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Balarama
Balarama
(Sanskrit: बलराम, IAST: Balarāma) is a Hindu deity and the elder brother of Krishna
Krishna
(an avatar of the god Vishnu). He is particularly significant in the Jagannath
Jagannath
tradition, as one of the triad deities.[2] He is also known as Baladeva, Balabhadra, Haladhara and Halayudha.[2][3] The first two epithets refer to his strength, the last two associate him with Hala (Langala, "plough")[4] from his strong associations with farming and farmers, as the deity who used farm equipment as weapons when needed.[2][5] While most legends and texts consider Balarama
Balarama
as avatar of Shesha
Shesha
– the companion of Vishnu,[6] Gitagovinda of Jayadeva
Jayadeva
describes him as the eighth avatar of Vishnu, raising Krishna
Krishna
to the Brahman, or Ultimate Reality itself, and the fountainhead of all other avatars and creation.[2] Balarama's significance in the Indian culture has ancient roots. His image in artwork is dated to around the start of the common era, and in coins dated to the 2nd-century BCE.[7] In Jainism, he is known as Baladeva and has been a historically significant farmer-related deity.[8][9]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Texts 1.2 Coins, arts and epigraphy

2 Legends

2.1 Childhood and marriage 2.2 Kurukshetra war of Mahabharata 2.3 Death 2.4 Significance

3 Iconography

3.1 Temples

4 Jainism 5 Buddhism 6 Gallery 7 See also 8 References

8.1 Bibliography

History[edit]

Balarama
Balarama
from Mathura, Early Medieval period (8th-13th century CE).

Balarama
Balarama
is an ancient deity, a prominent one by the epics era of Indian history as evidenced by archeological and numismatic evidence. His iconography appears with Nāga
Nāga
(many-headed serpent), a plough and other farm artifacts such as watering pot, possibly indicating his origins in a bucolic, agricultural culture.[10] Balarama's legend appears in many Parva (books) of the Mahabharata. The Book Three (Vana Parva) states Krishna
Krishna
and him to be brothers born to separate mothers, but one father. Book One (Adi Parva) states the circumstances that lead to light skinned Balarama, and dark skinned Krishna. Book Thirteen (Anushasana Parva) presents the mythology of Sesha's incarnation into Balarama, as Vishnu
Vishnu
incarnated as Krishna, likely reflecting the basis why most of ancient and early medieval artworks of Balarama
Balarama
show a snake hood on top of his head.[11] Balarama
Balarama
is a significant deity in Hinduism, but his significance varies by region and text.[2] In many, he is an avatar of Shesha
Shesha
Naga while Krishna
Krishna
is an avatar of Vishnu. In some such as late medieval era Jayadeva's list, Balarama
Balarama
is an avatar of Vishnu, while Krishna
Krishna
is the source of all avatars and existence. In some art works of the Vijayanagara Empire, temples of Gujarat
Gujarat
and elsewhere, for example, Baladeva is the eighth avatar of Vishnu, prior to the Buddha (Buddhism) or Jina (Jainism).[12][13] Texts[edit] Main article: Dashavathara Narratives of Balarama
Balarama
are found in Mahabharata, Harivamsha, Bhagavata Purana, Krishna
Krishna
Charit Manas and other Puranas. He is classified in the Vyuha avatar Sankarshana where in Adishesha
Adishesha
and Lakshmana
Lakshmana
are part of.[14] The legend of him as the incarnation of Adisesha, the serpent Vishnu
Vishnu
rested on, reflects his role and interconnection with Vishnu.[15] However, the Balarama's mythology and his association with the ten avatars of Vishnu
Vishnu
is relatively younger, that is post-Vedic though ancient, because it is not found in the Vedic texts.[16]

Coin
Coin
of Agathocles of Bactria
Agathocles of Bactria
with depiction of Balarama, 2nd century BCE.[17][18][19] Obv Balarama- Samkarshana
Samkarshana
with Greek legend: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΓΑΘΟΚΛΕΟΥΣ "King Agathocles".[20] Rev Vasudeva- Krishna
Krishna
with Brahmi
Brahmi
legend Rajane Agathukleyasasa "King Agathocles".

Balarama
Balarama
finds a mention in Kautilya's Arthashastra
Arthashastra
(4th to 2nd century BCE), where according to Hudson, his followers are described as "ascetic worshippers" with shaved heads or braided hair.[21] Balarama, as Baladewa, is an important character in the 11th-century Javanese text Kakawin Bhāratayuddha, the Kakawin poem based on the Mahabharata.[22] Coins, arts and epigraphy[edit] Coins dated to about 185-170 BCE from the Agathocles era show Balarama's iconography and Greek inscriptions. Balarama- Samkarshana
Samkarshana
is typically shown standing with a gada in his right hand and holding plough in his left. On the other side of these coins is Vasudeva- Krishna
Krishna
holding the conch and chakra. Other than being evidence of Balarama's significance in ancient times, according to Singh and Classical Numismatic Group, these suggest that he and Krishna
Krishna
were a part of the developing interaction between Hellenistic Greeks and ancient Indians.[23][24] At Chilas II archeological site dated to the first half of 1st-century CE in northwest Pakistan, near Afghanistan border, are engraved two males along with many Buddhist images nearby. The larger of the two males holds a plough and club in his two hands. The artwork also has an inscription with it in Kharosthi script, which has been deciphered by scholars as Rama-Krsna, and interpreted as an ancient depiction of the two brothers Balarama
Balarama
and Krishna.[25][26] The early Balarama images found in Jansuti (Mathura, Uttar Pradesh) and two at Tumain (Ashoknagar, Madhya Pradesh) are dated to 2nd/1st-century BCE and these show Balarama
Balarama
holding a hala (plough) and a musala (pestle) in his two hands.[27] In some Indian ancient arts and texts, Balarama
Balarama
(Sankarsana) and Krishna
Krishna
(Vasudeva) are two of the five heroes (Pancaviras of the Vrishnis).[24] The other three differ by the text. In some those are "Pradyumna, Samba and Aniruddha",[28] in others "Anadhrsti, Sarana and Viduratha".[29][30] The 1st-century Mora well inscription near Mathura, dated between 10 and 25 CE, mention the installation of five Vrishni heroes in a stone temple.[31] The earliest surviving southeast Asian artwork related to Balarama
Balarama
is from the Phnom Da collection, near Angkor Borei in Cambodia's lower Mekong Delta
Mekong Delta
region.[32][33] Legends[edit]

Krishna
Krishna
and Balarama
Balarama
meet their parents. 19th-century painting by Raja Ravi Varma

Krishna- Balarama
Balarama
deities at the Krishna- Balarama
Balarama
Temple
Temple
in Vrindavan

Balarama
Balarama
was son of Vasudeva. The evil king Kamsa, the brother of Devaki, was intent upon killing the children of his sister because of a prediction that he would die at the hands of her eighth child.[2] Evil demon Kamsa
Kamsa
had already killed the first six children of Devaki by smashing the newborns on a stone. Vishnu
Vishnu
intervened, and when Balarama
Balarama
was conceived state the Hindu legends, his embryo was moved from Devaki's womb into the womb of Rohini, a resident of rural cowherd village.[2][15][34] In some texts, this movement gives Balarama
Balarama
the epithet Sankarshana (one who was dragged away). Balarama grew up with his younger brother Krishna
Krishna
with foster parents, in the household of Yashoda and Nanda.[2] The chapter 10 of the Bhagavata Purana describes it as follows:

The Bhagavan as the Self of everything tells the creative power of His unified consciousness (yogamaya) about His plan for His own birth as Balarama
Balarama
and Krishna. He begins with Balarama. The whole of Shesha, which is my abode, will become an embryo in Devaki's womb which you shall transplant to Rohini's womb. —  Bhagavata Purana
Bhagavata Purana
10.2.8, Tr: D Dennis Hudson[35]

He was named Rama, but because of his great strength he was called Balarama, Baladeva, or Balabhadra, meaning Strong Rama. He was born on Shraavana
Shraavana
Purnima or Raksha Bandhan.[citation needed] Childhood and marriage[edit] One day, Nanda requested the presence of Sage Gargamuni, his priest, to name the newborn Krishna
Krishna
and Balarama. When the Garga arrived, Nanda, received him well and requested the naming ceremony. Gargamuni then reminded Nanda that Kamsa
Kamsa
was looking for the son of Devaki
Devaki
and if he performed the ceremony in opulence, it would come to his attention. Nanda therefore asked Garga to perform the ceremony in secret and Garga did so:

Because Balarama, the son of Rohini, increases the transcendental bliss of others, his name is Rama
Rama
and because of his extraordinary strength, he is called Baladeva. He attracts the Yadus to follow his instructions and therefore his name is Sankarshana. — Bhagavata Purana, 10.8.12[36]

A 2nd-century CE Balarama
Balarama
artwork found in Mathura.

Balarama
Balarama
spent his childhood as a cow herder with his brother Krishna. He killed Dhenuka, an asura sent by Kansa, as well as Pralamba and Mushtika wrestlers sent by the king. After the evil king died, Balarama
Balarama
and Krishna
Krishna
went to the ashrama of sage Sandipani at Ujjain for study. He married Revati.[1] Balarama
Balarama
is the celebrated plougher, one of the pillars of agriculture along with livestocks with whom Krishna
Krishna
is associated with. The plow is Balarama's weapon. In the Bhagavata Purana, he uses it to fight demons, dig a way for Yamuna
Yamuna
river to come closer to Vrindavan, and pull the entire capital of Hastinapura into the Ganges river.[21] Kurukshetra war of Mahabharata[edit]

Balarama
Balarama
is embraced yudhisthira with Akrura and pradhyumna and went to Pilgrimage.

Balarama
Balarama
taught both Duryodhana
Duryodhana
of the Kauravas and Bhima
Bhima
of the Pandavas the art of fighting with a mace. When war broke between the Kauravas and the Pandavas, Balarama
Balarama
cared for both sides and so remained neutral. He went for a pilgrimage with his nephew Pradyumna and other Yadavas during the war, and returned on the last day, to watch the fight between his disciples. When Bhima
Bhima
defeated Duryodhana by striking him in the thigh with his mace, Balarama
Balarama
threatened to kill Bhima. This was prevented when Krishna
Krishna
reminded Balarama
Balarama
of the vow of Bhima—to kill Duryodhana
Duryodhana
by crushing the thigh he had exposed to Bhima's wife Draupadi.[37] Death[edit]

Death of Balarama

In the Bhagavata Purana, it is described that after Balarama
Balarama
took part in the battle causing the destruction of the remainder of the Yadu dynasty and witnessing the disappearance of Krishna, he sat down in a meditative state and departed from this world.[38] Some scriptures describe a great white snake that left the mouth of Balarama, in reference to his identity as Ananta-Sesha. The place where he departed is situated near Somnath Temple
Temple
in Gujarat. The local people of Veraval
Veraval
believe that in the cave near the temple place, the white snake who came out of Balarama's mouth got into that cave and went back to Paatal Lok. Significance[edit] In the Hindu traditions, Balarama
Balarama
has been a farmer's patron deity, signifying as one who is "harbinger of knowledge", of agricultural tools and prosperity.[39] He is almost always shown and described with Krishna, such as in stealing butter, playing childhood pranks, complaining to Yashoda that his baby brother Krishna
Krishna
had eaten dirt, playing in cow pens, studying together at the school of guru Sandipani, fighting evil wrestlers sent in by Kamsa
Kamsa
to kill the two brothers.[39] He was the constant companion of Krishna, ever watchful, leading to the epithet "Luk Luk Dauji" (or Luk Luk Daubaba) in the Pustimarga tradition of Vaishnavism.[39][40] He is creative store of knowledge for the agriculturists, the knowledge that dug a water channel to bring Yamuna
Yamuna
water to Vrindavan, that restored groves, farms and forests, that produced goods and drinks.[39][41] In Hindu texts, Balarama
Balarama
almost always supports Krishna
Krishna
in form and spirit. However, there are occasions where the dialogues between Balarama
Balarama
and Krishna
Krishna
present different viewpoints, with Krishna's wisdom establishing Krishna
Krishna
to be the ultimate divinity.[39] Balarama's symbolic constant association with Krishna
Krishna
makes him the protector and supporter of dharma.[42] Iconography[edit]

Above: 11th-century art showing Balarama
Balarama
with Lakshmi
Lakshmi
(Shubhadra) and Vasudeva
Vasudeva
(Krishna). Below: Abstract icons of the three in the Jagannath
Jagannath
tradition.

Balarama
Balarama
is depicted as light skinned, in contrast to his brother, Krishna, who is dark skinned, Krishna
Krishna
in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
means dark.[15] His ayudha or weapons are the plough hala and the gadā. The plough is usually called Balachita.[43] He often wears blue garments and a garland of forest flowers. His hair is tied in a topknot and he has earrings, bracelets and armlets and he is known for his strength, the reason for his name.[44] In the Jagannath
Jagannath
tradition, one particularly popular in eastern and central regions of India, he is more often called Balabhadra. Balarama is one in the triad, wherein Balarama
Balarama
is shown together with his brother Jagannath
Jagannath
(Krishna) and sister Shubhadra (Lakshmi). Jagannath is identifiable from his circular eyes compared to oval of Shubhadra and almond shaped eyes of the abstract icon for Balarama. Further, Balarama's face is white, Jagannath's icon is dark, and Subhadra
Subhadra
icon is yellow. The third difference is the flat head of Jagannath
Jagannath
icon, compared to semi-circular carved head of abstract Balarama.[45] The shape of Balabhadra's head, also called Balarama
Balarama
or Baladeva in these regions, varies in some temples between somewhat flat and semi-circular.[45][46] Temples[edit]

Six major Balarama
Balarama
temples mentioned in the Puranas: Unchagaon, Aring, Ram Ghat, Baldeo, Nari and Talvan.[39] Jagannath
Jagannath
temples of Odisha and Jharkhand, particularly Puri Kendrapara, Baladevjew Temple Ananta Vasudeva
Vasudeva
Temple RevtiBaladevji Mandir, Jetalpur, Gujarat Shri Daau Ji Mandir, Vill- Banchari, Haryana Kathmandu temples, Nepal[47] Shri Dauji Mandir, Mainpuri, (U.P.) Mazhoor Balarama
Balarama
Temple, Taliparamba, Kannur district, Kerala

Jainism[edit] The Jain
Jain
Puranas, notably, the Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacarita of Hemachandra, narrate hagiographical accounts of nine Baladevas or Balabhadras who are believed to be śalākāpuruṣas (literally torch-bearers, great personalities). Balarama
Balarama
was the ninth one.[48] Balarama
Balarama
along with Krishna
Krishna
are considered as cousins of the revered Tirthankara
Tirthankara
Neminatha
Neminatha
(Aristanemi) by Jains.[49] The Jainism
Jainism
tradition lists 63 Śalākāpuruṣa
Śalākāpuruṣa
or notable figures which, amongst others, includes the twenty-four Tirthankaras and nine sets of triads. One of these triads is Krishna
Krishna
as the Vasudeva, Balarama
Balarama
as the Baladeva, and Jarasandha
Jarasandha
as the Prati-Vasudeva. In each age of the Jain
Jain
cyclic time is born a Vasudeva
Vasudeva
with an elder brother termed the Baladeva. Between the triads, Baladeva upholds the principle of non-violence, a central idea of Jainism. The villain is the Prati-vasudeva, who attempts to destroy the world. To save the world, Vasudeva- Krishna
Krishna
has to forsake the non-violence principle and kill the Prati-Vasudeva.[50] The stories of these triads can be found in the Harivamsa Purana
Harivamsa Purana
(8th century CE) of Jinasena
Jinasena
(not be confused with its namesake, the addendum to Mahābhārata) and the Trishashti-shalakapurusha-charita of Hemachandra.[51][52]

Balarama
Balarama
with a plough in his left hand, at the Khajuraho Parsvnatha Jain
Jain
Temple.[53]

The story of Krishna's life in the Puranas
Puranas
of Jainism
Jainism
follows the same general outline as those in the Hindu texts, but in details they are very different: they include Jain
Jain
Tirthankaras as characters in the story, and generally are polemically critical of Krishna, unlike the versions found in the Mahabharata, the Bhagavata Purana, and the Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana.[54] For example, Krishna
Krishna
loses battles in the Jain versions, and his gopis and his clan of Yadavas die in a fire created by an ascetic named Dvaipayana. Similarly, after dying from the hunter Jara's arrow, the Jaina texts state Krishna
Krishna
goes to the third hell in Jain
Jain
cosmology, while Balarama
Balarama
is said to go to the sixth heaven.[55] In other Jain
Jain
texts, Krishna
Krishna
and Baladeva are stated to be a cousin of the twenty-second Tirthankara, Neminatha. The Jain
Jain
texts state that Naminatha taught Krishna
Krishna
all the wisdom that he later gave to Arjuna in the Bhagavad Gita. According to Jeffery D. Long, a professor of Religion known for his publications on Jainism, this connection between Krishna
Krishna
and Neminatha
Neminatha
has been a historic reason for Jains to accept, read, and cite the Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
as a spiritually important text, celebrate Krishna-related festivals, and intermingle with Hindus as spiritual cousins.[56] Evidence related to early Jainism, states Patrick Olivelle and other scholars, suggests Balarama
Balarama
had been a significant farmer deity in Jain
Jain
tradition in parts of the Indian subcontinent such as near the Mathura
Mathura
region.[9] Jain
Jain
texts such as the Kalpasutra describe the same idea of embryo transfer, as in Hindu texts for Balarama, for the 24th Tirthankara
Tirthankara
Mahavira; in the latter case, the embryo of a Brahmin woman is moved into the womb of a Kshatriya woman.[57] Balarama, states Pratapaditya Pal, was one of the historic deities revered in Jainism
Jainism
along with Ambika, Lakshmi
Lakshmi
and others.[57][58] As with the Hindu farmers, state Paul Dundas and other scholars, it is likely that Balarama
Balarama
was the patron deity of Jain
Jain
farmers in the early centuries of the common era, because a large number of Balarama
Balarama
images have been found in early Jain
Jain
arts.[59][60] Buddhism[edit] Balarama
Balarama
images have been discovered in central Indian Buddhist sites, such as with Sanchi stupas at Andher, Mehgaon and Chandna. These are dated to around the start of the common era.[61][62] The Ghata Jataka, one of the Jataka Tales that form part of Buddhist scriptures, depict Balarama
Balarama
as a previous birth of Lord Gautama Buddha and Krishna depicted as the previous birth of Buddha's disciple Sariputta. Gallery[edit]

17th century mural of Balarama
Balarama
in a south Indian temple

Baladewa (Balarama) in Indonesian Wayang

Maues
Maues
coin depicting Balarama, 1st century BCE[citation needed]

Abstract representation of Balarama
Balarama
in the Jagannatha tradition

See also[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Balarama.

Hindu deities Gefjon
Gefjon
– Nordic deity with plough Philomelus – Greek deity with plough Shamgar
Shamgar
– the Biblical hero who kills enemies with farm equipment

References[edit]

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Mythology of Balarāma. Edwin Mellen Press. pp. 30–31, 52–59, 68–69 with footnotes. ISBN 978-0-7734-5723-2.  ^ Lavanya Vemsani (2006). Hindu and Jain
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Mythology of Balarāma. Edwin Mellen Press. pp. 60–61, 107–109. ISBN 978-0-7734-5723-2.  ^ Heather Elgood (1 April 2000). Hinduism and the Religious Arts. Bloomsburg Academic. pp. 57, 61. ISBN 978-0-304-70739-3.  ^ Vemsani, Lavanya (2006). Hindu and Jain
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Mythology of Balarāma: Change and Continuity in an Early Indian Cult. Edwin Mellen Press. pp. 64–66, 94–100, 116–125. ISBN 978-0-7734-5723-2.  ^ Lavanya Vemsani (2016). Krishna
Krishna
in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Hindu Lord of Many Names. ABC-CLIO. p. 26. ISBN 978-1-61069-211-3.  ^ Gopal, Madan (1990). K.S. Gautam, ed. India through the ages. Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. p. 75.  ^ "Appearance of Lord Balaram", Iskondesiretree.com via iskconmanchester.com. Retrieved 2016-09-02. ^ a b Thomas E. Donaldson (2002). Tantra and Śākta Art of Orissa. DK Printworld. pp. 779–780. ISBN 978-81-246-0198-3.  ^ O. M. Starza (1993). The Jagannatha Temple
Temple
at Puri: Its Architecture, Art, and Cult. BRILL Academic. pp. 61–64 with footnotes. ISBN 90-04-09673-6.  ^ Guy, John (1992). "New Evidence for the Jagannātha Cult in Seventeenth Century Nepal". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. Cambridge University Press. 2 (02): 213–230. doi:10.1017/s135618630000239x.  ^ Joshi, Nilakanth Purushottam (1979). Iconography of Balarāma. New Delhi: Abhinav Publications. ISBN 81-7017-107-5. , p. 5 ^ Umakant Premanand Shah (1995). Studies in Jaina Art and Iconography and Allied Subjects. Abhinav Publications. pp. 75–76. ISBN 978-81-7017-316-8. , Quote: "Krsna (Vasudeva) and Baladeva or Balarama
Balarama
are regarded as cousin brothers of Neminatha". ^ Jaini, P. S. (1993), Jaina Puranas: A Puranic Counter Tradition, ISBN 978-0-7914-1381-4  ^ Upinder Singh
Upinder Singh
2016, p. 26. ^ See Jerome H. Bauer "Hero of Wonders, Hero in Deeds: "Vasudeva Krishna
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in Jaina Cosmohistory" in Beck 2005, pp. 167–169 ^ Devangana Desai (2000). Khajuraho. Oxford University Press. p. 73. ISBN 978-0-19-565391-5.  ^ Cort, J. E. (1993), Wendy Doniger, ed., An Overview of the Jaina Puranas, in Purana Perennis, pp. 220–233, ISBN 9781438401362  ^ Helmuth von Glasenapp (1999). Jainism: An Indian Religion of Salvation. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 316–318. ISBN 978-81-208-1376-2.  ^ Jeffery D. Long (2009). Jainism: An Introduction. I. B. Tauris. p. 42. ISBN 978-1-84511-625-5.  ^ a b Pratapaditya Pal (1997). Divine Images, Human Visions: The Max Tanenbaum Collection of South Asian and Himalayan Art in the National Gallery of Canada. National Gallery of Canada. pp. 25–26. ISBN 978-1-896209-05-0.  ^ MNP Tiwari (1995). Umakant Premanand Shah, ed. Studies in Jaina Art and Iconography and Allied Subjects in Honour of Dr. U.P. Shah. Abhinav Publications. pp. 17–19. ISBN 978-81-7017-316-8.  ^ Paul Dundas (2003). The Jains. Routledge. pp. 298 note 17. ISBN 1-134-50165-X.  ^ MNP Tiwari and K Giri (1985), Balarama
Balarama
– The Deity of Krsikarman in Jaina Art, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bombay, Volume 60, Issue 1, pages 122-125 ^ Julia Shaw (2016). Buddhist Landscapes in Central India: Sanchi Hill and Archaeologies of Religious and Social Change, c. Third Century BC to Fifth Century AD. Taylor & Francis. pp. 135–139, Figures 141–144, 150. ISBN 978-1-315-43263-2.  ^ Nilakanth Purushottam Joshi (1979). Iconography of Balarāma. Abhinav Publications. pp. 32–57. ISBN 978-81-7017-107-2. 

Bibliography[edit]

Beck, Guy L. (Ed.) (2005). Alternative Krishnas: Regional and Vernacular Variations on a Hindu Deity. SUNY Press. ISBN 0-7914-6415-6. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Doniger, Wendy (1993). Purana Perennis: Reciprocity and Transformation in Hindu and Jaina Texts. SUNY Press. ISBN 0-7914-1381-0.  Singh, Upinder (2016), A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century, Pearson Education, ISBN 978-93-325-6996-6 

v t e

Avatars of Vishnu

Dashavatara

Matsya Kurma Varaha Narasimha Vamana Parashurama Rama Balarama1 Krishna1 Buddha1 Kalki

Other avatars

Four Kumaras Narada Nara-Narayana Kapila Dattatreya Yajna Rishabha Prithu Dhanvantari Mohini Vyasa Prsnigarbha Hayagriva Hamsa

1 The list of ten avatars varies regionally. The two substitutions involve Balarama, Krishna
Krishna
and Buddha is considered the avatar of Vishnu. Krishna
Krishna
is almost always included; in exceptions, he is considered the source of all avatars.

v t e

Mahabharata

Books (parvas)

Adi Sabha Vana Virata Udyoga Bhishma Drona Karna Shalya Sauptika Stri Shanti Anushasana Ashvamedhika Ashramavasika Mausala Mahaprasthanika Svargarohana Harivamsa

Kuru Kingdom

Shantanu Ganga Bhishma Satyavati Chitrāngada Vichitravirya Ambika Ambalika Vidura Dhritarashtra Gandhari Pandu Kunti Madri Pandavas

Yudhisthira Bhima Arjuna Nakula Sahadeva

Draupadi Kauravas

Duryodhana Dushasana Vikarna Yuyutsu Dushala

Hidimbi Ghatotkacha Ahilawati Subhadra Uttarā Ulupi Chitrāngadā Abhimanyu Iravan Babruvahana Barbarika Upapandavas Parikshit Janamejaya

Other characters

Amba Ashwatthama Balarama Bhagadatta Brihannala Chekitana Chitrasena Dhrishtadyumna Drona Drupada Durvasa Ekalavya Hidimba Jarasandha Jayadratha Kali (demon) Karna Kichaka Kindama Kripa Krishna Kritavarma Mayasura Sanjaya Satyaki Shakuni Shalya Shikhandi Shishupala Bahlika Sudeshna Uttara Kumara Virata Vrishasena Vyasa

Related articles

Avatars Hastinapur Indraprastha Kingdoms Kurukshetra War Bhagavad Gita Vedic-Puranic chronology

Category

v t e

Jagannath
Jagannath
worship

Deities

Jagannath Balabhadra Subhadra Sudarshana Chakra

Temples

Odisha

Puri Gundicha Temple Baripada Gunupur Koraput Nayagarh Bhubaneswar Kendrapara Chhatia Bata Dharakote Patali Srikhetra Barbil

Other parts of India

Agartala Ahmedabad Bangalore Chennai Delhi Hyderabad Ranchi Medinipur Alwar Mahesh Hajo

Abroad

Comilla Dhamrai Pabna South Africa Sialkot

Festivals and ceremonies

Chandan Yatra Dola Yatra Panchaka Nabakalebara

2015

Rath Yatra Snana Yatra Besha

Suna Besha

Texts

Bhagavata Purana Brahma Purana Gita Govinda Kapila
Kapila
Purana Madala Panji Skanda Purana Dahuka boli

Devotees

Chaitanya Mahaprabhu Jayadeva Salabega Sarala Dasa

Indradyumna

See also

Gahana Vije Mahaprasad Nilachal Nila Chakra Neela Madhava Samkha Kshetra Shri Jagannath
Jagannath
Temple
Temple
Act, 1955 ISKCON

Category

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 32845

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