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Babi Yar
Babi Yar
(Ukrainian: Бабин Яр, Babyn Yar; Russian: Бабий Яр, Babiy Yar) is a ravine in the Ukrainian capital Kiev
Kiev
and a site of massacres carried out by German forces and by local Ukrainian collaborators during their campaign against the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in World War II. The first, and best documented, of the massacres took place 29–30 September 1941, killing 33,771 Jews. The decision to kill all the Jews
Jews
in Kiev
Kiev
was made by the military governor, Major-General Kurt Eberhard, the Police Commander for Army Group South, SS- Obergruppenführer
Obergruppenführer
Friedrich Jeckeln, and the Einsatzgruppe C Commander Otto Rasch. Sonderkommando 4a soldiers, along with the aid of the SD and SS Police Battalions backed by the local police carried out the orders.[1] The massacre was the largest mass-killing under the auspices of the Nazi regime and its collaborators during its campaign against the Soviet Union[2] and is considered[by whom?] to be "the largest single massacre in the history of the Holocaust" to that particular date,[3] surpassed only by the 1941 Odessa massacre
1941 Odessa massacre
of more than 50,000 Jews
Jews
in October 1941 (committed by German and Romanian troops) and by Aktion Erntefest
Aktion Erntefest
of November 1943 in occupied Poland with 42,000–43,000 victims.[4][need quotation to verify] Victims of other massacres at the site included Soviet prisoners of war, communists, Ukrainian nationalists
Ukrainian nationalists
and Roma.[5][6][7] It is estimated that between 100,000 and 150,000 people were killed at Babi Yar during the German occupation.[8]

Contents

1 Historical background 2 Massacres
Massacres
of 29–30 September 1941 3 Survivors 4 Further massacres

4.1 Numbers murdered

5 Syrets concentration camp 6 Concealment of the crimes 7 Remembrance 8 Mudslide 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Sources 13 External links

Historical background[edit] The Babi Yar
Babi Yar
(Babyn Yar) ravine was first mentioned in historical accounts in 1401, in connection with its sale by "baba" (an old woman), the cantiniere, to the Dominican Monastery.[9] The word "yar" is Turkic in origin and means "gully" or "ravine". In the course of several centuries the site had been used for various purposes including military camps and at least two cemeteries, among them an Orthodox Christian cemetery and a Jewish cemetery. The latter was officially closed in 1937.[citation needed] Massacres
Massacres
of 29–30 September 1941[edit] See also: Battle of Kiev
Kiev
(1941)

Handout dated September 28, 1941 in Russian, Ukrainian with German translation ordering all Kievan Jews
Jews
to assemble for the supposed resettlement

Paul Blobel
Paul Blobel
at the subsequent Nuremberg trials, March 1948

Axis forces, mainly German, occupied Kiev
Kiev
on 19 September 1941. Between 20 and 28 September, explosives planted by the Soviet NKVD caused extensive damage in the city; on 24 September an explosion rocked Rear Headquarters Army Group South.[10] Two days later, on 26 September, Maj. Gen. Kurt Eberhard, the military governor, and SS- Obergruppenführer
Obergruppenführer
Friedrich Jeckeln, the SS and Police Leader
SS and Police Leader
met at Rear Headquarters Army Group South. There, they made the decision to exterminate the Jews
Jews
of Kiev, claiming that it was in retaliation for the explosions.[11] Also present were SS- Standartenführer
Standartenführer
Paul Blobel, commander of Sonderkommando 4c, and his superior, SS- Brigadeführer
Brigadeführer
Dr. Otto Rasch, commander of Einsatzgruppe C. The mass killing would be carried out by units under the command of Rasch and Blobel, who were ultimately responsible for a number of atrocities in Ukraine
Ukraine
in the summer and autumn of 1941. The implementation of the order was entrusted to Sonderkommando 4a, commanded by Blobel, under the general command of Friedrich Jeckeln.[12] This unit consisted of SD and Sipo, the third company of the Special
Special
Duties Waffen-SS
Waffen-SS
battalion, and a platoon of the 9th Police Battalion. Police Battalion 45, commanded by Major Besser, conducted the massacre, supported by members of a Waffen-SS
Waffen-SS
battalion. Contrary to the myth of the "clean Wehrmacht", the Sixth Army under Walter von Reichenau
Walter von Reichenau
worked together with the SS and SD to plan the mass murder of the Jews
Jews
of Kiev.[13] An order was posted:

All Yids[a] of the city of Kiev
Kiev
and its vicinity must appear on Monday, September 29, by 8 o'clock in the morning at the corner of Mel'nikova and Dorohozhytska streets (near the Viis'kove cemetery). Bring documents, money and valuables, and also warm clothing, linen, etc. Any Yids[a] who do not follow this order and are found elsewhere will be shot. Any civilians who enter the dwellings left by Yids[a] and appropriate the things in them will be shot. — Order posted in Kiev
Kiev
in Russian and Ukrainian, on or around 26 September 1941.[15]

On 29 and 30 September 1941, a special team of German SS troops supported by other German units and local collaborators, from western Ukraine
Ukraine
mostly, murdered 33,771 Jewish civilians after taking them to the ravine.[16][17][18][19] The commander of the Einsatzkommando
Einsatzkommando
reported two days later:[20]

The difficulties resulting from such a large scale action—in particular concerning the seizure—were overcome in Kiev
Kiev
by requesting the Jewish population through wall posters to move. Although only a participation of approximately 5,000 to 6,000 Jews
Jews
had been expected at first, more than 30,000 Jews
Jews
arrived who, until the very moment of their execution, still believed in their resettlement, thanks to an extremely clever organization.[21]

According to the testimony of a truck driver named Hofer, victims were ordered to undress and were beaten if they resisted:

I watched what happened when the Jews—men, women and children—arrived. The Ukrainians[b] led them past a number of different places where one after the other they had to give up their luggage, then their coats, shoes and over-garments and also underwear. They also had to leave their valuables in a designated place. There was a special pile for each article of clothing. It all happened very quickly and anyone who hesitated was kicked or pushed by the Ukrainians [sic][b] to keep them moving. — Michael Berenbaum: "Statement of Truck-Driver Hofer describing the murder of Jews
Jews
at Babi Yar"[24]

The crowd was large enough that most of the victims could not have known what was happening until it was too late; by the time they heard the machine gun fire, there was no chance to escape. All were driven down a corridor of soldiers, in groups of ten, and then shot. A truck driver described the scene.

Once undressed, they were led into the ravine which was about 150 metres long and 30 metres wide and a good 15 metres deep … When they reached the bottom of the ravine they were seized by members of the Schutzpolizei and made to lie down on top of Jews
Jews
who had already been shot … The corpses were literally in layers. A police marksman came along and shot each Jew in the neck with a submachine gun … I saw these marksmen stand on layers of corpses and shoot one after the other … The marksman would walk across the bodies of the executed Jews
Jews
to the next Jew, who had meanwhile lain down, and shoot him.[15]

Felix Lembersky, Execution: Babi Yar, ca. 1944–1952

Dina Pronicheva
Dina Pronicheva
on the witness stand, 24 January 1946, at a Kiev war-crimes trial of fifteen members of the German police responsible for the occupied Kiev
Kiev
region.

In the evening, the Germans undermined the wall of the ravine and buried the people under the thick layers of earth.[20] According to the Einsatzgruppe's Operational Situation Report, 33,771 Jews
Jews
from Kiev
Kiev
and its suburbs were systematically shot dead by machine-gun fire at Babi Yar
Babi Yar
on 29 September and 30 September 1941.[25] The money, valuables, underwear and clothing of the murdered victims were turned over to the local ethnic Germans and to the Nazi administration of the city.[26] Wounded victims were buried alive in the ravine along with the rest of the bodies.[27] Survivors[edit] One of the most often-cited parts of Anatoly Kuznetsov's documentary novel Babi Yar
Babi Yar
is the testimony of Dina Pronicheva, an actress of the Kiev
Kiev
Puppet Theatre, and a survivor.[28] She was one of those ordered to march to the ravine, to be forced to undress and then be shot. Jumping before being shot and falling on other bodies, she played dead in a pile of corpses. She held perfectly still while the Nazis continued to shoot the wounded or gasping victims. Although the SS had covered the mass grave with earth, she eventually managed to climb through the soil and escape. Since it was dark, she had to avoid the torches of the Nazis finishing off the remaining victims still alive, wounded and gasping in the grave. She was one of the very few survivors of the massacre and later related her horrifying story to Kuznetsov.[29] At least 29 survivors are known.[30] In 2006, Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
and other Jewish organisations started a project to identify and name the Babi Yar
Babi Yar
victims, but so far only 10% have been identified. Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
has recorded the names of around 3,000 Jews
Jews
killed at Babi Yar, as well as those of some 7,000 Jews
Jews
from Kiev who were killed during the Holocaust.[31] Further massacres[edit] See also: List of victims of the Babi Yar
Babi Yar
massacre In the months that followed, thousands more were seized and taken to Babi Yar
Babi Yar
where they were shot. It is estimated that more than 100,000 residents of Kiev
Kiev
of all ethnic groups,[32][33][34][35][36] mostly civilians, were murdered by the Nazis there during World War II.[16][37] A concentration camp was also built in the area. Mass executions at Babi Yar
Babi Yar
continued up until the German forces departed from Kiev. On 10 January 1942 about 100 captured Soviet sailors were executed there after being forced to disinter and cremate the bodies of previous victims. In addition, Babi Yar
Babi Yar
became a place of execution of residents of five Gypsy camps. Patients of the Ivan Pavlov Psychiatric Hospital
Psychiatric Hospital
were gassed and then dumped into the ravine.[citation needed] Thousands of other Ukrainians were killed at Babi Yar.[38] Among those murdered were 621 members of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists
Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists
(OUN).[6] Ukrainian poet and activist Olena Teliha
Olena Teliha
and her husband, and renowned bandurist Mykhailo Teliha, were murdered there on 21 February 1942.[7] Also killed in 1941 was Ukrainian activist writer Ivan Rohach, his sister, and his staff. Upon the Soviet liberation of Kiev
Kiev
in 1943, Soviet officials led Western journalists to the site of the massacres and allowed them to interview survivors. Among them were Bill Lawrence of The New York Times and Bill Downs
Bill Downs
of CBS. Downs described in a report to Newsweek what he had been told by one of the survivors, Efim Vilkis:

However, even more incredible was the actions taken by the Nazis between August 19 and September 28 last. Vilkis said that in the middle of August the SS mobilized a party of 100 Russian war prisoners, who were taken to the ravines. On August 19 these men were ordered to disinter all the bodies in the ravine. The Germans meanwhile took a party to a nearby Jewish cemetery whence marble headstones were brought to Babii Yar [sic] to form the foundation of a huge funeral pyre. Atop the stones were piled a layer of wood and then a layer of bodies, and so on until the pyre was as high as a two-story house. Vilkis said that approximately 1,500 bodies were burned in each operation of the furnace and each funeral pyre took two nights and one day to burn completely. The cremation went on for 40 days, and then the prisoners, who by this time included 341 men, were ordered to build another furnace. Since this was the last furnace and there were no more bodies, the prisoners decided it was for them. They made a break but only a dozen out of more than 200 survived the bullets of the Nazi machine guns.[39]

Numbers murdered[edit] Estimates of the total number killed at Babi Yar
Babi Yar
during the Nazi occupation vary. In 1946, Soviet prosecutor L. N. Smirnov at the Nuremberg trials
Nuremberg trials
claimed there were approximately 100,000 corpses lying in Babi Yar, using materials of the Extraordinary State Commission set out by the Soviets to investigate Nazi crimes after the liberation of Kiev
Kiev
in 1943.[37][40][41][42] According to testimonies of workers forced to burn the bodies, the numbers range from 70,000 to 120,000. In a recently published letter to Israeli journalist, writer and translator Shlomo Even-Shoshan dated 17 May 1965, Anatoly Kuznetsov commented on the Babi Yar
Babi Yar
atrocity:

In the two years that followed, Ukrainians, Russians, Gypsies and people of all nationalities were murdered in Babi Yar. The belief that Babi Yar
Babi Yar
is an exclusively Jewish grave is wrong... It is an international grave. Nobody will ever determine how many and what nationalities are buried there, because 90% of the corpses were burned, their ashes scattered in ravines and fields.[43]

For his war crimes, Paul Blobel
Paul Blobel
was sentenced to death by the Subsequent Nuremberg Trials
Subsequent Nuremberg Trials
in the Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
Trial. He was hanged in June 1951 at the Landsberg Prison. Syrets concentration camp[edit] Main article: Syrets concentration camp

Syrets concentration camp. Barbed wire fence

In the course of the German occupation, the Syrets concentration camp was set up in Babi Yar. Interned communists, Soviet prisoners of war (POWs), and captured resistance members were murdered there, among others. On 18 February 1943, three Dynamo Kyiv
Dynamo Kyiv
football players (Trusevich, Klimenko, and Putistin) who took part in the Match of Death with the German Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe
team were also murdered in the camp.[44] Concealment of the crimes[edit] Before the Nazis retreated from Kiev
Kiev
ahead of the Soviet offensive of 1944, they were ordered by Wilhelm Koppe
Wilhelm Koppe
to conceal their atrocities in the East. Paul Blobel, who was in control of the mass murders in Babi Yar
Babi Yar
two years earlier, supervised the Sonderaktion 1005
Sonderaktion 1005
in eliminating its traces. The Aktion was carried out earlier in all extermination camps. The bodies were exhumed, burned and the ashes scattered over farmland in the vicinity.[45][46] Several hundred prisoners of war from the Syrets concentration camp
Syrets concentration camp
were forced to build funeral pyres out of Jewish gravestones and exhume the bodies for cremation.[47] Remembrance[edit] Main article: Babi Yar
Babi Yar
memorials

Ukrainian postage stamp, released on the 70th anniversary of the tragedy in Babi Yar

After the war, specifically Jewish commemoration efforts encountered serious difficulty because of the Soviet Union's policies.[48] After the collapse of the Soviet Union, a number of memorials have been erected on the site and elsewhere. The events also formed a part of literature. Babi Yar
Babi Yar
is located in Kiev
Kiev
at the juncture of today's Kurenivka, Lukianivka
Lukianivka
and Syrets districts, between Kyrylivska, Melnykov and Olena Teliha
Olena Teliha
streets and St. Cyril's Monastery. After the Orange Revolution, President Viktor Yushchenko
Viktor Yushchenko
of Ukraine
Ukraine
hosted a major commemoration of the 65th anniversary in 2006, attended by Presidents Moshe Katsav
Moshe Katsav
of Israel, Filip Vujanovic
Filip Vujanovic
of Montenegro, Stjepan Mesić
Stjepan Mesić
of Croatia
Croatia
and Chief Rabbi of Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
Rabbi Yisrael Meir Lau. Rabbi Lau pointed out that if the world had reacted to the massacre of Babi Yar, perhaps the Holocaust might never have happened. Implying that Hitler was emboldened by this impunity, Lau speculated:

Maybe, say, this Babi Yar
Babi Yar
was also a test for Hitler. If on 29 September and 30 September 1941 Babi Yar
Babi Yar
may happen and the world did not react seriously, dramatically, abnormally, maybe this was a good test for him. So a few weeks later in January 1942, near Berlin in Wannsee, a convention can be held with a decision, a final solution to the Jewish problem... Maybe if the very action had been a serious one, a dramatic one, in September 1941 here in Ukraine, the Wannsee Conference would have come to a different end, maybe.[49]

In 2006, a message was also delivered on behalf of Kofi Annan, Secretary-General of the United Nations,[50] by his representative, Resident Coordinator Francis Martin O'Donnell, who added a Hebrew prayer O'seh Shalom,[51] from the Mourners' Kaddish. Mudslide[edit] Main article: 1961 Kurenivka
Kurenivka
mudslide Babi Yar
Babi Yar
was also the site of a large mudslide in the spring of 1961. An earthen dam in the ravine had held loam pulp that had been pumped from the local brick factories for ten years without sufficient drainage. The dam collapsed after heavy rain, inundating the lower-lying Kurenivka
Kurenivka
neighborhood. The death toll was estimated to be between 1,500 and 2,000 people.[52] According to Kusnetsov, this was part of a sustained and massive effort of the Soviets to obliterate the site, including what remained of the old Jewish burying ground. See also[edit]

Babi Yar
Babi Yar
in poetry Babi Yar
Babi Yar
Symphony by Shostakovich Consequences of Nazism Genocides in history History of the Jews
Jews
in Ukraine List of massacres in Ukraine Mass graves in the Soviet Union Operation Barbarossa Reichskommissariat Ukraine Ukrainian collaborationism with the Axis powers Nazi crimes against Soviet POWs The Kindly Ones

Notes[edit]

^ a b c The order was posted in German, Ukrainian, and in the largest letters, Russian. In only the Russian version is the defamatory word "Zhid" used for Jews. The respectful Russian word is Yevrey. Ukrainian and Russian are not the same language. The word "zhyd" in Ukrainian is not defamatory at all, as noted by Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
in his memoirs, "I remember that once we invited Ukrainians, Jews
Jews
and Poles...to a meeting at the Lvov [Lviv] opera house. It struck me as very strange to hear the Jewish speakers at the meeting refer to themselves as "yids." "We yids hereby declare ourselves in favour of such-and-such." Out in the lobby after the meeting I stopped some of these men and demanded, "How dare you use the word "yid?" Don't you know it's a very offensive term, an insult to the Jewish nation?" "Here in the Western Ukraine
Ukraine
it's just the opposite," they explained. "We call ourselves yids...Apparently what they said was true. If you go back to Ukrainian literature...you'll see that "yid" isn't used derisively or insultingly." [14] ^ a b It must be noted that while the witness referred to "[t]he Ukrainians" there has only been one documented Ukrainian speaker at Babi Yar, and that was Second Lieutenant Joseph Muller, an ethnic German from Galicia.[22] Thus, it is more accurate to describe these people as "Ukrainian speakers." A German policeman who guarded Babi Yar testified in 1965 that "the Jews
Jews
were guarded by Wehrmacht units and by a Hamburg Police Battalion, which, as far as I can remember, carried the number 303.[23]

References[edit]

^ Karel C. Berkhoff (May 28, 2008). " Babi Yar
Babi Yar
Massacre" (Google book preview). The Shoah in Ukraine: History, Testimony, Memorialization. p. 303. ISBN 0253001595. Retrieved February 23, 2013.  ^ Wolfram Wette
Wolfram Wette
(2006). The Wehrmacht: History, Myth, Reality. Harvard University Press. p. 112.  ^ Wendy Lower, "From Berlin to Babi Yar. The Nazi War Against the Jews, 1941–1944" (PDF). Archived from the original on 2009-03-05. Retrieved 2014-04-24. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) Journal of Religion & Society, Volume 9 (2007). The Kripke Center, Towson University. I.S.S.N 1522–5658. Retrieved from Internet Archive, May 24, 2013. ^ Browning, Christopher R. (1992–1998). "Arrival in Poland" (PDF file, direct download 7.91 MB complete). Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland. Penguin Books. pp. 135–142. Retrieved May 24, 2013. Also: PDF cache archived by WebCite.  ^ A Museum for Babi Yar, The Jerusalem Post
The Jerusalem Post
(23 October 2011) ^ a b [1] Zionism and Israel
Israel
- Encyclopedic Dictionary - Babi Yar ^ a b Ludmyla Yurchenko, "Life is not to be sold for a few pieces of silver: The life of Olena Teliha
Olena Teliha
Archived 2007-08-14 at the Wayback Machine.", Ukrainian Youth Association. ^ Magocsi, Paul Robert (1996). A History of Ukraine. University of Toronto Press. p. 633. ISBN 978-0-8020-7820-9.  ^ Anatoliy Kudrytsky, editor-in-chiev, "Vulytsi Kyeva" (The Streets of Kiev), Ukrainska Entsyklopediya , ISBN 5-88500-070-0 ^ "Remembering the Kyiv Inferno, 1941". Kyiv Post. September 25, 2016.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Megargee, Geoffrey P. (2006). War of Annihilation: Combat and Genocide
Genocide
on the Eastern Front. Rowman&Littlefield. p. 95. ISBN 978-0-7425-4481-9.  Murray, Williamson; Millett, Allan R. (2001). A War to be won: Fighting the Second World War. Harvard University Press. p. 141. ISBN 0-674-00680-1.  ^ 1941: Mass Murder The Holocaust
The Holocaust
Chronicle. p. 270 ^ Wette, Wolfram (2005). Die Wehrmacht : Feindbilder, Vernichtungskrieg, Legenden (Überarb. Ausg. ed.). Frankfurt am Main: Fischer-Taschenbuch-Verl. pp. 115–128. ISBN 3596156459.  ^ Nikita Khrushchev, Khrushchev Remembers (New York, Bantam Books, 1971), page 145. ^ a b Berenbaum, Michael. The World Must Know, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, this edition 2006, pp. 97–98. ^ a b United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, " Kiev
Kiev
and Babi Yar," Holocaust Encyclopedia. ^ A Community of Violence: The SiPo/SD and Its Role in the Nazi Terror System in Generalbezirk Kiew by Alexander V. Prusin. Holocaust Genocide
Genocide
Studies, Spring 2007; 21: 1 – 30. ^ Staff. The Holocaust
The Holocaust
Chronicle: Massacre
Massacre
at Babi Yar, The Holocaust Chronicle web site, Access 17 December 2007 ^ Victoria Khiterer (2004). "Babi Yar: The tragedy of Kiev's Jews" (PDF). Brandeis Graduate Journal. 2: 1–16. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2007-11-28. Retrieved 2008-01-20.  ^ a b Martin Gilbert
Martin Gilbert
(1985): The Holocaust: A History of the Jews
Jews
of Europe During the Second World War, Holt, Rinehart and Winston. ISBN 0-03-062416-9, page 202. ^ Nuremberg Military Tribunal, Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
trial, Judgment, at page 426, quoting exhibit NO-3157. ^ "The dark secrets of Babi Yar
Babi Yar
- Oct. 02, 1998". kyivpost.com. 2 October 1998. Retrieved 14 March 2018.  ^ Peter Longerich, ed., Die ermordung der euopaischen Juden: Eine umfassende Dokumentation de Holocaust 1941-1945 (Munich and Zurich, 1989), p. 123. ^ ""Statement of Truck-Driver Hofer describing the murder of Jews
Jews
at Babi Yar"". Archived from the original on 2007-06-06. Retrieved 2006-01-09.  cited in Berenbaum, Michael: Witness to the Holocaust. New York: HarperCollins. 1997. pp. 138–139. Retrieved from Internet Archive, April 26, 2013. ^ Operational Situation Report No. 101 Archived 2006-12-07 at the Wayback Machine. (einsatzgruppenarchives.com) ^ Nuremberg Military Tribunal, Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
trial, Judgment, at page 430. ^ Lawrence, Bill (1972). Six Presidents, Too Many Wars. New York: Saturday Review Press. p. 93.  ^ Ray Brandon; Wendy Lower (2008). The Shoah in Ukraine: history, testimony, memorialisation. Indiana University Press. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-253-35084-8.  ^ "A Survivor of the Babi Yar
Babi Yar
Massacre," Heritage: Civilization and the Jews
Jews
(PBS). Gilbert (1985): 204–205. ^ http://www.izvestia.ru/hystory/article3096753/ ^ Amiram Barkat and Haaretz Correspondent (September 2006). "Yad Vashem tries to name Babi Yar
Babi Yar
victims, but only 10% identified". Haaretz. Retrieved 2010-08-03.  ^ "Бабин Яр: два дні — два роки — двадцяте століття /ДЕНЬ/". Day.kiev.ua. 2007-11-28. Retrieved 2012-03-07.  ^ Юрій Шаповал (February 27, 2009),""Бабин Яр": доля тексту та автора". Archived from the original on 2010-01-12. Retrieved 2010-08-28. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) Літакцент, 2007-2009. ^ Yury Shapoval, "The Defection of Anatoly Kuznetsov", День, January 18, 2005. ^ "Бабин яр – Бабий яр – Babij jar – Babyn jar". 1000years.uazone.net. Retrieved 2012-03-07.  ^ " Kiev
Kiev
and Babi Yar". Ushmm.org. Retrieved 2012-03-07.  ^ a b Shmuel Spector, "Babi Yar," Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, Israel
Israel
Gutman, editor in chief, Yad Vashem, Sifriat Hapoalim, New York: Macmillan, 1990. 4 volumes. ISBN 0-02-896090-4. An excerpt of the article is available at Ada Holtzman, "Babi Yar: Killing Ravine of Kiev
Kiev
Jewry – WWII", We Remember! Shalom!. ^ Babi Yar
Babi Yar
(Page 2) by Jennifer Rosenberg (about.com) ^ Downs, Bill (December 6, 1943). "Blood at Babii Yar - Kiev's Atrocity Story". Newsweek: 22.  ^ Materials of the Nuremberg Trial in Russian: Нюрнбергский процесс, т. III. M., 1958. с. 220–221. ^ Iosif Kremenetsky, " Babi Yar
Babi Yar
– September 1941" Archived 2007-09-29 at the Wayback Machine. (in Russian) ^ Из Сообщения Чрезвычайной Государственной Комиссии о Разрушениях и зверствах, Совершенных Немецко – Фашистскими Захватчиками в Городе Киеве. Нюрнбергский Процесс. Документ СССР-9. (in Russian) ^ Yury Shapoval, "The Defection of Anatoly Kuznetsov" Archived January 13, 2009, at the Wayback Machine., День, January 18, 2005. ^ ARC (July 9, 2006). "The KZ in Syrets". Occupation of the East. Deathcamps.org. Retrieved October 28, 2013.  ^ Aktion 1005. Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 2013-04-25. ^ Aktion 1005. Yad Vashem. Shoa Resource Centre. Retrieved 2013-04-25. ^ Lawrence, Bill (1972). Six Presidents, Too Many Wars. New York: Saturday Review Press. p. 94.  ^ Postwar: A History of Europe Since 1945 by Tony Judt, Penguin Books, Reprint edition (September 5, 2006),ISBN 0143037757 (page 182) ^ "Rabbi Lau's Statement at the International Forum "''Let My People Live!''", Kiev, September 27, 2006; World Holocaust Forum". Worldholocaustforum.org. Retrieved 2012-03-07.  ^ 27.09.2006 (2006-09-27). "Message of Kofi Annan, UN Secretary General, delivered by Francis O'Donnell, UN Resident Coordinator in Ukraine". Worldholocaustforum.org. Retrieved 2012-03-07.  ^ "Full text with post-script by O'Donnell". Un.org.ua. 2006-09-27. Retrieved 2012-03-07.  ^ Smoliy, V. A.; Goryak, G. V.; Danilenko, V. M. (2012). Куренівська трагедія 13 березня 1961 р. у Києві: причини, обставини, наслідки. Документи і матеріали. Institute of Ukrainian History NAN Ukraine. p. 18. ISBN 978-966-02-6392-5. 

Sources[edit]

A. Anatoli (Anatoly Kuznetsov), trans. David Floyd, (1970), Babi Yar: A Document in the Form of a Novel, Jonathan Cape Ltd. ISBN 0-671-45135-9 " Babi Yar
Babi Yar
in the mirror of science, or the map of Bermuda Triangle", an article in Zerkalo Nedeli
Zerkalo Nedeli
(the Mirror Weekly), July 2005, available online in Russian[permanent dead link] and in Ukrainian Encyclopedia of Kiev

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Babi Yar.

The Invasion of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and the Beginnings of Mass Murder on the Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
website Marking 70 Years to Operation Barbarossa
Operation Barbarossa
on the Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
website Babi Yar: Mass Murder (history1900s.about.com) In-depth study on Babi Yar The Massacre
Massacre
at Babi Yar
Babi Yar
Near Kiev
Kiev
(historyplace.com) Babi Yar
Babi Yar
(Jewish Virtual Library) Babi Yar: Killing Ravine
Ravine
of Kiev
Kiev
Jewry – WWII (zchor.org) Babi Yar
Babi Yar
(berdichev.org) (in Russian) History. Geography. Memory by Tatyana Yevstafyeva. August 15, 2002 (a reprint from newspaper "Jewish Observer")

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National landmarks of cultural heritage in Kiev

History

Mikhail Bulgakov House of Residence Darnytsia concentration camp Baikove Cemetery Manor House Complex

Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology

Kiev
Kiev
Theological Seminary Konstantin Ushinsky Grave Taras Shevchenko House of Residence

Vyshhorod Street

Presidium Building

National Academy of Sciences

Building of Pedagogic Museum Building Complex

Taras Shevchenko National University

Nikolai Vatutin Grave Lukianivske Cemetery Monitor Zhelezniakov Vincent Chvojka House of Residence Grave of Cossack Officers Iskra and Kochubei Building Complex

Kyiv-Mohyla Academy

Manor House of the Murashko Family of Artists Babi Yar Column of the Magdeburg Rights Mykhailo Hrushevsky House of Residence Askoldova Mohyla Building Complex

Kiev
Kiev
Polytechnic Institute

Building Complex

Oleksandr Dovzhenko National Film Studios

Mykola Lysenko House of Residence Lesya Ukrainka House of Residence Memorial Complex

Park "Vichnoyi Slavy"

Memorial of Militsiya Men Building of the First Private Museum

Bohdan and Varvara Khanenkos

Kiev
Kiev
Museum of Russian Arts Building Taras Shevchenko House of Residence

Shevchenko Lane

Bykivnia

Archaeology

Bourgogne Theatre Vydubychi City of Volodymyr Foundation and Wall Remnants Church Foundation of Fedoriv Monastery St.George Church Foundations Palace Foundation

Irene Street

St.Irina Church Foundations Kytayiv Settlement City of Yaroslav Zvirynets Caves Lach Gates
Lach Gates
Foundations Old Ruthenian Settlement

Nyvky

Church Foundations Berestove City of Izyaslav Svyatopolk Kyrylivska Archaeological Site Theotokos Church Foundations

Klov
Klov
Monastery

Settlement at Shchekavytsia Foundations of Stone Church

Yurkiv Street

Fine court of Prince Vsevolod Klov Yurkovytsia Settlement and Burial Uhorske

Monumental Art

Prince Volodymyr Monument Monument to Mykhailo Hrushevsky Monument to Taras Shevchenko Monument to the Crew of Tarashchanets Armour Train Monument to Lesya Ukrainka Monument to Alexander Pushkin Bohdan Khmelnytsky Monument Monument to Mykola Shchors

Urban Planning

Andriyivskyy Descent

Zamkova Hora

Kiev
Kiev
Fortress

Hospital Fortifications Citadel with Bastions Lysohirsky Fort Zvirynets Fortifications Vasylkiv Fortifications

Architecture

St.Alexander Kosciol Residential House

Sahaidachny Street

v t e

The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in Ukraine

Main article The Holocaust Related articles by country Belarus Estonia Latvia Lithuania Norway Poland Russia

Crimes

Babi Yar Drobytsky Yar Drohobych Kamianets-Podilskyi Lviv pogroms Mizocz Ghetto Odessa Pripyat Swamps

Major perpetrators

Paul Blobel Werner Braune Lothar Fendler Hans Frank Günther Herrmann Friedrich Jeckeln Ernst Kaltenbrunner Fritz Katzmann Erich Koch Felix Landau Gustav Adolf Nosske Otto Ohlendorf Paul Otto Radomski Otto Rasch Walter Schimana Erwin Schulz Heinrich Seetzen Otto Wächter Dieter Wisliceny

Nazi occupation and organizations

Einsatzgruppen Police Regiment South Reichskommissariat Ukraine

Collaborators

Individuals Hryhoriy Vasiura Vladimir Katriuk Petro Voinovsky Petro Zakhvalynsky

Organizations Schutzmannschaft Ukrainian Auxiliary Police Nachtigall Battalion

Ghettos, camps and prisons

Bogdanovka Drohobych Ghetto Syrets concentration camp Vapniarka concentration camp

Resistance and survivors

Priest's Grotto Syrets inmate revolt

Planning, methods, documents and evidence

Planning Generalplan Ost Volksliste

Evidence Graebe affidavit

Concealment and denial

Sonderaktion 1005

Investigations and trials

Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
trial Extraordinary (Soviet) State Commission

Righteous Among the Nations

Klymentiy Sheptytsky Omelyan Kovch Hermann Friedrich Graebe

Memorials

Babi Yar
Babi Yar
memorials List of Babi Yar
Babi Yar
victims

See also History of the Jews
Jews
in Carpathian Ruthenia Transnistria Governorate

v t e

Massacres
Massacres
or pogroms against Jews

1st – 11th century

Alexandrian pogrom (38) The Great Revolt (66–73) Bar Kokhba revolt (132–136) Jewish revolt against Constantius Gallus (351–352) Jewish revolt against Heraclius (614–617) Córdoba massacre (1013) Fez massacre (1033) Granada massacre (1066) Gzerot Tatenu (Rhineland massacres) (1096)

Worms massacre Speyer massacre Mainz massacre

12th – 19th century

Ham massacre (1143) Rintfleisch massacres (1298) Black Death Jewish persecutions
Black Death Jewish persecutions
(1348–1350)

Erfurt massacre Basel massacre Speyer massacre Strasbourg massacre

Brussels massacre
Brussels massacre
(1370) Massacre
Massacre
of the Assumption (1474) Spanish Inquisition
Spanish Inquisition
(1478) Arles pogrom (1484) Lisbon massacre
Lisbon massacre
(1506) Hebron pogrom (1517) Safed pogrom (1517) Portuguese Inquisition
Portuguese Inquisition
(1536) Chmielnicki massacres
Chmielnicki massacres
(1648–1657) Safed massacre (1660) Mawza Exile
Mawza Exile
(1679) Massacre
Massacre
of Uman (1768) Hep-Hep riots
Hep-Hep riots
(1819) First Odessa pogrom (1821) Tzfat pogrom
Tzfat pogrom
(1834) Hebron pogrom (1834) Safed massacre (1838) Allahdad (1839) Damascus affair
Damascus affair
(1840) Second Odessa pogrom (1859) Third Odessa pogrom (1871) Storms in the Negev (1881–1884)

Kiev
Kiev
pogrom Warsaw pogrom Fourth Odessa pogrom

20th century

1900–1936

Częstochowa pogrom (1902) Kishinev pogrom
Kishinev pogrom
(1903) Zablotov pogrom (1903) Kiev
Kiev
pogrom (1905) Fifth Odessa pogrom (1905) Kishinev pogrom
Kishinev pogrom
(1905) Białystok pogrom
Białystok pogrom
(1906) Siedlce pogrom
Siedlce pogrom
(1906) The Tritl
The Tritl
(1912) Skver pogrom (1917) Lwów pogrom (1918) Lida pogrom (1919) Radomishel pogrom (1919) Justingrad pogrom (1919) Skver pogroms (1919) Zvil pogrom (1919) Pinsk massacre
Pinsk massacre
(1919) Proskurov pogrom
Proskurov pogrom
(1919) The Kiev
Kiev
pogroms (1919) Zavirtcha pogrom (1921) Safed massacre (1929) Hebron massacre (1929) Constantine pogrom (1934) Thrace pogroms (1934) The Bloody Day in Jaffa (1936) Przytyk pogrom
Przytyk pogrom
(1936)

1938–1945

Tiberias massacre (1938) Kristallnacht
Kristallnacht
(1938) Częstochowa massacre
Częstochowa massacre
(1939) Dynów massacre (1939) Silc massacre (1939) Dorohoi pogrom
Dorohoi pogrom
(1940) Bucharest pogrom
Bucharest pogrom
(1941) Gabès pogrom (1941) Iași pogrom
Iași pogrom
(1941) Jedwabne pogrom
Jedwabne pogrom
(1941) Kamianets-Podilskyi massacre
Kamianets-Podilskyi massacre
(1941) Lviv pogroms
Lviv pogroms
(1941) Ponary massacre
Ponary massacre
(1941) Rumbula massacre
Rumbula massacre
(1941) The Farhud
The Farhud
(1941) Odessa massacre (1941) The Holocaust
The Holocaust
(1941–1945) Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
(1943) Topoľčany pogrom
Topoľčany pogrom
(1945) Kraków pogrom
Kraków pogrom
(1945) Kolbasov pogrom (1945) Tripolitania pogrom (1945) Cairo pogrom (1945)

1946–1999

Kielce pogrom
Kielce pogrom
(1946) Kunmadaras pogrom (1946) Miskolc pogrom (1946) Haifa Oil Refinery massacre
Haifa Oil Refinery massacre
(1947) Aden pogrom (1947) Aleppo pogrom (1947) Manama pogrom (1947) Tripoli pogrom (1948) The Djerada
The Djerada
(1948) Ben Yehuda Street bombing (1948) Cairo bombings (1948) Kfar Etzion massacre
Kfar Etzion massacre
(1948) Menarsha synagogue attack (1949) Night of the Murdered Poets (1952) Scorpion Pass massacre
Scorpion Pass massacre
(1954) Shafrir synagogue shooting (1956) Purge of Polish Jews
Jews
(1968) Avivim school bus massacre
Avivim school bus massacre
(1970) Munich massacre
Munich massacre
(1972) Lod Airport massacre
Lod Airport massacre
(1972) Ma'alot massacre
Ma'alot massacre
(1974) Kiryat Shmona massacre
Kiryat Shmona massacre
(1974) Ben Yehuda Street bombing (1975) Coastal Road massacre
Coastal Road massacre
(1978) Nahariya massacre (1979) Paris synagogue bombing (1980) Antwerp summer camp attack (1980) Antwerp bombing (1981) Vienna synagogue attack (1981) Goldenberg restaurant massacre (1982) Ras Burqa massacre
Ras Burqa massacre
(1985) Purim stabbing (1989) Cairo bus attack (1990) Crown Heights riots
Crown Heights riots
(1991) AMIA bombing
AMIA bombing
(1994) Dizengoff Street bus bombing
Dizengoff Street bus bombing
(1994) Beit Lid massacre
Beit Lid massacre
(1995) Purim massacre (1996) Island of Peace massacre
Island of Peace massacre
(1997) Mahane Yehuda Market massacre (1997) Los Angeles Jewish Community Center shooting (1999)

21st century

Dolphinarium discotheque massacre
Dolphinarium discotheque massacre
(2001) Sbarro massacre
Sbarro massacre
(2001) Ghriba synagogue bombing
Ghriba synagogue bombing
(2002) Bat Mitzvah massacre
Bat Mitzvah massacre
(2002) Yeshivat Beit Yisrael massacre
Yeshivat Beit Yisrael massacre
(2002) Passover massacre
Passover massacre
(2002) Matza restaurant bombing (2002) Hebrew University massacre
Hebrew University massacre
(2002) Rishon LeZion bombing (2002) Matzuva attack
Matzuva attack
(2002) Istanbul bombings (2003) Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
Central Bus Station massacre (2003) Davidka Square bus bombing
Davidka Square bus bombing
(2003) Café Hillel bombing
Café Hillel bombing
(2003) Maxim restaurant massacre (2003) Shmuel HaNavi massacre (2003) Haifa bus massacre (2003) Beersheba bus bombings
Beersheba bus bombings
(2004) Ashdod Port bombings (2004) Seattle Jewish Federation shooting
Seattle Jewish Federation shooting
(2006) Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
shawarma bombing (2006) Mercaz HaRav massacre
Mercaz HaRav massacre
(2008) Burgas bus bombing (2012) Toulouse and Montauban shootings
Toulouse and Montauban shootings
(2012) Jerusalem synagogue massacre (2014) Jewish Museum of Belgium shooting
Jewish Museum of Belgium shooting
(2015) Kosher market siege (2015) Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
synagogue stabbing (2015) Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
shooting (2016) Halamish massacre
Halamish massacre
(2017)

v t e

Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
and Einsatzkommandos

People

Director

Reinhard Heydrich Ernst Kaltenbrunner

Commanders of Einsatzgruppen

Humbert Achamer-Pifrader Walther Bierkamp Horst Böhme Erich Ehrlinger Wilhelm Fuchs Heinz Jost Erich Naumann Arthur Nebe Otto Ohlendorf Friedrich Panzinger Otto Rasch Heinrich Seetzen Franz Walter Stahlecker Bruno Streckenbach

Commanders of Einsatzkommandos, Sonderkommandos

Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski Rudolf Batz Ernst Biberstein Wolfgang Birkner Helmut Bischoff Paul Blobel Walter Blume Friedrich-Wilhelm Bock Otto Bradfisch Werner Braune Friedrich Buchardt Fritz Dietrich Karl Jäger Friedrich Jeckeln Waldemar Klingelhöfer Wolfgang Kügler Walter Kutschmann Rudolf Lange Gustav Adolf Nosske Hans-Adolf Prützmann Walter Rauff Martin Sandberger Hermann Schaper Karl Eberhard Schöngarth Erwin Schulz Franz Six Eugen Steimle Eduard Strauch Martin Weiss Udo von Woyrsch

Other members

August Becker Lothar Fendler Joachim Hamann Emil Haussmann Felix Landau Albert Widmann

Collaborators

Viktors Arājs Herberts Cukurs Antanas Impulevičius Konrāds Kalējs Algirdas Klimaitis

Groups

German

SS RSHA SD Orpo 8th SS Cavalry Division Florian Geyer Volksdeutscher Selbstschutz Sonderdienst

Non-German

Schutzmannschaft
Schutzmannschaft
(Belarusian, Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Ukrainian) Arajs Kommando Lithuanian Security Police Rollkommando Hamann TDA Ypatingasis būrys

Crimes

Belarus

Łachwa Ghetto Minsk Ghetto Slutsk Affair

Estonia

Kalevi-Liiva

Latvia

Burning of the Riga synagogues Dünamünde Action Jelgava Pogulianski Rumbula Liepāja (Šķēde)

Lithuania

Ninth Fort Kaunas June 1941 Kaunas 29 October 1941 Ninth Fort
Ninth Fort
November 1941 Ponary

Poland

Operation Tannenberg Intelligenzaktion AB-Aktion Operation Reinhard

Russia

Gully of Petrushino Zmievskaya Balka Lokot Autonomy

Ukraine

Babi Yar Drobytsky Yar Drohobycz Kamianets-Podilskyi Lviv pogroms Mizocz Ghetto Odessa

Records

The Black Book Commissar Order Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
trial Generalplan Ost Jäger Report Korherr Report Special
Special
Prosecution Book-Poland (Sonderfahndungsbuch Polen) Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
reports

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 236476106 GND: 4274934-7 BNF: cb13173562v (data)

Coordinates: 50°28′17″N 30°26′56″E / 50.47139°N 30.44889°E /

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