Australia has no state religion; Section 116 of the Australian Constitution prohibits the Today, Australia has the world's eighth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 30% of the population, a higher proportion than in any other nation with a population of over 10 million.[28][277] 160,323 permanent immigrants were admitted to Australia in 2018–19 (excluding refugees),[276] whilst there was a net population gain of 239,600 people from all permanent and temporary immigration in that year.[278] The majority of immigrants are skilled,[276] but the immigration program includes categories for family members and refugees.[278] In 2019 the largest foreign-born populations were those born in England (3.9%), Mainland China (2.7%), India (2.6%), New Zealand (2.2%), the Philippines (1.2%) and Vietnam (1%).[28]

In the 2016 Australian census, the most commonly nominated ancestries were:[N 9][279][280]

At the 2016 census, 649,171 people (2.8% of the total population) identified as being IndigenousAboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders.[N 12][282] Indigenous Australians experience higher than average rates of imprisonment and unemployment, lower levels of education, and life expectancies for males and females that are, respectively, 11 and 17 years lower than those of non-indigenous Australians.[263][283][284] Some remote Indigenous communities have been described as having "failed state"-like conditions.[285]