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Austrian Silesia
Silesia
(German: Österreichisch-Schlesien (historically also Oesterreichisch-Schlesien, Oesterreichisch Schlesien, österreichisch Schlesien); Czech: Rakouské Slezsko; Polish: Śląsk Austriacki), officially the Duchy of Upper and Lower Silesia
Silesia
(German: Herzogtum Ober- und Niederschlesien (historically Herzogthum Ober- und Niederschlesien); Czech: Vévodství Horní a Dolní Slezsko), was an autonomous region of the Kingdom of Bohemia
Kingdom of Bohemia
and the Austrian Empire, from 1867 a Cisleithanian crown land of Austria-Hungary. It is largely coterminous with the present-day region of Czech Silesia
Czech Silesia
and was, historically, part of the larger Silesia
Silesia
region.

Contents

1 Geography 2 History 3 Demographics

3.1 Major towns 3.2 Administration

4 References 5 External links

Geography[edit]

Austrian Silesia
Silesia
(outlined in yellow), Richard Andree, 1880

Austrian Silesia
Silesia
consisted of two territories, separated by the Moravian land strip of Moravská Ostrava
Ostrava
between the Ostravice and Oder
Oder
rivers. The area east of the Ostravice around Cieszyn
Cieszyn
reached from the heights of the Western Carpathians
Western Carpathians
(Silesian Beskids) in the south, where it bordered with the Kingdom of Hungary, along the Olza and upper Vistula rivers to the border with Prussian Silesia
Silesia
in the north. In the east the Biała river at Bielsko
Bielsko
separated it from the Lesser Polish lands of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, incorporated into the Austrian Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria
Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria
upon the First Partition of Poland
Poland
in 1772. The territory west of the Oder
Oder
river stretching from the town of Opava up to Bílá Voda
Bílá Voda
was confined by the Jeseníky mountain range of the eastern Sudetes
Sudetes
in the south, separating it from Moravia, and the Opava
Opava
river in the north. In the west the Golden Mountains formed the border with the County of Kladsko. History[edit] The area originally formed the south-eastern part of the Medieval Duchy of Silesia, a province of the Piast Kingdom of Poland. During the 14th century most Dukes of Silesia
Silesia
had declared themselves Bohemian vassals. As part of the Lands of the Bohemian Crown, Silesia
Silesia
was inherited by the Habsburg archduke Ferdinand I of Austria in 1526, after the last Jagiellon king Louis II of Bohemia had died at the Battle of Mohács. With the female succession of the Habsburg empress Maria Theresa
Maria Theresa
to the throne in 1740, the Prussian king Frederick the Great
Frederick the Great
laid claim to the Silesian province and, without waiting for any reply, on 16 December started the First Silesian War, thereby opening the larger War of the Austrian Succession. His campaign was concluded in 1742 with the Prussian victory at the Battle of Chotusitz
Battle of Chotusitz
leading to the treaties of Breslau and Berlin, in which Silesia
Silesia
was divided.

Composition of Austrian Silesia   Duchy of Cieszyn   Duchy of Opava   former Duchy of Krnov   Duchy of Nysa

Under the terms of the treaty, the Kingdom of Prussia
Kingdom of Prussia
received most of the territory including the Bohemian County of Kladsko, while only a small part of southeastern Silesia
Silesia
remained with the Habsburg Monarchy, consisting of:

the Upper Silesian duchy of Teschen (Cieszyn) parts of the former Moravian Duchy of Opava
Opava
with Duchy of Krnov
Duchy of Krnov
south of the Opava
Opava
River, comprising several Moravian enclaves. the southern part of the Lower Silesian Duchy of Nysa around Jeseník

forming the Duchy of Upper and Lower Silesia, which remained a Bohemian crown land with its capital in the city of Opava. In 1766 the title of a Duke of Teschen was granted to Prince Albert of Saxony, son-in-law of Maria Theresa, while the title of a Duke of Troppau and Jägerndorf remained with the Princely Family of Liechtenstein. The Nysa territory was held by the Bishops of Wrocław with their residence at Castle Jánský vrch
Jánský vrch
(Johannisberg). When in 1804 the Habsurg emperor Francis II established the Austrian Empire, his title would include the "Duke of Upper and Lower Silesia". Austrian Silesia
Silesia
was connected by rail with the Austrian capital Vienna, when the Emperor Ferdinand Northern Railway
Emperor Ferdinand Northern Railway
line was extended to Bohumín
Bohumín
station in 1847. In the course of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 the Duchy of Upper and Lower Silesia
Silesia
became a crown land of Cisleithanian Austria. In 1918, the Austrian monarchy was abolished and the major part of Austrian Silesia
Silesia
was ceded to the newly created state of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
by the 1919 Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, with the exception of Cieszyn
Cieszyn
Silesia
Silesia
(the former Duchy of Teschen), which after the Polish–Czechoslovak War
Polish–Czechoslovak War
was split in 1920 along the Olza river with its eastern part falling to the Autonomous Silesian Voivodeship
Voivodeship
of Poland. Smaller parts of the duchy also became a part of Poland, while the adjacent Hlučín Region
Hlučín Region
of Prussian Silesia
Silesia
fell to Czechoslovakia.

Coat of arms of the Duchy of Upper and Lower Silesia, as drawn by Hugo Gerard Ströhl (1851–1919)

Demographics[edit] According to an Austrian census, Austrian Silesia
Silesia
in 1910 was home to 756,949 people, speaking the following languages:

43% - German 31% - Polish 26% - Czech

Major towns[edit] Towns with more than 5,000 people in 1880:

Cities German name Population

Opava Troppau 20,563

Bielsko Bielitz 13,060

Cieszyn/Těšín Teschen 13,004

Krnov Jägerndorf 11,792

Bruntál Freudenthal 7,595

Frýdek Frydek 7,374 (1890)

Administration[edit]

Administrative divisions of Silesia
Silesia
as a crown land of Austria in 1900

The Duchy of Upper and Lower Silesia
Silesia
was originally divided into the two districts (Bezirke) of Teschen (Těšínský kraj, pop. 213,040 in 1847) and Troppau (Opavský kraj, pop. 260,199) with its seat at Krnov. In eastern Teschen, the autonomous Duchy of Bielsko
Bielsko
was established in 1754. Upon the Revolutions of 1848 and up to its dissolution Austrian Silesia
Silesia
was intermittently re-organised into the districts of:

Bielitz (Bielsko) Freistadt (Fryštát) Freiwaldau (Frývaldov) Freudenthal (Bruntál) Friedek (Frýdek) Jägerndorf (Krnov) Teschen (Cieszyn/Těšín) Troppau (Opava) Wagstadt (Bilovec).

For example, in 1900, there were 8 Bezirkshauptmannschaften in Austrian Silesia
Silesia
(in comparison to above list without Frydek).[1] References[edit]

^ Die postalischen Abstempelungen auf den österreichischen Postwertzeichen-Ausgaben 1867, 1883 und 1890, Wilhelm KLEIN, 1967

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Austrian Silesia.

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Silesia
Silesia
topics

History

Offensives Uprisings Wars (First, Second, Third) Upper Silesia
Silesia
plebiscite Treaty of Dresden Treaty of Teschen Book of Henryków Battle of Legnica Battle of Leuthen more...

Geography

Areas

Jelenia Góra valley Kłodzko Valley Lower Silesian Wilderness Obniżenie Milicko-Głogowskie Ostrava
Ostrava
Valley Oświęcim Basin Przedgórze Sudeckie Silesian Walls Silesian Foothills Silesian Lowlands Silesian Przesieka Silesian Upland Silesian-Lusatian Lowlands Silesian-Moravian Foothills Wał Trzebnicki Zielona Góra Acclivity

Lakes

Jezioro Goczałkowickie Jezioro Otmuchowskie Jezioro Sławskie Nyskie Slezská Harta Dam

Mountains

Carpathian

Silesian Beskids Moravian-Silesian Beskids

Sudetes

Eastern Central Western

Rivers

Elbe

Divoká Orlice Jizera Úpa

Oder

Barycz Bóbr Kaczawa Kłodnica Kwisa Liswarta Mała Panew Nysa Kłodzka Olza Ślęza

Vistula

Biała Brynica Gostynia Przemsza Pszczynka Rawa

Politics

Subdivisions

Former

Duchies

Piasts dukes

Silesian Voivodeship
Voivodeship
(1920–39)

parliament politicians treasury

State country Silesia
Silesia
Province

Upper Silesia Lower Silesia

Sudetenland New Silesia Austrian Silesia Eastern Silesia

Current

Jeseník
Jeseník
District Moravian–Silesian Region Niederschlesischer Oberlausitzkreis / Görlitz

Voivodeships

Lower Silesian Lubusz Voivodeships Opole Silesian

EP constituencies

Lower Silesian and Opole Silesian

Economy

Bielski Okręg Przemysłowy Katowice urban area Legnicko-Głogowski Okręg Miedziowy Lower Silesian Coal Basin Upper Silesian Coal Basin

Industrial Region Ostrava-Karviná / Rybnik Coal Areas

Upper Silesian metropolitan area Tourism

Society

Culture

Architecture

Familok

Regional costume (Śląskie stroje ludowe)

Cuisine

Black noodles Bryja Ciapkapusta Dumplings Galert Hauskyjza Karminadle Kołocz Kreple Krupniok (Kaszanka) Makówki Moczka Modra kapusta Siemieniotka Szałot Wodzionka Żur śląski

Religion

Evangelical Church in Berlin, Brandenburg and Silesian Upper Lusatia Silesian Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession in Poland Roman Catholic Church Pentecostal Church in Poland

Sport

Football Association Moravian–Silesian Football League National football team Silesian Stadium

Languages

Silesian

Bytom Cieszyn Jabłonków Lach Lower Namysłów Niemodlin Opole Prudnik Sulkovian Syców Texas

Czech German

Silesian German (Lower Silesian)

Moravian Polish

Symbols

Coats of arms Flags

Unofficial anthems

Schlesien Unvergessene Heimat Schlesierlied Slezská hymna

Other topics

Demographics Landsmannschaft Schlesien Silesian Autonomy Movement Silesians

Category Portal

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Duchies of Silesia

Original

Duchy of Silesia

Lower Silesia

Duchy of Bierutów Duchy of Brzeg Duchy of Głogów Duchy of Jawor Duchy of Legnica Duchy of Nysa Duchy of Oleśnica Duchy of Żagań Duchy of Münsterberg

Upper Silesia

Duchy of Bielsko Duchy of Bytom Duchy of Cieszyn Duchy of Głubczyce Duchy of Krnov Duchy of Opava Duchy of Opole Duchy of Opole
Duchy of Opole
and Racibórz Duchy of Oświęcim Duchy of Pszczyna Duchy of Racibórz Duchy of Siewierz Duchy of Zator

Other

Duchy of Upper and Lower Silesia County of Kladsko

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Crown lands of the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire

Kingdom of Bohemia Kingdom of Croatia Kingdom of Dalmatia Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria Kingdom of Hungary Kingdom of Illyria Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia Kingdom of Slavonia Archduchy of Austria Duchy of Bukovina Duchy of Carinthia Duchy of Carniola Duchy of Styria Duchy of Salzburg Duchy of Upper and Lower Silesia Grand Principality
Principality
of Transylvania Margravate of Istria Margraviate of Moravia Princely County of Tyrol County of Gorizia and Gradisca Voivodeship
Voivodeship
of Serbia and Temes Banat Imperial Free City of Trieste Military Frontier

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Subdivisions of Austria-Hungary

Cisleithania

Archduchy of Austria Kingdom of Bohemia Duchy of Bukovina Duchy of Carinthia Duchy of Carniola Kingdom of Dalmatia Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria Austrian Littoral

Gorizia and Gradisca Istria Trieste

Margraviate of Moravia Duchy of Salzburg Duchy of Upper and Lower Silesia Duchy of Styria County of Tyrol

Transleithania

Kingdom of Hungary Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia Fiume and its surroundings Military Frontier
Military Frontier
(1867–1882)

Condominiums

Province of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1878–1918) Sanjak of Novi Pazar
Sanjak of Novi Pazar
(1878–1908) Carpathian passes (1918) Concession zone in Tianjin (1901–1917)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 122579195

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