The Info List - Azes

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Azes I
Azes I
(Greek: Ἄζης; c. 48/47 BCE – 25 BCE)[1] was an Indo-Scythian
ruler who completed the domination of the Scythians in Gandhara.

Coin of Azes I
Azes I
(c. 48/47 – 25 BCE). Obv: Azes I
Azes I
in military dress, on a horse, with couched spear. Greek legend: BASILEOS BASILEON MEGALOU AZOU "of the Great King of Kings Azes".


1 History 2 The Azes Era 3 Azes I
Azes I
and Azes II
Azes II
identical? 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 External links


Coin of Azes I, portrait of the king (detail).

Coin of Azes with Demeter and Hermes.

Although Maues
and his successors had conquered the areas of Gandhara, as well as the area of Mathura
from 85 BCE forming the Northern Satraps, they were unsuccessful against the Indo-Greek
kings remaining behind the Jhelum River
Jhelum River
in eastern Punjab. The Azes Era[edit]

Coin from Azes Era depicting the king. British Museum.

Azes's most lasting legacy was the foundation of the Azes era. It was widely believed that the era was begun by Azes's successors by simply continuing the counting of his regnal years. However, Prof. Harry Falk has recently presented an inscription at several conferences which dates to Azes's reign, and suggests that the era may have been begun by Azes himself. Most popular historians date the start of the Azes era to 58 BC and believe it is the same as the later era known as the Malwa
or Vikrama era.[2] However, a recently discovered inscription, the Bajaur
reliquary inscription, dated in both the Azes and the Greek era suggests that actually this is not the case. The inscription gives the relationship Azes = Greek + 128. It is believed that the Greek era may have begun in 173 BCE, exactly 300 years before the first year of the Era of Kanishka. If that is the case then the Azes era would begin in about 45 BC.[3] Azes I
Azes I
and Azes II
Azes II
identical?[edit] According to Senior, Azes I
Azes I
may have been identical with Azes II, due to the discovery of an overstrike of the former over the latter.[4]

A drachma of Azes I
Azes I
(about 57-35 BC). Diameter: 16 mm. Weight: 2.4 g.

See also[edit]

Yuezhi Greco-Bactrian Kingdom Indo-Greek
Kingdom Indo-Parthian Kingdom Kushan Empire


^ Falk and Bennett (2009), pp. 197–215. ^ Richard Salomon (1998). Indian Epigraphy: A Guide to the Study of Inscriptions in Sanskrit, Prakrit, and the Other Indo-Aryan Languages. Oxford University Press. pp. 182–183, 194–195. ISBN 978-0-19-509984-3.  ^ For discussions refer to Bracey, R. (2005) 'The Azes Era' (http://www.kushan.org/essays/chronology/azesvikrama.htm), Cribb, J (2005) 'The Greek Kingdom of Bactria, its coinage and collapse' in Afghanistan, Ancien Carrefour entre l'est et l'ouest (ed. Bopearachichi O & Boussac, M-F), Turnhout: 207–225, Falk, H. & C. J. Bennett 'Macedonian Intercalary Months and the Era of Azes' Acta Orientalia 70 (2009) 197–216 ^ Coin India


Harry Falk and Chris Bennett (2009). "Macedonian Intercalary Months and the Era of Azes". Acta Orientalia (70): 197–215. ISSN 0001-6438. Retrieved 11 April 2014.  McEvilley, Thomas (2002). The Shape of Ancient Thought. Comparative studies in Greek and Indian Philosophies. Allworth Press and the School of Visual Arts. ISBN 1-58115-203-5. Retrieved 11 April 2014.  W.W. Tarn (2010). The Greeks in Bactria and India. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-108-00941-6. Retrieved 11 April 2014. 

External links[edit]

Coins of Azes I Discussion of the Azes and Greek Era

Preceded by Indo-Scythian
king Spalirises

(In Arachosia
and Gandhara) Indo-Greek
king: Telephos

(In the western Punjab) Indo-Greek
king: Hippostratos Indo-Scythian
Ruler 57–35 BCE Succeeded by Azilises

v t e

kings, territories and chronology

Territories/ dates Western India Western Pakistan Balochistan Paropamisadae Arachosia Bajaur Gandhara Western Punjab Eastern Punjab Mathura


90–85 BCE

Nicias Menander II Artemidoros

90–70 BCE

Hermaeus Archebius

85-60 BCE


75–70 BCE

Vonones Spalahores Telephos Apollodotus II

65–55 BCE

Spalirises Spalagadames Hippostratos Dionysios

55–35 BCE

Azes I Zoilos II

55–35 BCE

Azilises Azes II Apollophanes Indo-Scythian
dynasty of the NORTHERN SATRAPS Hagamasha

25 BCE – 10 CE

dynasty of the APRACHARAJAS Vijayamitra (ruled 12 BCE - 15 CE)[n 1] Liaka Kusulaka Patika Kusulaka Zeionises Kharahostes (ruled 10 BCE– 10 CE)[n 2] Mujatria Strato II
Strato II
and Strato III Hagana


INDO-PARTHIAN KINGDOM Gondophares Indravasu INDO-PARTHIAN KINGDOM Gondophares Rajuvula

20-30 CE

Ubouzanes Pakores Vispavarma (ruled c.0-20 CE)[n 3] Sarpedones Bhadayasa Sodasa

30-40 CE

KUSHAN EMPIRE Kujula Kadphises Indravarma Abdagases ... ...

40-45 CE

Aspavarma Gadana ... ...

45-50 CE

Sasan Sases ... ...

50-75 CE

... ...

75-100 CE Indo-Scythian
dynasty of the WESTERN SATRAPS Chastana

Vima Takto ... ...

100-120 CE Abhiraka

Vima Kadphises ... ...

120 CE Bhumaka Nahapana PARATARAJAS Yolamira Kanishka
I Great Satrap Kharapallana and Satrap Vanaspara for Kanishka

130-230 CE

Jayadaman Rudradaman I Damajadasri I Jivadaman Rudrasimha I Satyadaman Jivadaman Rudrasena I

Bagamira Arjuna Hvaramira Mirahvara

(c. 140 – c. 160) Huvishka
(c. 160 – c. 190) Vasudeva I
Vasudeva I
(c. 190 – to at least 230)

230-280 CE

Samghadaman Damasena Damajadasri II Viradaman Isvaradatta Yasodaman I Vijayasena Damajadasri III Rudrasena II Visvasimha

Miratakhma Kozana Bhimarjuna Koziya Datarvharna Datarvharna

INDO-SASANIANS Ardashir I, Sassanid king and "Kushanshah" (c. 230 – 250) Peroz I, "Kushanshah" (c. 250 – 265) Hormizd I, "Kushanshah" (c. 265 – 295)

II (c. 230 – 240) Vashishka (c. 240 – 250) Kanishka
III (c. 250 – 275)

280-300 Bhratadarman Datayola II

Hormizd II, "Kushanshah" (c. 295 – 300)

Vasudeva II
Vasudeva II
(c. 275 – 310)

300-320 CE

Visvasena Rudrasimha II Jivadaman

Peroz II, "Kushanshah" (c. 300 – 325)

Vasudeva III Vasudeva IV Vasudeva V Chhu
(c. 310? – 325)

320-388 CE

Yasodaman II Rudradaman II Rudrasena III Simhasena Rudrasena IV

Shapur II
Shapur II
Sassanid king and "Kushanshah" (c. 325) Varhran I, Varhran II, Varhran III
Varhran III
"Kushanshahs" (c. 325 – 350) Peroz III "Kushanshah" (c. 350 –360) HEPHTHALITE/ HUNAS invasions

Shaka I
Shaka I
(c. 325 – 345) Kipunada (c. 345 – 375)

GUPTA EMPIRE Chandragupta I
Chandragupta I

388-396 CE Rudrasimha III

Chandragupta II

^ From the dated inscription on the Rukhana reliquary ^ An Inscribed Silver Buddhist Reliquary of the Time of King Kharaosta and Prince Indravarman, Richard Salomon, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 116, No. 3 (Jul. - Sep., 1996), pp. 442 [1] ^ A Kharosthī Reliquary Inscription of the Time of the Apraca Prince Visnuvarma, by Richard Salomon, South Asian Studies 11 1995, Pages 27-32, Published onlin