The Info List - Australian Antarctic Territory

The Australian Antarctic Territory
Australian Antarctic Territory
(AAT) is a part of Antarctica administered by the Australian Antarctic Division, an agency of the federal Department of the Environment and Energy. The territory's history dates to a claim on Enderby Land
Enderby Land
made by the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in 1841, which was subsequently expanded and eventually transferred to Australia
in 1933. It is the largest territory of Antarctica
claimed by any nation. In 1961, the Antarctic Treaty came into force. Article 4 deals with territorial claims, and although it does not renounce or diminish any preexisting claims to sovereignty, it also does not prejudice the position of Contracting Parties in their recognition or non-recognition of territorial sovereignty. As a result, only four other countries; New Zealand, United Kingdom, France
and Norway recognise Australia's claim to sovereignty in Antarctica.[1]


1 Area 2 Subdivisions 3 Exclusive economic zone

3.1 Whaling

4 Stations 5 History 6 Recognition of Australian sovereignty 7 Mining
in Antarctica 8 Postage stamps 9 Telephone connections 10 See also 11 References 12 External links

Area[edit] AAT consists of all the islands and territory south of 60°S and between 45°E and 160°E, except for Adélie Land
Adélie Land
(136°E to 142°E), which divides the territory into Western AAT (the larger portion) and Eastern AAT. It is bounded by Queen Maud Land
Queen Maud Land
in the West and by Ross Dependency in the East. The area is estimated at 5,896,500 km2.[2] The territory is inhabited by the staff of research stations. The Australian Antarctic Division
Australian Antarctic Division
administers the area primarily by maintaining three year-round stations (Mawson, Davis and Casey), which support various research projects. Subdivisions[edit] The territory is divided into nine districts, which are from West to East:[citation needed]

No. District Area (km²) Western border Eastern border

1 Enderby Land

045° E 056°25' E

2 Kemp Land

056°25' E 059°34' E

3 Mac. Robertson Land

059°34' E 072°35' E

4 Princess Elizabeth Land

072°35' E 087°43' E

5 Kaiser Wilhelm II Land

087°43' E 091°54' E

6 Queen Mary Land

091°54' E 100°30' E

7 Wilkes Land 2,600,000 100°30' E 136°11' E

8 George V Land

142°02' E 153°45' E

9 Oates Land

153°45' E 160°00' E

These regions are split into two separate areas geographically, with George V Land and Oates Land
Oates Land
lying to the east of the French Territorial claim of Adélie Land, and all other districts lying to its west. Exclusive economic zone[edit] Australia
claims an exclusive economic zone (EEZ) from the Australian Antarctic Territory. However, the Australian proclamation of an Antarctic EEZ is contested. The effect of Article IV of the 1959 Antarctic Treaty (which prohibits new territorial claims or the extension of existing claims in the Antarctic) would seem to be that an EEZ cannot be claimed in relation to territory to which that Treaty applies (south of 60° South). The provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) define the exclusive economic zone of a coastal state as up to 200 nautical miles (370 km) from the baseline from which the territorial sea is measured.[3] Whaling[edit] Whaling
in Australian Antarctic territorial waters
Australian Antarctic territorial waters
is controversial and has received international attention.[4] Anti-whaling protest groups, in particular Sea Shepherd Conservation Society, have been active within the Australian Antarctic territorial waters. Sea Shepherd small boat crews have had multiple encounters with Japanese ships that claim to be on research expeditions while opponents argue this is only a "cover" for banned commercial whaling.[5][6] The Australian Whale Sanctuary, in Australian Antarctic territory, is not recognised by the government of Japan.[4] Anti-whaling legislation passed by the Australian Government
Australian Government
applies to Australian territorial waters. However, Australia's claims of sovereignty over the Australian Antarctic Territory—and thus sovereignty over Australian Antarctic territorial waters—are recognised by only the United Kingdom, New Zealand, France
and Norway.[7] Stations[edit]

Davis Station

Active and closed stations in the territory, from West to East:

Station Nationality Location District

Molodyozhnaya (seasonal)  Russia 67°40′S 45°51′E / 67.667°S 45.850°E / -67.667; 45.850 Enderby Land

Mawson  Australia 67°36′09.7″S 62°52′25.7″E / 67.602694°S 62.873806°E / -67.602694; 62.873806 Mac Robertson Land (Mawson Coast)

Soyuz (closed)  Russia 70°35′S 68°47′E / 70.583°S 68.783°E / -70.583; 68.783 Mac Robertson Land (Lars Christensen Land)

Druzhnaya (closed)  Russia 69°44′S 72°42′E / 69.733°S 72.700°E / -69.733; 72.700 Princess Elizabeth Land
Princess Elizabeth Land
(Ingrid Christensen Land)

Zhongshan  China 69°22′S 76°22′E / 69.367°S 76.367°E / -69.367; 76.367 Princess Elizabeth Land
Princess Elizabeth Land
(Ingrid Christensen Land)

Law-Racovita Station  Romania 69°23′18.6″S 76°22′46.2″E / 69.388500°S 76.379500°E / -69.388500; 76.379500 Princess Elizabeth Land
Princess Elizabeth Land
(Ingrid Christensen Land)

Progress Station  Russia 69°23′S 76°23′E / 69.383°S 76.383°E / -69.383; 76.383 Princess Elizabeth Land
Princess Elizabeth Land
(Ingrid Christensen Land)

Davis  Australia 68°34′35.8″S 77°58′02.6″E / 68.576611°S 77.967389°E / -68.576611; 77.967389 Princess Elizabeth Land
Princess Elizabeth Land
(Ingrid Christensen Land)

Sovetskaya (closed)  Russia 77°58′S 89°16′E / 77.967°S 89.267°E / -77.967; 89.267 Wilhelm II Land

Mirny Station  Russia 66°33′S 93°01′E / 66.550°S 93.017°E / -66.550; 93.017 Queen Mary Land

Komsomolskaya (closed)  Russia 74°05′S 97°29′E / 74.083°S 97.483°E / -74.083; 97.483 Queen Mary Land

Vostok  Russia 78°28′S 106°48′E / 78.467°S 106.800°E / -78.467; 106.800 Wilkes Land
Wilkes Land
(Knox Land)

Wilkes Station
Wilkes Station
(closed)  Australia 66°15′25.6″S 110°31′32.2″E / 66.257111°S 110.525611°E / -66.257111; 110.525611 Wilkes Land
Wilkes Land
(Budd Land)

Casey  Australia 66°16′54.5″S 110°31′39.4″E / 66.281806°S 110.527611°E / -66.281806; 110.527611 Wilkes Land
Wilkes Land
(Budd Land)

Concordia Station
Concordia Station
(Dome C)  France  Italy 75°06′S 123°23′E / 75.100°S 123.383°E / -75.100; 123.383 Wilkes Land
Wilkes Land
(Banzare Land)

Leningradskaya (closed)  Russia 69°30′S 159°23′E / 69.500°S 159.383°E / -69.500; 159.383 Oates Land

History[edit] The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
first claimed Victoria Land
Victoria Land
on 9 January 1841 and then claimed Enderby Land
Enderby Land
in 1930. In 1933, a British imperial order transferred most of the territory south of 60° S and between meridians 160° E and 45° E to Australia.

That part of His Majesty's dominions in the Antarctic Seas which comprises all the islands and territories other than Adélie Land which are situated south of the 60th degree of South Latitude and lying between the 160th degree of East Longitude and the 45th degree of East Longitude is hereby placed under the authority of the Commonwealth of Australia.[8]

Australian Antarctic Territory
Australian Antarctic Territory
Acceptance Act 1933 That part of the territory in the Antarctic seas which comprises all the islands and territories, other than Adelie Land, situated south of the 60th degree south latitude and lying between the 160th degree east longitude and the 45th degree east longitude, is hereby declared to be accepted by the Commonwealth as a Territory under the authority of the Commonwealth, by the name of the Australian Antarctic Territory. C2004C00416 / Australian Antarctic Territory
Australian Antarctic Territory
Acceptance Act 1933 ( Cth )

Unofficial flag proposal for the territory

The borders with Adélie Land
Adélie Land
were fixed definitively in 1938. In 1947, Britain transferred Heard Island and McDonald Islands
Heard Island and McDonald Islands
to the territory. On 13 February 1954,[9] Mawson Station
Mawson Station
was established as the first Australian station on the continent proper. Recognition of Australian sovereignty[edit] Australia's claim to sovereignty over the Australian Antarctic Territory is recognised by the United Kingdom, New Zealand, France
and Norway.[10] Japan
does not recognise the Australian claim to the Australian Antarctic territorial waters
Australian Antarctic territorial waters
in which Japanese ships conduct whaling.[11] Mining
in Antarctica[edit] During the early 1980s there was a brief debate in Australia
on whether or not to allow mining on the mineral-rich continent.[12] Several mining proposals have been discussed and have all been rejected.[13] On the 9 August 2011, influential Australian think-tank, the Lowy Institute, published a report warning Canberra against complacency when it comes to its claim.[14] The global treaty banning resource exploitation becomes reviewable in 2041,[15] and some states may then decide to withdraw from it considering the continent's mineral deposits. These include coal seams, manganese, iron and uranium, while Antarctica's forecast oil reserves are estimated as among the largest in the world after Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
and Venezuela. Lowy's national security fellow Ellie Fogarty said in the paper that Australia
cannot adequately patrol its claim, lacking the kind of ski-planes it needs to reach some areas. It also lacks an ice-breaking ship in the region. Postage stamps[edit] Main article: Postage stamps and postal history of the Australian Antarctic Territory

This 1959 cover commemorated the opening of the Wilkes post office.

issues postage stamps for the Australian Antarctic Territory. The first issues came in 1957, and sporadically thereafter, settling into a pattern of an annual issue by the 1990s. All have been Antarctic-themed, and all are valid for postage in Australia
and its territories, including Antarctica. Telephone connections[edit] Assigned the country calling code +672 1[0-4] XXXX, the four stations and the Aurora Australis operated by the Australian Antarctic Division can be reached by direct calling from anywhere in the world. The area codes are 10 for Davis, 11 for Mawson, 12 for Casey, 13 for Macquarie Island and 14 for Wilkins and the Aurora Australis, in each case followed by four additional digits. See also[edit]

Geography portal Australia
portal Antarctica

Australian Antarctic Building System


^ "US National Science Foundation - Office of Polar Programs - The Antarctic Treaty". Retrieved 2012-01-03.  ^ "National recovery plan for Albatrosses and Giant-petrels: Section 4.1.6 Australian Antarctic Territory, Geography". Australian Government, Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Archived from the original on 17 August 2008. Retrieved 2008-07-16.  ^ "Part V. Exclusive Economic Zone. Article 57. Breadth of the exclusive economic zone". United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. Retrieved 15 January 2018.  ^ a b "Japanese whalers told to keep out of Australian territory". The New Zealand
New Zealand
Herald. 16 January 2008. Retrieved 17 September 2011.  ^ "'Stink' attack on Japan's whalers, BBC, 27 December 2008 ^ "Japanese whaling ship detains 2 protesters", MSNBC, 15 January 2008 ^ "An honorable way out of the whaling débâcle", Sydney Morning Herald, 19 January 2008 ^ Antarctica
and international law: a collection of inter-state and national documents, Volume 2. pp. 143. Author: W. M. Bush. Editor: Oceana Publications, 1982. ISBN 0-379-20321-9, ISBN 978-0-379-20321-9 ^ "A Brief History of Mawson". Australian Government
Australian Government
- Australian Arctic Division. Archived from the original on 27 July 2008. Retrieved 2008-07-16.  ^ "Chapter 6: Antarctic Territories" (PDF). Parliament of Australia. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 June 2008. Retrieved 2013-03-29.  ^ Humane Society International Inc v Kyodo Senpaku Kaisha Ltd [2008] FCA 3 at [13], (2008) 165 FCR 510 (15 January 2008), Federal Court (Australia). ^ "Mining". In the 1980s the question of possible mineral exploitation (including the hydrocarbons oil and gas) was addressed by the nations of the Antarctic Treaty. They negotiated an agreement called the Convention on the Regulation of Antarctic Mineral Resource Activities (CRAMRA) which would have regulated mining should it have ever been contemplated. CRAMRA did not come into force. Instead, the Madrid Protocol was negotiated and it includes a ban on Antarctic mining. Australian Government. Retrieved 26 June 2013.  ^ "No mining in Antarctica, say Aussies". Despite the current global appetite for minerals, which has underpinned two decades of economic growth in Australia, the country currently has no plans to allow any mining in Antarctica. IOL. Retrieved 26 June 2013.  ^ "Antarctica: Assessing and Protecting Australia's National Interests" (PDF). International interest in Antarctica
is rising. Lowy Institute. Retrieved 26 June 2013.  ^ Swan, Robert. "2041". In the year 2041 the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty could potentially be modified or amended. 2041.com. Retrieved 26 June 2013. 

External links[edit]

Australian Antarctic Division Australian Antarctic Gazetteer Russian stations

Coordinates: 75°00′S 102°30′E / 75.000°S 102.500°E / -75.000; 102.500

v t e

Territories of Antarctica

Territorial claims

Adélie Land
Adélie Land
(France) Argentine Antarctica Australian Antarctic Territory British Antarctic Territory Chilean Antarctic Territory Peter I Island
Peter I Island
(Norway) Queen Maud Land
Queen Maud Land
(Norway) Ross Dependency
Ross Dependency
(New Zealand)

Other territories

Brazilian Antarctica
(zone of Interest) Marie Byrd Land
Marie Byrd Land
(unclaimed) Uruguayan Antarctica

Former territories

New Swabia
New Swabia
(Germany) Yamato Yukihara
Yamato Yukihara

v t e

States and territories of Australia


New South Wales Queensland South Australia Tasmania Victoria Western Australia

Internal territories

Australian Capital Territory Jervis Bay Territory Northern Territory

External territories

Ashmore and Cartier Islands Australian Antarctic Territory Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Coral Sea Islands Heard Island and McDonald Islands Norfolk Island

Former territories

Central Australia
(1927–1931) New Guinea (1920–1949) North Australia
(1927–1931) Papua (1902–1949) Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea

v t e

British Empire

Legend Current territory Former territory * Now a Commonwealth realm Now a member of the Commonwealth of Nations Historical flags of the British Empire


1542–1800 Ireland (integrated into UK) 1708–1757, 1763–1782 and 1798–1802 Minorca Since 1713 Gibraltar 1800–1813 Malta (Protectorate) 1813–1964 Malta (Colony) 1807–1890 Heligoland 1809–1864 Ionian Islands 1878–1960 Cyprus 1921–1937 Irish Free State

North America

17th century and before 18th century 19th and 20th century

1579 New Albion 1583–1907 Newfoundland 1605–1979 *Saint Lucia 1607–1776 Virginia Since 1619 Bermuda 1620–1691 Plymouth 1623–1883 Saint Kitts 1624–1966 *Barbados 1625–1650 Saint Croix 1627–1979 *Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1628–1883 Nevis 1629–1691 Massachusetts Bay 1632–1776 Maryland since 1632 Montserrat 1632–1860 Antigua 1635–1644 Saybrook 1636–1776 Connecticut 1636–1776 Rhode Island 1637–1662 New Haven

1643–1860 Bay Islands Since 1650 Anguilla 1655–1850 Mosquito Coast 1655–1962 *Jamaica 1663–1712 Carolina 1664–1776 New York 1665–1674 and 1702–1776 New Jersey Since 1666 Virgin Islands Since 1670 Cayman Islands 1670–1973 *Bahamas 1670–1870 Rupert's Land 1671–1816 Leeward Islands 1674–1702 East Jersey 1674–1702 West Jersey 1680–1776 New Hampshire 1681–1776 Pennsylvania 1686–1689 New England 1691–1776 Massachusetts Bay

1701–1776 Delaware 1712–1776 North Carolina 1712–1776 South Carolina 1713–1867 Nova Scotia 1733–1776 Georgia 1754–1820 Cape Breton Island 1762–1974 *Grenada 1763–1978 Dominica 1763–1873 Prince Edward Island 1763–1791 Quebec 1763–1783 East Florida 1763–1783 West Florida 1784–1867 New Brunswick 1791–1841 Lower Canada 1791–1841 Upper Canada Since 1799 Turks and Caicos Islands

1818–1846 Columbia District/Oregon Country1 1833–1960 Windward Islands 1833–1960 Leeward Islands 1841–1867 Canada 1849–1866 Vancouver Island 1853–1863 Queen Charlotte Islands 1858–1866 British Columbia 1859–1870 North-Western Territory 1860–1981 *British Antigua
and Barbuda 1862–1863 Stickeen 1866–1871 British Columbia 1867–1931 * Dominion
of Canada2 1871–1964 Honduras 1882–1983 * Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis 1889–1962 Trinidad and Tobago 1907–1949 Newfoundland3 1958–1962 West Indies Federation

1. Occupied jointly with the United States. 2. In 1931, Canada and other British dominions obtained self-government through the Statute of Westminster. See Name of Canada. 3. Gave up self-rule in 1934, but remained a de jure Dominion until it joined Canada in 1949.

South America

1631–1641 Providence Island 1651–1667 Willoughbyland 1670–1688 Saint Andrew and Providence Islands4 1831–1966 Guiana Since 1833 Falkland Islands5 Since 1908 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands5

4. Now a department of Colombia. 5. Occupied by Argentina during the Falklands War
Falklands War
of April–June 1982.


17th and 18th centuries 19th century 20th century

Since 1658 Saint Helena14 1792–1961 Sierra Leone 1795–1803 Cape Colony

Since 1815 Ascension Island14 Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha14 1806–1910 Cape of Good Hope 1807–1808 Madeira 1810–1968 Mauritius 1816–1965 The Gambia 1856–1910 Natal 1862–1906 Lagos 1868–1966 Basutoland 1874–1957 Gold Coast 1882–1922 Egypt

1884–1900 Niger Coast 1884–1966 Bechuanaland 1884–1960 Somaliland 1887–1897 Zululand 1890–1962 Uganda 1890–1963 Zanzibar 1891–1964 Nyasaland 1891–1907 Central Africa 1893–1968 Swaziland 1895–1920 East Africa 1899–1956 Sudan

1900–1914 Northern Nigeria 1900–1914 Southern Nigeria 1900–1910 Orange River 1900–1910 Transvaal 1903–1976 Seychelles 1910–1931 South Africa 1914–1960 Nigeria 1915–1931 South-West Africa 1919–1961 Cameroons6 1920–1963 Kenya 1922–1961 Tanganyika6 1923–1965 and 1979–1980 Southern Rhodesia7 1924–1964 Northern Rhodesia

6. League of Nations mandate. 7. Self-governing Southern Rhodesia
Southern Rhodesia
unilaterally declared independence in 1965 (as Rhodesia) and continued as an unrecognised state until the 1979 Lancaster House Agreement. After recognised independence in 1980, Zimbabwe was a member of the Commonwealth until it withdrew in 2003.


17th and 18th century 19th century 20th century

1685–1824 Bencoolen 1702–1705 Pulo Condore 1757–1947 Bengal 1762–1764 Manila and Cavite 1781–1784 and 1795–1819 Padang 1786–1946 Penang 1795–1948 Ceylon 1796–1965 Maldives

1811–1816 Java 1812–1824 Banka and Billiton 1819–1826 Malaya 1824–1948 Burma 1826–1946 Straits Settlements 1839–1967 Aden 1839–1842 Afghanistan 1841–1997 Hong Kong 1841–1946 Sarawak 1848–1946 Labuan 1858–1947 India 1874–1963 Borneo

1879–1919 Afghanistan (protectorate) 1882–1963 North Borneo 1885–1946 Unfederated Malay States 1888–1984 Brunei 1891–1971 Muscat and Oman 1892–1971 Trucial States 1895–1946 Federated Malay States 1898–1930 Weihai 1878–1960 Cyprus

1907–1949 Bhutan (protectorate) 1918–1961 Kuwait 1920–1932 Mesopotamia8 1921–1946 Transjordan8 1923–1948 Palestine8 1945–1946 South Vietnam 1946–1963 North Borneo 1946–1963 Sarawak 1946–1963 Singapore 1946–1948 Malayan Union 1948–1957 Federation of Malaya Since 1960 Akrotiri and Dhekelia
Akrotiri and Dhekelia
(before as part of Cyprus) Since 1965 British Indian Ocean Territory
British Indian Ocean Territory
(before as part of Mauritius and the Seychelles)

8 League of Nations mandate. Iraq's mandate was not enacted and replaced by the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty


18th and 19th centuries 20th century

1788–1901 New South Wales 1803–1901 Van Diemen's Land/Tasmania 1807–1863 Auckland Islands9 1824–1980 New Hebrides 1824–1901 Queensland 1829–1901 Swan River/Western Australia 1836–1901 South Australia since 1838 Pitcairn Islands

1841–1907 New Zealand 1851–1901 Victoria 1874–1970 Fiji10 1877–1976 Western Pacific Territories 1884–1949 Papua 1888–1901 Rarotonga/Cook Islands9 1889–1948 Union Islands9 1892–1979 Gilbert and Ellice Islands11 1893–1978 Solomon Islands12

1900–1970 Tonga 1900–1974 Niue9 1901–1942 *Australia 1907–1947 *New Zealand 1919–1942 and 1945–1968 Nauru 1919–1949 New Guinea 1949–1975 Papua and New Guinea13

9. Now part of the *Realm of New Zealand. 10. Suspended member. 11. Now Kiribati
and *Tuvalu. 12. Now the *Solomon Islands. 13. Now *Papua New Guinea.

and South Atlantic

Since 1658 Saint Helena14 Since 1815 Ascension Island14 Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha14 Since 1908 British Antarctic Territory15 1841–1933 Australian Antarctic Territory
Australian Antarctic Territory
(transferred to the Commonwealth of Australia) 1841–1947 Ross Dependency
Ross Dependency
(transferred to the Realm of New Zealand)

14. Since 2009 part of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Ascension Island
Ascension Island
(1922–) and Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha
(1938–) were previously dependencies of Saint Helena. 15. Both claimed in 1908; territories formed in 1962 (British Antarctic Territory) and 1985 (South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands).

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 143198814 LCCN: n90685355 GN