Ayman Nour
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Ayman Abd El Aziz Nour ( arz, أيمن عبد العزيز نور, ; born 5 December 1964) is an
Egyptian Egyptian describes something of, from, or related to Egypt. Egyptian or Egyptians may refer to: Nations and ethnic groups * Egyptians, a national group in North Africa ** Egyptian culture, a complex and stable culture with thousands of years of r ...
politician, a former member of the Egyptian
Parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of ...
, founder and chairman of the El Ghad party. Nour unsuccessfully ran against
Hosni Mubarak Muhammad Hosni El Sayed Mubarak, (4 May 1928 – 25 February 2020) was an Egyptian military and political leader who served as the fourth president of Egypt The president of Egypt is the executive head of state A head of state ...
in the 2005 presidential election. He was arrested in 2005 prior to the election and freed six weeks later, and again after the election. He was released from his second imprisonment on 18 February 2009. Nour left Egypt following the
2013 Egyptian coup d'état The 2013 Egyptian coup d'état took place on 3 July 2013. Egyptian army chief General (Defence minister A defence minister or minister of defence is a cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piec ...
. In 2014, he spent time in
Lebanon Lebanon ( , ar, لُبْنَان, translit=lubnān, ), officially the Republic of Lebanon or the Lebanese Republic, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part ...

Lebanon
for treatment of a wound he sustained while in prison, and expressed his hope for returning to Egypt.


Presidential candidacy and arrest

Nour was the first man to ever compete against
President President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a chief executive officer ...
Hosni Mubarak Muhammad Hosni El Sayed Mubarak, (4 May 1928 – 25 February 2020) was an Egyptian military and political leader who served as the fourth president of Egypt The president of Egypt is the executive head of state A head of state ...
in the 2005 presidential election. Nour was stripped of his
parliamentary immunity Parliamentary immunity, also known as legislative immunity, is a system in which politicians such as president President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, clu ...
and arrested on 29 January 2005. He was charged with forging PAs (Powers of Attorney) to secure the formation of the el-Ghad party. Nour vehemently denied the charges. The arrest, occurring in an election year, was widely criticized by governments around the world as a step backwards for Egyptian democracy. Few seem to regard the charges as legitimate. Nour remained active despite his imprisonment, using the opportunity to write critical articles and make his case and cause better known. In February 2005,
Condoleezza Rice Condoleezza "Condi" Rice ( ; born November 14, 1954) is an American diplomat, political scientist Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making dec ...

Condoleezza Rice
abruptly postponed a visit to Egypt, reflecting U.S. displeasure at the jailing of Nour, who was reported to have been brutally interrogated. That same month, the government announced that it would open elections to multiple candidates in the following month. In March 2005, following a strong intervention in Cairo by a group of Members of the European Parliament led by Vice-President Edward McMillan-Scott (UK, Conservative), Nour was freed and began a campaign for the Egyptian presidency.Williams, Daniel
Egypt Frees An Aspiring Candidate Presidential Hopeful Is Released on Bail
'The Washington Post'' 13 March 2005; Retrieved 20 March 2007
In the 2005 Egyptian presidential election, election in September 2005, Nour was the first runner-up, with 7% of the vote according to government figures and estimated at 13% by independent observers, although no independent observers were allowed to monitor the elections. Shortly after placing a distant second, in what are widely believed to have been corrupt elections, he was again imprisoned by Mubarak under allegations of "forgery" which were widely criticized to have been politically motivated and corrupt charges. On 24 December 2005, he was sentenced to five years in jail. Though diabetes, diabetic, Nour engaged in a two-week-long hunger strike to protest against his trial. Nour's verdict and sentencing made global headlines and were the first item of news on many international news broadcasts, including the BBC. On the day of Nour's guilty verdict and sentencing, the White House Press Secretary released the following statement denouncing the government's action:
The United States is deeply troubled by the conviction today of Egyptian politician Ayman Nour by an Egyptian court. The conviction of Mr. Nour, the runner-up in Egypt's 2005 presidential elections, calls into question Egypt's commitment to democracy, freedom, and the rule of law. We are also disturbed by reports that Mr Nour's health has seriously declined due to the hunger strike on which he has embarked in protest of the conditions of his trial and detention. The United States calls upon the Egyptian government to act under the laws of Egypt in the spirit of its professed desire for increased political openness and dialogue within Egyptian society, and out of humanitarian concern, to release Mr Nour from detention.
In February 2006, Rice visited Mubarak yet never spoke Nour's name publicly. When asked about him at a news conference, she referred to his situation as one of Egypt's setbacks. Days later, Mubarak told a government newspaper that Rice "didn't bring up difficult issues or ask to change anything." From prison, Nour stated "I pay the price when [Rice] speaks [of me], and I pay the price when she doesn't," Nour said. "But what's happening to me now is a message to everybody." In June 2007 President Bush, speaking at a conference of dissidents in the Czech Republic, revisited the issue of Ayman Nour, saying:
There are many dissidents who couldn't join us because they are being unjustly imprisoned or held under house arrest. I look forward to the day when a conference like this one include Alexander Kozulin of Belarus, Aung San Suu Kyi of Burma, Oscar Elias Biscet of Cuba, Father Nguyen Van Ly of Vietnam, Ayman Nour of Egypt. (Applause.) The daughter of one of these political prisoners is in this room. I would like to say to her, and all the families: I thank you for your courage. I pray for your comfort and strength. And I call for the immediate and unconditional release of your loved ones. ... I have asked Secretary Rice to send a directive to every U.S. ambassador in an un-free nation: Seek out and meet with activists for democracy. Seek out those who demand human rights.
Nour was released, officially on health grounds, on 18 February 2009, just a few months before he would have completed his prison sentence. It has been alleged that his release from prison was due to U.S. President Obama demanding his release as a condition to meet with Mubarak.


2011 Egyptian revolution–present

Following the fall of Mubarak in the Egyptian Revolution of 2011, 2011 Revolution, Nour intended to run for the 2012 Egyptian presidential election, but was disqualified by the Presidential Election Commission. Nour left Egypt following the
2013 Egyptian coup d'état The 2013 Egyptian coup d'état took place on 3 July 2013. Egyptian army chief General (Defence minister A defence minister or minister of defence is a cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piec ...
. In 2014, he spent time in
Lebanon Lebanon ( , ar, لُبْنَان, translit=lubnān, ), officially the Republic of Lebanon or the Lebanese Republic, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part ...

Lebanon
for treatment of a wound he sustained while in prison, and expressed his hope for returning to Egypt. In December 2019, Nour launched the Egyptian National Action Group (ENAG), a group of Egyptian expatriates calling to overthrow military rule in Egypt.


See also

* Asmaa Mahfouz * Kefaya * Saad Eddin Ibrahim * Nonviolent resistance * List of 2006 human rights incidents in Egypt


References


External links


Petition to free Ayman Nour

"Ghad El-Thawra" website

Dissident Watch Profile


* [https://web.archive.org/web/20070929083538/http://www.metimes.com/storyview.php?StoryID=20070123-052001-9488r Egypt's Nur says government wants him to die in jail]
Ayman Nour Released: New Impetus for Egypt's Opposition?
(Qantara.de)

{{DEFAULTSORT:Nour, Ayman 1964 births Living people Mansoura University alumni People from Mansoura, Egypt Members of the House of Representatives (Egypt) Egyptian democracy activists Egyptian revolutionaries Egyptian prisoners and detainees Prisoners and detainees of Egypt El-Ghad Party politicians Ghad El-Thawra Party politicians People of the Egyptian revolution of 2011 Candidates in the 2005 Egyptian presidential election Members of the Egyptian Constituent Assembly of 2012