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The AUSCHWITZ TRIAL began on November 24, 1947, in Kraków , when Polish authorities (the Supreme National Tribunal ) tried 40 former staff of the Auschwitz concentration camps . The trials ended on December 22, 1947.

The best-known defendants were Arthur Liebehenschel , former commandant; Maria Mandel , head of the Auschwitz women's camps; and SS -doctor Johann Kremer . 38 other SS officers — 34 men and four women — who had served as guards or doctors in the camps were also tried.

CONTENTS

* 1 Verdict of the Supreme National Tribunal in the first Auschwitz trial * 2 Summary * 3 See also * 4 Notes and references

VERDICT OF THE SUPREME NATIONAL TRIBUNAL IN THE FIRST AUSCHWITZ TRIAL

_Excerpts from Explanation of Jury Decisions_

Torturing of prisoners already tormented to the extreme , is the evidence of inhuman savagery perpetrated by those defendants who as a result of the trial were sentenced to death. The listed violent crimes committed by named defendants, who all took smaller or larger part in the mass murder of prisoners, also reveal that the accused were involved in the acts of killing for pleasure, and not pursuant to orders of their superiors. If it were not for their expressed desire to kill, they would have otherwise displayed elements of sympathy for the victims, or at least show indifference to their plight, but not torture them to death. _W uzasadnieniu wyroku Najwyższego Trybunału Narodowego_

Znęcanie się nad i tak nadmiernie udręczonymi więźniami dowodzi wielkiego zezwierzęcenia tych oskarżonych, którzy w wyniku przewodu sądowego zostali skazani na karę śmierci. To znęcanie się ze strony tych oskarżonych, którzy wszyscy brali mniejszy lub większy udział w zabijaniu więźniów, wskazuje też na to, że ci oskarżeni brali udział w tych zabójstwach z potrzeby wewnętrznej zabijania, a nie w wykonaniu rozkazu przełożonych. Gdyby bowiem nie odczuwali potrzeby zabijania, to albo okazywaliby więźniom współczucie, albo też byliby dla nich obojętni, lecz nie znęcaliby się nad nimi.

# DEFENDANT RANK FUNCTION SENTENCE

1 Arthur Liebehenschel SS-Obersturmbannführer camp commandant death by hanging (carried out)

2 Hans Aumeier SS-Sturmbannführer
SS-Sturmbannführer
Schutzhaftlagerführer death by hanging (carried out)

3 Maximilian Grabner SS - Untersturmführer camp Gestapo
Gestapo
chief death by hanging (carried out)

4 Karl Möckel SS-Obersturmbannführer manager of camp administration death by hanging (carried out)

5 Maria Mandl SS - Oberaufseherin Birkenau female camp commandant death by hanging (carried out)

6 Franz Xaver Kraus SS-Sturmbannführer
SS-Sturmbannführer
information officer death by hanging (carried out)

7 Ludwig Plagge SS - Oberscharführer Rapportführer death by hanging (carried out)

8 Fritz Buntrock SS - Unterscharführer Rapportführer death by hanging (carried out)

9 Wilhelm Gerhard Gehring SS - Hauptscharführer subcamp commandant death by hanging (carried out)

10 Otto Lätsch SS-Unterscharführer subcamp vice commandant death by hanging (carried out)

11 Heinrich Josten SS - Obersturmführer commander of the camp guard death by hanging (carried out)

12 Josef Kollmer SS-Obersturmführer commander of the camp guard death by hanging (carried out)

13 Erich Muhsfeldt SS-Oberscharführer Birkenau crematoria manager death by hanging (carried out)

14 Hermann Kirschner SS-Unterscharführer camp administration death by hanging (carried out)

15 Hans Schumacher SS-Unterscharführer manager of camp food supplies death by hanging (carried out)

16 August Bogusch SS - Scharführer camp administration death by hanging (carried out)

17 Therese Brandl SS-Aufseherin SS-Erstaufseherin death by hanging (carried out)

18 Paul Szczurek SS-Unterscharführer Blockführer death by hanging (carried out)

19 Paul Götze SS - Rottenführer Blockführer death by hanging (carried out)

20 Herbert Paul Ludwig SS-Oberscharführer Blockführer death by hanging (carried out)

21 Kurt Hugo Müller SS-Unterscharführer Blockführer death by hanging (carried out)

22 Johann Kremer SS-Obersturmführer camp doctor death by hanging (commuted to life imprisonment)

23 Arthur Breitwieser SS-Unterscharführer camp administration death by hanging (commuted to life imprisonment)

24 Detlef Nebbe SS - Sturmscharführer sergeant of the guard company life imprisonment

25 Karl Seufert SS-Hauptscharführer manager of prisoner block life imprisonment

26 Hans Koch SS-Unterscharführer camp desinfection life imprisonment

27 Luise Danz SS - Aufseherin female guard life imprisonment

28 Adolf Medefind SS-Unterscharführer guard life imprisonment

29 Anton Lechner SS-Rottenführer guard life imprisonment

30 Franz Romeikat SS-Unterscharführer camp administration 15 years imprisonment

31 Hans Hoffmann SS-Rottenführer camp Gestapo
Gestapo
unit 15 years imprisonment

32 Hildegard Lächert SS-Aufseherin female guard 15 years imprisonment

33 Alice Orlowski SS-Aufseherin female guard 15 years imprisonment

34 Johannes Weber SS - Sturmmann camp kitchen 15 years imprisonment

35 Alexander Bülow SS-Sturmmann guard 15 years imprisonment

36 Eduard Lorenz SS-Unterscharführer guard 15 years imprisonment

37 Richard Schröder SS-Unterscharführer camp accounting 10 years imprisonment

38 Erich Dinges SS-Sturmmann driver 5 years imprisonment

39 Karl Jeschke SS-Oberscharführer guard 3 years imprisonment

40 Hans Münch SS-Untersturmführer doctor in SS Higene Institute acquitted

Rudolf Höss immediately before being hanged

Rudolf Höss , sentenced in another trial, was executed on April 16, 1947 in front of the crematorium at Auschwitz I . The trial of camp commandant Höss which took place at the Supreme National Tribunal in Warsaw
Warsaw
throughout March 1947 was the actual first ever Auschwitz trial, followed by the trials in Kraków several months later.

SUMMARY

The Supreme National Tribunal presiding in Kraków issued 23 death sentences, and 17 imprisonments ranging from life sentences to 3 years. All executions were carried out on January 28, 1948 at the Kraków Montelupich Prison , "one of the most terrible Nazi prisons in occupied Poland" used by Gestapo
Gestapo
throughout World War II. Maria Mandel and Therese Brandl were the first to be executed. One person was acquitted; Sergeant Major Hans Münch, who refused to participate in the selection process and made futile, though confirmed requests for more food to the inmates. Liebehenschel, Mandel and Kremer were condemned to death , as were Hans Aumeier , August Bogusch, Therese Brandl , Arthur Breitwiser, Fritz Buntrock, Wilhelm Gehring, Paul Götze , Maximilian Grabner , Heinrich Josten, Hermann Kirschner, Josef Kollmer , Franz Kraus, Herbert Ludwig, Karl Möckel , Kurt Mueller, Eric Muhsfeldt , Ludwig Plagge , Hans Schumacher and Paul Szczurek (Arthur Breitwieser and Johann Kremer had their sentences commuted to life imprisonment ). Luise Danz , Hans Koch , Anton Lechner , Adolf Medefind, Detlef Nebbe , and Karl Seufert received life sentences . Alexander Bülow , Hans Hoffmann , Hildegard Lächert , Eduard Lorenz , Alice Orlowski , Franz Romeikat , and Johannes Weber were sentenced to 15 years. Richard Schroeder received 10 years, Erich Dinges five years, and Karl Jeschke three years. Hans Münch was acquitted . At the end of the trial the death toll of Auschwitz was said to be "Below 300,000". http://www.dailymotion.com/video/xx6cw3_auschwitz-trial-in-poland-with-subtitles-jan-18-1948-300k-dead_news

SEE ALSO

* Belzec Trial before the 1st Munich
Munich
District Court in the mid-1960s, eight SS-men of the Belzec extermination camp tried, seven acquitted * Chełmno Trials of the Chełmno extermination camp personnel, held in Poland
Poland
and in Germany. The cases were decided almost twenty years apart * Dachau Trials held within the walls of the former Dachau concentration camp , 1945–1948 * Majdanek Trials , the longest Nazi war crimes trial in history, spanning over 30 years * Nuremberg Trials
Nuremberg Trials
of the 23 most important leaders of the Third Reich , 1945–1946 * Sobibor Trial held in Hagen
Hagen
, Germany in 1965, concerning the Sobibor extermination camp

NOTES AND REFERENCES

* ^ Hermann Langbein (2013). "Auschwitz Trials (Cracow)". _Auschwitz-Birkenau_. Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 2013-04-24. _Source:_ Encyclopaedia Judaica_._ Bibliography: _Naumann,_ Auschwitz _(Eng., 1966); H. Langbein,_ Der Auschwitz-Prozess: eine Documentation_, 2 vols. (1965); Brand, in:_ Yad Vashem Bulletin_, 15 (1964), 43–117._ * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Paweł Brojek (Nov 24, 2012), Pierwszy proces oświęcimski (The First Auschwitz Trial). Portal
Portal
_Prawy.pl._ Retrieved May 12, 2013. * ^ Adam Bajcar, _Poland: A Guidebook_, translated by S. Tarnowski, Interpress Publishers, Warsaw
Warsaw
1972. * ^ "Swedish Television Interview with Hans Münch". _Svenska Kommitten Mot Antisemitism (Swedish Committee Against Antisemitism); SS-Untersturmfuehrer Hans Muench (in) "Foernekandet av Foerintelsen. Nynazistisk historiefoerfalskning efter Auschwitz" by Stephane Bruchfeld_. The Nizkor Project. 2012. Retrieved 2013-05-12.

* The Jewish Virtual Library: _Auschwitz Trial_ * Cyprian T., Sawicki J., _Siedem wyroków Najwyższego Trybunału Narodowego_, Poznań , 1962 * G. Álvarez, Mónica. "Guardianas Nazis. El lado femenino del mal". Madrid: Grupo Edaf, 2012. ISBN 978-84-414-3240-6

* v * t * e

The Holocaust in Poland
Poland

Main article The Holocaust Related articles by country Belarus Belgium Croatia Denmark Estonia France Latvia Lithuania Norway Russia Ukraine

* v * t * e

Camps, ghettos and operations

CAMPS

EXTERMINATION

* Auschwitz-Birkenau * Chełmno * Majdanek

* _ Operation Reinhard _ death camps

* Bełżec * Sobibór * Treblinka

CONCENTRATION

* Kraków-Płaszów * Potulice * Soldau * Stutthof * Szebnie * Trawniki * Warsaw
Warsaw

MASS SHOOTINGS

* AB Action * Erntefest * Jedwabne * Kielce cemetery * Aktion Krakau * Lviv pogroms * Lwów professors * Palmiry
Palmiry
* Sonderaktion Krakau * Tannenberg * Tykocin * Bydgoszcz * Wąsosz * Bloody Sunday

GHETTOS

* List of 277 Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland
Poland
(1939–1942)

* Będzin * Białystok * Brest * Częstochowa * Grodno * Kraków * Lwów * Łódź * Lubartów * Lublin * Międzyrzec Podlaski * Mizocz * Nowy Sącz * Pińsk * Radom * Słonim * Sosnowiec * Stanisławów * Wilno * Warsaw
Warsaw

OTHER ATROCITIES

* Action T4 * Grossaktion Warsaw
Warsaw
* Human medical experimentation

* v * t * e

Perpetrators, participants, organizations, and collaborators

MAJOR PERPETRATORS

ORGANIZERS

* Josef Bühler * Eichmann * Eicke * Ludwig Fischer
Ludwig Fischer
* Hans Frank * Globocnik * Glücks * Greiser * Himmler * Hermann Höfle * Fritz Katzmann * Wilhelm Koppe * Friedrich-Wilhelm Krüger * Kutschera * Erwin Lambert * Ernst Lerch
Ernst Lerch
* Oswald Pohl
Oswald Pohl
* Reinefarth * Scherner * Seyss-Inquart * Sporrenberg * Streckenbach * Thomalla * Otto Wächter * Wisliceny

CAMP COMMAND

* Aumeier * Baer * Boger * Braunsteiner * Eberl * Eupen * Kurt Franz * Karl Frenzel
Karl Frenzel
* Karl Fritzsch * Göth * Grabner * Hartjenstein * Hering * Höss * Hössler * Josef Kramer
Josef Kramer
* Liebehenschel * Mandel * Matthes * Michel * Möckel * Mulka * Johann Niemann
Johann Niemann
* Oberhauser * Reichleitner * Heinrich Schwarz * Stangl * Gustav Wagner * Christian Wirth

GAS CHAMBER EXECUTIONERS

* Erich Bauer * Bolender * Hackenholt * Klehr * Hans Koch * Herbert Lange * Theuer

PHYSICIANS

* von Bodmann * Clauberg * Gebhardt * Fritz Klein * Mengele * Horst Schumann * Trzebinski * Eduard Wirths

GHETTO COMMAND

* Auerswald * Biebow * Blösche * Bürkl * Konrad * Palfinger * von Sammern-Frankenegg * Stroop

_EINSATZGRUPPEN _

* Wolfgang Birkner * Blobel * Felix Landau * Schaper * Schöngarth * von Woyrsch

PERSONNEL

CAMP GUARDS

* Juana Bormann * Danz * Demjanjuk * Margot Dreschel * Kurt Gerstein * Grese * Höcker * Kaduk * Kollmer * Muhsfeldt * Orlowski * Volkenrath

BY CAMP

* Sobibór * Treblinka

ORGANIZATIONS

* Einsatzgruppen * General Government
General Government
* Hotel Polski * WVHA * RKFDV * VoMi

COLLABORATORS

JEWISH

* Group 13 * Kapo * Żagiew

Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Belarusian and Ukrainian

* Schutzmannschaft
Schutzmannschaft

OTHER NATIONALITIES

* Arajs Kommando * Ukrainian Auxiliary Police * Ukrainian collaboration * Lithuanian Security Police * Trawniki * Ypatingasis būrys * Pieter Menten

* v * t * e

Resistance: Judenrat, victims, documentation and technical

ORGANIZATIONS

* AK * AOB * Bund * GL * PKB * ŻOB * ŻZA

UPRISINGS

* Ghetto uprisings * Białystok * Częstochowa * Sobibór * Treblinka * Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto Uprising

LEADERS

* Mordechai Anielewicz * Dawid Moryc Apfelbaum * Icchak Cukierman * Marek Edelman * Leon Feldhendler * Paweł Frenkiel * Henryk Iwański * Itzhak Katzenelson * Michał Klepfisz * Miles Lerman * Alexander Pechersky * Witold Pilecki * Frumka Płotnicka * Roza Robota * Szmul Zygielbojm
Szmul Zygielbojm

JUDENRAT

* Jewish Ghetto Police
Jewish Ghetto Police
* Adam Czerniaków * Mordechai Chaim Rumkowski

VICTIM LISTS

GHETTOS

* Kraków * Łódź * Lvov (Lwów) * Warsaw
Warsaw

CAMPS

* Auschwitz * Bełżec * Gross-Rosen * Izbica * Majdanek * Sobibór * Soldau * Stutthof * Trawniki * Treblinka

DOCUMENTATION

NAZI SOURCES

* Auschwitz Album * Frank Memorandum * Höcker Album * Höfle Telegram * Katzmann Report * Korherr Report * Nisko Plan * Posen speeches * Special
Special
Prosecution Book- Poland
Poland
* Stroop Report
Stroop Report
* Wannsee Conference

WITNESS ACCOUNTS

* Graebe affidavit * Gerstein Report * Vrba–Wetzler report * Witold\'s Report * _Sonderkommando_ photographs

CONCEALMENT

* Sonderaktion 1005
Sonderaktion 1005

TECHNICAL AND LOGISTICS

* Identification in camps * Gas chamber * Gas van * Holocaust train * Human medical experimentation * Zyklon B

* v * t * e

Aftermath, trials and commemoration

AFTERMATH

* Holocaust survivors * Polish population transfers (1944–1946) * Bricha * Kielce pogrom
Kielce pogrom
* Anti-Jewish violence, 1944–46 * Ministry of Public Security

TRIALS

WEST GERMAN TRIALS

* Frankfurt Auschwitz trials * Treblinka trials

POLISH, EAST GERMAN, AND SOVIET TRIALS

* Auschwitz trial
Auschwitz trial
(Poland) * Stutthof trials
Stutthof trials
* Extraordinary (Soviet) State Commission

MEMORIALS

* Museum of the History of Polish Jews * Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum
Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum
* Majdanek State Museum * Sobibór Museum * International Youth Meeting Center in Oświęcim/Auschwitz * March of the Living

RIGHTEOUS AMONG THE NATIONS

* Polish Righteous Among the Nations * Rescue of Jews by Poles during the Holocaust
Rescue of Jews by Poles during the Holocaust
* Garden of the Righteous

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