mohamed Nazri Abdul Aziz
Mohamed Nazri Abdul Aziz
(UMNO) P063 – Tambun
Tambun
Ahmad Husni Hanadzlah
Ahmad Husni Hanadzlah
(UMNO) P067 – Kuala Kangsar
Kuala Kangsar
– Mastura Mohd Yazid (UMNO) P069 – Parit
Parit
– Mohd Zaim Abu Hassan (UMNO) P072 – Tapah
Tapah
Saravanan Murugan (MIC) P073 – Pasir Salak Tajuddin Abdul Rahman (UMNO) P075 – Bagan Datok – Ahmad Zahid Hamidi
Ahmad Zahid Hamidi
(UMNO) P076 – Telok Intan – Mah Siew Keong
Mah Siew Keong
(Gerakan) P077 – Tanjong Malim – Ong Ka Chuan (MCA)

Pahang

P078 – Cameron Highlands
Cameron Highlands
– Palanivel Govindasamy P079 – Lipis
Lipis
– Abdul Rahman Mohamad (UMNO) P081 – Jerantut
Jerantut
– Ahmad Nazlan Idris (UMNO) P084 – Paya Besar – Abdul Manan Ismail (UMNO) P085 – Pekan – Najib Razak
Najib Razak
(UMNO) P086 – Maran – Ismail Muttalib (UMNO) P087 – Kuala Krau – Ismail Mohamed Said (UMNO) P089 – Bentong
Bentong
Liow Tiong Lai
Liow Tiong Lai
(MCA) P090 – Bera – Ismail Sabri Yaakob
Ismail Sabri Yaakob
(UMNO) P091 – Rompin
Rompin
– Hasan Arifin (UMNO)

Selangor

P092 – Sabak Bernam
Sabak Bernam
– Mohd Fasiah Mohd Fakeh (UMNO) P093 – Sungai Besar
Sungai Besar
Budiman Mohd Zohdi
Budiman Mohd Zohdi
(UMNO) P094 – Hulu Selangor
Selangor
– Kamalanathan Panchanathan (MIC) P095 – Tanjong Karang – Noh Omar (UMNO) P096 – Kuala Selangor
Selangor
Irmohizam Ibrahim (UMNO)

Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur

P118 – Setiawangsa – Ahmad Fauzi Zahari (UMNO) P119 – Titiwangsa
Titiwangsa
Johari Abdul Ghani
Johari Abdul Ghani
(UMNO)

Federal Territory of Putrajaya

P125 – Putrajaya
Putrajaya
Tengku Adnan Tengku Mansor (UMNO)

Negeri Sembilan

P126 – Jelebu
Jelebu
– Zainudin Ismail (UMNO) P127 – Jempol
Jempol
Mohd Isa Abdul Samad (UMNO) P129 – Kuala Pilah
Kuala Pilah
Hasan Malek (UMNO) P131 – Rembau – Khairy Jamaluddin
Khairy Jamaluddin
(UMNO) P133 – Tampin
Tampin
Shaziman Abu Mansor (UMNO)

Malacca

P134 – Masjid Tanah
Masjid Tanah
Mas Ermieyati Samsudin (UMNO) P135 – Alor Gajah
Alor Gajah
Koh Nai Kwong
Koh Nai Kwong
(MCA) P136 – Tangga Batu – Abu Bakar Mohamad Diah (UMNO) P139 – Jasin – Ahmad Hamzah (UMNO)

Johor

P140 – Segamat – Subramaniam Sathasivam
Subramaniam Sathasivam
(MIC) P141 – Sekijang – Anuar Abd. Manap
Anuar Abd. Manap
(UMNO) P142 – Labis
Labis
Chua Tee Yong (MCA) P144 – Ledang – Hamim Samuri (UMNO) P146 – Muar – Razali Ibrahim (UMNO) P147 – Parit
Parit
Sulong – Noraini Ahmad (UMNO) P148 – Ayer Hitam
Ayer Hitam
Wee Ka Siong (MCA) P149 – Sri Gading
Sri Gading
Aziz Kaprawi (UMNO) P151 – Simpang Renggam
Simpang Renggam
Liang Teck Meng
Liang Teck Meng
(Gerakan) P153 – Sembrong Hishammuddin Hussein
Hishammuddin Hussein
(UMNO) P154 – Mersing
Mersing
Abdul Latiff Ahmad (UMNO) P155 – Tenggara – Halimah Mohd Sadique (UMNO) P156 – Kota Tinggi
Kota Tinggi
Noor Ehsanuddin Mohd Harun Narrashid
Noor Ehsanuddin Mohd Harun Narrashid
(UMNO) P157 – Pengerang
Pengerang
Azalina Othman Said (UMNO) P158 – Tebrau Khoo Soo Seang (MCA) P159 – Pasir Gudang
Pasir Gudang
Normala Abdul Samad
Normala Abdul Samad
(UMNO) P160 – Johor
Johor
Bahru – Shahrir Abdul Samad
Shahrir Abdul Samad
(UMNO) P161 – Pulai – Nur Jazlan Mohamed (UMNO) P164 – Pontian – Ahmad Maslan (UMNO) P165 – Tanjong Piai – Wee Jeck Seng
Wee Jeck Seng
(MCA)

Federal Territory of Labuan

P166 – Labuan
Labuan
– Rozman Isli (UMNO)

Sabah

P167 – Kudat
Kudat
Abdul Rahim Bakri (UMNO) P168 – Kota Marudu
Kota Marudu
– Maximus Johnity Ongkili (PBS) P169 – Kota Belud
Kota Belud
Abdul Rahman Dahlan (UMNO) P170 – Tuaran
Tuaran
Madius Tangau
Madius Tangau
(UPKO) P171 – Sepanggar
Sepanggar
– Jumat Idris (UMNO) P173 – Putatan
Putatan
Marcus Mojigoh (UPKO) P175 – Papar – Rosnah Abdul Rashid Shirlin (UMNO) P176 – Kimanis
Kimanis
Anifah Aman
Anifah Aman
(UMNO) P177 – Beaufort – Azizah Mohd Dun
Azizah Mohd Dun
(UMNO) P178 – Sipitang
Sipitang
Sapawi Ahmad
Sapawi Ahmad
(UMNO) P179 – Ranau
Ranau
Ewon Ebin (UPKO) P180 – Keningau
Keningau
Joseph Pairin Kitingan
Joseph Pairin Kitingan
(PBS) P181 – Tenom
Tenom
Raime Unggi (UMNO) P182 – Pensiangan
Pensiangan
Joseph Kurup (PBRS) P183 – Beluran
Beluran
Ronald Kiandee
Ronald Kiandee
(UMNO) P184 – Libaran – Juslie Ajirol (UMNO) P185 – Batu Sapi – Linda Tsen Thau Lin (PBS) P187 – Kinabatangan
Kinabatangan
Bung Moktar Radin (UMNO) P188 – Silam – Nasrun Mansur (UMNO) P190 – Tawau
Tawau
Mary Yap Kain Ching (PBS) P191 – Kalabakan
Kalabakan
Abdul Ghapur Salleh (UMNO)

Sarawak

P192 – Mas Gading – Nogeh Gumbek (SPDP) P193 – Santubong – Wan Junaidi Tuanku Jaafar
Wan Junaidi Tuanku Jaafar
(PBB) P194 – Petra Jaya
Petra Jaya
Fadillah Yusof (PBB) P197 – Kota Samarahan – Rubiah Wang (PBB) P198 – Mambong – James Dawos Mamit (PBB) P199 – Serian – Richard Riot Jaem (SUPP) P200 – Batang Sadong Nancy Shukri
Nancy Shukri
(PBB) P201 – Batang Lupar Rohani Abdul Karim (PBB) P202 – Sri Aman
Sri Aman
Masir Kujat (PRS) P203 – Lubok Antu
Lubok Antu
William Nyallau Badak (PRS) P204 – Betong – Douglas Uggah Embas (PBB) P205 – Saratok
Saratok
– William Mawan Ikom P206 – Tanjong Manis – Norah Abdul Rahman (PBB) P207 – Igan – Wahab Dolah (PBB) P209 – Julau
Julau
Joseph Salang Gandum (PRS) P210 – Kanowit
Kanowit
Aaron Ago Dagang (PRS) P213 – Mukah
Mukah
Leo Michael Toyad (PBB) P214 – Selangau
Selangau
Joseph Entulu Belaun (PRS) P215 – Kapit
Kapit
Alexander Nanta Linggi (PBB) P216 – Hulu Rajang
Hulu Rajang
– Wilson Ugak Kumbong (PRS) P217 – Bintulu
Bintulu
Tiong King Sing (SPDP) P218 – Sibuti Ahmad Lai Bujang (PBB) P220 – Baram – Anyi Ngau (SPDP) P221 – Limbang
Limbang
Hasbi Habibollah (PBB) P222 – Lawas
Lawas
Henry Sum Agong (PBB)

Dewan Undangan Negeri
Dewan Undangan Negeri
(State Legislative Assembly)[edit] Malaysian State Assembly Representatives[edit] Main article: Malaysian State Assembly Representatives (2013–)

Sarawak
Sarawak
State Legislative Assembly 72 / 82

Perlis
Perlis
State Legislative Assembly 13 / 15

Sabah
Sabah
State Legislative Assembly 48 / 60

Malacca
Malacca
State Legislative Assembly 21 / 28

Pahang
Pahang
State Legislative Assembly 30 / 42

Johor
Johor
State Legislative Assembly 37 / 56

Negeri Sembilan
Negeri Sembilan
State Legislative Assembly 22 / 36

Kedah
Kedah
State Legislative Assembly 20 / 36

Perak
Perak
State Legislative Assembly 31 / 59

Terengganu
Terengganu
State Legislative Assembly 17 / 32

Kelantan
Kelantan
State Legislative Assembly 12 / 45

Penang
Penang
State Legislative Assembly 10 / 40

Selangor
Selangor
State Legislative Assembly 12 / 56

Barisan Nasional
Barisan Nasional
state governments[edit]

High-ranking BN party officials holding copies of the party manifesto at a pre-election rally in 2013. In the front row, from left, are Chua Soi Lek (MCA), Muhyiddin Yassin, Najib Razak
Najib Razak
and Tengku Adnan Tengku Mansor (UMNO), and Abdul Taib Mahmud
Abdul Taib Mahmud
(PBB).

Johor

Menteri Besar: Mohamed Khaled Nordin[16]

Kedah

Menteri Besar : Ahmad Bashah Md Hanipah

Malacca

Chief Minister: Idris Haron

Negeri Sembilan

Menteri Besar: Mohamad Hasan

Perak

Menteri Besar: Zambry Abdul Kadir

Pahang

Menteri Besar: Adnan Yaakob

Perlis

Menteri Besar: Azlan Man[17]

Sabah

Chief Minister: Musa Aman

Sarawak

Chief Minister: Abang Johari Openg

Terengganu

Menteri Besar: Ahmad Razif Abdul Rahman

General election results[edit]

Election Total seats won Share of seats Total votes Share of votes Outcome of election Election leader

1974

135 / 154

87.7% 1,287,400 60.8% 135 seats; Governing coalition Abdul Razak Hussein

1978

131 / 154

85.1% 1,987,907 57.2% 4 seats; Governing coalition Hussein Onn

1982

132 / 154

85.7% 2,522,079 60.5% 1 seats; Governing coalition Mahathir Mohamad

1986

148 / 177

83.6% 2,649,263 57.3% 16 seats; Governing coalition Mahathir Mohamad

1990

127 / 180

70.6% 2,985,392 53.4% 21 seats; Governing coalition Mahathir Mohamad

1995

162 / 192

84.4% 3,881,214 65.2% 35 seats; Governing coalition Mahathir Mohamad

1999

148 / 193

76.2% 3,748,511 56.53% 15 seats; Governing coalition Mahathir Mohamad

2004

198 / 219

90.4% 4,420,452 63.9% 51 seats; Governing coalition Abdullah Ahmad Badawi

2008

140 / 222

63.1% 4,082,411 50.27% 58 seats; Governing coalition Abdullah Ahmad Badawi

2013

133 / 222

59.9% 5,237,555 47.38% 7 seats;[18] Governing coalition Najib Razak

State election results[edit]

State election State Legislative Assembly

Perlis
Perlis
State Legislative Assembly Kedah
Kedah
State Legislative Assembly Kelantan
Kelantan
State Legislative Assembly Terengganu
Terengganu
State Legislative Assembly Penang
Penang
State Legislative Assembly Perak
Perak
State Legislative Assembly Pahang
Pahang
State Legislative Assembly Selangor
Selangor
State Legislative Assembly Negeri Sembilan
Negeri Sembilan
State Legislative Assembly Malacca
Malacca
State Legislative Assembly Johor
Johor
State Legislative Assembly Sabah
Sabah
State Legislative Assembly Sarawak
Sarawak
State Legislative Assembly Total won / Total contested

2/3 majority

2 / 3

2 / 3

2 / 3

2 / 3

2 / 3

2 / 3

2 / 3

2 / 3

2 / 3

2 / 3

2 / 3

2 / 3

2 / 3

1974

12 / 12

24 / 26

36 / 36

27 / 28

23 / 27

31 / 42

32 / 32

30 / 33

21 / 24

16 / 20

31 / 32

30 / 48

1976

1978

12 / 12

19 / 26

23 / 36

28 / 28

20 / 27

32 / 42

32 / 32

29 / 33

21 / 24

16 / 20

31 / 32

239 / 257

1979

1981

1982

11 / 12

24 / 26

26 / 36

23 / 28

25 / 27

38 / 42

31 / 32

31 / 33

22 / 24

18 / 20

32 / 32

1983

30 / 48

30 / 32

1985

6 / 48

6 / 48

1986

14 / 14

25 / 28

29 / 39

30 / 32

23 / 33

33 / 46

32 / 33

37 / 42

24 / 28

17 / 20

35 / 36

1 / 48

300 / 351

1987

28 / 48

28 / 48

1990

14 / 14

26 / 28

0 / 39

22 / 32

19 / 33

33 / 46

31 / 33

35 / 42

24 / 28

17 / 20

32 / 36

0 / 48

253 / 351

1991

49 / 56

49 / 56

1994

23 / 48

23 / 48

1995

15 / 15

34 / 36

7 / 43

25 / 32

32 / 33

51 / 52

37 / 38

45 / 48

30 / 32

22 / 25

40 / 40

338 / 394

1996

57 / 62

57 / 64

1999

12 / 15

24 / 36

2 / 43

4 / 32

30 / 33

44 / 52

30 / 38

42 / 48

32 / 32

21 / 25

40 / 40

31 / 48

312 / 329

2001

60 / 62

60 / 62

2004

14 / 15

31 / 36

21 / 45

28 / 32

38 / 40

52 / 59

41 / 42

54 / 56

34 / 36

26 / 28

55 / 56

59 / 60

452 / 504

2006

62 / 71

62 / 71

2008

14 / 15

14 / 36

6 / 45

24 / 32

11 / 40

28 / 59

37 / 42

20 / 56

21 / 36

23 / 28

50 / 56

59 / 60

307 / 504

2011

55 / 71

55 / 71

2013

13 / 15

21 / 36

12 / 45

17 / 32

10 / 40

31 / 59

30 / 42

12 / 56

22 / 36

21 / 28

38 / 56

48 / 60

275 / 505

2016

72 / 82

72 / 82

References[edit]

^ a b c d Joseph Liow; Michael Leifer (20 November 2014). Dictionary of the Modern Politics of Southeast Asia. Routledge. pp. 102–. ISBN 978-1-317-62233-8.  ^ http://www.freemalaysiatoday.com/category/nation/2012/07/20/umno-veep-ketuanan-melayu-must-stay/ ^ Timothy J. Lomperis, September 1996, 'From People's War to People's Rule: Insurgency, Intervention, and the Lessons of Vietnam', page 212, ISBN 0807822736 ^ Senkyr, Jan (2013), "Political Awakening in Malaysia", KAS International Reports (7): 73–74  ^ https://newint.org/features/2016/07/01/malaysia-authoritarianism-corruption ^ "Keputusan Pilihan Raya Umum Ke-12" (in Malay). Utusan Malaysia. 2008. Retrieved 15 December 2017.  ^ Anuradha Raghu; Niluksi Koswanage (5 May 2013). "Malaysians vote to decide fate of world's longest-ruling coalition". Toronto Sun. Retrieved 5 May 2013.  ^ Keat Gin Ooi (2004). Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor. ABC-CLIO. pp. 139–. ISBN 978-1-57607-770-2.  ^ Cheah Boon Kheng (2002). Malaysia: The Making of a Nation. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. pp. 147–. ISBN 978-981-230-175-8.  ^ Dr Nam-Kook Kim (28 February 2014). Multicultural Challenges and Redefining Identity in East Asia. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. 219–. ISBN 978-1-4724-0233-2.  ^ John R. Malott (8 July 2011). "Running Scared in Malaysia". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 8 July 2011.  (subscription required) ^ Stuart Grudgings; Al-Zaquan Amer Hamzah; Niluksi Koswanage; Raju Gopalakrishnan (5 May 2013). " Malaysia
Malaysia
coalition extends rule despite worst electoral showing". Reuters.  ^ "A dangerous result". The Economist. 11 May 2013. Retrieved 11 May 2013.  ^ Rachagan, S. Sothi (1993). Law and the Electoral Process in Malaysia, p. 12. Kuala Lumpur: University of Malaya Press. ISBN 967-9940-45-4. ^ Rachagan, p. 21. ^ Desiree Tresa Gasper; Kathleen Ann Kili (14 May 2013). "Khaled Nordin sworn in as Johor
Johor
MB (Updated)". The Star. Retrieved 14 May 2013.  ^ Kow Kwan Yee (7 May 2013). "GE13: Azlan Man sworn in as Perlis
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Literature[edit]

Chok, Suat Ling (4 October 2005). "MPs in the dock". New Straits Times, p. 1, 6. Chin, James. 2002. Malaysia: The Barisan National Supremacy. In David Newman & John Fuh-sheng Hsieh (eds), How Asia Votes, pp. 210–233. New York: Chatham House, Seven Bridges Press. ISBN 1-889119-41-5. Pillai, M.G.G. (3 November 2005). "National Front parties were not formed to fight for Malaysian independence". Malaysia
Malaysia
Not Today

External links[edit]

Barisan Nasional
Barisan Nasional
website

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Political parties in Malaysia

Parties represented in the Parliament and/or State Assemblies

Barisan Nasional
Barisan Nasional
(BN)

United Malays National Organisation
United Malays National Organisation
(UMNO) Malaysian Chinese Association
Malaysian Chinese Association
(MCA) Malaysian Indian Congress
Malaysian Indian Congress
(MIC) Malaysian People's Movement Party
Malaysian People's Movement Party
(Gerakan) People's Progressive Party (myPPP) United Traditional Bumiputera Party (PBB) Sarawak
Sarawak
United Peoples' Party (SUPP) United Sabah
Sabah
Party (PBS) Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) United Sabah
Sabah
People's Party (PBRS) United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organisation
United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organisation
(UPKO) Sarawak
Sarawak
Progressive Democratic Party (SPDP) Sarawak
Sarawak
Peoples' Party (PRS)

Pakatan Harapan
Pakatan Harapan
(PH)

Democratic Action Party
Democratic Action Party
(DAP) People's Justice Party (PKR) National Trust Islamic Party (Amanah) Malaysian United Indigenous Party
Malaysian United Indigenous Party
(PPBM)

Gagasan Sejahtera (GS)

Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party
Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party
(PAS)

Other parties

Socialist Party of Malaysia
Malaysia
(PSM) Malaysian Indian Muslim Congress
Malaysian Indian Muslim Congress
(KIMMA) Malaysian Indian United Party
Malaysian Indian United Party
(MIUP) Homeland Solidarity Party (STAR) Sabah
Sabah
Heritage Party (WARISAN) Love Sabah
Sabah
Party (PCS) Sabah
Sabah
People's Hope Party (PHRS)

Parties without representation in the Parliament and State Assemblies

Gagasan Sejahtera (GS)

Pan-Malaysian Islamic Front Malaysia
Malaysia
National Alliance Party

Other parties

Malaysian Ceylonese Congress Punjabi Party of Malaysia Community Coalition Congress Malaysian People's Party All Malaysian Indian Progressive Front Sabah
Sabah
Progressive Party Malaysian Democratic Party Malaysian Makkal Sakhti Party Human Rights Party Sabah
Sabah
People's Front Homeland Human's Wellbeing Party Malaysian United People's Party Sarawak
Sarawak
Workers Party (SWP) United Sabah
Sabah
National Organisation Party (New) The Idea with Sabah
Sabah
People's Party Sabah
Sabah
National People's Unity Organisation Sabah
Sabah
Truth Party Sabahan Bugis United Party Sabah
Sabah
People's Economy Party Sabah
Sabah
Prosperous Party of Unity Front Sabah
Sabah
Peace Party Sabah
Sabah
People's Co-operation Party Sabah
Sabah
People's Unity Party Land of the Hornbills Party New Sarawak
Sarawak
Native People's Party Economic Sarawak
Sarawak
United People's Party Justice of the Peace Coalition People's Party Malaysian Indian Justice Party New Generation Party Malaysian National Party Malaysian Citizen National Party United Peoples' Party (UPP) People's Alternative Party Green Party of Malaysia Love Malaysia
Malaysia
Party Malaysia
Malaysia
Hope Party

Defunct parties and coalition

Defunct coalitions

All-Malaya Council of Joint Action
All-Malaya Council of Joint Action
(AMCJA) Labour Front Barisan Sosialis Alliance Party (AP) Barisan Alternatif
Barisan Alternatif
(BA) Malayan Peoples' Socialist Front
Malayan Peoples' Socialist Front
(SF) Angkatan Perpaduan Ummah
Angkatan Perpaduan Ummah
(APU) Gagasan Rakyat
Gagasan Rakyat
(GR) Pakatan Rakyat
Pakatan Rakyat
(PR)

Defunct parties

Sarawak
Sarawak
National Party (SNAP) Sarawak
Sarawak
Native People's Party (PBDS) Sarawak
Sarawak
Malaysian People's Association (PERMAS) Muslim People's Party of Malaysia
Malaysia
(HAMIM) National Party (Negara) Independence of Malaya Party
Independence of Malaya Party
(IMP) Labour Party of Malaya
Labour Party of Malaya
(Lab) Malayan Communist Party
Malayan Communist Party
(MCP) (Revolutionary Faction) (Marxist-Leninist) Malaysian Marhaen Party (PMM) National Convention Party (NCP) North Kalimantan Communist Party
North Kalimantan Communist Party
(NKCP) Sabah
Sabah
People's United Front (BERJAYA) Social Justice Party of Malaysia
Malaysia
(PEKEMAS) Selangor
Selangor
Labour Party Malaysian Democratic Party
Malaysian Democratic Party
(MDP) Semangat 46 (S46) United Sabah
Sabah
National Organisation (USNO) Angkatan Keadilan Insan Malaysia
Malaysia
(AKIM) Muslim Community Union of Malaysia
Malaysia
(IKATAN) United Pasokmomogun Kadazan Organisation
United Pasokmomogun Kadazan Organisation
(UPKO) Federated Sabah
Sabah
People's Front (BERSEKUTU) Sabah
Sabah
National Party (SANAP) Sabah
Sabah
Chinese Association (SCA) People's Justice Front
People's Justice Front
(AKAR) Sarawak
Sarawak
People's Energy Party (TERAS) State Reform Party
State Reform Party
(STAR)

* denotes non-registered parties

Politics of Malaysia Politics portal List of the winning political parties in the Malaysian general election by parliame

.