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The Info List - Baku





Bakuvian[4] Azerbaijani: Bakılı

Time zone AZT (UTC+4)

Postal code AZ1000

Area code(s) (+994) 12

Vehicle registration 10–90 AZ

Website www.baku-ih.gov.az

UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site

Official name Walled City of Baku
Baku
with the Shirvanshah's Palace and Maiden Tower

Type Cultural

Criteria iv

Designated 2000 (24th session)

Reference no. 958

Endangered 2003–2009

State Party Azerbaijan

Region Europe and Asia

Baku
Baku
(/bəˈkuː/ bə-KOO, /ˈbɑːkuː/ BAH-koo; Azerbaijani: Bakı, IPA: [bɑˈcɯ]) is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
and of the Caucasus region, with a population of 2,374,000. Baku
Baku
is located 28 metres (92 ft) below sea level, which makes it the lowest lying national capital in the world and also the largest city in the world located below sea level. It is located on the southern shore of the Absheron Peninsula, alongside the Bay of Baku. At the beginning of 2009, Baku's urban population was estimated at just over two million people.[5] Officially, about 25 percent of all inhabitants of the country live in Baku's metropolitan area. Baku
Baku
is divided into twelve administrative districts (raions) and 48 townships. Among these are the townships on the islands of the Baku Archipelago, and the town of Oil Rocks
Oil Rocks
built on stilts in the Caspian Sea, 60 kilometres (37 miles) away from Baku. The Inner City of Baku, along with the Shirvanshah's Palace and Maiden Tower, were inscribed as a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
in 2000. According to the Lonely Planet's ranking, Baku
Baku
is also among the world's top ten destinations for urban nightlife.[6] The city is the scientific, cultural and industrial center of Azerbaijan. Many sizeable Azerbaijani institutions have their headquarters there. The Baku International Sea Trade Port
Baku International Sea Trade Port
is capable of handling two million tons of general and dry bulk cargoes per year.[7] In recent years, Baku
Baku
has become an important venue for international events. It hosted the 57th Eurovision Song Contest
Eurovision Song Contest
in 2012, the 2015 European Games, the 2016 European Grand Prix, 4th Islamic Solidarity Games
Islamic Solidarity Games
and Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Grand Prix in 2017, and will host UEFA Euro 2020. The city is bidding for Expo 2025 against Yekaterinburg, Russia
Russia
and Osaka, Japan. The city is renowned for its harsh winds, which is reflected in its nickname, the "City of Winds".

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Antiquity 2.2 Rise of the Shirvanshahs
Shirvanshahs
and the Safavid era 2.3 Downfall of the Safavids and the Khanate of Baku 2.4 Russo-Persian Wars and Iran's forced ceding 2.5 Discovery of oil 2.6 World War I 2.7 Soviet period 2.8 World War II 2.9 Fall of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and later

3 Geography

3.1 Climate

4 Administrative divisions 5 Demographics

5.1 Ethnic groups 5.2 Religion

6 Economy

6.1 Tourism and shopping

7 Culture

7.1 Theaters

8 Architecture

8.1 Hamams

8.1.1 Teze Bey Hamam 8.1.2 Gum Hamam 8.1.3 Bairamali hamam 8.1.4 Agha Mikayil Hamam

8.2 Modern Architecture 8.3 Music and media 8.4 Nightlife 8.5 Parks and gardens 8.6 Sports

9 Transport 10 Education 11 Health care 12 Notable residents 13 International relations

13.1 Twin towns and sister cities 13.2 Partner cities

14 Gallery 15 See also 16 References 17 External links

Etymology[edit] Baku
Baku
is derived from the Persian name of the city باد-کوبه Bād-kube, meaning "Wind-pounded city", in which bād means "wind" and kube is rooted in the verb کوبیدن kubidan, "to pound", thus referring to a place where wind is strong and pounding.[8] Indeed, the city is renowned for its fierce winter snow storms and harsh winds. This is also reflected in the city's nickname as the "City of Winds". A less probable folk etymology explains the name as deriving from Baghkuy, meaning "God's town". Baga (now بغ bagh) and kuy are the Old Persian words for "god" and "town" respectively; the name Baghkuy may be compared with Baghdād ("God-given") in which dād is the Old Persian word for "give". Arabic sources refer to the city as Baku, Bakukh, Bakuya, and Bakuye, all of which seem to come from a Persian name. During Soviet rule, the city was spelled in Cyrillic as "Баку"[specify][citation needed] in Russian and «Бакы» in Azerbaijani. Nowadays, when Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
is using the Latin alphabet, it is spelled as "Bakı". History[edit] Main articles: History of Baku
History of Baku
and Timeline of Baku Antiquity[edit]

Roman stone inscription in Gobustan dating back to 84–96 A.D.

Around 100,000 years ago, the territory of modern Baku
Baku
and Absheron was savanna with rich flora and fauna.[citation needed] Traces of human settlement go back to the Stone age. From the Bronze age
Bronze age
there have been rock carvings discovered near Bayil, and a bronze figure of a small fish discovered in the territory of the Old City. These have led some to suggest the existence of a Bronze Age settlement within the city's territory.[9] Near Nardaran, in a place called Umid Gaya, a prehistoric observatory was discovered, where on the rock the images of sun and various constellations are carved together with a primitive astronomic table.[10] Further archeological excavations revealed various prehistoric settlements, native temples, statues and other artifacts within the territory of the modern city and around it. In the 1st century CE, the Romans organized two Caucasian campaigns and reached Baku. Near the city, in Gobustan, Roman inscriptions dating from 84–96 CE were discovered. This is one of the earliest written evidences for Baku.[11] Rise of the Shirvanshahs
Shirvanshahs
and the Safavid era[edit] See also: Shirvanshah

A miniature painting marking the downfall of the Shirvanshahs
Shirvanshahs
at the hands of the Safavids.

Baku
Baku
was the realm of the Shirvanshahs
Shirvanshahs
during the 8th century CE. The city frequently came under assault of the Khazars
Khazars
and (starting from the 10th century) the Rus. Shirvanshah
Shirvanshah
Akhsitan I built a navy in Baku and successfully repelled another Rus assault in 1170. After a devastating earthquake struck Shamakhi, the capital of Shirvan, Shirvanshah’s court moved to Baku
Baku
in 1191.[12]

Relics from the sunken Sabayil Castle.

The Shirvan
Shirvan
era greatly influenced Baku
Baku
and the remainder of what is present-day Azerbaijan. Between the 12th and 14th centuries, massive fortifications were undertaken in Baku
Baku
and the surrounding towns. The Maiden Tower, the Ramana Tower, the Nardaran
Nardaran
Fortress, the Shagan Castle, the Mardakan Castle, the Round Castle and also the famous Sabayil Castle
Sabayil Castle
on the island of the Bay of Baku
Bay of Baku
was built during this period. The city walls of Baku
Baku
were also rebuilt and strengthened. By the early 16th century Baku's wealth and strategic position attracted the focus of its larger neighbors; in the previous two centuries, it was under the rule of the in Iran-centred Kara Koyunlu and Ak Koyunlu. The fall of the Ak Koyunlu
Ak Koyunlu
brought the city immediately into the sphere of the newly formed Iranian Safavid dynasty, led by king (shah) Ismail I
Ismail I
(r. 1501–1524). Ismail I
Ismail I
laid siege to Baku
Baku
in 1501 and captured it; he allowed the Shirvanshahs
Shirvanshahs
to remain in power, under Safavid suzerainty. His successor, king Tahmasp I (r. 1524–1576), completely removed the Shirvanshahs
Shirvanshahs
from power, and made Baku
Baku
a part of the Shirvan
Shirvan
province. Baku
Baku
remained as an integral part of his empire and the successive Iranian dynasties to come for the next centuries, until the irrevocable cession in the first half of the 19th century. The House of Shirvan, who ruled Baku since the 9th century, was extinguished in the course of the Safavid rule. At this time the city was enclosed within the lines of strong walls, which were washed by the sea on one side and protected by a wide trench on land. The Ottomans briefly gained control over Baku
Baku
as a result of the Ottoman-Safavid War of 1578–1590; by 1607, it was again put under Iranian control.[13] In 1604 the Baku
Baku
fortress was destroyed by Shah
Shah
Abbas I (r. 1588-1629). Downfall of the Safavids and the Khanate of Baku[edit] In the wake of the demise of the Safavids, the Russians took advantage of the situation and invaded; the Safavids were forced to cede Baku
Baku
to Russia
Russia
for a few years.[14] By 1730, the situation had deteriorated for the Russians; the successes of Nader Shah
Shah
(r. 1736–1747) forced them to make an agreement near Ganja on 10 March 1735, ceding the city and all other conquered territories in the Caucasus
Caucasus
back to Iran.[15] The eruption of instability following Nader Shah's death gave rise to the various Caucasian khanates. The semi-autonomous Persian-ruled[16][17] Baku Khanate
Baku Khanate
was one of these. It was ruled by Mirza Muhammed Khan but soon became a dependency of the much stronger Quba
Quba
Khanate. During this time, the population of Baku
Baku
was small (approximately 5,000), and the economy was ruined as a result of constant warfare.[citation needed] Russo-Persian Wars and Iran's forced ceding[edit]

Painting of Baku's shoreline in 1861 by Alexey Bogolyubov.

From the late 18th century, Imperial Russia
Russia
switched to a more aggressive geopolitical stance towards its two neighbors and rivals to the south, namely Iran
Iran
and the Ottoman Empire. In the spring of 1796, by Catherine II’s order, General Valerian Zubov’s troops started a large campaign against Qajar Persia.[18] Zubov had sent 13,000 men to capture Baku, and it was overrun subsequently without any resistance. On 13 June 1796, a Russian flotilla entered Baku
Baku
Bay, and a garrison of Russian troops was placed inside the city. Later, however, Pavel I ordered the cessation of the campaign and the withdrawal of Russian forces following his predecessor, Catherine the Great's death. In March 1797, the tsarist troops left Baku
Baku
and the city became part of Qajar Iran
Iran
again. In 1813, following the Russo-Persian War of 1804–1813, Qajar Iran was forced to sign the Treaty of Gulistan
Treaty of Gulistan
with Russia, which provided for the irrevocable cession of Baku
Baku
and most of Iran's territories in the North Caucasus
Caucasus
and South Caucasus
Caucasus
to Russia. During the next and final bout of hostilities between the two, the Russo-Persian War of 1826–1828, Baku
Baku
was briefly recaptured by the Iranians. However, militarily superior, the Russians ended this war in a victory as well, and the resulting Treaty of Turkmenchay
Treaty of Turkmenchay
made its inclusion into the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
definite.[19] When Baku
Baku
was occupied by the Russian troops during the war of 1804–13, nearly the entire population of some 8,000 people was ethnic Tat.[20] Discovery of oil[edit] Main article: Petroleum industry
Petroleum industry
in Azerbaijan

Oil workers digging an oil well by hand at Bibi-Heybat.

Drilling for oil began in the mid-1800s, with the first oil well drilled in the Bibi-Heybat suburb of Baku
Baku
in 1846. It was mechanically drilled, though a number of hand-dug wells predate it. Large-scale oil exploration started in 1872 when Russian imperial authorities auctioned the parcels of oil-rich land around Baku
Baku
to private investors. The pioneer of oil extracting from the bottom of the sea was Polish geologist Witold Zglenicki.[21] Soon after that Swiss, British, French, Belgian, German, Swedish and American investors appeared in Baku. Among them were the firms of the Nobel brothers together with the family von Börtzell-Szuch (Carl Knut Börtzell, who also owned the Livadia Palace) and the Rothschild family. An industrial oil belt, better known as Black City, was established near Baku. Professor A. V. Williams Jackson
A. V. Williams Jackson
of Columbia University wrote in his work From Constantinople to the Home of Omar Khayyam (1911):

Baku
Baku
is a city founded upon oil, for to its inexhaustible founts of naphtha it owes its very existence, its maintenance, its prosperity... At present Baku
Baku
produces one-fifth of the oil that is used in the world, and the immense output in crude petroleum from this single city far surpasses that in any other district where oil is found. Verily, the words of the Scriptures find illustration here: 'the rock poured me out rivers of oil. Oil is in the air one breathes, in one's nostrils, in one's eyes, in the water of the morning bath (though not in the drinking water, for that is brought in bottles from distant mineral springs), in one's starched linen – everywhere. This is the impression one carries away from Baku, and it is certainly true in the environs.[22]

By the beginning of the 20th century, half of the oil sold in international markets was being extracted in Baku.[23] The oil boom contributed to the massive growth of Baku. Between 1856 and 1910 Baku's population grew at a faster rate than that of London, Paris
Paris
or New York. World War I[edit]

Soldiers and officers of the army of the Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Democratic Republic
Republic
shortly after the Battle of Baku.

Neftchiler Avenue
Neftchiler Avenue
in Baku, circa 1920.

In 1917, after the October revolution and amidst the turmoil of World War I and the breakup of the Russian Empire, Baku
Baku
came under the control of the Baku
Baku
Commune, which was led by veteran Bolshevik
Bolshevik
Stepan Shahumyan. Seeking to capitalize on the existing inter-ethnic conflicts, by spring 1918, Bolsheviks inspired and condoned civil warfare in and around Baku. During the infamous March Days, Bolsheviks and Dashnaks seeking to establish control over the Baku
Baku
streets, were faced with armed Azerbaijani groups. The Azerbaijanis suffered a crushing defeat by the united forces of the Baku
Baku
Soviet and were massacred by Dashnak teams in what was called March Days. An estimated 3–12,000 Azerbaijanis were killed in their own capital.[24][25] After the massacre, on 28 May 1918, the Azerbaijani faction of the Transcaucasian Sejm proclaimed the independence of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic
Republic
(ADR) in Ganja, thereby becoming the first Muslim-majority democratic and secular republic.[26] The newly independent Azerbaijani republic, being unable to defend the independence of the country on their own, asked the Ottoman Empire for military support in accordance with clause 4 of the treaty between the two countries. Shortly after, Azerbaijani forces, with support of the Ottoman Army of Islam
Ottoman Army of Islam
led by Nuru Pasha, started their advance onto Baku, eventually capturing the city from the loose coalition of Bolsheviks, Esers, Dashnaks, Mensheviks and British forces under the command of General Lionel Dunsterville
Lionel Dunsterville
on 15 September 1918. After the Battle of Baku, the Azerbaijani irregular troops, with the tacit support of the Turkish command, conducted four days of pillaging and killing of 10–30,000[27] of the Armenian residents of Baku. This pogrom was known as the September Days. Shortly after this Baku
Baku
was proclaimed the new capital of the Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Democratic Republic. With Turkey
Turkey
having lost the war by October 1918 they conducted the Armistice of Mudros
Armistice of Mudros
with the British which meant Baku
Baku
was to be evacuated. Headed by General William Thomson, British troops of 5,000 soldiers, including parts of Dunsterforce, arrived in Baku
Baku
on 17 November. Thomson declared himself military governor of Baku
Baku
and implemented Martial law
Martial law
on the capital until "the civil power would be strong enough to release the forces from the responsibility to maintain the public order". British forces left before the end of 1919 having felt they had done so.[28] Soviet period[edit] The independence of the Azerbaijani republic was significant but a short-lived chapter. On 28 April 1920, the 11th Red Army invaded Baku and reinstalled the Bolsheviks, making Baku
Baku
the capital of the Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Soviet Socialist Republic. The city underwent many major changes. As a result, Baku
Baku
played a great role in many branches of the Soviet life. Since about 1921, the city was headed by the Baku
Baku
City Executive Committee, commonly known in Russian as Bakgorispolkom. Together with the Baku
Baku
Party Committee (known as the Baksovet), it developed the economic significance of the Caspian metropolis. From 1922 to 1930, Baku
Baku
was the venue for one of the major Trade fairs of the Soviet Union, serving as a commercial bridgehead to Iran
Iran
and the Middle East.[29] World War II[edit] Baku's growing importance as a major energy hub remained in sight of the major powers. During World War II
World War II
and the Nazi German invasion of the southwestern Soviet Union, Baku
Baku
had become of vital strategic importance. In fact, capturing the oil fields of Baku
Baku
was one of the ultimate goals of Operation Edelweiss, carried out between May and November 1942. However, the German Army's closest approach to Baku
Baku
was no closer than some 530 kilometres (329 miles) northwest of Baku
Baku
in November 1942, falling far short of the city's capture before being driven back during the Soviet Operation Little Saturn
Operation Little Saturn
in mid-December 1942. Fall of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and later[edit] After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Baku
Baku
embarked on a process of restructuring on a scale unseen in its history.[30] Thousands of buildings from the Soviet period were demolished to make way for a green belt on its shores; parks and gardens were built on the land reclaimed by filling up the beaches of the Baku
Baku
Bay. Improvements were made in the general cleaning, maintenance, and garbage collection, and these services are now at Western European standards. The city is growing dynamically and developing at full speed on an east-west axis along the shores of the Caspian Sea. Sustainability has become a key factor in future urban development.[31] Geography[edit]

Absheron Peninsular satellite image, Landsat 5, 6 September 2010

Baku
Baku
is situated on the western coast of Caspian Sea. In the vicinity of the city there are a number of mud volcanoes (Keyraki, Bogkh-bogkha, Lokbatan
Lokbatan
and others) and salt lakes (Boyukshor, Khodasan and so on). Climate[edit] Baku
Baku
has a temperate semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification: BSk) with hot and humid summers, cool and occasionally wet winters, and strong winds all year long. However, unlike many other cities with such climate features, Baku
Baku
does not see extremely hot summers. This is largely because of its northerly latitude and the fact that it is located on a peninsula on the shore of the Caspian Sea. Baku
Baku
and the Absheron Peninsula
Absheron Peninsula
on which it is situated, is the most arid part of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
(precipitation here is around or less than 200 mm (8 in) a year). The majority of the light annual precipitation occurs in seasons other than summer, but none of these seasons are particularly wet. During Soviet times, Baku
Baku
with its long hours of sunshine and dry healthy climate, was a vacation destination where citizens could enjoy beaches or relax in now-dilapidated spa complexes overlooking the Caspian Sea. The city's past as a Soviet industrial center has left it as one of the most polluted cities in the world.[32] At the same time Baku
Baku
is noted as a very windy city throughout the year, hence the city's nickname the "City of Winds", and gale-force winds, the cold northern wind khazri and the warm southern wind gilavar are typical here in all seasons. Indeed, the city is renowned for its fierce winter snow storms and harsh winds.[8] The speed of the khazri sometimes reaches 144 kph (89 mph), which can cause damage to crops, trees and roof tiles.[33] The daily mean temperature in July and August averages 26.4 °C (79.5 °F), and there is very little rainfall during that season. During summer the khazri sweeps through, bringing desired coolness. Winter is cool and occasionally wet, with the daily mean temperature in January and February averaging 4.3 °C (39.7 °F). During winter the khazri sweeps through, driven by polar air masses; temperatures on the coast frequently drop below freezing and make it feel bitterly cold. Winter snow storms are occasional; snow usually melts within a few days after each snowfall.

Climate data for Baku

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 6.6 (43.9) 6.3 (43.3) 9.8 (49.6) 16.4 (61.5) 22.1 (71.8) 27.3 (81.1) 30.6 (87.1) 29.7 (85.5) 25.6 (78.1) 19.6 (67.3) 13.5 (56.3) 9.7 (49.5) 18.1 (64.6)

Daily mean °C (°F) 4.4 (39.9) 4.2 (39.6) 7.0 (44.6) 12.9 (55.2) 18.5 (65.3) 23.5 (74.3) 26.4 (79.5) 26.3 (79.3) 22.5 (72.5) 16.6 (61.9) 11.2 (52.2) 7.3 (45.1) 15.1 (59.2)

Average low °C (°F) 2.1 (35.8) 2.0 (35.6) 4.2 (39.6) 9.4 (48.9) 14.9 (58.8) 19.7 (67.5) 22.2 (72) 22.9 (73.2) 19.4 (66.9) 13.6 (56.5) 8.8 (47.8) 4.8 (40.6) 12.0 (53.6)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 21 (0.83) 20 (0.79) 21 (0.83) 18 (0.71) 18 (0.71) 8 (0.31) 2 (0.08) 6 (0.24) 15 (0.59) 25 (0.98) 30 (1.18) 26 (1.02) 210 (8.27)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 6 6 5 4 3 2 1 2 2 6 6 6 49

Average snowy days (≥ 1 cm) 4 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 10

Mean monthly sunshine hours 89.9 89.0 124.0 195.0 257.3 294.0 313.1 282.1 222.0 145.7 93.0 102.3 2,207.4

Source #1: World Meteorological Organisation
World Meteorological Organisation
(UN),[34] Hong Kong Observatory[35] for data of sunshine hours

Source #2: Meoweather (Snowy days)[36]

Administrative divisions[edit] Today, Baku
Baku
is divided into 12 rayonlar (sub-rayons) (administrative districts) and 5 settlements of city type.[37][38] The mayor, presently Hajibala Abutalybov, embodies the executive power of the city.[39]

Binagadi raion (Binəqədi rayonu) Garadagh raion (Qaradağ rayonu) Khatai raion (Xətai rayonu) Khazar raion
Khazar raion
(Xəzər rayonu) Narimanov raion (Nərimanov rayonu) Nasimi raion (Nəsimi rayonu) Nizami raion
Nizami raion
(Nizami rayonu) Pirallahy raion
Pirallahy raion
(Pirallahı rayonu) Sabail raion
Sabail raion
(Səbail rayonu) Sabunchu raion (Sabunçu rayonu) Surakhany raion (Suraxanı rayonu) Yasamal raion
Yasamal raion
(Yasamal rayonu)

Demographics[edit] Until 1988 Baku
Baku
had very large Russian, Armenian, and Jewish populations which contributed to cultural diversity and added in various ways (music, literature, architecture and progressive outlook) to Baku's history. With the onset of the Karabakh War
Karabakh War
and the pogrom against Armenians starting in January 1990, the city's large Armenian population was expelled.[40][41] Under Communism, the Soviets took over the majority of Jewish property in Baku
Baku
and Kuba. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Azerbaijani President Heydar Aliyev returned several synagogues and a Jewish college, nationalized by the Soviets, to the Jewish community. He encouraged the restoration of these buildings and is well liked by the Jews of Azerbaijan. Renovation has begun on seven of the original 11 synagogues, including the Gilah synagogue, built in 1896, and the large Kruei Synagogue.[42]

Year Azerbaijanis % Russians % Armenians % Jews % Others % Total

1851[43] more than 5000

405 5.5%

7,431

1886[44] 37,530 43.3 21,390 24.7 24,490 28.3 391 0.5 2,810 3.2 86,611

1897[45] 40,341 36 37,399 33.4 19,099 17.1 3,369 3 11,696 10.5 111,904

1903[46] 44,257 28,4 59,955 38,5 26,151 16,8 n.a. n.a. 28,513 18,3 155,876

1913[46] 45,962 21,4 76,288 35,5 41,680 19,4 9,690 4,5 41,052 19,1 214,672

1926[47] 118,737 26.2 167,373 36.9 76,656 16.9 19,589 4.3 70,978 15.7 453,333

1939[48] 215,482 27.4 343,064 43.6 118,650 15.1 31,050 3.9 79,377 10.1 787,623

1959[49] 211,372 32.9 223,242 34.7 137,111 21.3 24,057 3.7 56,725 8.7 652,507

1970[50] 586,052 46.3 351,090 27.7 207,464 16.4 29,716 2.3 88,193 6.9 1,262,515

1979[51] 530,556 52.4 229,873 22.7 167,226 16.5 22,916 2.3 62,865 6.2 1,013,436

1999[52] 1,574,252 88 119,371 6.7 378 0.02 5,164 0.3 89,689 5 1,788,854

2009[53] 1,848,107 90.3 108,525 5.3 104 0 6,056 0.6 83,023 4.1 2,045,815

Ethnic groups[edit]

The Armenian Saint Gregory the Illuminator's Church, Baku

Today the vast majority of the population of Baku
Baku
are ethnic Azerbaijanis (more than 90%). When Baku
Baku
was occupied by the Russian troops during the war of 1804–13, nearly the entire population of some 8,000 people was ethnic Tat.[20] The intensive growth of the population started in the middle of the 19th century when Baku
Baku
was a small town with a population of about 7,000 people. The population increased again from about 13,000 in the 1860s to 112,000 in 1897 and 215,000 in 1913, making Baku
Baku
the largest city in the Caucasus region.[54] Baku
Baku
has been a cosmopolitan city at certain times during its history, meaning ethnic Azerbaijanis did not constitute the majority of population.[55] In 2003 Baku
Baku
additionally had 153,400 internally displaced persons and 93,400 refugees.[56] Religion[edit]

The 13th century Bibi-Heybat Mosque. The mosque was built over the tomb of a descendant of Muhammad.[57]

The urban landscape of Baku
Baku
is shaped by many communities. The religion with the largest community of followers is Islam. The majority of the Muslims are Shia Muslims, and the Republic
Republic
of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
has the second highest Shia population percentage in the world after Iran.[58] The city's notable mosques include Juma Mosque, Bibi-Heybat Mosque, Muhammad
Muhammad
Mosque and Taza Pir Mosque. There are some other faiths practiced among the different ethnic groups within the country. By article 48 of its Constitution, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
is a secular state and ensures religious freedom. Religious minorities include Russian Orthodox Christians, Catholic Levantines, Georgian Orthodox Christians, Lutherans, Ashkenazi Jews and Sufi Muslims. Zoroastrianism, although extinct in the city as well as in the rest of the country by the present time, had a long history in Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and the Zoroastrian New Year (Nowruz) continues to be the main holiday in the city as well as in the rest of Azerbaijan. Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Baku Baku's largest industry is petroleum, and its petroleum exports make it a large contributor to Azerbaijan's balance of payments. The existence of petroleum has been known since the 8th century. In the 10th century, the Arabian traveler, Marudee, reported that both white and black oil were being extracted naturally from Baku.[59] By the 15th century, oil for lamps was obtained from hand-dug surface wells. Commercial exploitation began in 1872, and by the beginning of the 20th century the Baku
Baku
oil fields were the largest in the world. Towards the end of the 20th century much of the onshore petroleum had been exhausted, and drilling had extended into the sea offshore. By the end of the 19th century skilled workers and specialists flocked to Baku. By 1900 the city had more than 3,000 oil wells, of which 2,000 were producing oil at industrial levels. Baku
Baku
ranked as one of the largest centres for the production of oil industry equipment before World War II. The World War II
World War II
Battle of Stalingrad
Battle of Stalingrad
was fought to determine who would have control of the Baku
Baku
oil fields. Fifty years before the battle, Baku
Baku
produced half of the world's oil supply.[60] Currently the oil economy of Baku
Baku
is undergoing a resurgence, with the development of the massive Azeri-Chirag-Guneshli field (Shallow water Gunashli by SOCAR, deeper areas by a consortium led by BP), development of the Shah
Shah
Deniz gas field, the expansion of the Sangachal Terminal
Sangachal Terminal
and the construction of the BTC Pipeline. The Baku Stock Exchange is Azerbaijan's largest stock exchange, and largest in the Caucasian region by market capitalization. A relatively large number of transnational companies are headquartered in Baku. One of the more prominent institutions headquartered in Baku
Baku
is the International Bank of Azerbaijan, which employs over 1,000 people. International banks with branches in Baku
Baku
include HSBC, Société Générale and Credit Suisse.[61]

Skyscrapers in Baku

Flame Towers

Azersu Tower

SOFAZ Tower

Tourism and shopping[edit] Baku
Baku
is one of the most important tourist destinations in the Caucasus, with hotels in the city earning 7 million euros in 2009.[62] Many sizable world hotel chains have a presence in the city. Baku
Baku
has many popular tourist and entertainment spots, such as the downtown Fountains Square, the One and Thousand Nights Beach, Shikhov Beach and Oil Rocks. Baku's vicinities feature Yanar Dag, an ever-blazing spot of natural gas. On 2 September 2010, with the inauguration of National Flag Square, Baku
Baku
became home to the world's tallest flagpole, according to the Guinness Book of Records.[63][64] However, on 24 May 2011 Baku
Baku
lost this record by just 3 metres (9.8 feet) to the city of Dushanbe
Dushanbe
in Tajikistan.[65] As of October 2017, the Flag Pole is dismantled and the National Flag Square
National Flag Square
closed with fences. Baku
Baku
has several shopping malls; the most famous city center malls are Park Bulvar, Genclik Mall, Metro Park, 28 MALL, Aygun city and AF MALL. The retail areas contain shops from chain stores up to high-end boutiques. The city is listed 48th in the 2011 list of the most expensive cities in the world conducted by the Mercer Human Resource Consulting.[66] Its Nizami Street
Nizami Street
is one of the most expensive streets in the world. Culture[edit] The city has many amenities that offer a wide range of cultural activities, drawing both from a rich local dramatic portfolio and an international repertoire. It also boasts many museums such as Baku Museum of Modern Art and Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
State Museum of History, most notably featuring historical artifacts and art. Many of the city's cultural sites were celebrated in 2009 when Baku
Baku
was designated an Islamic Culture Capital.[67] Baku
Baku
was also chosen to host the Eurovision Dance Contest
Eurovision Dance Contest
2010. In 2007 the Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev
Cultural Center was opened.

Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev
Cultural Center

Theaters[edit]

Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
State Academic Opera and Ballet Theatre Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
State Academic Drama Theatre Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
State Russian Drama Theatre named after Samad Vurgun Baku Puppet Theatre
Baku Puppet Theatre
(formally Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
State Puppet Theatre named after Abdulla Shaig) Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
State Theatre of Young Spectators Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
State Theatre of Musical Comedy Baku
Baku
State Circus "Oda" Theatre Icherisheher Marionette Theatre Baku
Baku
Municipal Theatre Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
State Pantomime Theatre Mugham
Mugham
Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
National Music Theatre Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
State Theatre of Song named after Rashid Behbudov “UNS” Theatre “Yugh” Theatre

Among Baku's prestigious cultural venues are Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
State Philharmonic Hall, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
State Academic Opera and Ballet Theatre. The main movie theatre is Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Cinema. Festivals include the Baku
Baku
International Film Festival, Baku
Baku
International Jazz Festival, Novruz Festival, Gül Bayramı (Flower Festival) and the National Theater Festival.[68][69] International and local exhibitions are presented at the Baku
Baku
Expo Center. As of 2012[update], the city along with Ganja and Lankaran participates in Earth Hour
Earth Hour
movement.[70][71]

Museums in Baku

National Museum of History

Nizami Museum of Literature

National Art Museum

Villa Petrolea

Baku
Baku
Museum of Modern Art

Architecture[edit] Main article: Architecture in Baku

Maiden Tower in Old Baku, a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
built in the 11th–12th century, recognised as the symbol of the city.

Caravanserai
Caravanserai
in Baku.

Baku
Baku
has wildly varying architecture, ranging from the Old City core to modern buildings and the spacious layout of the Baku
Baku
port. Many of the city's most impressive buildings were built during the early 20th century, when architectural elements of the European styles were combined in eclectic style.[72] Baku
Baku
has an original and unique appearance, earning it a reputation as the ' Paris
Paris
of the East'.[73] Hamams[edit] The Hamam tradition in Baku
Baku
is interesting. There are a number of ancient hamams in Baku
Baku
dating back to the 12th, 14th and 18th centuries. Hamams play a very important role in the architectural appearance of Baku.[74] Teze Bey Hamam[edit] Teze Bey is the most popular hamam (traditional bath) in Baku. It was built in 1886 in the center of Baku
Baku
and in 2003 it was fully restored and modernized. Along with its modern amenities, Teze Bey features a swimming pool and architectural details inspired by Oriental, Russian and Finnish baths. Gum Hamam[edit] Gum Hamam was discovered during archaeological excavations underneath the sand; hence the name: Gum hamam (sand bath). It was built sometime during the 12th–14th centuries. Bairamali hamam[edit] In ancient times Bairamali Hamam was called “Bey Hamam”. The original structure was built sometime during the 12th–14th centuries and was reconstructed in 1881. Agha Mikayil Hamam[edit] Agha Mikayil Hamam was constructed in the 18th century by Haji Agha Mikayil on Kichik Gala Street in the Old City (icherisheher). It is still operating in its ancient setting. The Hamam is open to women on Mondays and Fridays and to men on the other days of the week. Modern Architecture[edit] Late modern and postmodern architecture began to appear in the early 2000s. With economic development, old buildings such as Atlant House were razed to make way for new ones. Buildings with all-glass shells have appeared around the city, the most prominent examples being the Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Tower, Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev
Cultural Center, Flame Towers, Baku Crystal Hall, Baku White City
Baku White City
and SOCAR Tower. These projects also caught the attention of international media as notable programmes such as Discovery Channel's Extreme Engineering
Extreme Engineering
did pieces focusing in on changes to the city.[75] The Old City of Baku, also known as the Walled City of Baku, refers to the ancient Baku
Baku
settlement. Most of the walls and towers, strengthened after the Russian conquest in 1806, survived. This section is picturesque, with its maze of narrow alleys and ancient buildings: the cobbled streets past the Palace of the Shirvanshahs, two caravansaries, the baths and the Juma Mosque (which used to house the Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
National Carpet and Arts Museum but is now a mosque again). The old town core also has dozens of small mosques, often without any particular sign to distinguish them as such. In 2003, UNESCO
UNESCO
placed the Inner City on the List of World Heritage in Danger, citing damage from a November 2000 earthquake, poor conservation as well as "dubious" restoration efforts.[76] Music and media[edit]

Baku Crystal Hall
Baku Crystal Hall
during the Eurovision Song Contest
Eurovision Song Contest
2012

The music scene in Baku
Baku
can be traced back to ancient times and villages of Baku, generally revered as the fountainhead of meykhana and mugham in the Azerbaijan.[77][78] In recent years, the success of Azerbaijani performers such as AySel, Farid Mammadov, Sabina Babayeva, Safura and Elnur Hüseynov
Elnur Hüseynov
in the Eurovision Song Contest
Eurovision Song Contest
has significantly boosted the profile of Baku's music scene, prompting international attention. Following the victory of Azerbaijan's representative Eldar & Nigar at the Eurovision Song Contest
Eurovision Song Contest
2011, Baku
Baku
hosted the Eurovision
Eurovision
Song Contest 2012.[79][80] 2005 was a landmark in the development of Azerbaijani jazz
Azerbaijani jazz
in the city. It has been home to legendary jazz musicians like Vagif Mustafazadeh, Aziza Mustafa Zadeh, Rafig Babayev and Rain Sultanov.[81][82] Among Baku's prominent annual fairs and festivals is Baku
Baku
International Jazz Festival, which features some of the world's most identifiable jazz names.[83][84] Baku
Baku
also has a thriving International Center of Mugham, which is located in Baku
Baku
Boulevard, Gulustan Palace
Gulustan Palace
and Buta Palace, one of the principal performing arts centers and music venues in the city.[85] The majority of Azerbaijan's media companies (including television, newspaper and radio, such as, Azad Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
TV, Ictimai TV, Lider TV and Region TV) are headquartered in Baku. The films The World Is Not Enough and The Diamond Arm
The Diamond Arm
are set in the city, while Amphibian Man includes several scenes filmed in Old City. Out of the city's radio stations, Ictimai Radio, Radio Antenn, Burc FM, Avto FM, ASAN Radio and Lider FM Jazz are some of the more influential competitors with large national audiences. Some of the most influential Baku
Baku
newspapers include the daily Azadliq, Zaman (The Time), Bakinskiy Rabochiy (The Baku
Baku
Worker), Echo and the English-language Baku
Baku
Today. Baku
Baku
is also featured in the video game Battlefield 4.[86] Nightlife[edit] Baku
Baku
boasts a vibrant nightlife. Many clubs that are open until dawn can be found throughout the city. Clubs with an eastern flavor provide special treats from the cuisine of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
along with local music. Western-style clubs target younger, more energetic crowds.[87] Most of the public houses and bars are located near Fountains Square and are usually open until the early hours of the morning. Baku
Baku
is home to restaurants catering to every cuisine and occasion. Restaurants range from luxurious and expensive to ordinary and affordable.[88] In the Lonely Planet
Lonely Planet
"1000 Ultimate Experiences", Baku
Baku
placed 8th among the top 10 party cities in the world.[6][89] Parks and gardens[edit]

Philarmony garden

Baku
Baku
has large sections of greenery either preserved by the National Government or designated as green zones. The city, however, continues to lack a green belt development as economic activity pours into the capital, resulting in massive housing projects along the suburbs.[90] Baku Boulevard
Baku Boulevard
is a pedestrian promenade that runs parallel to Baku's seafront. The boulevard contains an amusement park, yacht club, musical fountain, statues and monuments. The park is popular with dog-walkers and joggers, and is convenient for tourists. It is adjacent to the newly built International Center of Mugham
Mugham
and the musical fountain. Other prominent parks and gardens include Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev
Park, Samad Vurgun Park, Narimanov Park, Alley of Honor
Alley of Honor
and the Fountains Square. The Martyrs' Lane, formerly the Kirov Park, is dedicated to the memory of those who lost their lives during the Nagorno- Karabakh War
Karabakh War
and also to the 137 people killed on Black January. Sports[edit]

Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev
Sports and Exhibition Complex during the 2009 Rhythmic Gymnastics European Championships

Baku
Baku
hosts a Formula One
Formula One
race on the Baku
Baku
City Circuit. The first was the 2016 European Grand Prix. The city will also host three group games and one quarter-final of the UEFA Euro 2020
UEFA Euro 2020
European Football Championship.[91] Since 2002, Baku
Baku
has hosted 36 major sporting events and selected to host the 2015 European Games.[92] Baku
Baku
is also to host the fourth edition of the Islamic Solidarity Games
Islamic Solidarity Games
in 2017. Baku
Baku
is also one of world's leading chess centres, having produced famous grandmasters like Teimour Radjabov, Vugar Gashimov, Garry Kasparov, Shahriyar Mammadyarov
Shahriyar Mammadyarov
and Rauf Mammadov, as well as the arbiter Faik Hasanov. The city also annually hosts the international tournaments such as Baku
Baku
Chess Grand Prix, President's Cup, Baku
Baku
Open and currently bidding to host 42nd Chess Olympiad
42nd Chess Olympiad
in 2014.[93][94] First class sporting facilities were built for the indoor games, including the Palace of Hand Games and Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev
Sports and Exhibition Complex. It hosted many sporting events, including FIFA U-17 Women's World Cup, Rhythmic Gymnastics European Championships in 2007 and 2009, 2005 World Rhythmic Gymnastics Championships, 2007 FILA Wrestling World Championships and 2010 European Wrestling Championships, 2011 World Amateur Boxing Championships, 2009 Women's Challenge Cup and European Taekwondo Championships in 2007.[95][96] Since 2011 the city annually hosts WTA tennis event called Baku Cup.[97] The Synergy Baku Cycling Project participates in the Tour d'Azerbaïdjan a 2.2 multi-stage bicycle race on the UCI Europe Tour. Baku
Baku
made a bid to host the 2016 Summer Olympics and 2020 Summer Olympics,[98] but failed to become a Candidate City both times.[99] The largest sport hub in the city is Baku Olympic Stadium
Baku Olympic Stadium
with 68,700 seating capacity whose construction was completed in 2015. The city's three main football clubs are Neftchi Baku, Inter Baku
Inter Baku
and FC Baku
FC Baku
of whom first has eight Premier League titles making Neftchi the most successful Azerbaijani football club. Baku
Baku
also has several football clubs in the premier and regional leagues, including AZAL and Ravan in Premier League. The city's second largest stadium, Tofiq Bahramov Stadium hosts a number of domestic and international competitions and was the main sport centre of the city for a long period until the construction of Baku
Baku
Olympic Stadium. In the Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Women's Volleyball Super League, Baku
Baku
is represented by Rabita Baku, Azerrail Baku, Lokomotiv Baku
Lokomotiv Baku
and Azeryol Baku. Transport[edit]

Baku
Baku
black cab, introduced in 2011

The Baku
Baku
Funicular

Throughout history the transport system of Baku
Baku
used the now-defunct horsecars, trams and narrow gauge railways. As of 2011[update], 1,000 black cabs are ordered by Baku
Baku
Taxi Company, and as part of a programme originally announced by the Transport Ministry of Azerbaijan, there is a plan to introduce London
London
cabs into Baku.[100][101] The move was part of £16 million agreement between Manganese Bronze
Manganese Bronze
subsidiary LTI Limited and Baku
Baku
Taxi Company.[102][103] Local rail transport includes the Baku Funicular
Baku Funicular
and the Baku
Baku
Metro, a rapid-transit system notable for its art, murals, mosaics and ornate chandeliers. Baku Metro
Baku Metro
was opened in November 1967 and includes 3 lines and 25 stations at present; 170 million people used Baku
Baku
Metro over the past five years.[104] In 2008, the Chief of the Baku
Baku
Metro, Taghi Ahmadov, announced plans to construct 41 new stations over the next 17 years. These will serve the new bus complex as well as the international airport.[105] BakuCard
BakuCard
is a single Smart Card for payment on all types of city transport. The intercity buses and metro use this type of card-based fare-payment system.[106][107] Baku's Central Railway Station is the terminus for national and international rail links to the city. The Kars–Tbilisi–Baku railway, which will directly connect Turkey, Georgia and Azerbaijan, began to be constructed in 2007 and is scheduled for completion in 2015.[108] The completed branch will connect Baku
Baku
with Tbilisi
Tbilisi
in Georgia, and from there trains will continue to Akhalkalaki, and Kars in Turkey.[109]

Baku
Baku
Yacht Club

Sea transport is vital for Baku, as the city is practically surrounded by the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
to the east. Shipping services operate regularly from Baku
Baku
across the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
to Turkmenbashi (formerly Krasnovodsk) in Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
and to Bandar Anzali and Bandar Nowshar in Iran.[110] The commuter ferries, along with the high-speed catamaran Seabus (Deniz Avtobusu), also form the main connection between the city and the Absheron peninsula.[111] The Baku
Baku
Port was founded in 1902 and since then has been the largest Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
port. It has six facilities: the main cargo terminal, the container terminal, the ferry terminal, the oil terminal, the passenger terminal and the port fleet terminal. The port's throughput capacity reaches 15 million tons of liquid bulk and up to 10 million tons of dry cargoes.[112] Beginning in 2010, the Baku
Baku
International Sea Trade Port is being reconstructed. The construction will take place in three stages and will be completed by 2016. The estimated costs are 400 Million US$.[113] From April to November the Baku
Baku
Port is accessible to ships loading cargoes for direct voyages from Western European and Mediterranean ports. The State Road M-1 and the European route E60 are the two main motorway connections between Europe and Azerbaijan. The motorway network around Baku
Baku
is well developed and is constantly being extended. The Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev
International Airport is the only commercial airport serving Baku. The new Baku
Baku
Cargo Terminal was officially opened in March 2005. It was constructed to be a major cargo hub in the CIS countries and is actually now one of the biggest and most technically advanced in the region.[114] There are also several smaller military airbases near Baku, such as Baku
Baku
Kala Air Base, intended for private aircraft, helicopters and charters.[115] Education[edit] See also: List of universities in Baku Baku
Baku
hosts many universities, junior colleges and vocational schools. Baku
Baku
State University, the first established university in Azerbaijan was opened in 1919 by the government of the Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Democratic Republic. In the early years of the Soviet era, Baku
Baku
already had Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
State Oil Academy, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Medical University and Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
State Economic University. In the post-WWII period, a few more universities were established such as Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Technical University, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
University of Languages and the Azerbaijan Architecture and Construction University. After 1991 when Azerbaijan gained independence from the Soviet Union, the fall of communism led to the development of a number of private institutions, including Qafqaz University and Khazar University
Khazar University
which are currently considered the most prestigious academic institutions. Apart from the private universities, the government established the Academy of Public Administration, the Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Diplomatic Academy and various military academies. The largest universities according to the student population are Baku State University
Baku State University
and Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
State Economic University. In addition, there are the Baku Music Academy
Baku Music Academy
and the Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
National Conservatoire in Baku
Baku
established in the early 1920s. Publicly run kindergartens and elementary schools (years 1 through 11) are operated by local wards or municipal offices. The Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
National Academy of Sciences, the main state research organization in Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
is locating in Baku
Baku
as well. Moreover, Baku has numerous libraries, many of which contain vast collections of historic documents from the Roman, Byzantine, Ottoman and Soviet periods, as well as from other civilisations of the past. The most important libraries in terms of historic document collections include the Nizami Museum of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Literature, the National Library of Azerbaijan, the Mirza Alakbar Central Library, the Samad Vurgun Library and the Baku
Baku
Presidential Library. Health care[edit] The city has many public and private hospitals, clinics and laboratories within its bounds and numerous medical research centers.[116] Many of these facilities have high technology equipment, which has contributed to the recent upsurge in "medical tourism" to Baku, particularly from post-Soviet countries such as Georgia and Moldova, whose governments send lower-income patients to the city for inexpensive high-tech medical treatments and operations. Notable residents[edit] Main article: List of people from Baku Further information: Category:People from Baku Because of its intermittent periods of great prosperity as well as being the largest city in the Caucasus
Caucasus
and one of the most ethnically and culturally diverse in the Soviet Union, Baku
Baku
prides itself on having produced a disproportionate number of notable figures in the sciences, arts and other fields. Some of the houses they resided in display commemorative plaques. Some of the many prestigious residents include: Academy Award winners Rustam Ibrahimbeyov
Rustam Ibrahimbeyov
and Vladimir Menshov, one of the founders and head of the Soviet space program Kerim Kerimov, Nobel Prize winner and physicist Lev Landau
Lev Landau
and famous musicians such as Gara Garayev, Uzeyir Hajibeyov, Muslim Magomayev, Vagif Mustafazadeh
Vagif Mustafazadeh
and Alim Qasimov. World-famous cellist Mstislav Rostropovich was born and raised in Baku, as was world-famous chess player, Garry Kasparov.

Lotfi A. Zadeh, artificial intelligence researcher, founder of fuzzy mathematics, fuzzy set theory, and fuzzy logic

Physicist
Physicist
Lev Landau, studied at the Baku
Baku
State University, won the Nobel Prize in Physics
Nobel Prize in Physics
in 1962.

Kerim Kerimov, one of the founders of the Soviet space program.

Garry Kasparov, chess grandmaster, former World Chess Champion.

Mikayil Mushfig, Bakuvian poet and victim of the Stalinist purges.

Tofiq Bahramov
Tofiq Bahramov
as a Soviet footballer and football referee from Azerbaijan.

Vagit Alekperov, President of the leading Russian oil company LUKOIL.

Muslim Magomayev, one of the most famous singers of USSR.

Mstislav Rostropovich, Grammy Award-winning cellist.

Yuli Gusman, Film director and actor, founder and CEO of the prestigious Nika Award.

International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Azerbaijan Twin towns and sister cities[edit] Baku
Baku
is twinned with:[117][118][in chronological order]

Country City State / Province / Region / Governorate Date

Senegal

Dakar

Dakar
Dakar
Region 1967[117][119][120]

Italy

Naples

Campania 1972[121]

Iraq

Basra

Basra
Basra
Governorate 1972[117][119]

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Sarajevo

Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Canton 1975[117][119][120]

United States

Christiansted, United States
United States
Virgin Islands

Virgin Islands 1976[117][122]

United States

Houston

Texas 1976[117][122]

France

Bordeaux

Aquitaine 1979[117][119][123]

Iran

Tabriz

East Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Province 1980[117][120]

Turkey

İzmir

İzmir
İzmir
Province 1985[124]

Vietnam

Vũng Tàu

Bà Rịa– Vũng Tàu
Vũng Tàu
Province 1985[119]

United States

Honolulu County

Hawaii 1998[117][125]

Turkey

Sivas

Sivas
Sivas
Province 2000[126]

Brazil

Rio de Janeiro

State of Rio de Janeiro 2013[127]

Ukraine

Kiev

Kiev
Kiev
City

Israel
Israel
[128]

Haifa
Haifa
[128]

Partner cities[edit]

Aberdeen, Scotland Mainz, Germany[117] Stavanger, Norway

Partnership relations also exist at different levels with:[129] Berlin, Paris, Vienna, Tbilisi, Astana, Minsk, Moscow, Volgograd, Kizlyar, Tashkent
Tashkent
and Chengdu. Gallery[edit]

Nighttime view of Baku.

View during the day.

Baku
Baku
Bay

Old Baku
Old Baku
"Icheri Sheher"

Nizami Street

Baku
Baku
Opera and Ballet Theatre

Ismailiyya building

Maiden Tower

Icheri Sheher

Fountain and Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
State Philharmonic Hall

Baku
Baku
seaside Boulevard

Azerbaijan's Flag

Palace of Happiness

Fountains Square

Rashid Behbudov Street

Aerial view of Baku, May 2012

View of Baku
Baku
taken from the International Space Station

Evening Baku, Azerbaijan

A view of the Baku
Baku
bay

See also[edit]

Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
portal

1920 Baku
Baku
Congress Administrative divisions of Azerbaijan Ateshgah of Baku Ganja List of cities in Azerbaijan Mingachevir Nakhchivan Sumgait

References[edit]

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Azerbaijan
Republic
Republic
for January 1. 2007". Archived from the original on 24 November 2007. Retrieved 17 July 2009.  ^ Demographia: World Urban Areas – Demographia, 2016 ^ CIA World Factbook ^ Thomas de Waal
Thomas de Waal
(2010). The Caucasus: An Introduction. Oxford University Press. p. 16. ISBN 0-19-975043-2.  ^ "Population by economic and administrative regions, urban settlements at the beginning of the 2009". Archived from the original on 14 November 2009. Retrieved 21 November 2009.  ^ a b "Travel Picks: Top 10 cities to party the night away". Reuters. 13 November 2009. Archived from the original on 23 November 2009. Retrieved 21 November 2009.  ^ "Port of Baku". World Port Source. Retrieved 23 December 2010.  ^ a b "Culture & Religion on Podium: Politicizing Linguistics". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 13 October 2007. Retrieved 25 July 2009.  ^ Город Баку... Retrieved on 24 June 2006 ^ Ancient Observatory of Absheron. Gobustan, No 3 (1973) ^ " Azerbaijan
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with Its 15 Neighbors in the Middle East by a Number of Renowned Experts in the Field. Universal. p. 372. ISBN 1-58112-933-5.  ^ a b James B. Minahan (2014). Ethnic Groups of North, East, and Central Asia: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 262. ISBN 978-1-61069-018-8.  ^ Witold Zglenicki ^ Abraham Valentine Williams Jackson. "From Constantinople to the Home of Omar Khayyam". The Macmillan Company, 1911, p. 25. Retrieved 1 December 2011.  ^ R.Hrair Dekmejian, Hovann H. Simonian (2003). Troubled Waters: The Geopolitics of the Caspian Region. I.B. Tauris. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-85771-755-9. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ Smith, Michael (April 2001). "Anatomy of Rumor: Murder Scandal, the Musavat Party and Narrative of the Russian Revolution in Baku, 1917–1920". Journal of Contemporary History. 36 (2): 228. doi:10.1177/002200940103600202. The results of the March events were immediate and total for the Musavat. Several hundreds of its members were killed in the fighting; up to 12,000 Muslim civilians perished; thousands of others fled Baku
Baku
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by 1 January 2009 Archived 14 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Azerbaijan: The status of Armenians, Russians, Jews and other minorities, report, 1993, INS Resource Informacion Center, p.10 ^ " Azerbaijan
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– The Soviet and post-Soviet periods". Britannica. Retrieved 17 December 2011.  ^ "JewishVirtualLibrary.org". JewishVirtualLibrary.org. 10 July 2006. Retrieved 17 April 2010.  ^ (in Russian) Kavkazskii Kalendar na 1852 g., pp. 305–307 ^ (in Russian) Свод статистических данных о населении Закавказского края, извлечённых из посемейных списков 1886 года, г. Тифлис, 1893 ^ (in Russian) Первая всеобщая перепись населения Российской Империи 1897 г. – г. Баку Archived 19 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b The Azerbaijani Turks: Power and Identity Under Russian Rule, Audrey L. Altstadt, page 32, Hoover Press, 1992, ISBN 978-0-8179-9183-8 ^ (in Russian) Всесоюзная перепись населения 1926 года, т. 14, Закавказская СФСР, г. Москва, 1929 ^ Soviet 1939 census ^ Soviet 1959 census ^ Soviet 1970 census ^ Soviet 1979 census ^ "Ethnic composition of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
1999". Retrieved 30 June 2015.  ^ "Ethnic composition of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
2009". Retrieved 30 June 2015.  ^ "Country-data.com". Country-data.com. Retrieved 17 April 2010.  ^ Audrey Altstadt, Conflict, Cleavage and Change in Central Asia and the Caucasus, Cambridge University Press, 1997, p. 112, table 4.1, Ethnic composition of Baku, 1897, 1903,1913 ^ Баку (in Russian). Archived from the original on 1 July 2007. Retrieved 15 July 2007.  ^ Sharifov, Azad. "Legend of the Bibi-Heybat Mosque". Azerbaijan International Magazine. Retrieved 11 July 2010.  ^ Juan Eduardo Campo,Encyclopedia of Islam, p.625 ^ "The History of Oil in Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
by Natig Aliyev". Azer.com. Archived from the original on 24 April 2009. Retrieved 22 May 2009.  ^ Aghazade, Emil (4 July 2005). "Азербайджан: сто лет надежд". BBC News. Retrieved 12 May 2011.  ^ Abdullayev, Rovshan. "Which foreign banks has Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
capital been trusted in?". Archived from the original on 18 May 2011. Retrieved 6 December 2010.  ^ "Hotels in Baku
Baku
earned 6,8 million euros last year". Azerbaijan24.com. Archived from the original on 17 September 2010. Retrieved 17 April 2010.  ^ "Azerbaijani flag flies on world's tallest flagpole". news.az. Archived from the original on 4 September 2010. Retrieved 2 September 2010.  ^ "İşte dünyanın en yüksek bayrak direği" (in Turkish). ntvmsnbc.com. Archived from the original on 4 September 2010. Retrieved 2 September 2010.  ^ "Guinness World Records". guinnessworldrecords.com.  ^ "Bakı dünyanın ən bahalı 48-ci şəhəridir, 13 July 2011, Azadlıq Radiosu. Retrieved 13 July 2011". Azadliq.org. 13 July 2011. Retrieved 17 December 2011.  ^ Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Business Center. "Closing ceremony of Cultural Year "Baku- Islamic Culture Capital-2009" conducted in Azerbaijan". Archived from the original on 11 August 2011. Retrieved 5 February 2010.  ^ В Азербайджане отмечают праздник цветов. (in Russian) Archived 24 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Azerbaycan'da Gül Bayramı ve Aliyev'in doğum günü kutlanıyor Archived 24 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine. (in Turkish) ^ " Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
to join Earth Hour". www.news.az. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 17 November 2014.  ^ "IDEA campaign to hold Earth Hour
Earth Hour
action". en.trend.az. Retrieved 17 November 2014.  ^ "Baku's Architecture:A Fusion of East and West". Azer.com. Retrieved 17 April 2010.  ^ Архитектурное развитие города (in Russian) ^ https://www.azernews.az/travel/62986.html ^ " Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev
Cultural Center And Flame Towers". Discovery Communications. Retrieved 25 April 2011.  ^ "Walled City of Baku
Baku
with the Shirvanshah's Palace and Maiden Tower – UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Centre". Whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 22 May 2009.  ^ "Meyxana", ya "bədihə" sözü aləmi bir-birinə qatıb Archived 7 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. (in Azerbaijani) ^ QARABAĞ MUĞAM MƏKTƏBİ (in Azerbaijani) ^ Cadwalladr, Carole (15 May 2011). " Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
win Eurovision
Eurovision
as Blue and Jedward finish mid-table". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 23 June 2011. Retrieved 15 May 2011.  ^ " Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
win Eurovision
Eurovision
contest with Running Scared". BBC News. Retrieved 8 July 2013.  ^ "The Emergence of Jazz in Azerbaijan". Azer.com. Archived from the original on 13 April 2010. Retrieved 17 April 2010.  ^ MediaDesignTech. "History of Jazz in Azerbaijan". Jazz.az. Retrieved 17 April 2010.  ^ " Baku International Jazz Festival
Baku International Jazz Festival
has been opened in Azerbaijan". Azerbaijan24.com. Archived from the original on 11 May 2010. Retrieved 17 April 2010.  ^ " Baku International Jazz Festival
Baku International Jazz Festival
Official Site". Festival.jazz.az. Archived from the original on 28 March 2010. Retrieved 17 April 2010.  ^ "The Director-General hails the importance of living traditions at the Mugham
Mugham
Festival in Baku, Azerbaijan". Portal.unesco.org. Retrieved 17 April 2010.  ^ " Battlefield 4
Battlefield 4
a sneaky screen from Baku". xboxplayers.com. Archived from the original on 13 May 2013. Retrieved 19 May 2013.  ^ "About Baku
Baku
and Azerbaijan". Thelandmarkhotel.az. Archived from the original on 12 October 2009. Retrieved 17 April 2010.  ^ M. "Food and Restaurants in Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and Baku". T-i.ifrance.com. Retrieved 16 June 2011. [permanent dead link] ^ Beograd na vrhu liste gradova sa najboljim noćnim provodom (in Serbian) Archived 15 November 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Экология и охрана окружающей среды в Азербайджане (in Russian) ^ "Euro 2020: England might have to play games at Hampden Park". The Independent. Retrieved 30 June 2015.  ^ " Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
is a country known for its love of sport and sportsmanship". www.baku2015.com. Archived from the original on 26 September 2013. Retrieved 27 January 2014.  ^ " Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
bids to host Chess Olympiad". news.az. Archived from the original on 5 May 2010. Retrieved 16 August 2010.  ^ "Chess players from 11 countries to join " Baku
Baku
Open 2010"". today.az. Archived from the original on 17 August 2010. Retrieved 16 August 2010.  ^ Cev Cup: Final Four femminile a Baku
Baku
(in Italian) Archived 22 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Уралочка, Ямамай и ЦЗ. Добро пожаловать в бакинский ад! (in Russian) ^ "2011 WTA Tournament Calendar". WTA. Archived from the original on 10 November 2010. Retrieved 26 November 2010.  ^ " Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
bids for 2020 Olympics in Baku
Baku
– Olympics – ESPN". ESPN. 1 September 2011. Retrieved 15 September 2011.  ^ "Olympic News – Official Source of Olympic News – Olympic.org". Retrieved 30 June 2015.  ^ Meidment, Neil (3 March 2011). " Manganese Bronze
Manganese Bronze
seals biggest London
London
taxi order". Reuters. Retrieved 4 March 2011.  ^ Jaglom, Ben. "Manganese takes black cab to Azerbaijan". Retrieved 4 March 2011.  ^ "1,000 London
London
taxis for Azerbaijan". Retrieved 4 March 2011.  ^ "British firm wins £16m Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
order for its Chinese built taxis". Retrieved 4 March 2011. [permanent dead link] ^ " Baku Metro
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Chief: "Baku-Sumgait metro line is not planned"". En.apa.az. Archived from the original on 20 January 2012. Retrieved 17 April 2010.  ^ "41 new underground stations to be constructed in Azerbaijani capital in the next 17 years". Today.az. 10 October 2008. Retrieved 14 August 2009.  ^ "How to pay your fare-Bakı Metropoliteni". www.metro.gov.az. Retrieved 2 April 2017.  ^ "BakuBus.az". www.bakubus.az. Retrieved 2 April 2017.  ^ "Azerbaijani FM: Baku-Tbilisi- Kars
Kars
railroad to be built in 2012". trend.az. Retrieved 26 January 2011.  ^ Railway Gazette International February 2009 p54 with map ^ " Baku
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Sea Port expects for passenger trip Anzali-Baku". En.trend.az. 18 February 2010. Retrieved 17 April 2010.  ^ "Ferry Service across Caspian sea". Azerbaijan24.com. Archived from the original on 29 March 2010. Retrieved 17 April 2010.  ^ " Baku
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Sea Port". Bakuseaport.az. Archived from the original on 16 April 2008. Retrieved 7 March 2008.  ^ "Azerbaijan, Baku". m-hesse.com. Retrieved 1 February 2011.  ^ " Heydar Aliyev
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International Airport (BAK/UBBB), Baku, Azerbaijan". Airport-technology.com. Archived from the original on 12 March 2010. Retrieved 17 April 2010. [unreliable source?] ^ Fevralın 14-ü Azərbaycan Hərbi Hava Qüvvələrinin (HHQ) yaranma günüdür (in Azerbaijani) Archived 6 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Azerbaijan: Energy-Rich, Healthcare-Poor". Eurasianet.org. Retrieved 25 April 2011.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Twin-cities of Azerbaijan". Azerbaijans.com. Retrieved 2013-08-09.  ^ "The main directions of foreign relations of the executive authorities of Baku". Archived from the original on 14 July 2007. Retrieved 15 July 2007.  ^ a b c d e Musa Gasymly (2005). "АЗЕРБАЙДЖАН В МЕЖДУНАРОДНЫХ КУЛЬТУРНЫХ СВЯЗЯХ(1946–1990 гг.)" [Azerbaijan's cultural affairs (1946–1990)]. Tbilisi: Artanuchi. Retrieved 4 February 2010.  ^ a b c "ВСЕ ОСТАЕТСЯ ЛЮДЯМ" [Everything remains for people]. 29 (19725). Vyshka. 25 July 2008. Retrieved 4 February 2010.  ^ Flexibe Solutions (26 October 2007). "Embassy of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Republic in Italy". Azembassy.it. Archived from the original on 23 May 2011. Retrieved 17 April 2010.  ^ a b Maud Beck (Winter 2006). "Sister Cities: Baku
Baku
and Houston. Celebrating 30 Years as Sister Cities". Azerbaijan
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International: 68–71. Archived from the original on 2 February 2010. Retrieved 4 February 2010.  ^ "Bordeaux-Atlas français de la coopération décentralisée et des autres actions extérieures". Délégation pour l’Action Extérieure des Collectivités Territoriales (Ministère des Affaires étrangères) (in French). Archived from the original on 7 February 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-29.  ^ " İzmir
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Twin Towns Archived 27 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine.(in Turkish) ^ "Баку и Рио-де-Жанейро стали городами-побратимами – 1NEWS.AZ". archive.org. 7 December 2013. Archived from the original on 7 December 2013.  ^ a b "Azerbaijani US Ambassador: Israel
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Is a Pragmatic Partner and Good Friend, We Want it to Be Normal for Muslims and Jews to Be Allies". Algemeiner.com. Retrieved 10 April 2017.  ^ "Executive Power of the Baku
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External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Baku.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Baku
Baku
(town).

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Baku.

UNESCO/ICOMOS (29 April 2003). "Joint UNESCO-ICOMOS Mission to the Walled City of Baku" (PDF). UNESCO/ICOMOS.  Baku's profile at the Organization of World Heritage Cities website UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
listing Walled City of Baku Photos of Baku Trip To Azerbaijan

Articles related to Baku

Preceded by Alexandria, Djibouti, Lahore Capital of Islamic Culture 2009 Succeeded by Tarim

v t e

Administrative divisions of Azerbaijan

Districts (Raions)

Absheron Agdam Agdash Aghjabadi Agstafa Agsu Astara Babek Balakan Barda Beylagan Bilasuvar Dashkasan Fizuli Gadabay Goranboy Goychay Goygol Hajigabul Imishli Ismailli Jabrayil Jalilabad Julfa Kalbajar Kangarli Khachmaz Khizi Khojaly Khojavend Kurdamir Lachin Lankaran Lerik Masally Neftchala Oghuz Ordubad Qabala Qakh Qazakh Gobustan Quba Qubadli Qusar Saatly Sabirabad Sadarak Salyan Samukh Shabran Shakhbuz Shaki Shamakhi Shamkir Sharur Shusha Siazan Tartar Tovuz Ujar Yardymli Yevlakh Zangilan Zaqatala Zardab

Cities

Baku Ganja Khankendi Lankaran Mingachevir Naftalan Nakhchivan City Shaki Shirvan Sumqayit Shusha Yevlakh

Towns

Agdam Agdash Aghjabadi Aghstafa Agsu Astara Babek Balakan Barda Beylagan Bilasuvar Dashkasan Füzuli Gadabay Goranboy Goychay Goygol Hajiqabul Imishli Ismayilly Jabrayil Jalilabad Julfa Kalbajar Khachmaz Khizi Khojavend Khojaly Khirdalan Kurdamir Lachin Lerik Masally Neftchala Oghuz Ordubad Gabala Qakh Gazakh Gobustan Quba Qubadli Qusar Saatly Sabirabad Salyan Shabran Shahbuz Shamakhi Shamkir Sharur Siyazan Tartar Tovuz Ujar Yardymly Zəngilan Zaqatala Zardab

Names in italics indicate parts of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic

v t e

Baku

Architecture History (Timeline)

Raions of Baku

Xəzər Binəqədi Qaradağ Xətai Nərimanov Nəsimi Nizami Pirallahy Sabail Sabunçu Suraxanı Yasamal

Settlements and Towns

Artyom Badamdar Bayil Bakıxanov Balaxanı Baş Ələt Bibiheybət Biləcəri Bilgəh Binə Bukhta-Ilicha Bülbülə Buzovna Cənubi Çeyildağ Chërnyy Gorod Çilov Çilov-Neft Daşları Dənizkənarı Dübəndi Dzhabar Əhmədli Ələt Əmircan Gürgan Gürgən-Pirallahı Heybət Hövsan İkinci Qala Kələzağ Keşlə Korgöz Kotal Kürdəxanı Lökbatan Maştağa Mərdəkan Müşfiqabad Nardaran Neft Daşları Pirallahı Pirsaat Pirşağı Puta Qala Qaraçuxur Qaraibad Qarakosa Qaya Qızıldaş Qobustan Qoşaqışlaq Ramana Rəsulzadə Sabunçu Şağan Sahil Şahqaya Sanqaçal Şıxlar Şonqar Şubanı Sulutəpə Şüvəlan Türkan Üçtəpə Xocəsən Yeni Ələt Yeni Günəşli Yeni Suraxanı Zabrat Zəfəran Zağulba Bağları Zığ Zirə

Landmarks

See template

v t e

Baku
Baku
landmarks

Famous and historic structures

Old City Palace of the Shirvanshahs Maiden Tower Alley of Honor Martyrs' Lane Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev
Cultural Center International Mugam Center of Azerbaijan Palace of Happiness Gulustan Palace Ismailiyya Palace Sovetsky Baku
Baku
TV Tower Flame Towers

Places of worship

Bibi-Heybat Mosque Binagady Mosque Gardashlyg Mosque Lezgi Mosque Muhammad
Muhammad
Mosque Shahids’ Mosque Taza Pir Mosque Tuba Shahi Mosque Ateshgah Holy Myrrhbearers Cathedral Armenian Church Church of the Saviour Church of Michael Archangel Church of the Immaculate Conception

Nature and parks

Baku
Baku
Bay Baku
Baku
Archipelago Lake Boyukshor Baku
Baku
Botanical Gardens National Park Mirza Alakbar Sabir Garden Philharmonic Garden Molokan Garden Baku
Baku
Boulevard Samad Vurgun Park

Entertainment and recreation

Baku
Baku
Crystal Hall Baku
Baku
Ferris Wheel Buta Palace Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev
Palace Baku
Baku
Zoo Park Bulvar Children's World Baku
Baku
State Circus Baku
Baku
Water Park Baku
Baku
Aqua Park

Cultural and art

National Library of Azerbaijan Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
State Academic Opera and Ballet Theater Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
State Philharmonic Hall National Art Museum of Azerbaijan Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
State Museum of History Independence Museum of Azerbaijan Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
State Museum of Musical Culture Nizami Museum of Azerbaijani Literature Baku
Baku
Museum of Modern Art Baku
Baku
Museum of Miniature Books Rinay Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Carpet Museum House-Museum of Vagif Mustafazadeh Villa Petrolea Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
State Academic Drama Theatre Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
State Pantomime Theatre Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
State Russian Drama Theatre Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
State Theatre of Musical Comedy Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
State Theatre of Young Spectators Baku
Baku
Puppet Theatre Green Theatre Rashid Behbudov State Song Theatre

Science and education

Baku
Baku
State University Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Technical University Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Medical University Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
State Economic University Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
State University of Culture and Arts Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
University of Languages Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Architecture and Construction University Khazar University Qafqaz University Baku
Baku
Slavic University Odlar Yurdu University Western University Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
National Academy of Sciences Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
State Marine Academy Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
State Oil Academy Baku
Baku
Academy of Music Asaf Zeynally Music College Baku
Baku
Polytechnicum Jamshid Nakhchivanski Military Lyceum Lycée français de Bakou Baku
Baku
International School

Sport venues

AZAL Stadium Baku
Baku
Aquatics Centre Baku
Baku
National Stadium Baku
Baku
Shooting Center Baku
Baku
Sports Hall Baku
Baku
Tennis Academy Bayil
Bayil
Stadium Dalga Arena Bakcell Arena Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev
Sports and Exhibition Complex Ismat Gayibov Stadium Karabakh Stadium National Gymnastics Arena Inter Arena Shagan Olympic Sport Complex Stadium Tofiq Bahramov
Tofiq Bahramov
Republican Stadium Tofiq Ismayilov Stadium

Transportation

Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev
International Airport Baku
Baku
Railway Station Baku
Baku
International Sea Trade Port Baku
Baku
Metro Baku
Baku
Funicular

Squares and streets

Azadliq Square Fountains Square National Flag Square 28 May Street Boyuk Shor Highway Istiglaliyyat Street Neftchilar Avenue Nizami Street Rashid Behbudov Street Tbilisi
Tbilisi
Avenue

Government and financial institutions

National Assembly Government House Presidential Apparatus Baku
Baku
City Hall Central Bank of Azerbaijan Baku
Baku
Stock Exchange Baku
Baku
Expo Center

Category:Baku

v t e

Capitals of Asia

Dependent territories and states with limited recognition are in italics

North and Central Asia South Asia Southeast Asia West and Southwest Asia

Ashgabat, Turkmenistan Astana, Kazakhstan* Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan Dushanbe, Tajikistan Moscow, Russia* Tashkent, Uzbekistan

East Asia

Beijing, China Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Hong Kong
(China) Macau, Macau
Macau
(China) Pyongyang, North Korea Seoul, South Korea Taipei, Taiwan
Taiwan
(ROC) Tokyo, Japan Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

Kabul, Afghanistan Dhaka, Bangladesh Diego Garcia, BIOT (UK) Islamabad, Pakistan Kathmandu, Nepal Kotte, Sri Lanka Malé, Maldives New Delhi, India Thimphu, Bhutan

Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Bangkok, Thailand Dili, East Timor Flying Fish Cove, Christmas Island
Christmas Island
(Australia) Hanoi, Vietnam Jakarta, Indonesia* Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Manila, Philippines Naypyidaw, Myanmar Phnom Penh, Cambodia Singapore Vientiane, Laos West Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands
West Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands
(Australia)

Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Amman, Jordan Ankara, Turkey* Baghdad, Iraq Baku, Azerbaijan* Beirut, Lebanon Cairo, Egypt* Doha, Qatar Jerusalem, Israel/Palestine † Kuwait
Kuwait
City, Kuwait Manama, Bahrain

Muscat, Oman Nicosia, Cyprus* North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus* Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Sana'a, Yemen Stepanakert, Artsakh* Sukhumi, Abkhazia* Tbilisi, Georgia* Tehran, Iran Tskhinvali, South Ossetia* Yerevan, Armenia*

*Transcontinental country. † Disputed. See: Positions on Jerusalem.

v t e

Capitals of European states and territories

Capitals of dependent territories and states whose sovereignty is disputed shown in italics.

Western

Amsterdam, Netherlands1 Andorra la Vella, Andorra Bern, Switzerland Brussels, Belgium2 Douglas, Isle of Man (UK) Dublin, Ireland London, United Kingdom Luxembourg, Luxembourg Paris, France Saint Helier, Jersey (UK) Saint Peter Port, Guernsey (UK)

Northern

Copenhagen, Denmark Helsinki, Finland Longyearbyen, Svalbard (Norway) Mariehamn, Åland Islands (Finland) Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark) Olonkinbyen, Jan Mayen (Norway) Oslo, Norway Reykjavík, Iceland Stockholm, Sweden Tórshavn, Faroe Islands (Denmark)

Central

Berlin, Germany Bratislava, Slovakia Budapest, Hungary Ljubljana, Slovenia Prague, Czech Republic Vaduz, Liechtenstein Vienna, Austria Warsaw, Poland

Southern

Ankara, Turkey3 Athens, Greece Belgrade, Serbia Bucharest, Romania Gibraltar, Gibraltar (UK) Lisbon, Portugal Madrid, Spain Monaco, Monaco Nicosia, Cyprus4 North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus4, 5 Podgorica, Montenegro Pristina, Kosovo5 Rome, Italy San Marino, San Marino Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina Skopje, Macedonia Sofia, Bulgaria Tirana, Albania Valletta, Malta Vatican City, Vatican City Zagreb, Croatia

Eastern

Astana, Kazakhstan3 Baku, Azerbaijan3 Chișinău, Moldova Kiev, Ukraine Minsk, Belarus Moscow, Russia3 Riga, Latvia Stepanakert, Artsakh4, 5 Sukhumi, Abkhazia3, 5 Tallinn, Estonia Tbilisi, Georgia3 Tiraspol, Transnistria5 Tskhinvali, South Ossetia3, 5 Vilnius, Lithuania Yerevan, Armenia3

1 Also the capital of the Kingdom of the Netherlands 2 Also the seat of the European Union, see Institutional seats of the European Union
European Union
and Brussels
Brussels
and the European Union 3 Transcontinental country 4 Entirely in Southwest Asia but having socio-political connections with Europe 5 Partially recognised country

v t e

Eurovision
Eurovision
Song Contest

History Host cities Languages Presenters Rules Voting Winners Winners discography

Contests

1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

Countries

Active

Albania Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Latvia Lithuania Macedonia Malta Moldova Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Ukraine United Kingdom

Inactive

Andorra Bosnia and Herzegovina Luxembourg Monaco Morocco Slovakia Turkey

Former

Lebanon Serbia and Montenegro Yugoslavia

Relations

Armenia–Azerbaijan Russia–Ukraine

National selections

Current

Albania Armenia Belarus Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Hungary Iceland Israel Italy Latvia Lithuania Malta Moldova Montenegro Norway Poland Portugal Romania Serbia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Ukraine United Kingdom

Former

Austria Azerbaijan Belgium Bosnia & Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Estonia Finland Greece

Ellinikós Telikós Eurosong - A MAD Show

Ireland

The Late Late Show You're a Star

Israel Latvia

Eirodziesma Dziesma

Lithuania Macedonia Malta Montenegro Netherlands Serbia and Montenegro Spain Switzerland United Kingdom Yugoslavia

Other awards

Marcel Bezençon Awards OGAE

OGAE
OGAE
Video Contest OGAE
OGAE
Second Chance Contest

Barbara Dex Award

Television and concerts

Eurovision Song Contest
Eurovision Song Contest
Previews Songs of Europe Kvalifikacija za Millstreet Congratulations: 50 Years of the Eurovision
Eurovision
Song Contest Best of Eurovision Eurovision
Eurovision
Song Contest's Greatest Hits

Category Portal

v t e

World Heritage Sites in Azerbaijan

Gobustan National Park Walled City of Baku

Shirvanshah's Palace Maiden Tower

Sites on the Tentative List

Baku
Baku
Stage Mountain Binegadi 4th Period Fauna and Flora Deposit Lok-Batan Mud Cone Hyrkan State Reserve Ordubad
Ordubad
historical and architectural reserve Shaki, the Khan's Palace Surakhany, Atashgyakh (Fire - worshippers, temple - museum at Surakhany) Susha historical and architectural reserve The Caspian Shore Defensive Constructions The mausoleums of Nakhchivan

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 122420271 LCCN: n79110308 GN

.