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The Austro-Hungarian Army
Army
(German: Landstreitkräfte Österreich-Ungarns; Hungarian: Császári és Királyi Hadsereg) was the ground force of the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy
Dual Monarchy
from 1867 to 1918. It was composed of three parts: the joint army (Gemeinsame Armee, "Common Army", recruited from all parts of the country), the Imperial Austrian Landwehr
Landwehr
(recruited from Cisleithania), and the Royal Hungarian Honved
Royal Hungarian Honved
(recruited from Transleithania). In the wake of fighting between the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
and the Hungarian Kingdom and the two decades of uneasy co-existence following, Hungarian soldiers served either in mixed units or were stationed away from Hungarian areas. With the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867
Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867
the new tripartite army was brought into being. It existed until the disestablishment of the Austro-Hungarian Empire following World War I in 1918. The joint "Imperial and Royal Army" (kaiserlich und königliche Armee or k.u.k.) units were generally poorly trained and had very limited access to new equipment because the governments of the Austrian and Hungarian parts of the empire often preferred to generously fund their own units instead of outfitting all three army branches equally. All of the Honvédség and the Landwehr
Landwehr
regiments were composed of three battalions, while the joint army k.u.k. regiments had four. The long-standing white infantry uniforms were replaced in the later half of the 19th century with dark blue tunics,[1] which in turn were replaced by a pike grey uniform used in the initial stages of World War I. In September 1915, field gray was adopted as the new official uniform colour.[2] The last known surviving member of the Austro-Hungarian Army
Army
was World War I veteran Franz Künstler, who died in May 2008 at the age of 107.

Contents

1 From the Compromise of 1867 to the World War

1.1 Planning and operations 1.2 Size and ethnic and religious composition 1.3 Funding and equipment

2 Austro-Hungarian Army
Army
in July 1914

2.1 Common Army 2.2 Imperial-Royal Landwehr 2.3 Royal Hungarian Landwehr

3 Landsturm 4 Standschützen 5 Medals (example) 6 Ranks and rank insignia of the Austro-Hungarian Army

6.1 General officers

7 Types of uniforms 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading

10.1 In German

11 External links

From the Compromise of 1867 to the World War[edit] Planning and operations[edit] Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
avoided major wars in the era between 1867 and 1914 but engaged in a number of minor military actions. Nevertheless, the general staff maintained plans for major wars against neighboring powers, especially Italy, Serbia
Serbia
and Russia.[3] In the late 19th century the army was used to suppress unrest in urban areas of the empire: in 1882 and 1887 in Vienna[4] and notably against German nationalists at Graz and Czech nationalists in Prague in November 1897.[5] Soldiers under the command of Conrad von Hotzendorf were also used against Italian rioters in Trieste
Trieste
in 1902.[6] The most significant action by soldiers of the Dual Monarchy
Dual Monarchy
in this period was the Austro-Hungarian occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in the summer of 1878. When troops under the command of Josip Filipović and Stjepan Jovanović
Stjepan Jovanović
entered the provinces expecting little or no resistance, they were met with ferocious opposition from elements of both Muslim and Orthodox populations there. Despite setbacks at Maglaj
Maglaj
and Tuzla, Sarajevo
Sarajevo
was occupied in October. Austro-Hungarian casualties amounted to over 5,000 and the unexpected violence of the campaign led to recriminations between commanders and political leaders.[7] Size and ethnic and religious composition[edit] In 1868, the number of active-duty troops in the army was 355,000, and the total could be expanded to 800,000 upon mobilization. However, this was significantly less than the European powers of France, the North German Confederation and Russia, each of which could field more than one million men.[8] Though the population of the empire had risen to nearly 50 million by 1900, the size of the army was tied to ceilings established in 1889. Thus, at the start of the 20th century, Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
conscripted only 0.29% of its population, compared to 0.47% in Germany, 0.35% in Russia
Russia
and 0.75% in France.[9] The 1889 army law was not revised until 1912, which allowed for an increase in annual conscriptions.[10] The ethnic make-up of the enlisted ranks reflected the diversity of the empire the army served; in 1906, out of every 1000 enlisted men, there were 267 Germans, 223 Hungarians, 135 Czechs, 85 Poles, 81 Ukrainians, 67 Croats
Croats
and Serbs, 64 Romanians, 38 Slovaks, 26 Slovenes, and 14 Italians.[11] From a religious standpoint, the Austro-Hungarian army officer corps was dominated by Roman Catholics. In 1896, out of 1000 officers, 791 were Roman Catholics, 86 Protestants, 84 Jews, 39 Greek-Orthodox, and one Uniate. Of the pre–World War military forces of the major European powers, the Austro-Hungarian army was almost alone in its regular promotion of Jews to positions of command.[12] While the Jewish population of the lands of the Dual Monarchy
Dual Monarchy
was about 5%, Jews made up nearly 18% of the reserve officer corps.[11] There were no official barriers to military service for Jews, but in later years this tolerance eroded to some extent, as important figures such as Conrad von Hötzendorf and Archduke Franz Ferdinand sometimes expressed anti-Jewish sentiments. Franz Ferdinand was also accused (by Conrad) of discriminating against Protestant officers.[13] Funding and equipment[edit]

Austro-Hungarian artillery unit appearing in The Illustrated London News in 1914

Following the 1867 constitutional arrangements, the Reichsrat was dominated by German Liberals, who generally regarded the army as a relic of feudalism. In Budapest, legislators were reluctant to authorize funds for the joint army but were generous with the Hungarian branch of the army, the Honvédség. In 1867 the military budget accounted for about 25% of all government spending, but the economic crash of 1873 hit Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
hard and foreign observers questioned whether the Dual Monarchy
Dual Monarchy
could manage a major war without subsidies.[14] Despite increases throughout the 1850s and 1860s, in the latter half of the century Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
was still spending less on its army than were other major European powers.[14] While the budget continued to rise—from 262 million crowns in 1895 to 306 million in 1906—this was still far less per capita than for other major European states, including Italy, and about on par with Russia, which had a much larger population.[15] Further contributing to the monarchy's military weakness was the low rate of conscription: Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
conscripted only 0.29% of its population annually, compared to 0.47% in Germany and 0.75% in France. Attempts to increase the yearly intake of recruits were proposed but repeatedly blocked by officials in Budapest until an agreement was reached in 1912.[9] In the emerging field of military aviation, Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
lagged behind other European states. While balloon detachments had been established in 1893, they were mostly assigned to the fortress artillery, except for a brief period from 1909 to 1911 when they were under command of the multifaceted Verkehrs Brigade.[16] Realization that heavier-than-air machines were necessary or useful came late, and Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
acquired only five airplanes by 1911. In 1914 the budget for military aviation was approximately ​1⁄25th the amount spent by France. Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
entered the war with only 48 first-line aircraft.[16] Austro-Hungarian Army
Army
in July 1914[edit]

Austro-Hungarian soldiers resting in trench warfare

Austro-Hungarian POWs in Russia; a 1915 photo by Prokudin-Gorskii

36,000 Officers 414,000 NCOs and troops 87,000 horses (estimate) 1,200 artillery pieces

Official designations were as follows:

regiments of the common army were designated Imperial and Royal (German: "kaiserlich und königlich" (k.u.k.); Hungarian: "Császári és Királyi") Austrian Landwehr
Landwehr
regiments were Imperial-Royal (German: kaiserlich-königlich (k.k.) (which stands for Imperial Austrian / Royal Bohemian (kaiserlich österreichisch/königlich böhmisch)); Hungarian: császári/királyi) Hungarian Honved
Hungarian Honved
regiments were called Royal Hungarian (German: königlich ungarisch; Hungarian: Magyar Királyi)

After war was declared, 3.35 million men (including the first call-up of the reserves and the 1914 recruits) gathered for action. The Austro-Hungarian Imperial Army
Army
was officially under the control of the Commander-in-Chief, Emperor Franz Josef. By 1914, however, Franz Josef was 84 years old and the chief of staff, Count Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf, effectively had more power over the armed forces. Conrad favored an aggressive foreign policy and advocated the use of military action to solve Austria-Hungary's territorial disputes with Italy
Italy
and Serbia.[17] Archduke Friedrich, Duke of Teschen
Archduke Friedrich, Duke of Teschen
was appointed Supreme Commander of the Austro-Hungarian army by Franz Joseph on July 11, 1914. It was thought he would not interfere with the operational and tactical plans of Conrad von Hötzendorf. Friedrich remained Supreme Commander until February 1917, when Emperor Charles I decided to assume the office himself. Common Army[edit]

Corps areas in the Austro-Hungarian Army

Main article: Common Army The Common Army
Army
(k.u.k.—kaiserlich und königlich) consisted of:

16 corps 49 infantry divisions: 76 infantry brigades, 14 mountain brigades 8 cavalry divisions: 16 cavalry brigades 102 infantry regiments (each of four battalions), including 4 Bosnian-Herzegovinian (Bosnisch-Hercegowinische) infantry regiments (each of four battalions) 4 Imperial Tyrolian rifle regiments (Tiroler Kaiserjäger) (each of four battalions) 32 rifle battalions (Feldjäger), including 1 Bosnian-Herzegovinian rifle battalion (Bosnisch-Hercegowinisches Feldjäger Bataillon) 42 field artillery regiments (Feldkanonen-Regimenter), including 14 field howitzer regiments (Feldhaubitz-Regimenter) 11 mounted artillery battalions (originally named Reitende Artillerie Division), 14 heavy howitzer battalions (originally named schwere Haubitz-Division) 11 mountain artillery regiments (Gebirgsartillerie Regimenter) 6 fortress artillery regiments (Festungsartillerie Regimenter): 8 independent fortress artillery battalions (selbst. Festungsartillerie Bataillone) 15 regiments of dragoons (Dragoner), 16 regiments of hussars (Husaren), 11 regiments of lancers (Ulanen) 16 transport battalions (railway) 23 engineer battalions (Sappeure/Pioniere), 1 bridge construction battalion (Brücken Bataillon), 1 railway regiment (Eisenbahn-Regiment), 1 telegraph regiment (Telegraphen-Regiment)

Imperial-Royal Landwehr[edit] Main article: Imperial-Royal Landwehr

Officer's helmet, Imperial and Royal Dragoons

The Imperial-Royal Landwehr
Landwehr
(k.k. or kaiserlich österreichisch/königlich böhmisch) was the standing army of Austria responsible for the defence of Austria
Austria
itself.

35 Landwehr
Landwehr
infantry regiments: each of 3 battalions (Landwehr Infanterie-Regimenter) 6 Landwehr
Landwehr
regiments of lancers (uhlans) 8 Landwehr
Landwehr
field artillery battalions (Feldkanonen), 8 Landwehr
Landwehr
field howitzer battalions (Feldhaubitz)

The mountain infantry had the following units:

2 Landwehr
Landwehr
mountain infantry regiments (Gebirgsinfanterie-Regimenter), the 4th and 27th 3 Tyrolean rifle regiments (Tiroler Landesschützen Regimenter)—from January 1917 named "imperial rifles" (Kaiserschützen) 1 mounted Tyrolean rifle battalion (Reitende Tiroler Landesschützen) 1 mounted Dalmatian rifle battalion (Reitende Dalmatiner Landesschützen)

Royal Hungarian Landwehr[edit] Main article: Royal Hungarian Landwehr

Officer's Czapka
Czapka
(cap), 2nd Landwehr
Landwehr
Lancers

The Royal Hungarian Landwehr
Landwehr
(königlich ungarische Landwehr) or Royal Hungarian Honved
Hungarian Honved
(k.u. Honvéd) was the standing army of Hungary. A part of the Honved was the Royal Croatian Landwehr
Landwehr
(Kraljevsko hrvatsko domobranstvo), which consisted of 1 infantry division (out of 7 in Honved) and 1 cavalry regiment (out of 10 in the Honved).

6 Landwehr
Landwehr
districts (Distrikte) 2 infantry divisions (Infanterie Truppendivisionen) 2 cavalry divisions (Kavallerie Truppendivisionen) 4 infantry brigades (Infanteriebrigaden) 12 independent infantry brigades 4 cavalry brigades (Kavalleriebrigaden) 32 infantry regiments (Infanterie-Regimenter) 10 regiments of hussars (Husaren-Regimenter) 8 field artillery regiments (Feldkanonen Regimenter) 1 horse artillery battalion (Reitende Artillerie
Artillerie
Abteilung)

The infantry regiments of the k.u.k. army had four battalions each; the infantry regiments of the k.k. and k.u. Landwehr
Landwehr
had three battalions each, except the 3rd Regiment of the "Tiroler Landesschützen" (Tyrolian fusiliers), that had also four battalions. In 1915 units that had nicknames or names of honour lost them by order of the War Ministry. Thereafter units were designated only by number. For instance, the k.u.k. Infanterie-Regiment (Hoch und Deutschmeister) Nr. 4 became Infanterie-Regiment No. 4 (4th Infantry
Infantry
Regiment). Landsturm[edit] The Landsturm
Landsturm
consisted of men aged 34 to 55 who belonged to the Austria
Austria
k.k. Landsturm
Landsturm
and the Hungarian k.u. Landsturm. The Landsturm formed 40 regiments totaling 136 battalions in Austria
Austria
and 32 regiments totaling 97 battalions in Hungary. The Landsturm
Landsturm
was a reserve force intended to provide replacements for the first line units. However, the Landsturm
Landsturm
provided 20 brigades who took to the field with the rest of the army. Standschützen[edit] The Standschützen
Standschützen
(singular: Standesschütze[A. 1]) were originally rifle guilds and rifle companies that had been formed in the 15th and 16th centuries, and were involved time and again in military operations within the borders of the Austrian County of Tyrol. A Standschütze was a member of a Schützenstand ("shooting club"), into which he was enrolled,[A. 2] which automatically committed him to the voluntary, military protection of the state of Tyrol (and Vorarlberg). In effect they were a type of Tyrolean local militia or home guard. Medals (example)[edit]

Medals for valour 1914–1918

The following were the medals awarded to a Zugsführer (Staff-Sergeant) of the 2nd Regiment of the Tyrolian Imperial Rifles (later transferred to the 30th High Mountain Company), who saw action at:

Galicia the Carpathian Mountains
Carpathian Mountains
(Romania–Hungary eastern border area.) Col di Lana: Austria–Italian border Monte Piano: Austria-Italian border bei Lafraun (Lavarone/seven communities area): Austria-Italian border Monte Pasubio: Austria-Italian border Sextner Dolomiten Mountains: Austria-Italian border Ortler
Ortler
Mountain: Austria-Italian border Hohe Schneid ( Ortler
Ortler
Massiv): Austria-Italian border Tonale Paß (Adamello–Presanella Massiv): Austria-Italian border Cima Presena (Mountain (Adamello–Presanella Massiv): Austria-Italian border Busazza Mountain (Adamello–Presanella Massiv): Austria-Italian border

He received the following decorations:

Silver Medal of Bravery 1st Class (Kaiser Karl I./after January 1917) Silver Medal of Bravery 2nd Class (Kaiser Karl/after January 1917) Bronze Medal of Bravery Emperor Franz Joseph/before January 1917) Karl-Cross (for a minimum of 12 weeks or one more than three days battle in active fight) Casualty Medal (after January 1917) (wounded on 9/20/1918 at the Zigolon Mountain near the Adamello) Medal of Honor of the State of Tyrol to its defenders

Ranks and rank insignia of the Austro-Hungarian Army[edit] The different colors of the rank patches and buttons on the tunic are the marks for identifying the infantry regiments (except Generals)

k.u.k. Cavalry
Cavalry
1898

k.u.k. Infantry
Infantry
1898

Infantry Cavalry Artillery Rifles Rank insignias

Troops Heer Mountain rifles

Infanterist / Honvéd (Hung.) Szeregowy (Polish)/ Vojín (Czech) Soldat (Romanian) Vojnik (Croatian) (Private/Trooper/Gunner/Rifleman) Dragoner Husar Ulan Kanonier Jäger Myslivec

Gefreiter
Gefreiter
/ Őrvezető (Hung.)/ Svobodník (Czech)/ Fruntaș (Romanian) Razvodnik (Croatian) Caporale (Italian) (Private 1st Class/Lance Corporal) Gefreiter Vormeister Főtűzér Patrouilleführer Járőrvezető

Non-Commissioned Officers Heer Mountain rifles

Korporal / Tizedes (Hung.)/ Kapral (Polish)/ Desátník (Czech) Caporal (Romanian) Desetnik (Croatian) (Corporal) Korporal Tizedes Geschütz-Vormeister Unterjäger

Zugsführer / Szakaszvezető (Hung.) Plutonowy (Polish)/ Četař (Czech) Sergent (Romanian) Vodnik (Croatian) (Sergeant) Zugsführer Szakaszvezető Zugsführer Szakaszvezető Zugsführer Szakaszvezető

Feldwebel
Feldwebel
/ Őrmester (Hung.) Šikovatel (Czech) Plutonier (Romanian)/ Sierżant (Polish) Narednik (Croatian) (Master-Sergeant) Wachtmeister Őrmester Feuerwerker Tűzmester OberjägerFővadász

Kadett- Feldwebel
Feldwebel
/ Hadapród őrmester (Hung.) (Hadapród) Kadet-narednik (Croatian) (Cadet Sergeant; Cadet after 1908) Kadett-Wachtmeister (Kadett) Kadett-Feuerwerker (Kadett) Kadett-Oberjäger (Kadett)

Stabsfeldwebel / Törzsőrmester (Hung.) / Štábní šikovatel (Czech)/ Sierżant sztabowy (Polish) Stožerni narednik (Croatian) (1st Sergeant
Sergeant
after 1913 - rank badges until 1914) Stabs-Wachtmeister Stabs-Feuerwerker Stabs-Oberjäger

Stabs- Feldwebel
Feldwebel
/ Törzsőrmester (Hung.) / Štábní šikovatel(Czech)/ Plutonier-major (Romanian) Sierżant sztabowy (Polish) Stožerni narednik (Croatian) (1st Sergeant, rank badges after 1914) Stabs-Wachtmeister Stabs-Feuerwerker Stabs-Oberjäger

Offiziersstellvertreter (seit dem 6. Juni 1915) / Tiszthelyettes (Hung.)/ Důstojnický zástupce(Czech) Locțiitor de ofițer (Romanian) Časnički namjesnik (Croatian) (UK Warrant Officer [II] or US Warrant Sergeant) Offiziersstellvertreter Offiziersstellvertreter Offiziersstellvertreter

Officer Candidates

Kadett-Offiziersstellvertreter Hadapród-Tiszthelyettes (Hung.) Kadet-časnički zamjenik (Croatian) (Cadet Warrant Officer, UK Warrant Officer I, or US Warrant Officer) (until 1908) Kadett-Offiziersstellvertreter Kadett-Offiziersstellvertreter Kadett-Offiziersstellvertreter

Fähnrich
Fähnrich
(ab 1908) / Zászlós (Hung.) Stegar (Romanian)/ Praporčík (Czech) / Zastavnik (Croatian)/ Chorąży (Polish) (Ensign or Officer Cadet) (from 1908 - replaced the CWO/WO I) Fähnrich Fähnrich Fähnrich

Low Grade Officers

Leutnant / Hadnagy (Hung.)/ Poručík (Czech) Podporucznik (Polish) Locotenent (Romanian) Poručnik (Croatian) Tenente (Italian) (Lieutenant/2nd Lieutenant) Leutnant Leutnant Leutnant

Oberleutnant / Főhadnagy (Hung.) Nadporučík (Czech) Locotenent-major (Romanian) / Porucznik (Polish) Natporučnik (Croatian) (First Lieutenant/Lieutenant) Oberleutnant Oberleutnant Oberleutnant

Captains

Hauptmann / Százados (Hung.)/ Kapitán (Czech) Kapitan (Polish) Căpitan (Romanian)/ Satnik (Croatian) Capitano (Italian) (Captain) Rittmeister Hauptmann Hauptmann

Staff-Officers

Major
Major
/ Őrnagy (Hung.)/ Maior (Romanian) Bojnik (Croatian) Maggiore (Italian) Major Major Major

Oberstleutnant / Alezredes (Hung.) Podplukovník (Czech) Locotenent-colonel (Romanian) / Potpukovnik (Croatian) ( Lieutenant
Lieutenant
Colonel) Oberstleutnant Oberstleutnant Oberstleutnant

Oberst
Oberst
/ Ezredes (Hung.)/ Plukovník (Czech) Colonel
Colonel
(Romanian)/ Pułkownik (Polish) Pukovnik (Croatian) (Colonel) Oberst Oberst Oberst

General officers[edit]

Infantry Cavalry Artillery Rifles Rank insignias

Generalmajor    Vezérőrnagy (Hung.)    Generálmajor (Czech)    General-maior (Romanian)    General-bojnik (Croatian)    Maggiore Generale (Italian) (en: Major
Major
general, however, equiv. to Brigadier-General

Feldmarschall-Leutnant
Feldmarschall-Leutnant
   Altábornagy (Hung.)    polní podmaršálek (Czech)    Podmaršal (Croatian)    Marseciallo Tenente (Italian) (en: Field marshal
Field marshal
lieutenant, equiv. to Major-General

General of the branch
General of the branch
(en: Lieutenant
Lieutenant
general)

General der Infanterie Gyalogsági tábornok (Hung.) Generál pěchoty (Czech) General pješaštva (Croatian) General piechoty (Polish) Generale della fanteria (Italian) (en: General of the Infantry)

General der Kavallerie Lovassági tábornok (Hung.) Generál jezdectva (Czech) General konjaništva (Croatian) Generale della cavalleria (Italian) General kawalerii (Polish (en: General of the Cavalry)

Feldzeugmeister
Feldzeugmeister
/ Táborszernagy General topništva (Croatian) Polní zbrojmistr (Czech) Generale della artiglieria(Italian) (en: General of the Artillery)

no equivalent

since 1915 Generaloberst
Generaloberst
   Vezérezredes (Hung.)    General-pukovnik (Croatian)    Generálplukovník (Czech)    General pulkownik (Polish)   General Polkovnik (Slovene) (en: Colonel
Colonel
general

Feldmarschall
Feldmarschall
   Tábornagy (Hung.)    Polní maršál (Czech)   Feldmaršal (Croatian)    Mareșal (Romanian)    Marszałek (Polish) (en: Field marshal

Note

The ranks displayed after the "/" are the Hungarian and Croatian equivalents of the Austrian ranks, since they were used in this format in the Magyar Királyi Honvédség / königlich ungarische Landwehr (Royal Hungarian Home Defence Forces) as well as in the Kraljevsko Hrvatsko Domobranstvo / königlich kroatische Landwehr
Landwehr
(Royal Croatian Home Guard). The English equivalents are from the Austrian Bundesheer's homepage. Types of uniforms[edit]

Bosnian-Herzegovinian Infantry

Infantry
Infantry
officer, service dress

Mountain Rifles, battle dress

Hussar
Hussar
of the Honvéd

Captain of the Life Guard Infantry

Master- Sergeant
Sergeant
of the Medical Corps

Rifles parade dress

Adjutant of his Majesty the Emperor

Battledress Engineers

Officer of the Field-Artillery

Captain of the Military-Police-Corps

Dragoons (battledress and paradedress for enlisted men)

Officer of the k.u.k. Dragoons

See also[edit]

Rank insignia of the Austro-Hungarian armed forces Army
Army
Slavic 1st Army
Army
(Austria-Hungary) in World War I Comparative officer ranks of World War I Imperial and Royal Army
Army
during the Napoleonic Wars List of Austro-Hungarian colonel generals List of Austro-Hungarian soldiers Orders, decorations, and medals of Austria-Hungary List of Austro-Hungarian field marshals Weaponry of the Austro-Hungarian Empire The Good Soldier Švejk

References[edit]

^ Rothenberg, G. (1976). The Army
Army
of Francis Joseph. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press. p. 83. ISBN 0911198415.  ^ Rothenberg 1976, p. 193. ^ Rothenberg 1976, pp. 97, 99, 113–17, 124–25, 159. ^ Rothenberg 1976, p. 121. ^ Rothenberg 1976, p. 130. ^ Rothenberg 1976, p. 143. ^ Rothenberg 1976, pp. 101–02. ^ Rothenberg 1976, p. 81. ^ a b Rothenberg 1976, p. 126. ^ Rothenberg 1976, pp. 126, 165. ^ a b Rothenberg 1976, p. 128. ^ Rothenberg 1976, p. 118. ^ Rothenberg 1976, p. 142, 151. ^ a b Rothenberg 1976, p. 78. ^ Rothenberg 1976, pp. 125–26. ^ a b Rothenberg 1976, p. 175. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-02-07. Retrieved 2009-02-17. 

^ The German word Standschütze is derived from Schützenstand or Schießstand, which means "firing point" or "firing range", and generally refers to the members of a local shooting club – the Schießstand, Schützenstand or Schützenverein – in German-speaking countries. These were in essence volunteer militia. They still exist today, albeit their role is purely social and ceremonial. ^ enrolliert is the Austrian military jargon for "enrolled" (from the Old French
Old French
enroller).

Further reading[edit]

Bassett, Richard. For God and Kaiser: The Imperial Austrian Army, 1619-1918 (2016). Deák, István. "The Habsburg army in the first and last days of world war I: a comparative analysis." in Bela K. Kiraly and Nandor F. Dreisziger, eds. East Central European Society in World War I
World War I
(1985): 301-312. Stone, Norman. " Army
Army
and society in the Habsburg Monarchy, 1900-1914." Past & Present 33 (1966): 95-111. in JSTOR Watson, Alexander. "Managing an ‘ Army
Army
of Peoples’: Identity, Command and Performance in the Habsburg Officer Corps, 1914–1918." Contemporary European History 25#2 (2016): 233-251.

In German[edit]

Lichem, Heinz von (1977). Spielhahnstoß und Edelweiß. Graz: Stocker Verlag. ISBN 370200260X.  Lichem, Heinz von (1985). Der Tiroler Hochgebirgskrieg 1915–1918. Berwang (Tirol): Steiger Verlag. ISBN 3854230524.  Allmeyer-Beck; Lessing (1974). Die K.u.K. Armee 1848–1918. München: Bertelsmann.  Rest; Ortner; Ilmig (2002). Des Kaisers Rock im 1. Weltkrieg. Wien: Verlag Militaria. ISBN 3950164200.  Schreiber, Georg (1967). Des Kaisers Reiterei. Wien: Verlag Kremayr & Scheriau. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Austro-Hungarian Army.

A webpage, which is devoted to Austro-Hungarian Army. Detailed informations about: Organisation, biographies of the leaders, uniforms, and detailed weapon statistics Austro-Hungarian Army, by Glenn Jewison & Jörg C. Steiner Austro-Hungarian Military Ranks at Uniforminsignia.net Generals of Austria
Austria
and Hungary, 1816-1918 (in German) Antique Photography & Postcards of Austro-Hungarian army 1866-1918 (in English)

v t e

Military of Austria-Hungary

Army

Austro-Hungarian Army Common Army Imperial Austrian Landwehr Privilegiertes uniformiertes Grazer Bürgerkorps Royal Hungarian Honvéd Royal Croatian Home Guard

42nd Inf. Division

First Army Rank insignia Military Intelligence Weaponry Imperial and Royal Infantry Alpine companies Kaiserjäger Imperial and Royal Mountain Troops Imperial and Royal Dragoons Imperial and Royal Hussars Imperial and Royal Uhlans Standschützen

Navy

K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Ranks Battleships Cruisers U-Boats

Air Force

K.u.K. Luftfahrtruppen

Aircraft

Ministers for War

Feldmarschalleutnant
Feldmarschalleutnant
Franz Freiherr von John Feldmarschalleutnant
Feldmarschalleutnant
Franz Kuhn Freiherr Kuhn von Kuhnenfeld General der Kavallerie Alexander Freiherr von Koller Feldzeugmeister
Feldzeugmeister
Arthur Maximilian Graf
Graf
Bylandt-Rheydt (der Ältere) Feldzeugmeister
Feldzeugmeister
Ferdinand Freiherr Bauer Feldzeugmeister
Feldzeugmeister
Rudolf Freiherr Merkl General der Kavallerie Edmund Freiherr von Krieghammer Feldzeugmeister
Feldzeugmeister
Heinrich Ritter
Ritter
von Pitreich General der Infanterie Franz Freiherr Schönaich General der Infanterie Moritz Ritter
Ritter
Auffenberg von Komarów Feldmarschall
Feldmarschall
Alexander Freiherr von Krobatin Generaloberst
Generaloberst
Rudolf Stöger-Steiner von Steinstätten

Commanders

Archduke Eugen of Austria Franz Rohr von Denta Eduard von Böhm-Ermolli Svetozar Boroević Archduke Joseph August of Austria Franz Böhme Josip Jelačić Günther Burstyn Georg Dragičević Karol Durski-Trzaska Gheorghe Flondor Tadeusz Jordan-Rozwadowski Archduke Joseph Ferdinand of Austria Rudolf Maister Artur Phleps Oskar Potiorek Alfred Redl Maximilian Ronge Viktor Dankl von Krasnik Viktor Graf
Graf
von Scheuchenstuel Stjepan Sarkotić Gottfried Freiherr von Banfield Archduke Charles Stephen of Austria Miklós Horthy Franz von Keil Giovanni Luppis Georg von Trapp Janko Vuković

Commanders-in-Chief of the Navy

VAdm. Wilhelm von Tegetthoff VAdm. Friedrich Freiherr von Pöck VAdm. Maximilian Daublebsky Freiherr von Sterneck VAdm. Hermann Freiherr von Spaun VAdm. Rudolf Graf/Conte Montecuccoli Grand Adm. Anton Haus Adm. Maximilian Njegovan Adm. Miklós Horthy

Heads of the Naval Section

VAdm. Wilhelm von Tegetthoff VAdm. Friedrich Freiherr von Pöck VAdm. Maximilian Daublebsky Freiherr von Sterneck VAdm. Hermann Freiherr von Spaun VAdm. Rudolf Graf/Conte Montecuccoli Grand Adm. Anton Haus Adm. Karl Kailer von Kaltenfels Adm. Maximilian Njegovan RAdm Franz von Holub

Chiefs of the General Staff

Feldmarschalleutnant
Feldmarschalleutnant
Josef Wilhelm Freiher von Gallina Feldmarschalleutnant
Feldmarschalleutnant
Franz Freiherr von John Feldmarschalleutnant
Feldmarschalleutnant
Anton Freiherr von Schönfeld Feldzeugmeister
Feldzeugmeister
Friedrich Graf
Graf
von Beck-Rzikowsky Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf Generalmajor Blasius Schemua General der Infanterie Arthur Arz von Straußenburg

Commanders-in-Chief of the Army

Archduke Albrecht, Duke of Teschen Francis Joseph I Archduke Friedrich, Duke of Teschen Charles I Hermann Kövess von Kövessháza

Supreme Commanders

Francis Joseph

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