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Babylonia
Babylonia
(/ˌbæbəˈloʊniə, -ˈloʊnjə/) was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
(present-day Iraq). A small Amorite-ruled state emerged in 1894 BC, which contained the minor administrative town of Babylon.[1] It was merely a small provincial town during the Akkadian
Akkadian
Empire (2335–2154 BC) but greatly expanded during the reign of Hammurabi
Hammurabi
in the first half of the 18th century BC and became a major capital city. During the reign of Hammurabi
Hammurabi
and afterwards, Babylonia
Babylonia
was called "the country of Akkad" (Māt Akkadī in Akkadian).[2][3] It was often involved in rivalry with the older state of Assyria
Assyria
to the north and Elam
Elam
to the east in Ancient Iran. Babylonia
Babylonia
briefly became the major power in the region after Hammurabi
Hammurabi
(fl. c. 1792–1752 BC middle chronology, or c. 1696–1654 BC, short chronology) created a short-lived empire, succeeding the earlier Akkadian
Akkadian
Empire, Third Dynasty of Ur, and Old Assyrian Empire. The Babylonian empire, however, rapidly fell apart after the death of Hammurabi
Hammurabi
and reverted back to a small kingdom. Like Assyria, Babylonian state retained the written Akkadian
Akkadian
language for official use (the language of its native populace), despite its Northwest Semitic-speaking Amorite
Amorite
founders and Kassite
Kassite
successors, who spoke a language isolate, not being native Mesopotamians. It retained the Sumerian language
Sumerian language
for religious use (as did Assyria), but already by the time Babylon
Babylon
was founded, this was no longer a spoken language, having been wholly subsumed by Akkadian. The earlier Akkadian
Akkadian
and Sumerian traditions played a major role in Babylonian and Assyrian culture, and the region would remain an important cultural center, even under its protracted periods of outside rule. The earliest mention of the city of Babylon
Babylon
can be found in a clay tablet from the reign of Sargon of Akkad
Sargon of Akkad
(2334–2279 BC), dating back to the 23rd century BC. Babylon
Babylon
was merely a religious and cultural centre at this point and neither an independent state nor a large city; like the rest of Mesopotamia, it was subject to the Akkadian Empire which united all the Akkadian
Akkadian
and Sumerian speakers under one rule. After the collapse of the Akkadian
Akkadian
empire, the south Mesopotamian region was dominated by the Gutian people
Gutian people
for a few decades before the rise of the Third Dynasty of Ur, which restored order to the region and which, apart from northern Assyria, encompassed the whole of Mesopotamia, including the town of Babylon.

Contents

1 Periods

1.1 Pre-Babylonian Sumero- Akkadian
Akkadian
period 1.2 First Babylonian Dynasty
First Babylonian Dynasty
Amorite
Amorite
Dynasty, 1894–1595 BC

1.2.1 Empire of Hammurabi 1.2.2 Decline 1.2.3 The sack of Babylon
Babylon
and ancient Near East
Near East
chronology

1.3 Kassite
Kassite
Dynasty, 1595–1155 BC 1.4 Early Iron Age
Iron Age
– Native Rule, Second Dynasty of Isin, 1155–1026 BC 1.5 Period of Chaos, 1026–911 BC 1.6 Assyrian rule, 911–619 BC 1.7 Neo-Babylonian Empire
Neo-Babylonian Empire
(Chaldean Era) 1.8 Persian Babylonia

2 Culture

2.1 Babylonian culture

2.1.1 Art and architecture 2.1.2 Astronomy 2.1.3 Medicine 2.1.4 Literature

2.2 Neo-Babylonian culture

2.2.1 Astronomy 2.2.2 Mathematics 2.2.3 Philosophy

3 Legacy 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 Bibliography 8 External links

Periods[edit] Pre-Babylonian Sumero- Akkadian
Akkadian
period[edit]

The extent of the Babylonian Empire at the start and end of Hammurabi's reign

Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
had already enjoyed a long history prior to the emergence of Babylon, with Sumerian civilisation emerging in the region c. 3500 BC, and the Akkadian-speaking people appearing by the 30th century BC. During the 3rd millennium BC, an intimate cultural symbiosis occurred between Sumerian and Akkadian-speakers, which included widespread bilingualism.[4] The influence of Sumerian on Akkadian
Akkadian
and vice versa is evident in all areas, from lexical borrowing on a massive scale, to syntactic, morphological, and phonological convergence.[4] This has prompted scholars to refer to Sumerian and Akkadian
Akkadian
in the third millennium as a sprachbund.[4] Akkadian
Akkadian
gradually replaced Sumerian as the spoken language of Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
somewhere around the turn of the third and the second millennium BC (the precise timeframe being a matter of debate),[5] but Sumerian continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial, literary and scientific language in Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
as late as the 1st century AD.[citation needed] From c. 3500 BC until the rise of the Akkadian
Akkadian
Empire in the 24th century BC, Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
had been dominated by largely Sumerian cities and city states, such as Ur, Lagash, Uruk, Kish, Isin, Larsa, Adab, Eridu, Gasur, Assur, Hamazi, Akshak, Arbela and Umma, although Semitic Akkadian
Akkadian
names began to appear on the king lists of some of these states (such as Eshnunna
Eshnunna
and Assyria) between the 29th and 25th centuries BC. Traditionally, the major religious center of all Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
was the city of Nippur
Nippur
where the god Enlil
Enlil
was supreme, and it would remain so until replaced by Babylon
Babylon
during the reign of Hammurabi
Hammurabi
in the mid-18th century BC. The Akkadian
Akkadian
Empire (2334–2154 BC) saw the Akkadian
Akkadian
Semites and Sumerians of Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
unite under one rule, and the Akkadians fully attain ascendancy over the Sumerians and indeed come to dominate much of the ancient Near East. The empire eventually disintegrated due to economic decline, climate change and civil war, followed by attacks by the Gutians
Gutians
from the Zagros Mountains. Sumer
Sumer
rose up again with the Third Dynasty of Ur
Third Dynasty of Ur
in the late 22nd century BC, and ejected the Gutians
Gutians
from southern Mesopotamia. They also seem to have gained ascendancy over much of the territory of the Akkadian
Akkadian
kings of Assyria
Assyria
in northern Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
for a time. Following the collapse of the Sumerian "Ur-III" dynasty at the hands of the Elamites
Elamites
in 2002 BC, the Amorites, a foreign Northwest Semitic-speaking people, began to migrate into southern Mesopotamia from the northern Levant, gradually gaining control over most of southern Mesopotamia, where they formed a series of small kingdoms, while the Assyrians reasserted their independence in the north. The states of the south were unable to stem the Amorite
Amorite
advance, and for a time may have relied on their fellow Akkadians in Assyria
Assyria
for protection. King Ilu-shuma (c. 2008–1975 BC) of the Old Assyrian Empire (2025–1750 BC) in a known inscription describes his exploits to the south as follows: "The freedom[n 1] of the Akkadians and their children I established. I purified their copper. I established their freedom from the border of the marshes and Ur and Nippur, Awal, and Kish, Der of the goddess Ishtar, as far as the City of (Ashur)."[6] Past scholars originally extrapolated from this text that it means he defeated the invading Amorites
Amorites
to the south and Elamites
Elamites
to the east, but there is no explicit record of that, and some scholars believe the Assyrian kings were merely giving preferential trade agreements to the south. These policies were continued by his successors Erishum I and Ikunum. However, when Sargon I (1920–1881 BC) succeeded as king in Assyria in 1920 BC, he eventually withdrew Assyria
Assyria
from the region, preferring to concentrate on continuing the vigorous expansion of Assyrian colonies in Anatolia
Anatolia
and the Levant, and eventually southern Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
fell to the Amorites, a Northwest Semitic-speaking people from the northern Levant. During the first centuries of what is called the " Amorite
Amorite
period", the most powerful city states in the south were Isin, Eshnunna
Eshnunna
and Larsa, together with Assyria
Assyria
in the north. First Babylonian Dynasty
First Babylonian Dynasty
Amorite
Amorite
Dynasty, 1894–1595 BC[edit] Main article: First Babylonian Dynasty One of these Amorite
Amorite
dynasties founded a small kingdom of Kazallu which included the then still minor town of Babylon
Babylon
circa 1894 BC, which would ultimately take over the others and form the short-lived first Babylonian empire, also called the First Babylonian Dynasty. An Amorite
Amorite
chieftain named Sumu-abum appropriated a tract of land which included the then relatively small city of Babylon
Babylon
from the neighbouring Amorite
Amorite
ruled Mesopotamian city state of Kazallu, of which it had initially been a territory, turning his newly acquired lands into a state in its own right. His reign was concerned with establishing statehood amongst a sea of other minor city states and kingdoms in the region. However Sumuabum appears never to have bothered to give himself the title of King of Babylon, suggesting that Babylon
Babylon
itself was still only a minor town or city, and not worthy of kingship.[7] He was followed by Sumu-la-El, Sabium, Apil-Sin, each of whom ruled in the same vague manner as Sumuabum, with no reference to kingship of Babylon
Babylon
itself being made in any written records of the time. Sin-Muballit was the first of these Amorite
Amorite
rulers to be regarded officially as a king of Babylon, and then on only one single clay tablet. Under these kings, the nation in which Babylon
Babylon
lay remained a small nation which controlled very little territory, and was overshadowed by neighbouring kingdoms that were both older, larger, and more powerful, such as; Isin, Larsa, Assyria
Assyria
to the north and Elam to the east in ancient Iran. The Elamites
Elamites
occupied huge swathes of southern Mesopotamia, and the early Amorite
Amorite
rulers were largely held in vassalage to Elam. Empire of Hammurabi[edit] Babylon
Babylon
remained a minor town in a small state until the reign of its sixth Amorite
Amorite
ruler, Hammurabi
Hammurabi
(1792–1750 BC, or fl. c. 1728 – 1686 BC (short). He conducted major building work in Babylon, expanding it from a small town into a great city worthy of kingship. He was a very efficient ruler, establishing a bureaucracy, with taxation and centralized government. Hammurabi
Hammurabi
freed Babylon
Babylon
from Elamite dominance, and indeed drove them from southern Mesopotamia entirely. He then gradually expanded Babylonian dominance over the whole of southern Mesopotamia, conquering the cities and states of the region, such as Isin, Larsa, Eshnunna, Kish, Lagash, Nippur, Borsippa, Ur, Uruk, Umma, Adab, Sippar, Rapiqum, and Eridu. The conquests of Hammurabi
Hammurabi
gave the region stability after turbulent times and coalesced the patchwork of small states of southern and central Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
into one single nation, and it is only from the time of Hammurabi
Hammurabi
that southern Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
came to be known historically as Babylonia. The armies of Babylonia
Babylonia
under Hammurabi
Hammurabi
were well-disciplined. He turned eastwards and invaded what was a thousand years later to become Iran, conquering Elam, Gutians, Lullubi
Lullubi
and Kassites. To the west, the Amorite
Amorite
states of the Levant
Levant
(modern Syria
Syria
and Jordan) including the powerful kingdoms of Mari and Yamhad
Yamhad
were conquered. Hammurabi
Hammurabi
then entered into a protracted war with the Old Assyrian Empire for control of Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
and dominance of the Near East. Assyria
Assyria
had extended control over much of the Hurrian and Hattian parts of southeast Anatolia
Anatolia
from the 21st century BC, and from the latter part of the 20th century BC had asserted itself over the north east Levant
Levant
and central Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
also. After a protracted unresolved struggle over decades with the powerful Assyrian kings Shamshi-Adad I
Shamshi-Adad I
and Ishme-Dagan, Hammurabi
Hammurabi
forced their successor Mut-Ashkur to pay tribute to Babylon
Babylon
c. 1751 BC, thus giving Babylonia control over Assyria's centuries old Hattian and Hurrian colonies in Anatolia.[8] One of the most important works of the First Babylonian Dynasty, as it was called by the native historians, was the compilation of Babylonian law, a law code both influenced by and improved upon the much earlier codes of Sumer, Akkad and Assyria. This was made by order of Hammurabi after the expulsion of the Elamites
Elamites
and the settlement of his kingdom. In 1901, a copy of the Code of Hammurabi
Hammurabi
was discovered on a stele by Jacques de Morgan
Jacques de Morgan
and Jean-Vincent Scheil
Jean-Vincent Scheil
at Susa
Susa
in Elam, where it had later been taken as plunder. That copy is now in the Louvre. From before 3000 BC until the reign of Hammurabi, the major cultural and religious center of southern Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
had been the ancient city of Nippur, where the god Enlil
Enlil
was supreme. However, with the rise of Hammurabi, this honour was transferred to Babylon, and the south Mesopotamian god Marduk
Marduk
rose to supremacy in the pantheon of southern Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
(with the god Ashur, and to some degree Ishtar
Ishtar
also, remaining the long dominant deity in the northern Mesopotamian state of Assyria). The city of Babylon
Babylon
became known as a "holy city" where any legitimate ruler of southern Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
had to be crowned. Hammurabi
Hammurabi
turned what had previously been a minor administrative town into a powerful and influential major city, increasing its size and population dramatically, extended its rule over the entirety of southern Mesopotamia, and conducting a number of impressive architectural works. The Amorite
Amorite
ruled Babylonians, like their predecessor states, engaged in regular trade with the Amorite
Amorite
and Canaanite city-states to the west; with Babylonian officials or troops sometimes passing to the Levant
Levant
and Canaan, with Amorite
Amorite
merchants operating freely throughout Mesopotamia. The Babylonian monarchy's western connections remained strong for quite some time. An Amorite
Amorite
chieftain named Abi-ramu or Abram (possibly the Biblical Abraham) was the father of a witness to a deed dated to the reign of Hammurabi's grandfather;[citation needed] Ammi-Ditana, great-grandson of Hammurabi, still titled himself "king of the land of the Amorites". Ammi-Ditana's father and son also bore Amorite
Amorite
names: Abi-Eshuh and Ammi-Saduqa. Decline[edit] Southern Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
had no natural, defensible boundaries, making it vulnerable to attack. After the death of Hammurabi, his empire began to disintegrate rapidly. Under his successor Samsu-iluna
Samsu-iluna
(1749–1712 BC) the far south of Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
was lost to a native Akkadian speaking king called Ilum-ma-ili who ejected the Amorite
Amorite
ruled Babylonians. The south became the native Sealand Dynasty, remaining free of Babylon
Babylon
for the next 272 years.[9] Both the Babylonians and their Amorite
Amorite
rulers were driven from Assyria to the north by an Assyrian- Akkadian
Akkadian
governor named Puzur-Sin c. 1740 BC, who regarded king Mut-Ashkur as both a foreign Amorite
Amorite
and a former lackey of Babylon. After six years of civil war in Assyria, a native king named Adasi
Adasi
seized power c. 1735 BC, and went on to appropriate former Babylonian and Amorite
Amorite
territory in central Mesopotamia, as did his successor Bel-bani. Amorite
Amorite
rule survived in a much reduced Babylon, Samshu-iluna's successor Abi-Eshuh made a vain attempt to recapture the Sealand Dynasty for Babylon, but met defeat at the hands of king Damqi-ilishu II. By the end of his reign Babylonia
Babylonia
had shrunk to the small and relatively weak nation it had been upon its foundation, although the city itself was far larger than the small town it had been prior to the rise of Hammurabi. He was followed by Ammi-Ditana and then Ammi-Saduqa, both of whom were in too weak a position to make any attempt to regain the many territories lost after the death of Hammurabi, contenting themselves with peaceful building projects in Babylon
Babylon
itself. Samsu-Ditana was to be the last Amorite
Amorite
ruler of Babylon. Early in his reign he came under pressure from the Kassites, a people speaking an apparent language isolate originating in the mountains of what is today northwest Iran. Babylon
Babylon
was then attacked by the Indo-European-speaking, Anatolia-based Hittites
Hittites
in 1595 BC. Shamshu-Ditana was overthrown following the "sack of Babylon" by the Hittite king Mursili I. The Hittites
Hittites
did not remain for long, but the destruction wrought by them finally enabled their Kassite
Kassite
allies to gain control. The sack of Babylon
Babylon
and ancient Near East
Near East
chronology[edit] The date of the sack of Babylon
Babylon
by the Hittites
Hittites
under king Mursili I is considered crucial to the various calculations of the early chronology of the ancient Near East, as it is taken as a fixed point in the discussion. Suggestions for its precise date vary by as much as 230 years, corresponding to the uncertainty regarding the length of the "Dark Age" of the ensuing Late Bronze Age collapse, resulting in the shift of the entire Bronze Age chronology of Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
with regard to the Egyptian chronology. Possible dates for the sack of Babylon
Babylon
are:

ultra-short chronology: 1499 BC short chronology: 1531 BC middle chronology: 1595 BC long chronology: 1651 BC ultra-long chronology: 1736 BC[10]

Kassite
Kassite
Dynasty, 1595–1155 BC[edit] Main article: Kassites

The extent of the Babylonian Empire during the Kassite
Kassite
dynasty

The Kassite dynasty
Kassite dynasty
was founded by Gandash of Mari. The Kassites, like the Amorite
Amorite
rulers who had preceded them, were not originally native to Mesopotamia. Rather, they had first appeared in the Zagros Mountains of what is today northwestern Iran. The ethnic affiliation of the Kassites
Kassites
is unclear. However, their language was not Semitic nor Indo-European, and is thought to have been either a language isolate or possibly related to the Hurro- Urartian language
Urartian language
family of Anatolia,[11] although the evidence for its genetic affiliation is meager due to the scarcity of extant texts. However, several Kassite
Kassite
leaders may have borne Indo-European names, and they may have had an Indo-European elite similar to the Mitanni
Mitanni
elite that later ruled over the Hurrians
Hurrians
of central and eastern Anatolia.[12][13] The Kassites
Kassites
renamed Babylon
Babylon
Karduniaš
Karduniaš
and their rule lasted for 576 years, the longest dynasty in Babylonian history. This new foreign dominion offers a striking analogy to the roughly contemporary rule of the Hyksos
Hyksos
in ancient Egypt. Most divine attributes ascribed to the Amorite
Amorite
kings of Babylonia
Babylonia
disappeared at this time; the title "god" was never given to a Kassite
Kassite
sovereign. However, Babylon
Babylon
continued to be the capital of the kingdom and one of the 'holy' cities of western Asia, where the priests of the ancient Mesopotamian religion were all-powerful, and the only place where the right to inheritance of the short lived old Babylonian empire could be conferred.[14] Babylonia
Babylonia
experienced short periods of relative power, but in general proved to be relatively weak under the long rule of the Kassites, and spent long periods under Assyrian and Elamite domination and interference. It is not clear precisely when Kassite
Kassite
rule of Babylon
Babylon
began, but the Indo-European Hittites
Hittites
from Anatolia
Anatolia
did not remain in Babylonia
Babylonia
for long after the sacking of the city, and it is likely the Kassites moved in soon afterwards. Agum II
Agum II
took the throne for the Kassites
Kassites
in 1595 BC, and ruled a state that extended from Iran
Iran
to the middle Euphrates; The new king retained peaceful relations with Erishum III, the native Mesopotamian king of Assyria, but successfully went to war with the Hittite Empire, and twenty-four years after, the Hittites took the sacred statue of Marduk, he recovered it and declared the god equal to the Kassite
Kassite
deity Shuqamuna. Burnaburiash I succeeded him and drew up a peace treaty with the Assyrian king Puzur- Ashur III, and had a largely uneventful reign, as did his successor Kashtiliash III. The Sealand Dynasty of southern Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
remained independent of Babylonia
Babylonia
and in native Akkadian-speaking hands. However, Ulamburiash managed to attack it conquered parts of the land from Ea-gamil, a king with a distinctly Sumerian name, around 1450 BC, whereupon Ea-Gamil fled to his allies in Elam. The Sealand Dynasty region still remained independent however, and the Kassite
Kassite
king seems to have been unable to finally conquer it. Ulamburiash began making treaties with ancient Egypt, which then was ruling southern Canaan, and Assyria
Assyria
to the north. Karaindash
Karaindash
built a bas-relief temple in Uruk
Uruk
and Kurigalzu I (1415–1390 BC) built a new capital Dur-Kurigalzu
Dur-Kurigalzu
named after himself, transferring administrative rule from Babylon. Both of these kings continued to struggle unsuccessfully against The Sealand Dynasty. Agum III also campaigned against the Sealand Dynasty, finally wholly conquering the far south of Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
for Babylon, destroying its capital Dur- Enlil
Enlil
in the process. From there Agum III extended farther south still, invading what was many centuries later to be called the Arabian Peninsula, and conquering the pre- Arab
Arab
state of Dilmun
Dilmun
(in modern Bahrain). Karaindash
Karaindash
strengthened diplomatic ties with the Assyrian king Ashur-bel-nisheshu
Ashur-bel-nisheshu
and the Egyptian Pharaoh Thutmose III
Thutmose III
and protected Babylonian borders with Elam. Kadašman-Ḫarbe I succeeded Karaindash, and briefly invaded Elam before being eventually defeated and ejected by its king Tepti Ahar. He then had to contend with the Suteans, ancient Semitic-speaking peoples from the southeastern Levant
Levant
who invaded Babylonia
Babylonia
and sacked Uruk. He describes having "annihilated their extensive forces", then constructed fortresses in a mountain region called Ḫiḫi, in the desert to the west (modern Syria) as security outposts, and "he dug wells and settled people on fertile lands, to strengthen the guard".[15] Kurigalzu I
Kurigalzu I
succeeded the throne, and soon came into conflict with Elam, to the east. When Ḫur-batila, the successor of Tepti Ahar took the throne of Elam, he began raiding the Babylonia, taunting Kurigalzu to do battle with him at Dūr-Šulgi. Kurigalzu launched a campaign which resulted in the abject defeat and capture of Ḫur-batila, who appears in no other inscriptions. He went on to conquer the eastern lands of Elam. This took his army to the Elamite capital, the city of Susa, which was sacked. After this a puppet ruler was placed on the Elamite throne, subject to Babylonia. Kurigalzu I
Kurigalzu I
maintained friendly relations with Assyria, Egypt
Egypt
and the Hittites
Hittites
throughout his reign. Kadashman- Enlil
Enlil
I (1374–1360 BC) succeeded him, and continued his diplomatic policies. Burna-Buriash II
Burna-Buriash II
ascended to the throne in 1359 BC, he retained friendly relations with Egypt, but the resurgent Middle Assyrian Empire (1365–1050 BC) to the north was now encroaching into northern Babylonia, and as a symbol of peace, the Babylonian king took the daughter of the powerful Assyrian king Ashur-uballit I in marriage. He also maintained friendly relations with Suppiluliuma I, ruler of the Hittite Empire. He was succeeded by Kara-ḫardaš (who was half Assyrian, and the grandson of the Assyrian king) in 1333 BC, however a usurper named Nazi-Bugaš deposed him, enraging Ashur-uballit I, who invaded and sacked Babylon, slew Nazi-Bugaš, annexed Babylonian territory for the Middle Assyrian Empire, and installed Kurigalzu II (1345–1324 BC) as his vassal ruler of Babylonia. Soon after Arik-den-ili succeeded the throne of Assyria
Assyria
in 1327 BC, Kurigalzu III attacked Assyria
Assyria
in an attempt to reassert Babylonian power. After some impressive initial successes he was ultimately defeated, and lost yet more territory to Assyria. Between 1307 BC and 1232 BC his successors, such as Nazi-Maruttash, Kadashman-Turgu, Kadashman- Enlil
Enlil
II, Kudur- Enlil
Enlil
and Shagarakti-Shuriash, allied with the empires of the Hittites
Hittites
and the Mitanni, (who were both also losing swathes of territory to the resurgent Assyrians). in a failed attempt to stop Assyrian expansion, which nevertheless continued unchecked. Kashtiliash IV's (1242–1235 BC) reign ended catastrophically as the Assyrian king Tukulti-Ninurta I
Tukulti-Ninurta I
(1243–1207 BC) routed his armies, sacked and burned Babylon
Babylon
and set himself up as king, ironically becoming the first native Mesopotamian to rule the state, its previous rulers having all been non-Mesopotamian Amorites
Amorites
and Kassites.[9] Kashtiliash himself was taken to Ashur as a prisoner of war. An Assyrian governor/king named Enlil-nadin-shumi was placed on the throne to rule as viceroy to Tukulti-Ninurta I, and Kadashman-Harbe II and Adad-shuma-iddina
Adad-shuma-iddina
succeeded as Assyrian governor/kings, subject to Tukulti-Ninurta I
Tukulti-Ninurta I
until 1216 BC. Babylon
Babylon
did not begin to recover until late in the reign of Adad-shuma-usur
Adad-shuma-usur
(1216–1189 BC), as he too remained a vassal of Assyria
Assyria
until 1193 BC. However, he was able to prevent the Assyrian king Enlil-kudurri-usur from retaking Babylonia, which, apart from its northern reaches, had mostly shrugged off Assyrian domination during a short period of civil war in the Assyrian empire, in the years after the death of Tukulti-Ninurta. Meli-Shipak II
Meli-Shipak II
(1188–1172 BC) seems to have had a peaceful reign. Despite not being able to regain northern Babylonia
Babylonia
from Assyria, no further territory was lost, Elam
Elam
did not threaten, and the Late Bronze Age collapse now affecting the Levant, Canaan, Egypt, the Caucasus, Anatolia, Mediterranean, North Africa, northern Iran
Iran
and Balkans seemed (initially) to have little impact on Babylonia
Babylonia
(or indeed Assyria
Assyria
and Elam). War resumed under subsequent kings such as Marduk-apla-iddina I (1171–1159 BC) and Zababa-shuma-iddin
Zababa-shuma-iddin
(1158 BC). The long reigning Assyrian king Ashur-dan I (1179–1133 BC) resumed expansionist policies and conquered further parts of northern Babylonia
Babylonia
from both kings, and the Elamite ruler Shutruk-Nakhunte
Shutruk-Nakhunte
eventually conquered most of eastern Babylonia. Enlil-nadin-ahhe (1157–1155 BC) was finally overthrown and the Kassite dynasty
Kassite dynasty
ended after Ashur-dan I conquered yet more of northern and central Babylonia, and the equally powerful Shutruk-Nahhunte pushed deep into the heart of Babylonia itself, sacking the city and slaying the king. Poetical works have been found lamenting this disaster. Despite the loss of territory, general military weakness, and evident reduction in literacy and culture, the Kassite dynasty
Kassite dynasty
was the longest-lived dynasty of Babylon, lasting until 1155 BC, when Babylon was conquered by Shutruk-Nakhunte
Shutruk-Nakhunte
of Elam, and reconquered a few years later by the Nebuchadnezzar I, part of the larger Late Bronze Age collapse. Early Iron Age
Iron Age
– Native Rule, Second Dynasty of Isin, 1155–1026 BC[edit] The Elamites
Elamites
did not remain in control of Babylonia
Babylonia
long, instead entering into an ultimately unsuccessful war with Assyria, allowing Marduk-kabit-ahheshu (1155–1139 BC) to establish the Dynasty IV of Babylon, from Isin, with the very first native Akkadian-speaking south Mesopotamian dynasty to rule Babylonia, with Marduk-kabit-ahheshu becoming only the second native Mesopotamian to sit on the throne of Babylon, after the Assyrian king Tukulti-Ninurta I. His dynasty was to remain in power for some 125 years. The new king successfully drove out the Elamites
Elamites
and prevented any possible Kassite
Kassite
revival. Later in his reign he went to war with Assyria, and had some initial success, briefly capturing the south Assyrian city of Ekallatum before ultimately suffering defeat at the hands of Ashur-Dan I. Itti-Marduk-balatu succeeded his father in 1138 BC, and successfully repelled Elamite attacks on Babylonia
Babylonia
during his 8-year reign. He too made attempts to attack Assyria, but also met with failure at the hands of the still reigning Ashur-Dan I. Ninurta-nadin-shumi took the throne in 1137 BC, and also attempted an invasion of Assyria, his armies seem to have skirted through eastern Aramea
Aramea
(modern Syria) and then made an attempt to attack the Assyrian city of Arbela (modern Erbil) from the west. However this bold move met with defeat at the hands of Ashur-resh-ishi I who then forced a treaty in his favour upon the Babylonian king. Nebuchadnezzar I
Nebuchadnezzar I
(1124–1103 BC) was the most famous ruler of this dynasty. He fought and defeated the Elamites
Elamites
and drove them from Babylonian territory, invading Elam
Elam
itself, sacking the Elamite capital Susa, and recovering the sacred statue of Marduk
Marduk
that had been carried off from Babylon
Babylon
during the fall of the Kassites. Shortly afterwards, the king of Elam
Elam
was assassinated and his kingdom disintegrated into civil war. However, Nebuchadnezzar failed to extend Babylonian territory further, being defeated a number of times by Ashur-resh-ishi I (1133–1115 BC), king of the Middle Assyrian Empire, for control of formerly Hittite-controlled territories in Aram and Anatolia. The Hittite Empire
Hittite Empire
of the northern and western Levant and eastern Anatolia
Anatolia
had been largely annexed by the Middle Assyrian Empire, and its heartland finally overrun by invading Phrygians
Phrygians
from the Balkans. In the later years of his reign, Nebuchadnezzar I
Nebuchadnezzar I
devoted himself to peaceful building projects and securing Babylonia's borders against the Assyrians, Elamites
Elamites
and Arameans. Nebuchadnezzar was succeeded by his two sons, firstly Enlil-nadin-apli (1103–1100), who lost territory to Assyria. The second of them, Marduk-nadin-ahhe
Marduk-nadin-ahhe
(1098–1081 BC) also went to war with Assyria. Some initial success in these conflicts gave way to a catastrophic defeat at the hands of the powerful Assyrian king Tiglath-Pileser I (1115–1076 BC), who annexed huge swathes of Babylonian territory, thus further expanding the Assyrian Empire. Following this a terrible famine gripped Babylon, inviting attacks and migrations from the northwest Semitic Aramaeans
Aramaeans
and Suteans from the Levant. In 1072 BC Marduk-shapik-zeri
Marduk-shapik-zeri
signed a peace treaty with Ashur-bel-kala
Ashur-bel-kala
(1075–1056 BC) of Assyria, however his successor Kadašman-Buriaš was not so friendly to Assyria, prompting the Assyrian king to invade Babylonia
Babylonia
and depose him, placing Adad-apla-iddina on the throne as his vassal. Assyrian domination continued until c. 1050 BC, with Marduk-ahhe-eriba
Marduk-ahhe-eriba
and Marduk-zer-X regarded as vassals of Assyria. After 1050 BC the Middle Assyrian Empire descended into a period of civil war, followed by constant warfare with the Arameans, Phrygians, Neo-Hittite states
Neo-Hittite states
and Hurrians, allowing Babylonia
Babylonia
to once more largely free itself from the Assyrian yoke for a few decades. However East Semitic-speaking Babylonia
Babylonia
soon began to suffer further repeated incursions from West Semitic nomadic peoples migrating from the Levant
Levant
during the Bronze Age collapse, and during the 11th century BC large swathes of the Babylonian countryside was appropriated and occupied by these newly arrived Arameans
Arameans
and Suteans. Arameans
Arameans
settled much of the countryside in eastern and central Babylonia
Babylonia
and the Suteans in the western deserts, with the weak Babylonian kings being unable to stem these migrations. Period of Chaos, 1026–911 BC[edit] The ruling Babylonian dynasty of Nabu-shum-libur
Nabu-shum-libur
was deposed by marauding Arameans
Arameans
in 1026 BC, and the heart of Babylonia, including the capital city itself descended into anarchic state, and no king was to rule Babylon
Babylon
for over 20 years. However, in southern Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
(a region corresponding with the old Dynasty of the Sealand), Dynasty V (1025–1004 BC) arose, this was ruled by Simbar-shipak, leader of a Kassite
Kassite
clan, and was in effect a separate state from Babylon. The state of anarchy allowed the Assyrian ruler Ashur-nirari IV
Ashur-nirari IV
(1019–1013 BC) the opportunity to attack Babylonia
Babylonia
in 1018 BC, and he invaded and captured the Babylonian city of Atlila and some northern regions for Assyria. The south Mesopotamian dynasty was replaced by another Kassite
Kassite
Dynasty (Dynasty VI; 1003–984 BC) which also seems to have regained control over Babylon
Babylon
itself. The Elamites
Elamites
deposed this brief Kassite
Kassite
revival, with king Mar-biti-apla-usur founding Dynasty VII (984–977 BC). However, this dynasty too fell, when the Arameans
Arameans
once more ravaged Babylon. Babylonian rule was restored by Nabû-mukin-apli
Nabû-mukin-apli
in 977 BC, ushering in Dynasty VIII. Dynasty IX begins with Ninurta-kudurri-usur II, who ruled from 941 BC. Babylonia
Babylonia
remained weak during this period, with whole areas of Babylonia
Babylonia
now under firm Aramean and Sutean control. Babylonian rulers were often forced to bow to pressure from Assyria and Elam, both of which had appropriated Babylonian territory. Assyrian rule, 911–619 BC[edit] Babylonia
Babylonia
remained in a state of chaos as the 10th century BC drew to a close. A further migration of nomads from the Levant
Levant
occurred in the early 9th century BC with the arrival of the Chaldeans, another nomadic northwest Semitic people described in Assyrian annals as the "Kaldu". The Chaldeans settled in the far southeast of Babylonia, joining the already long extant Arameans
Arameans
and Suteans. By 850 BC the migrant Chaldeans had established their own land in the extreme south east of Mesopotamia. From 911 BC with the founding of the Neo-Assyrian Empire
Neo-Assyrian Empire
(911–605 BC) by Adad-nirari II, Babylon
Babylon
found itself once again under the domination and rule of its fellow Mesopotamian state for the next three centuries. Adad-nirari II
Adad-nirari II
twice attacked and defeated Shamash-mudammiq of Babylonia, annexing a large area of land north of the Diyala River
Diyala River
and the towns of Hīt
Hīt
and Zanqu in mid Mesopotamia. He made further gains over Babylonia
Babylonia
under Nabu-shuma-ukin I later in his reign. Tukulti-Ninurta II
Tukulti-Ninurta II
and Ashurnasirpal II
Ashurnasirpal II
also forced Babylonia
Babylonia
into vassalage, and Shalmaneser III (859–824 BC) sacked Babylon
Babylon
itself, slew king Nabu-apla-iddina, subjugated the Aramean, Sutean and Chaldean tribes settled within Babylonia, and installed Marduk-zakir-shumi I
Marduk-zakir-shumi I
(855–819 BC) followed by Marduk-balassu-iqbi (819–813 BC) as his vassals. It was during the late 850's BC, in the annals of Shalmaneser III, that the Chaldeans and Arabs
Arabs
are first mentioned in the pages of written recorded history. Upon the death of Shalmaneser II, Baba-aha-iddina was reduced to vassalage by the Assyrian queen Shammuramat (known as Semiramis
Semiramis
to the Persians, Armenians
Armenians
and Greeks), acting as regent to his successor Adad-nirari III
Adad-nirari III
who was merely a boy. Adad-nirari III
Adad-nirari III
eventually killed Baba-aha-iddina and ruled there directly until 800 BC until Ninurta-apla-X was crowned. However he too was subjugated by Adad-Nirari II. The next Assyrian king, Shamshi-Adad V
Shamshi-Adad V
then made a vassal of Marduk-bel-zeri. Babylonia
Babylonia
briefly fell to another foreign ruler when Marduk-apla-usur ascended the throne in 780 BC, taking advantage of a period of civil war in Assyria. He was a member of the Chaldean tribe who had a century or so earlier settled in a small region in the far south eastern corner of Mesopotamia, bordering the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
and south western Elam. Shamshi-Adad V
Shamshi-Adad V
attacked him and retook northern Babylonia, forcing a border treaty in Assyria's favour upon him. However he was allowed to remain on the throne, and successfully stabilised the part of Babylonia
Babylonia
he controlled. Eriba-Marduk, another Chaldean, succeeded him in 769 BC and his son, Nabu-shuma-ishkun
Nabu-shuma-ishkun
in 761 BC. Babylonia
Babylonia
appears to have been in a state of chaos during this time, with the north occupied by Assyria, its throne occupied by foreign Chaldeans, and civil unrest prominent throughout the land. The Babylonian king Nabonassar overthrew the Chaldean usurpers in 748 BC, and successfully stabilised Babylonia, remaining untroubled by Ashur-nirari V of Assyria. However, with the accession of Tiglath-Pileser III
Tiglath-Pileser III
(745–727 BC) Babylonia
Babylonia
came under renewed attack. Babylon
Babylon
was invaded and sacked and Nabonassar reduced to vassalage. His successors Nabu-nadin-zeri, Nabu-suma-ukin II and Nabu-mukin-zeri
Nabu-mukin-zeri
were also in servitude to Tiglath-Pileser III, until in 729 BC the Assyrian king decided to rule Babylon
Babylon
directly as its king instead of allowing Babylonian kings to remain as vassals of Assyria
Assyria
as his predecessors had done for two hundred years. It was during this period that Eastern Aramaic was introduced by the Assyrians as the lingua franca of the Neo-Assyrian
Neo-Assyrian
Empire, and Mesopotamian Aramaic began to supplant Akkadian
Akkadian
as the spoken language of the general populace of both Assyria
Assyria
and Babylonia. The Assyrian king Shalmaneser V
Shalmaneser V
was declared king of Babylon
Babylon
in 727 BC, but died whilst besieging Samaria
Samaria
in 722 BC. Revolt was then fomented against Assyrian domination by Marduk-apla-iddina II, a Chaldean malka (chieftain) of the far south east of Mesopotamia, with strong Elamite support. Merodach-Baladan managed to take the throne of Babylon
Babylon
itself between 721–710 BC whilst the Assyrian king Sargon II
Sargon II
(722–705 BC) were otherwise occupied in defeating the Scythians
Scythians
and Cimmerians
Cimmerians
who had attacked Assyria's Persian and Median vassal colonies in ancient Iran. Marduk-apla-iddina II
Marduk-apla-iddina II
was eventually defeated and ejected by Sargon II of Assyria, and fled to his protectors in Elam. Sargon II
Sargon II
was then declared king in Babylon. Sennacherib
Sennacherib
(705–681 BC) succeeded Sargon II, and after ruling directly for a while, he placed his son Ashur-nadin-shumi
Ashur-nadin-shumi
on the throne. However Merodach-Baladan and his Elamite protectors continued to unsuccessfully agitate against Assyrian rule. Nergal-ushezib, an Elamite, murdered the Assyrian prince and briefly took the throne. This led to the infuriated Assyrian king Sennacherib
Sennacherib
invading and subjugating Elam
Elam
and sacking Babylon, laying waste to and largely destroying the city. Babylon
Babylon
was regarded as a sacred city by all Mesopotamians, including Assyrians, and this act eventually led Sennacherib
Sennacherib
to be murdered by his own sons while praying to the god Nisroch in Nineveh
Nineveh
in 681 BC. A puppet king Marduk-zakir-shumi II was placed on the throne by the new Assyrian king Esarhaddon. However, Merodach-Baladan returned from exile in Elam, and briefly deposed him, forcing Esarhaddon
Esarhaddon
to attack and defeat him, whereupon he once more fled to his masters in Elam, where he died in exile. Esarhaddon
Esarhaddon
(681–669 BC) ruled Babylon
Babylon
personally, he completely rebuilt the city, bringing rejuvenation and peace to the region. Upon his death, and in an effort to maintain harmony within his vast empire (which stretched from the Caucasus
Caucasus
to Egypt
Egypt
and Nubia
Nubia
and from Cyprus to Iran), he installed his eldest son Shamash-shum-ukin
Shamash-shum-ukin
as a subject king in Babylon, and his youngest, the highly educated Ashurbanipal (669–627 BC), in the more senior position as king of Assyria
Assyria
and overlord of Shamash-shum-ukin. Despite being an Assyrian himself, Shamash-shum-ukin, after decades subject to his brother Ashurbanipal, declared that the city of Babylon (and not the Assyrian city of Nineveh) should be the seat of the immense empire. He raised a major revolt against his brother, Ashurbanipal. He led a powerful coalition of peoples also resentful of Assyrian subjugation and rule, including; Elam, the Persians, Medes, the Babylonians, Chaldeans and Suteans of southern Mesopotamia, the Arameans
Arameans
of the Levant
Levant
and southwest Mesopotamia, the Arabs
Arabs
and Dilmunites of the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
and the Canaanites-Phoenicians. After a bitter struggle Babylon
Babylon
was sacked and its allies vanquished, Shamash-shum-ukim being killed in the process. Elam
Elam
was destroyed once and for all, and the Babylonians, Persians, Chaldeans, Arabs, Medes, Elamites, Arameans, Suteans and Canaanites were violently subjugated, with Assyrian troops exacting savage revenge on the rebelling peoples. An Assyrian governor named Kandalanu was placed on the throne to rule on behalf of the Assyrian king.[9] Upon Ashurbanipal's death in 627 BC, his son Ashur-etil-ilani (627–623 BC) became ruler of Babylon and Assyria. However, Assyria
Assyria
soon descended into a series of brutal internal civil wars which were to cause its downfall. Ashur-etil-ilani was deposed by one of his own generals, named Sin-shumu-lishir in 623 BC, who also set himself up as king in Babylon. After only one year on the throne amidst continual civil war, Sinsharishkun (622–612 BC) ousted him as ruler of Assyria
Assyria
and Babylonia
Babylonia
in 622 BC. However, he too was beset by constant unremitting civil war in the Assyrian heartland. Babylonia took advantage of this and rebelled under Nabopolassar, a previously unknown malka (chieftain) of the Chaldeans, who had settled in south eastern Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
by c. 850 BC. It was during the reign of Sin-shar-ishkun that Assyria's vast empire began to unravel, and many of its former subject peoples ceased to pay tribute, most significantly for the Assyrians; the Babylonians, Chaldeans, Medes, Persians, Scythians, Arameans
Arameans
and Cimmerians. Neo-Babylonian Empire
Neo-Babylonian Empire
(Chaldean Era)[edit] Main articles: Neo-Babylonian Empire
Neo-Babylonian Empire
and Chaldea

The Neo-Babylonian Empire

In 620 BC Nabopolassar
Nabopolassar
seized control over much of Babylonia
Babylonia
with the support of most of the inhabitants, with only the city of Nippur
Nippur
and some northern regions showing any loyalty to the beleaguered Assyrian king.[9] Nabopolassar
Nabopolassar
was unable to yet utterly secure Babylonia, and for the next four years he was forced to contend with an occupying Assyrian army encamped in Babylonia
Babylonia
trying to unseat him. However, the Assyrian king, Sin-shar-ishkun was plagued by constant revolts among his people in Nineveh, and was thus prevented from ejecting Nabopolassar. The stalemate ended in 615 BC, when Nabopolassar
Nabopolassar
entered the Babylonians and Chaldeans into alliance with Cyaxares, an erstwhile vassal of Assyria, and king of the Iranian peoples; the Medes, Persians, Sagartians and Parthians. Cyaxares
Cyaxares
had also taken advantage of the Assyrian destruction of the formerly regionally dominant pre-Iranian Elamite and Mannean nations and the subsequent anarchy in Assyria
Assyria
to free the Iranic
Iranic
peoples from three centuries of the Assyrian yoke and regional Elamite domination. The Scythians
Scythians
from north of the Caucasus, and the Cimmerians
Cimmerians
from the Black Sea
Black Sea
who had both also been subjugated by Assyria, joined the alliance, as did regional Aramean tribes. In 615 BC, while the Assyrian king was fully occupied fighting rebels in both Babylonia
Babylonia
and Assyria
Assyria
itself, Cyaxares
Cyaxares
launched a surprise attack on the Assyrian heartlands, sacking the cities of Kalhu
Kalhu
(the Biblical Calah, Nimrud) and Arrapkha
Arrapkha
(modern Kirkuk), Nabopolassar
Nabopolassar
was still pinned down in southern Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
and thus not involved in this breakthrough. From this point on the coalition of Babylonians, Chaldeans, Medes, Persians, Scythians, Cimmerians
Cimmerians
and Sagartians fought in unison against a civil war ravaged Assyria. Major Assyrian cities such as Ashur, Arbela (modern Irbil), Guzana, Dur Sharrukin
Dur Sharrukin
(modern Khorsabad), Imgur-Enlil, Nibarti-Ashur, Gasur, Kanesh, Kar Ashurnasipal and Tushhan
Tushhan
fell to the alliance during 614 BC. Sin-shar-ishkun somehow managed to rally against the odds during 613 BC, and drove back the combined forces ranged against him. However, the alliance launched a renewed combined attack the following year, and after five years of fierce fighting Nineveh
Nineveh
was sacked in late 612 BC after a prolonged siege, in which Sin-shar-ishkun was killed defending his capital. House to house fighting continued in Nineveh, and an Assyrian general and member of the royal household, took the throne as Ashur-uballit II (612–605 BC). He was offered the chance of accepting a position of vassalage by the leaders of the alliance according to the Babylonian Chronicle. However he refused and managed to successfully fight his way out of Nineveh
Nineveh
and to the northern Assyrian city of Harran
Harran
in Upper Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
where he founded a new capital. The fighting continued, as the Assyrian king held out against the alliance until 607 BC, when he was eventually ejected by the Medes, Babylonians, Scythians
Scythians
and their allies, and prevented in an attempt to regain the city the same year. The Egyptian Pharaoh Necho II, whose dynasty had been installed as vassals of Assyria
Assyria
in 671 BC, belatedly tried to aid Egypt's former Assyrian masters, possibly out of fear that Egypt
Egypt
would be next to succumb to the new powers without Assyria
Assyria
to protect them, having already been ravaged by the Scythians. The Assyrians fought on with Egyptian aid until what was probably a final decisive victory was achieved against them at Carchemish
Carchemish
in north western Assyria
Assyria
in 605 BC. The seat of empire was thus transferred to Babylonia[16] for the first time since Hammurabi
Hammurabi
over a thousand years before. Nabopolassar
Nabopolassar
was followed by his son Nebuchadnezzar II (605–562 BC), whose reign of 43 years made Babylon
Babylon
once more the ruler of much of the civilized world, taking over portions of the former Assyrian Empire, with the eastern and north eastern portion being taken by the Medes
Medes
and the far north by the Scythians.[16] Nebuchadnezzar II may have also had to contend with remnants of the Assyrian resistance. Some sections of the Assyrian Army and Administration may have still continued in and around Dur-Katlimmu
Dur-Katlimmu
in north west Assyria
Assyria
for a time, however by 599 BC Assyrian imperial records from this region also fell silent. The fate of Ashur-uballit II remains unknown, and he may have been killed attempting to regain Harran, at Carchemish, or continued to fight on, eventually disappearing into obscurity. The Scythians
Scythians
and Cimmerians, erstwhile allies of Babylonia
Babylonia
under Nabopolassar, now became a threat, and Nebuchadnezzar II was forced to march into Anatolia
Anatolia
and rout their forces, ending the northern threat to his Empire. The Egyptians attempted to remain in the Near East, possibly in an effort to aid in restoring Assyria
Assyria
as a secure buffer against Babylonia
Babylonia
and the Medes
Medes
and Persians, or to carve out an empire of their own. Nebuchadnezzar II campaigned against the Egyptians and drove them back over the Sinai. However an attempt to take Egypt itself as his Assyrian predecessors had succeeded in doing failed, mainly due to a series of rebellions from the Israelites of Judah and the former kingdom of Ephraim, the Phoenicians
Phoenicians
of Caanan
Caanan
and the Arameans
Arameans
of the Levant. The Babylonian king crushed these rebellions, deposed Jehoiakim, the king of Judah and deported a sizeable part of the population to Babylonia. Cities like Tyre, Sidon
Sidon
and Damascus
Damascus
were also subjugated. The Arabs
Arabs
and other South Arabian peoples who dwelt in the deserts to the south of the borders of Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
were then also subjugated. In 567 BC he went to war with Pharaoh Amasis, and briefly invaded Egypt
Egypt
itself. After securing his empire, which included marrying a Median princess, he devoted himself to maintaining the empire and conducting numerous impressive building projects in Babylon. He is credited with building the fabled Hanging Gardens of Babylon.[17] Amel- Marduk
Marduk
succeeded to the throne and reigned for only two years. Little contemporary record of his rule survives, though Berosus later stated that he was deposed and murdered in 560 BC by his successor Neriglissar for conducting himself in an "improper manner". Neriglissar (560–556 BC) also had a short reign. He was the son in law of Nebuchadnezzar II, and it is unclear if he was a Chaldean or native Babylonian who married into the dynasty. He campaigned in Aram and Phoenicia, successfully maintaining Babylonian rule in these regions. Neriglissar died young however, and was succeeded by his son Labashi- Marduk
Marduk
(556 BC), who was still a boy. He was deposed and killed during the same year in a palace conspiracy. Of the reign of the last Babylonian king, Nabonidus
Nabonidus
(Nabu-na'id, 556–539 BC) who is the son of the Assyrian priestess Adda-Guppi and who managed to kill the last Chaldean king, Labashi-Marduk, and took the reign, there is a fair amount of information available. Nabonidus (hence his son, the regent Belshazzar) was, at least from the mother's side, neither Chaldean nor Babylonian, but ironically Assyrian, hailing from its final capital of Harran
Harran
(Kharranu). His father's origins remain unknown. Information regarding Nabonidus
Nabonidus
is chiefly derived from a chronological tablet containing the annals of Nabonidus, supplemented by another inscription of Nabonidus
Nabonidus
where he recounts his restoration of the temple of the Moon-god Sin
Sin
at Harran; as well as by a proclamation of Cyrus issued shortly after his formal recognition as king of Babylonia.[16] A number of factors arose which would ultimately lead to the fall of Babylon. The population of Babylonia
Babylonia
became restive and increasingly disaffected under Nabonidus. He excited a strong feeling against himself by attempting to centralize the polytheistic religion of Babylonia
Babylonia
in the temple of Marduk
Marduk
at Babylon, and while he had thus alienated the local priesthoods, the military party also despised him on account of his antiquarian tastes. He seemed to have left the defense of his kingdom to his son Belshazzar
Belshazzar
(a capable soldier but poor diplomat who alienated the political elite), occupying himself with the more congenial work of excavating the foundation records of the temples and determining the dates of their builders.[16] He also spent time outside Babylonia, rebuilding temples in the Assyrian city of Harran, and also among his Arab
Arab
subjects in the deserts to the south of Mesopotamia. Nabonidus
Nabonidus
and Belshazzar's Assyrian heritage is also likely to have added to this resentment. In addition, Mesopotamian military might had usually been concentrated in the martial state of Assyria. Babylonia
Babylonia
had always been more vulnerable to conquest and invasion than its northern neighbour, and without the might of Assyria
Assyria
to keep foreign powers in check and Mesopotamia dominant, Babylonia
Babylonia
was ultimately exposed. It was in the sixth year of Nabonidus
Nabonidus
(549 BC) that Cyrus the Great, the Achaemenid Persian "king of Anshan" in Elam, revolted against his suzerain Astyages, "king of the Manda" or Medes, at Ecbatana. Astyages' army betrayed him to his enemy, and Cyrus established himself at Ecbatana, thus putting an end to the empire of the Medes and making the Persian faction dominant among the Iranic
Iranic
peoples.[18] Three years later Cyrus had become king of all Persia, and was engaged in a campaign to put down a revolt among the Assyrians. Meanwhile, Nabonidus
Nabonidus
had established a camp in the desert of his colony of Arabia, near the southern frontier of his kingdom, leaving his son Belshazzar
Belshazzar
(Belsharutsur) in command of the army. In 539 BC Cyrus invaded Babylonia. A battle was fought at Opis in the month of June, where the Babylonians were defeated; and immediately afterwards Sippar
Sippar
surrendered to the invader. Nabonidus
Nabonidus
fled to Babylon, where he was pursued by Gobryas, and on the 16th day of Tammuz, two days after the capture of Sippar, "the soldiers of Cyrus entered Babylon
Babylon
without fighting." Nabonidus
Nabonidus
was dragged from his hiding place, where the services continued without interruption. Cyrus did not arrive until the 3rd of Marchesvan (October), Gobryas having acted for him in his absence. Gobryas was now made governor of the province of Babylon, and a few days afterwards Belshazzar
Belshazzar
the son of Nabonidus
Nabonidus
died in battle. A public mourning followed, lasting six days, and Cyrus' son Cambyses
Cambyses
accompanied the corpse to the tomb.[19] One of the first acts of Cyrus accordingly was to allow the Jewish exiles to return to their own homes, carrying with them their sacred temple vessels. The permission to do so was embodied in a proclamation, whereby the conqueror endeavored to justify his claim to the Babylonian throne.[19] Cyrus now claimed to be the legitimate successor of the ancient Babylonian kings and the avenger of Bel-Marduk, who was assumed to be wrathful at the impiety of Nabonidus
Nabonidus
in removing the images of the local gods from their ancestral shrines to his capital Babylon.[19] The Chaldean tribe had lost control of Babylonia
Babylonia
decades before the end of the era that sometimes bears their name, and they appear to have blended into the general populace of Babylonia
Babylonia
even before this (for example, Nabopolassar, Nebuchadnezzar II and their successors always referred to themselves as Shar Akkad and never as Shar Kaldu on inscriptions), and during the Persian Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
the term Chaldean ceased to refer to a race of people, and instead specifically to a social class of priests educated in classical Babylonian literature, particularly Astronomy
Astronomy
and Astrology. By the mid Seleucid Empire (312–150 BC) period this term too had fallen from use. Persian Babylonia[edit] Further information: Achaemenid Assyria
Assyria
and Fall of Babylon Babylonia
Babylonia
was absorbed into the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
in 539 BC. A year before Cyrus' death, in 529 BC, he elevated his son Cambyses
Cambyses
II in the government, making him king of Babylon, while he reserved for himself the fuller title of "king of the (other) provinces" of the empire. It was only when Darius I
Darius I
acquired the Persian throne and ruled it as a representative of the Zoroastrian religion, that the old tradition was broken and the claim of Babylon
Babylon
to confer legitimacy on the rulers of western Asia ceased to be acknowledged.[19] Immediately after Darius seized Persia, Babylonia
Babylonia
briefly recovered its independence under a native ruler, Nidinta-Bel, who took the name of Nebuchadnezzar III, and reigned from October 522 BC to August 520 BC, when Darius took the city by storm, during this period Assyria
Assyria
to the north also rebelled. A few years later, probably 514 BC, Babylon again revolted under the Armenian king Nebuchadnezzar IV; on this occasion, after its capture by the Persians, the walls were partly destroyed. The Esagila, the great temple of Bel, however, still continued to be kept in repair and to be a center of Babylonian religious feelings.[19] Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
conquered Babylon
Babylon
in 333 BC for the Greeks, and died there in 323 BC. Babylonia
Babylonia
and Assyria
Assyria
then became part of the Greek Seleucid Empire.[citation needed] It has long been maintained that the foundation of Seleucia
Seleucia
diverted the population to the new capital of southern Mesopotamia, and that the ruins of the old city became a quarry for the builders of the new seat of government,[19] but the recent publication of the Babylonian Chronicles
Babylonian Chronicles
has shown that urban life was still very much the same well into the Parthian Empire (150 BC to 226 AD). The Parthian king Mithridates conquered the region into the Parthian Empire
Parthian Empire
in 150 BC, and the region became something of a battleground between Greeks and Parthians. There was a brief interlude of Roman conquest (the provinces of Assyria
Assyria
and Mesopotamia; 116–118 AD) under Trajan, after which the Parthians
Parthians
reasserted control. The satrapy of Babylonia
Babylonia
was absorbed into Asōristān
Asōristān
(meaning The land of the Assyrians in Persian) in the Sasanian Empire, which began in 226 AD, and by this time East Syrian Rite
East Syrian Rite
Syriac Christianity (which emerged in Assyria
Assyria
and Upper Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
the first century AD) had become the dominant religion among the native Assyrian-Babylonian populace, who had never adopted the Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism
or Hellenic religions and languages of their rulers. Apart from the small 2nd century BC to 3rd century AD independent Neo-Assyrian
Neo-Assyrian
states of Adiabene, Osroene, Assur, Beth Garmai, Beth Nuhadra and Hatra
Hatra
in the north, Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
remained under largely Persian control until the Arab
Arab
Muslim conquest of Persia
Persia
in the seventh century AD. Asōristān
Asōristān
was dissolved as a geopolitical entity in 637 AD, and the native Eastern Aramaic-speaking and largely Christian populace of southern and central Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
(with the exception of the Mandeans) gradually underwent Arabization
Arabization
and Islamization
Islamization
in contrast to northern Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
where an Assyrian continuity endures to the present day. Culture[edit] Bronze Age to Early Iron Age
Iron Age
Mesopotamian culture is sometimes summarized as "Assyro-Babylonian", because of the close ethnic, linguistic and cultural interdependence of the two political centers. The term "Babylonia", especially in writings from around the early 20th century, was formerly used to also include Southern Mesopotamia's earliest pre-Babylonian history, and not only in reference to the later city-state of Babylon
Babylon
proper. This geographic usage of the name "Babylonia' has generally been replaced by the more accurate term Sumer
Sumer
or Sumero- Akkadian
Akkadian
in more recent writing, referring to the pre-Assyro-Babylonian Mesopotamian civilization. Babylonian culture[edit]

Old Babylonian Cylinder Seal, hematite, The king makes an animal offering to Shamash. This seal was probably made in a workshop at Sippar.[20]

Art and architecture[edit] Further information: Architecture of Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
and Art of Mesopotamia In Babylonia, an abundance of clay, and lack of stone, led to greater use of mudbrick; Babylonian, Sumerian and Assyrian temples were massive structures of crude brick which were supported by buttresses, the rain being carried off by drains. One such drain at Ur was made of lead. The use of brick led to the early development of the pilaster and column, and of frescoes and enameled tiles. The walls were brilliantly coloured, and sometimes plated with zinc or gold, as well as with tiles. Painted terracotta cones for torches were also embedded in the plaster. In Babylonia, in place of the relief, there was greater use of three-dimensional figures—the earliest examples being the Statues of Gudea, that are realistic if somewhat clumsy. The paucity of stone in Babylonia
Babylonia
made every pebble precious, and led to a high perfection in the art of gem-cutting.[21] Astronomy[edit] Main article: Babylonian astronomy Tablets dating back to the Old Babylonian period document the application of mathematics to the variation in the length of daylight over a solar year. Centuries of Babylonian observations of celestial phenomena are recorded in the series of cuneiform script tablets known as the 'Enūma Anu Enlil'. The oldest significant astronomical text that we possess is Tablet 63 of 'Enūma Anu Enlil', the Venus tablet of Ammi-Saduqa, which lists the first and last visible risings of Venus over a period of about 21 years and is the earliest evidence that the phenomena of a planet were recognized as periodic. The oldest rectangular astrolabe dates back to Babylonia
Babylonia
c. 1100 BC. The MUL.APIN, contains catalogues of stars and constellations as well as schemes for predicting heliacal risings and the settings of the planets, lengths of daylight measured by a water clock, gnomon, shadows, and intercalations. The Babylonian GU text arranges stars in 'strings' that lie along declination circles and thus measure right-ascensions or time-intervals, and also employs the stars of the zenith, which are also separated by given right-ascensional differences.[22][23][24] Medicine[edit] Medical diagnosis
Medical diagnosis
and prognosis

We find [medical semiotics] in a whole constellation of disciplines. ... There was a real common ground among these [Babylonian] forms of knowledge ... an approach involving analysis of particular cases, constructed only through traces, symptoms, hints. ... In short, we can speak about a symptomatic or divinatory [or conjectural] paradigm which could be oriented toward past present or future, depending on the form of knowledge called upon. Toward future ... that was the medical science of symptoms, with its double character, diagnostic, explaining past and present, and prognostic, suggesting likely future. ... — Carlo Ginzburg[25]

The oldest Babylonian (i.e., Akkadian) texts on medicine date back to the First Babylonian Dynasty
First Babylonian Dynasty
in the first half of the 2nd millennium BC[26] although the earliest medical prescriptions appear in Sumerian during the Third Dynasty of Ur
Third Dynasty of Ur
period.[27] The most extensive Babylonian medical text, however, is the Diagnostic Handbook written by the ummânū, or chief scholar, Esagil-kin-apli of Borsippa,[28] during the reign of the Babylonian king Adad-apla-iddina (1069–1046 BC).[29] Along with contemporary ancient Egyptian medicine, the Babylonians introduced the concepts of diagnosis, prognosis, physical examination, and prescriptions. In addition, the Diagnostic Handbook introduced the methods of therapy and aetiology and the use of empiricism, logic and rationality in diagnosis, prognosis and therapy. The text contains a list of medical symptoms and often detailed empirical observations along with logical rules used in combining observed symptoms on the body of a patient with its diagnosis and prognosis.[30] The symptoms and diseases of a patient were treated through therapeutic means such as bandages, creams and pills. If a patient could not be cured physically, the Babylonian physicians often relied on exorcism to cleanse the patient from any curses. Esagil-kin-apli's Diagnostic Handbook was based on a logical set of axioms and assumptions, including the modern view that through the examination and inspection of the symptoms of a patient, it is possible to determine the patient's disease, its aetiology and future development, and the chances of the patient's recovery.[28] Esagil-kin-apli discovered a variety of illnesses and diseases and described their symptoms in his Diagnostic Handbook. These include the symptoms for many varieties of epilepsy and related ailments along with their diagnosis and prognosis.[31] Later Babylonian medicine resembles early Greek medicine in many ways. In particular, the early treatises of the Hippocratic Corpus
Hippocratic Corpus
show the influence of late Babylonian medicine in terms of both content and form.[32] Literature[edit] Main article: Akkadian
Akkadian
literature There were libraries in most towns and temples; an old Sumerian proverb averred that "he who would excel in the school of the scribes must rise with the dawn". Women as well as men learned to read and write,[33][34] and in Semitic times, this involved knowledge of the extinct Sumerian language, and a complicated and extensive syllabary.[33] A considerable amount of Babylonian literature was translated from Sumerian originals, and the language of religion and law long continued to be written in the old agglutinative language of Sumer. Vocabularies, grammars, and interlinear translations were compiled for the use of students, as well as commentaries on the older texts and explanations of obscure words and phrases. The characters of the syllabary were all arranged and named, and elaborate lists of them were drawn up.[33] There are many Babylonian literary works whose titles have come down to us. One of the most famous of these was the Epic of Gilgamesh, in twelve books, translated from the original Sumerian by a certain Sin-liqi-unninni, and arranged upon an astronomical principle. Each division contains the story of a single adventure in the career of Gilgamesh. The whole story is a composite product, and it is probable that some of the stories are artificially attached to the central figure.[33] Neo-Babylonian culture[edit] The brief resurgence of Babylonian culture in the 7th to 6th centuries BC was accompanied by a number of important cultural developments. Astronomy[edit] Main articles: Babylonian astronomy
Babylonian astronomy
and Chronology of the ancient Near East Among the sciences, astronomy and astrology still occupied a conspicuous place in Babylonian society. Astronomy
Astronomy
was of old standing in Babylonia.[33] The zodiac was a Babylonian invention of great antiquity; and eclipses of the sun and moon could be foretold. There are dozens of cuneiform records of original Mesopotamian eclipse observations. Babylonian astronomy
Babylonian astronomy
was the basis for much of what was done in ancient Greek astronomy, in classical Indian astronomy, in Sasanian, Byzantine and Syrian astronomy, astronomy in the medieval Islamic world, and in Central Asian and Western European astronomy.[33][22] Neo- Babylonian astronomy
Babylonian astronomy
can thus be considered the direct predecessor of much of ancient Greek mathematics
Greek mathematics
and astronomy, which in turn is the historical predecessor of the European (Western) scientific revolution.[35] During the 8th and 7th centuries BC, Babylonian astronomers developed a new approach to astronomy. They began studying philosophy dealing with the ideal nature of the early universe and began employing an internal logic within their predictive planetary systems. This was an important contribution to astronomy and the philosophy of science and some scholars have thus referred to this new approach as the first scientific revolution.[36] This new approach to astronomy was adopted and further developed in Greek and Hellenistic astronomy. In Seleucid and Parthian times, the astronomical reports were of a thoroughly scientific character;[33] how much earlier their advanced knowledge and methods were developed is uncertain. The Babylonian development of methods for predicting the motions of the planets is considered to be a major episode in the history of astronomy. The only Babylonian astronomer known to have supported a heliocentric model of planetary motion was Seleucus of Seleucia
Seleucia
(b. 190 BC).[37][38][39] Seleucus is known from the writings of Plutarch. He supported the heliocentric theory where the Earth rotated around its own axis which in turn revolved around the Sun. According to Plutarch, Seleucus even proved the heliocentric system, but it is not known what arguments he used. Mathematics[edit] Main article: Babylonian mathematics Babylonian mathematical texts are plentiful and well edited.[35] In respect of time they fall in two distinct groups: one from the First Babylonian Dynasty period (1830–1531 BC), the other mainly Seleucid from the last three or four centuries BC. In respect of content there is scarcely any difference between the two groups of texts. Thus Babylonian mathematics
Babylonian mathematics
remained stale in character and content, with very little progress or innovation, for nearly two millennia.[dubious – discuss][35] The Babylonian system of mathematics was sexagesimal, or a base 60 numeral system. From this we derive the modern day usage of 60 seconds in a minute, 60 minutes in an hour, and 360 (60 x 6) degrees in a circle. The Babylonians were able to make great advances in mathematics for two reasons. First, the number 60 has many divisors (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 12, 15, 20, and 30), making calculations easier. Additionally, unlike the Egyptians and Romans, the Babylonians had a true place-value system, where digits written in the left column represented larger values (much as in our base-ten system: 734 = 7×100 + 3×10 + 4×1). Among the Babylonians' mathematical accomplishments were the determination of the square root of two correctly to seven places (YBC 7289). They also demonstrated knowledge of the Pythagorean theorem
Pythagorean theorem
well before Pythagoras, as evidenced by this tablet translated by Dennis Ramsey and dating to c. 1900 BC:

4 is the length and 5 is the diagonal. What is the breadth? Its size is not known. 4 times 4 is 16. And 5 times 5 is 25. You take 16 from 25 and there remains 9. What times what shall I take in order to get 9? 3 times 3 is 9. 3 is the breadth.

The ner of 600 and the sar of 3600 were formed from the unit of 60, corresponding with a degree of the equator. Tablets of squares and cubes, calculated from 1 to 60, have been found at Senkera, and a people acquainted with the sun-dial, the clepsydra, the lever and the pulley, must have had no mean knowledge of mechanics. A crystal lens, turned on the lathe, was discovered by Austen Henry Layard
Austen Henry Layard
at Nimrud along with glass vases bearing the name of Sargon; this could explain the excessive minuteness of some of the writing on the Assyrian tablets, and a lens may also have been used in the observation of the heavens.[40] The Babylonians might have been familiar with the general rules for measuring the areas. They measured the circumference of a circle as three times the diameter and the area as one-twelfth the square of the circumference, which would be correct if π were estimated as 3. The volume of a cylinder was taken as the product of the base and the height, however, the volume of the frustum of a cone or a square pyramid was incorrectly taken as the product of the height and half the sum of the bases. Also, there was a recent discovery in which a tablet used π as 3 and 1/8. The Babylonians are also known for the Babylonian mile, which was a measure of distance equal to about 11 kilometres (7 mi) today. This measurement for distances eventually was converted to a time-mile used for measuring the travel of the Sun, therefore, representing time. (Eves, Chapter 2) The Babylonians used also space time graphs to calculate the velocity of Jupiter. This is an idea that is considered highly modern, traced to the 14th century England and France and anticipating integral calculus.[41] Philosophy[edit] Further information: Babylonian literature § Philosophy The origins of Babylonian philosophy can be traced back to early Mesopotamian wisdom literature, which embodied certain philosophies of life, particularly ethics, in the forms of dialectic, dialogs, epic poetry, folklore, hymns, lyrics, prose, and proverbs. Babylonian reasoning and rationality developed beyond empirical observation.[42] It is possible that Babylonian philosophy had an influence on Greek philosophy, particularly Hellenistic philosophy. The Babylonian text Dialogue of Pessimism contains similarities to the agonistic thought of the sophists, the Heraclitean doctrine of contrasts, and the dialogs of Plato, as well as a precursor to the maieutic Socratic method of Socrates.[43] The Milesian philosopher Thales
Thales
is also known to have studied philosophy in Mesopotamia. Legacy[edit] Babylonia, and particularly its capital city Babylon, has long held a place in the Abrahamic religions
Abrahamic religions
as a symbol of excess and dissolute power. Many references are made to Babylon
Babylon
in the Bible, both literally (historical) and allegorically. The mentions in the Tanakh tend to be historical or prophetic, while New Testament
New Testament
apocalyptic references to the Whore of Babylon
Babylon
are more likely figurative, or cryptic references possibly to pagan Rome, or some other archetype. The legendary Hanging Gardens of Babylon
Babylon
and the Tower of Babel
Tower of Babel
are seen as symbols of luxurious and arrogant power respectively. Early Christians sometimes referred to Rome as Babylon: The apostle Peter ends his first letter (probably written from Rome as Bishop) with this advice: "She who is in Babylon
Babylon
[Rome], chosen together with you, sends you her greetings, and so does my son Mark." (1 Peter 5:13, New International Version). Revelation 14:8 says: "A second angel followed and said, 'Fallen! Fallen is Babylon
Babylon
the Great,' which made all the nations drink the maddening wine of her adulteries". Other examples can be found in 16:19 and 18:2. Babylon
Babylon
is referred to in Quran in verse (2:102) of chapter (2) Surah Baqarah (The Cow): " And they followed [instead] what the devils had recited during the reign of Solomon. It was not Solomon who disbelieved, but the devils disbelieved, teaching people magic and that which was revealed to the two angels at Babylon, Harut and Marut. But the two angels do not teach anyone unless they say, "We are a trial, so do not disbelieve [by practicing magic]". And [yet] they learn from them that by which they cause separation between a man and his wife. But they do not harm anyone through it except by permission of Allah. And the people learn what harms them and does not benefit them. But the Children of Israel certainly knew that whoever purchased the magic would not have in the Hereafter any share. And wretched is that for which they sold themselves, if they only knew." See also[edit]

Ancient Near East
Ancient Near East
portal

Timeline of the Assyrian Empire

Notes[edit]

^ Freedom = Akk. addurāru.

References[edit]

^ F. Leo Oppenheim, Ancient Mesopotamia ^ Aliraqi - Babylonian Empire ^ Babylonian Empire - Livius ^ a b c Deutscher, Guy (2007). Syntactic Change in Akkadian: The Evolution of Sentential Complementation. Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
US. pp. 20–21. ISBN 978-0-19-953222-3.  ^ Woods C. 2006 "Bilingualism, Scribal Learning, and the Death of Sumerian". In S.L. Sanders (ed) Margins of Writing, Origins of Culture: 91–120 Chicago [1] ^ A. K. Grayson (1972). Assyrian Royal Inscriptions, Volume 1. Otto Harrassowitz. pp. 7–8.  ^ Robert William Rogers, A History of Babylonia
Babylonia
and Assyria, Volume I, Eaton and Mains, 1900. ^ Oppenheim Ancient Mesopotamia ^ a b c d Georges Roux, Ancient Iraq ^ Eder, Christian., Assyrische Distanzangaben und die absolute Chronologie Vorderasiens, AoF 31, 191–236, 2004. ^ Schneider, Thomas (2003). "Kassitisch und Hurro-Urartäisch. Ein Diskussionsbeitrag zu möglichen lexikalischen Isoglossen". Altorientalische Forschungen (in German) (30): 372–381.  ^ "India: Early Vedic period". Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
Retrieved 8 September 2012.  ^ "Iranian art and architecture". Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
Retrieved 8 September 2012.  ^  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Sayce, Archibald Henry (1911). " Babylonia
Babylonia
and Assyria". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 3 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 104.  ^ H. W. F. Saggs (2000). Babylonians. British Museum Press. p. 117.  ^ a b c d Chisholm 1911, p. 105. ^ "World Wide Sechool". History of Phoenicia – Part IV. Archived from the original on 2012-09-18. Retrieved 2007-01-09.  ^ Chisholm 1911, pp. 105–106. ^ a b c d e f Chisholm 1911, p. 106. ^ Al-Gailani Werr, L., 1988. Studies in the chronology and regional style of Old Babylonian Cylinder Seals. Bibliotheca Mesopotamica, Volume 23. ^ Chisholm 1911, p. 108. ^ a b Pingree, David (1998), "Legacies in Astronomy
Astronomy
and Celestial Omens", in Dalley, Stephanie, The Legacy of Mesopotamia, Oxford University Press, pp. 125–137, ISBN 0-19-814946-8  ^ Rochberg, Francesca (2004), The Heavenly Writing: Divination, Horoscopy, and Astronomy
Astronomy
in Mesopotamian Culture, Cambridge University Press  ^ Evans, James (1998). The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy. Oxford University Press. pp. 296–297. ISBN 978-0-19-509539-5. Retrieved 2008-02-04.  ^ Ginzburg, Carlo (1984). "Morelli, Freud, and Sherlock Holmes: Clues and Scientific Method". In Eco, Umberto; Sebeok, Thomas. The Sign of Three: Dupin, Holmes, Peirce. Bloomington, IN: History Workshop, Indiana University Press. pp. 81–118. ISBN 978-0-253-35235-4. LCCN 82049207. OCLC 9412985.  Ginzburg stresses the significance of Babylonian medicine in his discussion of the conjectural paradigm as evidenced by the methods of Giovanni Morelli, Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud
and Sherlock Holmes
Sherlock Holmes
in the light of Charles Sanders Peirce's logic of making educated guesses or abductive reasoning ^ Leo Oppenheim (1977). Ancient Mesopotamia: Portrait of a Dead Civilization. University of Chicago Press. p. 290.  ^ R D. Biggs (2005). "Medicine, Surgery, and Public Health in Ancient Mesopotamia". Journal of Assyrian Academic Studies. 19 (1): 7–18.  ^ a b H. F. J. Horstmanshoff, Marten Stol, Cornelis Tilburg (2004), Magic and Rationality in Ancient Near Eastern and Graeco-Roman Medicine, p. 99, Brill Publishers, ISBN 90-04-13666-5. ^ Marten Stol (1993), Epilepsy
Epilepsy
in Babylonia, p. 55, Brill Publishers, ISBN 90-72371-63-1. ^ H. F. J. Horstmanshoff, Marten Stol, Cornelis Tilburg (2004), Magic and Rationality in Ancient Near Eastern and Graeco-Roman Medicine, p. 97–98, Brill Publishers, ISBN 90-04-13666-5. ^ Marten Stol (1993), Epilepsy
Epilepsy
in Babylonia, p. 5, Brill Publishers, ISBN 90-72371-63-1. ^ M. J. Geller (2004). H. F. J. Horstmanshoff; Marten Stol; Cornelis Tilburg, eds. West Meets East: Early Greek and Babylonian Diagnosis. Magic and rationality in ancient Near Eastern and Graeco-Roman medicine. Brill Publishers. pp. 11–186. ISBN 90-04-13666-5.  ^ a b c d e f g Chisholm 1911, p. 107. ^ Tatlow, Elisabeth Meier Women, Crime, and Punishment in Ancient Law and Society: The Ancient Near East
Ancient Near East
Continuum International Publishing Group Ltd. (31 March 2005) ISBN 978-0-8264-1628-5 p. 75 [2] ^ a b c Aaboe, Asger. "The culture of Babylonia: Babylonian mathematics, astrology, and astronomy". The Assyrian and Babylonian Empires and other States of the Near East, from the Eighth to the Sixth Centuries B.C. Eds. John Boardman, I. E. S. Edwards, N. G. L. Hammond, E. Sollberger and C. B. F. Walker. Cambridge University Press, (1991) ^ D. Brown (2000), Mesopotamian Planetary Astronomy-Astrology, Styx Publications, ISBN 90-5693-036-2. ^ Otto E. Neugebauer (1945). "The History of Ancient Astronomy Problems and Methods", Journal of Near Eastern Studies 4 (1), pp. 1–38. ^ George Sarton (1955). "Chaldaean Astronomy
Astronomy
of the Last Three Centuries B.C.", Journal of the American Oriental Society 75 (3), pp. 166–173 [169]. ^ William P. D. Wightman (1951, 1953), The Growth of Scientific Ideas, Yale University Press p. 38. ^ Chisholm 1911, pp. 107–108. ^ http://science.sciencemag.org/content/351/6272/482.full ^ Giorgio Buccellati (1981), "Wisdom and Not: The Case of Mesopotamia", Journal of the American Oriental Society 101 (1), pp. 35–47. ^ Giorgio Buccellati (1981), "Wisdom and Not: The Case of Mesopotamia", Journal of the American Oriental Society 101 (1), pp. 35–47 [43].

Bibliography[edit]

Theophilus G. Pinches, The Religion of Babylonia
Babylonia
and Assyria
Assyria
(Many deities' names are now read differently, but this detailed 1906 work is a classic.)  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Babylonian and Assyrian Religion". Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
(11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.   Sayce, Archibald Henry (1878). "Babylon–Babylonia". In Baynes, T.S. Encyclopædia Britannica. 3 (9th ed.). New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. pp. 182–194.   Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Babylonia". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  The History Files Ancient Mesopotamia Legends of Babylon
Babylon
and Egypt
Egypt
in Relation to Hebrew Tradition, by Leonard W. King, 1918 (a searchable facsimile at the University of Georgia Libraries; DjVu & layered PDF format) The Babylonian Legends of the Creation and the Fight between Bel and the Dragon, as told by Assyrian Tablets from Nineveh, 1921 (a searchable facsimile at the University of Georgia
University of Georgia
Libraries; DjVu & layered PDF format) The Civilization of Babylonia
Babylonia
and Assyria; its remains, language, history, religion, commerce, law, art, and literature, by Morris Jastrow, Jr. ... with map and 164 illustrations, 1915 (a searchable facsimile at the University of Georgia
University of Georgia
Libraries; DjVu & layered PDF format or [httpw://www.wisdomlib.org/mesopotamian/book/the-civilization-of-babylonia-and-assyria/index.html Readable HTML])

External links[edit]

Old Babylonian Period From under the Dust of Ages by William St. Chad Boscawen The Chaldean account of Genesis by George Smith Babylonian Mathematics Babylonian Numerals Babylonian Astronomy/Astrology Bibliography of Babylonian Astronomy/Astrology Recordings of modern scholars reading Babylonian poetry in the original language (http://www.speechisfire.com).

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Empire Babylonia Assyria Neo-Assyrian
Neo-Assyrian
Empire Neo-Babylonian Empire Achaemenid Assyria Seleucid Babylonia Parthian Babylonia Sassanid Asorestan

638–1958

Muslim conquest of Persia Abbasid Caliphate Buyid dynasty Kara Koyunlu Ak Koyunlu Safavids Ottoman Iraq (Mamluk dynasty) Mandatory Iraq Kingdom of Iraq Arab
Arab
Federation

Republic

1958–68 1968–2003 2003–11 2011–present

Arab
Arab
Socialist Ba'ath Party – Iraq
Iraq
Region (National Command) Saddam Hussein Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War Invasion of Kuwait Gulf War Sanctions Iraq
Iraq
War

U.S. invasion Iraqi insurgency U.S. troop withdrawal

Insurgency (2011–2013) Civil War (2014–present)

Mosul liberation

Geography

Al-Faw Peninsula Al-Jazira Euphrates Hamrin Mountains Persian Gulf Islands Mesopotamia Mesopotamian Marshes Places Lakes Shatt al-Arab Syrian Desert Tigris Umm Qasr Zagros Mountains

Politics

Administrative divisions Constitution Council of Representatives (legislative) Elections Foreign aid Foreign relations Government

Council of Ministers Presidency Council President Prime Minister

Human rights

in pre-Saddam Iraq in Saddam Hussein's Iraq in post-invasion Iraq

in ISIL-controlled territory

LGBT Freedom of religion Women

Law Military Police Political parties Judiciary Wars and conflicts

Economy

Central Bank Dinar (currency) Infrastructure Oil Industry Oil reserves Reconstruction Stock Exchange Telecommunications Transportation

Society

Cuisine Culture Education Health Media Music Smoking Sports

Demographics

Iraqis

diaspora refugees

Languages

Arabic Aramaic Kurdish Persian Iraqi Turkmen
Iraqi Turkmen
dialect

Minorities

Armenians Assyrians Circassians Kurds Mandaeans Marsh Arabs Persians Solluba Turkmen/Turcoman Jews

Religion

Islam Christianity Mandaeism Yazidis

Outline Index

Category Portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 245399798 GND: 4004102-5 N

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