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Muhi-ud-Din Muhammad[3] (Persian: محي الدين محمد‎) (3 November 1618 – 3 March 1707),[1] commonly known by the sobriquet Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
(Persian: اورنگ‌زیب‎ "Ornament of the Throne")[3] or by his regnal title Alamgir (Persian: عالمگير‎ "Conqueror of the World"),[4] was the sixth, and widely considered the last effective Mughal emperor. His reign lasted for 49 years from 1658 until his death in 1707.[5][6] Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
was a notable expansionist and during his reign, the Mughal Empire reached its greatest extent, ruling over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent.[7] During his lifetime, victories in the south expanded the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
to 4 million square kilometres,[8] and he ruled over a population estimated to be over 158 million subjects,[7] with an annual yearly revenue of $450 million (more than ten times that of his contemporary Louis XIV of France),[9] or £38,624,680 (2,879,469,894 rupees) in 1690.[10][11][citation needed] Under his reign, India surpassed China
China
once again to become the world's largest economy, worth over $90 billion, nearly a quarter of world GDP in 1700.[12] Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
has been subject to controversy and criticism[13] for his policies that abandoned his predecessors' legacy of pluralism and religious tolerance, citing his introduction of the Jizya
Jizya
tax, destruction of Hindu
Hindu
temples, execution or forced conversion of his non-Muslim subjects to Islam
Islam
and execution of the ninth Sikh
Sikh
guru, Guru Tegh Bahadur. [14][15][a]. However, other historians question this, arguing that his destruction of temples has been exaggerated,[16][13] and noting that he also built temples,[17] also destroyed Islamic mosques, paid for the maintenance of temples,[18] employed significantly more Hindus in his imperial bureaucracy than his predecessors did, and opposed bigotry against Hindus and Shia Muslims.[19] It was at the end of his reign that the downfall of the Mughal Empire began due to his policy of religious intolerance. Rebellions and wars eventually led to the exhaustion of the imperial Mughal treasury and army. He was a strong-handed authoritarian ruler, and following his death the expansionary period of the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
came to an end. Nevertheless, the contiguous territory of the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
still remained intact more or less until the reign of Muhammad Shah.[citation needed]

Contents

1 Early life 2 Early military campaigns and administration

2.1 Bundela War 2.2 Viceroy of the Deccan 2.3 War of Succession

3 Reign

3.1 Bureaucracy 3.2 Establishment of Islamic law 3.3 Taxation policy 3.4 Policy on temples and mosques 3.5 Execution of opponents 3.6 Expansion of the Mughal Empire 3.7 Military equipment

3.7.1 War elephants

3.8 Art and Culture

3.8.1 Calligraphy 3.8.2 Architecture 3.8.3 Textiles

4 Foreign relations

4.1 Relations with the Uzbek 4.2 Relations with the Safavid
Safavid
dynasty 4.3 Relations with the French 4.4 Relations with the Sultanate of Maldives 4.5 Relations with the Ottoman Empire 4.6 Relations with the English

5 Administrative reforms

5.1 Revenue 5.2 Coins

6 Rebellions

6.1 Jat rebellion 6.2 Mughal– Maratha
Maratha
Wars 6.3 Ahom campaign 6.4 Satnami opposition 6.5 Sikh
Sikh
opposition 6.6 Pashtun opposition

7 Death and legacy

7.1 Criticism

8 Full title 9 In literature 10 See also 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links

Early life[edit]

A painting from circa 1637 shows the brothers (left to right) Shah Shuja, Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
and Murad Baksh
Murad Baksh
in their younger years.

Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
was born on 3 November 1618, in Dahod, Gujarat. He was the third son and sixth child of Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
and Mumtaz Mahal.[20] In June 1626, after an unsuccessful rebellion by his father, Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
and his brother Dara Shukoh
Dara Shukoh
were kept as hostages under their grandparents' ( Nur Jahan
Nur Jahan
and Jahangir) Lahore
Lahore
court. On 26 February 1628, Shah Jahan was officially declared the Mughal Emperor, and Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
returned to live with his parents at Agra
Agra
Fort, where Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
received his formal education in Arabic
Arabic
and Persian. His daily allowance was fixed at Rs. 500, which he spent on religious education and the study of history. On 28 May 1633, Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
escaped death when a powerful war elephant stampeded through the Mughal Imperial encampment. He rode against the elephant and struck its trunk with a lance,[21] and successfully defended himself from being crushed. Aurangzeb's valour was appreciated by his father who conferred him the title of Bahadur (Brave) and had him weighed in gold and presented gifts worth Rs. 200,000. This event was celebrated in Persian and Urdu
Urdu
verses, and Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
said:[22]

If the (elephant) fight had ended fatally for me, it would not have been a matter of shame. Death drops the curtain even on Emperors; it is no dishonor. The shame lay in what my brothers did!

Early military campaigns and administration[edit] Bundela War[edit]

The Mughal Army
Mughal Army
under the command of Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
recaptures Orchha
Orchha
in October 1635.

Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
was nominally in charge of the force sent to Bundelkhand with the intent of subduing the rebellious ruler of Orchha, Jhujhar Singh, who had attacked another territory in defiance of Shah Jahan's policy and was refusing to atone for his actions.[23] By arrangement, Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
stayed in the rear, away from the fighting, and took the advice of his generals as the Mughal Army
Mughal Army
gathered and commenced the Siege of Orchha
Orchha
in 1635.The campaign was successful and Singh was removed from power.[23] Viceroy of the Deccan[edit] See also: Gujarat under Aurangzeb

A painting from Padshahnama
Padshahnama
depicts Prince
Prince
Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
facing a maddened war elephant named Sudhakar.[24]

Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
was appointed viceroy of the Deccan in 1636.[25] After Shah Jahan's vassals had been devastated by the alarming expansion of Ahmednagar
Ahmednagar
during the reign of the Nizam Shahi
Nizam Shahi
boy-prince Murtaza Shah III, the emperor dispatched Aurangzeb, who in 1636 brought the Nizam Shahi dynasty to an end.[26] In 1637, Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
married the Safavid princess Dilras Banu Begum, posthumously known as Rabia-ud-Daurani. She was his first wife and chief consort as well as his favourite.[27][28][29] He also had an infatuation with a slave girl, Hira Bai, whose death at a young age greatly affected him. In his old age, he was under the charms of his concubine, Udaipuri Bai. The latter had formerly been a companion to Dara Shukoh.[30] In the same year, 1637, Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
was placed in charge of annexing the small Rajput
Rajput
kingdom of Baglana, which he did with ease.[31] In 1644, Aurangzeb's sister, Jahanara, was burned when the chemicals in her perfume were ignited by a nearby lamp while in Agra. This event precipitated a family crisis with political consequences. Aurangzeb suffered his father's displeasure by not returning to Agra
Agra
immediately but rather three weeks later. Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
had been nursing Jahanara back to health in that time and thousands of vassals had arrived in Agra
Agra
to pay their respects.[citation needed] Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
was outraged to see Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
enter the interior palace compound in military attire and immediately dismissed him from his position of viceroy of the Deccan; Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
was also no longer allowed to use red tents or to associate himself with the official military standard of the Mughal emperor.[citation needed] Other sources tell us that Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
was dismissed from his position because Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
left the life of luxury and became a Faqir.[32] In 1645, he was barred from the court for seven months and mentioned his grief to fellow Mughal commanders. Thereafter, Shah Jahan appointed him governor of Gujarat where he served well and was rewarded for bringing stability.[citation needed] In 1647, Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
moved Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
from Gujarat to be governor of Balkh, replacing a younger son, Murad Baksh, who had proved ineffective there. The area was under attack from Uzbek and Turkmen tribes. Whilst the Mughal artillery
Mughal artillery
and muskets were a formidable force, so too were the skirmishing skills of their opponents. The two sides were in stalemate and Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
discovered that his army could not live off the land, which was devastated by war. With the onset of winter, he and his father had to make a largely unsatisfactory deal with the Uzbeks, giving away territory in exchange for nominal recognition of Mughal sovereignty. The Mughal force suffered still further with attacks by Uzbeks
Uzbeks
and other tribesmen as it retreated through snow to Kabul. By the end of this two-year campaign, into which Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
had been plunged at a late stage, a vast sum of money had been expended for little gain.[33] Further inauspicious military involvements followed, as Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
was appointed governor of Multan
Multan
and Sindh. His efforts in 1649 and 1652 to dislodge the Safavids at Kandahar, which they had recently retaken after a decade of Mughal control, both ended in failure as winter approached. The logistical problems of supplying an army at the extremity of the empire, combined with the poor quality of armaments and the intransigence of the opposition have been cited by John Richards as the reasons for failure, and a third attempt in 1653, led by Dara Shikoh, met with the same outcome.[34] Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
became viceroy of the Deccan again after he was replaced by Dara Shukoh
Dara Shukoh
in the attempt to recapture Kandahar. Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
regretted this and harboured feelings that Shikoh had manipulated the situation to serve his own ends. Aurangbad's two jagirs (land grants) were moved there as a consequence of his return and, because the Deccan was a relatively impoverished area, this caused him to lose out financially. So poor was the area that grants were required from Malwa
Malwa
and Gujarat in order to maintain the administration and the situation caused ill-feeling between father and son. Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
insisted that things could be improved if Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
made efforts to develop cultivation.[35] Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
appointed Murshid Quli Khan[citation needed] to extend to the Deccan the zabt revenue system used in northern India. Murshid Quli Khan organised a survey of agricultural land and a tax assessment on what it produced. To increase revenue, Murshid Quli Khan granted loans for seed, livestock, and irrigation infrastructure. The Deccan returned to prosperity,[25][36] but too slowly to satisfy the emperor.[35] Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
proposed to resolve the situation by attacking the dynastic occupants of Golconda
Golconda
(the Qutb Shahis) and Bijapur (the Adil Shahis). As an adjunct to resolving the financial difficulties, the proposal would also extend Mughal influence by accruing more lands. Again, he was to feel that Dara had exerted influence on his father: believing that he was on the verge of victory in both instances, Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
was frustrated that Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
chose then to settle for negotiations with the opposing forces rather than pushing for complete victory.[35] War of Succession[edit]

Sepoys loyal to the Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
maintain their positions around the palace, at Aurangabad, in 1658.

The four sons of Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
all held governorships during their father's reign. The emperor favoured the eldest, Dara Shukoh. This had caused resentment among the younger three, who sought at various times to strengthen alliances between themselves and against Dara. There was no Mughal tradition of primogeniture, the systematic passing of rule, upon an emperor's death, to his eldest son.[35] Instead it was customary for sons to overthrow their father and for brothers to war to the death among themselves.[37] Historian Satish Chandra
Satish Chandra
says that "In the ultimate resort, connections among the powerful military leaders, and military strength and capacity [were] the real arbiters".[35] The contest for power was primarily between Dara Shikoh and Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
because, although all four sons had demonstrated competence in their official roles, it was around these two that the supporting cast of officials and other influential people mostly circulated.[38] There were ideological differences — Dara was an intellectual and a religious liberal in the mould of Akbar, while Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
was much more conservative — but, as historians Barbara D. Metcalf and Thomas R. Metcalf say, "To focus on divergent philosophies neglects the fact that Dara was a poor general and leader. It also ignores the fact that factional lines in the succession dispute were not, by and large, shaped by ideology."[39] Marc Gaborieau, professor of Indian studies at l'École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales,[40] explains that "The loyalties of [officials and their armed contingents] seem to have been motivated more by their own interests, the closeness of the family relation and above all the charisma of the pretenders than by ideological divides."[37] Muslims and Hindus did not divide along religious lines in their support for one pretender or the other nor, according to Chandra, is there much evidence to support the belief that Jahanara and other members of the royal family were split in their support. Jahanara, certainly, interceded at various times on behalf of all of the princes and was well-regarded by Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
even though she shared the religious outlook of Dara.[41] In 1656, a general under Qutb Shahi
Qutb Shahi
dynasty named Musa Khan led an army of 12,000 Musketeers to attack Aurangzeb, and later on the same campaign Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
in turn rode against an army consisting 8,000 horsemen and 20,000 Karnataka
Karnataka
Musketeers[42] Having made clear that he wanted Dara to succeed him, Shah Jahan became ill with stranguary in 1657 and was closeted under the care of his favourite son in the newly built city of Shahjahanabad
Shahjahanabad
(Old Delhi). Rumours of the death of Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
abounded and the younger sons were concerned that Dara might be hiding it for Machiavellian reasons. Thus, they took action: Shah Shuja In Bengal, where he had been governor since 1637, Prince
Prince
Muhammad Shuja crowned himself King at RajMahal, and brought his cavalry, artillery and river flotilla upriver towards Agra. Near Varanasi
Varanasi
his forces confronted a defending army sent from Delhi
Delhi
under the command of Prince
Prince
Sulaiman Shukoh, son of Dara Shukoh, and Raja
Raja
Jai Singh[43]while Murad did the same in his governorship of Gujarat and Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
did so in the Deccan. It is not known whether these preparations were made in the mistaken belief that the rumours of death were true or whether the challengers were just taking advantage of the situation.[35]

Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
becomes emperor.

After regaining some of his health, Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
moved to Agra
Agra
and Dara urged him to send forces to challenge Shah Shuja and Murad, who had declared themselves rulers in their respective territories. While Shah Shuja was defeated at Banares in February 1658, the army sent to deal with Murad discovered to their surprise that he and Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
had combined their forces,[41] the two brothers having agreed to partition the empire once they had gained control of it.[44] The two armies clashed at Dharmat in April 1658, with Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
being the victor. Shuja was being chased through Bihar
Bihar
and the victory of Aurangzeb proved this to be a poor decision by Dara Shikoh, who now had a defeated force on one front and a successful force unnecessarily pre-occupied on another. Realising that his recalled Bihar
Bihar
forces would not arrive at Agra
Agra
in time to resist the emboldened Aurangzeb's advance, Dara scrambled to form alliances in order but found that Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
had already courted key potential candidates. When Dara's disparate, hastily concocted army clashed with Aurangzeb's well-disciplined, battle-hardened force at the Battle of Samugarh
Battle of Samugarh
in late May, neither Dara's men nor his generalship were any match for Aurangzeb. Dara had also become over-confident in his own abilities and, by ignoring advice not to lead in battle while his father was alive, he cemented the idea that he had usurped the throne.[41] "After the defeat of Dara, Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
was imprisoned in the fort of Agra where he spent eight long years under the care of his favourite daughter Jahanara."[45] Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
then broke his arrangement with Murad Baksh, which probably had been his intention all along.[44] Instead of looking to partition the empire between himself and Murad, he had his brother arrested and imprisoned at Gwalior Fort. Murad was executed on 4 December 1661, ostensibly for the murder of the diwan of Gujarat some time earlier. The allegation was encouraged by Aurangzeb, who caused the diwan's son to seek retribution for the death under the principles of Sharia law.[46] Meanwhile, Dara gathered his forces, and moved to the Punjab. The army sent against Shuja was trapped in the east, its generals Jai Singh and Dilir Khan submitted to Aurangzeb, but Dara's son, Suleiman Shikoh, escaped. Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
offered Shah Shuja the governorship of Bengal. This move had the effect of isolating Dara Shikoh
Dara Shikoh
and causing more troops to defect to Aurangzeb. Shah Shuja, who had declared himself emperor in Bengal
Bengal
began to annex more territory and this prompted Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
to march from Punjab
Punjab
with a new and large army that fought during the Battle of Khajwa, where Shah Shuja and his chain-mail armoured war elephants were routed by the forces loyal to Aurangzeb. Shah Shuja then fled to Arakan (in present-day Burma), where he was executed by the local rulers.[47] With Shuja and Murad disposed of, and with his father immured in Agra, Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
pursued Dara Shikoh, chasing him across the north-western bounds of the empire. Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
claimed that Dara was no longer a Muslim and accused him of poisoning the Mughal Grand Vizier
Grand Vizier
Saadullah Khan. After a series of battles, defeats and retreats, Dara was betrayed by one of his generals, who arrested and bound him. In 1658, Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
arranged his formal coronation in Delhi. On 10 August 1659, Dara was executed on grounds of apostasy and his head was sent to Shahjahan.[45] Having secured his position, Aurangzeb confined his frail father at the Agra Fort
Agra Fort
but did not mistreat him. Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
was cared for by Jahanara and died in 1666.[44] Reign[edit] Bureaucracy[edit]

Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
under Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
shown in red borders

Aurangzeb's imperial bureaucracy employed significantly more Hindus than that of his predecessors. Between 1679 and 1707, the number of Hindu
Hindu
officials in the Mughal administration rose by half, many of them Marathas
Marathas
and Rajputs. His increasing employment of Hindus and Shia Muslims
Shia Muslims
was deemed controversial at the time, with several of his fellow Sunni Muslim
Sunni Muslim
officials petitioning against it, which he rejected, and responded, "What connection have earthly affairs with religion? And what right have administrative works to meddle with bigotry? 'For you is your religion and for me is mine.'" He insisted on employment based on ability rather than religion.[19] Under Aurangzeb's reign, Hindus rose to represent 31.6% of Mughal nobility, the highest in the Mughal era. This was largely due to a substantial influx of Marathas, who played a key role in his successful Deccan campaign.[13] During his time, the number of Hindu Mansabdars increased from 22% to over 31% in the Mughal administration, as he needed them to continue his fight in the Deccan.[48] However, one of his Rajput
Rajput
nobles, Jaswant Singh of Jodhpur, Hindu
Hindu
ruler of Jodhpur, “destroyed mosques and built idol-temples in their stead” around 1658–1659, according to Aurangzeb. Despite this, relationships did not turn sour between the two, as they worked together for the next two decades up until Singh's death in the late 1670s.[49] Establishment of Islamic law[edit]

Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
compiled Hanafi
Hanafi
law by introducing the Fatawa-e-Alamgiri.

Historian Katherine Brown has noted that "The very name of Aurangzeb seems to act in the popular imagination as a signifier of politico-religious bigotry and repression, regardless of historical accuracy." The subject has also resonated in modern times with popularly accepted claims that he intended to destroy the Bamiyan Buddhas.[50] As a political and religious conservative, Aurangzeb chose not to follow the secular religious viewpoints of his predecessors after his ascension. Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
had already moved away from the liberalism of Akbar, although in a token manner rather than with the intent of suppressing Hinduism,[51][b] and Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
took the change still further.[52] Though the approach to faith of Akbar, Jahangir
Jahangir
and Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
was more syncretic than Babur, the founder of the empire, Aurangzeb's position is not so obvious. His emphasis on sharia competed, or was directly in conflict, with his insistence that zawabit or secular decrees could supersede sharia.[53] Despite claims of sweeping edicts and policies, contradictory accounts exist.[54] He sought to codify Hanafi
Hanafi
law by the work of several hundred jurists, called Fatawa-e-Alamgiri.[54] It is possible the War of Succession and continued incursions combined with Shah Jahan's spending made cultural expenditure impossible.[55] As emperor, Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
banned the drinking of alcohol, gambling,[56] castration, servitude, eunuchs, music, nautch and narcotics in the Mughal Empire. He learnt that at Sindh, Multan, Thatta
Thatta
and particularly at Varanasi, the Hindu
Hindu
Brahmins
Brahmins
attracted large numbers of indigenous local Muslims to their discourses. He ordered the Subahdars of these provinces to demolish the schools and the temples of non-Muslims.[57] Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
also ordered Subahdars to punish Muslims who dressed like non-Muslims. The executions of the antinomian Sufi mystic Sarmad Kashani and the ninth Sikh
Sikh
Guru Tegh Bahadur
Guru Tegh Bahadur
bear testimony to Aurangzeb's religious policy; the former was beheaded on multiple accounts of heresy,[c] the latter, according to Sikhs, because he objected to Aurangzeb's forced conversions.[58][59][60][61] Taxation policy[edit] He imposed Jizya, a military tax on non-Muslims who were not fighting for Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
in his second decade on ruling in the year 1679.[62] Further, Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
levied discriminatory taxes on Hindu
Hindu
merchants at the rate of 5% as against 2.5% on Muslim merchants. He ordered to dismiss Hindu
Hindu
quanungos and patwaris from revenue administration.[48][63][64][65] However, he also employed many Hindus as Jizya
Jizya
tax collectors.[13] The introduction of Jizya
Jizya
in 1679 was a response to several events shortly before its introduction: the great Rajput
Rajput
rebellion of 1678, the Maratha
Maratha
alliance with the Shia
Shia
Golconda, and the Mughal expansion into the Deccan. However, the contemporary historian Khafi Khan (died 1733), whose family had served Aurangzeb, noted that Jizya
Jizya
could not be levied and remained largely a tax on paper only.[48] Policy on temples and mosques[edit] During his reign, Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
ordered the destruction of many temples and some mosques. For example, he ordered the destruction of Vishvanath Temple at Varanasi
Varanasi
for being a centre of conspiracy against the state, and he ordered the destruction of the Jama Masjid
Jama Masjid
at Golkunda[66]after finding out that its ruler had built the mosque in order to hide revenues from the state. Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
also ordered a rescue raid on a temple, in order to rescue a Rajasthan
Rajasthan
minister's female family members who went there on a pilgrimage.[18][need quotation to verify] Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
displayed a particular animus towards Hindus and their temples. In his the first volume of his Pulitzer Prize winning book series, historian Will Durant[67] stated the following:

Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
cared nothing for art, destroyed its "heathen" monuments with coarse bigotry, and fought, through a reign of half a century, to eradicate from India almost all religions but his own. He issued orders to the provincial governors, and to his other subordinates, 'to raze to the ground all the temples of either Hindus or Christians, to smash every idol, and to close every Hindu
Hindu
school. In one year (1679–80) sixty-six temples were broken to pieces in Amber alone, sixtythree at Chitor, one hundred and twenty-three at Udaipur; and over the site of a Benares
Benares
temple especially sacred to the Hindus he built, in deliberate insult, a Mohammedan mosque. He forbade all public worship of the Hindu
Hindu
faiths, and laid upon every unconverted Hindu
Hindu
a heavy capitation tax. As a result of his fanaticism, thousands of the temples which had represented or housed the art of India through a millennium were laid in ruins. We can never know, from looking at India today, what grandeur and beauty she once possessed. Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
converted a handful of timid Hindus to Islam, but he wrecked his dynasty and his country. A few Moslems worshiped him as a saint, but the mute and terrorized millions of India looked upon him as a monster, fled from his tax-gatherers, and prayed for his death. During his reign the Mogul empire in India reached its height, extending into the Deccan; but it was a power that had no foundation in the affection of the people, and was doomed to fall at the first hostile and vigorous touch. The Emperor himself, in his last years, began to realize that by the very narrowness of his piety he had destroyed the heritage of his fathers.

Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
thought of changing the name of Hindu's one of the holiest city Benaras to Muhammadabad.[68] Among the Hindu
Hindu
temples he demolished were three of the most sacred, the Kashi Vishwanath temple, Kesava Deo temple, and Somnath temple, and built large mosques in their place.[57] In 1679, he ordered destruction of several prominent temples that had become associated with his enemies: these included the temples of Khandela, Udaipur, Chittor and Jodhpur.[69] The historian Richard Eaton argues that the overall understanding of temples to be flawed. As early as the sixth century, temples became vital political landmarks as well as religious ones. He writes that, not only was temple desecration widely practised and accepted, it was a necessary part of political struggle.[69] Other scholars point out that Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
also built many temples, Ian Copland says that he built more temples than he destroyed.[17] However, scholars like Ram Puniyani
Ram Puniyani
states that Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
was not always fanatically anti-Hindu, and kept changing his policies depending on the needs of the situation. He banned the construction of new temples, but permitted the repair and maintenance of existing temples. He also made generous donations of jagirs to several temples to win the sympathies of his Hindu
Hindu
subjects. There are several firmans (orders) in his name, supporting temples and gurudwaras, including Mahakaleshwar temple of Ujjain, Balaji temple of Chitrakoot, Umananda Temple of Guwahati
Guwahati
and the Shatrunjaya
Shatrunjaya
Jain
Jain
temples.[70] Execution of opponents[edit] The first prominent execution during the long reign of Aurangzeb started with that of his brother Prince
Prince
Dara Shikoh, who was accused of being influenced by Hinduism although some sources argue it was done for political reasons.[71][71] Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
had his allied brother Prince
Prince
Murad Baksh
Murad Baksh
held for murder, judged and then executed.[72] Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
is accused of poisoning his imprisoned nephew Sulaiman Shikoh.[73] In 1689, the second Maratha
Maratha
Chhatrapati (King) Sambhaji
Sambhaji
was brutally executed by Aurangzeb. In a sham trial, he was found guilty of murder and violence, atrocities[74] against the Muslims of Burhanpur
Burhanpur
and Bahadurpur in Berar by Marathas
Marathas
under his command.[75] In 1675 the Sikh
Sikh
leader Guru Tegh Bahadur
Guru Tegh Bahadur
was arrested on orders by Aurangzeb, found guilty of blasphemy by a Qadi's court and executed.[76] The 32nd Da'i al-Mutlaq (Absolute Missionary) of the Dawoodi Bohra sect of Musta'lī Islam
Islam
Syedna Qutubkhan Qutubuddin was executed by Aurangzeb, then governor of Gujarat, for heresy; on 27 Jumadil Akhir 1056 AH/ 1648 AD), Ahmedabad, India.

In the year 1689, according to Mughal accounts, Sambhaji
Sambhaji
was put on trial, found guilty of atrocities[77] and executed.[78][79]

Guru Tegh Bahadur
Guru Tegh Bahadur
was publicly executed in 1675 on the orders of Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
in Delhi[80]

Sarmad Kashani, a Jewish convert to Islam
Islam
and Sufi
Sufi
mystic was accused of heresy and executed.[81]

Expansion of the Mughal Empire[edit]

Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
seated on a golden throne holding a Hawk
Hawk
in the Durbar. Standing before him is his son, Azam Shah.

Soon after seizing the throne, Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
began advancements against the unruly Sultan
Sultan
of Bijapur and during 1657, the Mughals are known to have used rockets during the Siege of Bidar, against Sidi Marjan.[82] Aurangzeb's forces discharged rockets and grenades while scaling the walls, and Sidi Marjan himself was mortally wounded after a rocket struck his large gunpowder depot. After twenty-seven days of hard fighting, Bidar
Bidar
was captured by the Mughals.[82] In 1663, during his visit to Ladakh, Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
established direct control over that part of the empire and loyal subjects such as Deldan Namgyal agreed to pledge tribute and loyalty. Deldan Namgyal is also known to have constructed a Grand Mosque
Mosque
in Leh, which he dedicated to Mughal rule.[83]

Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
seated on the Peacock Throne.

In 1664, Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
appointed Shaista Khan
Shaista Khan
subedar (governor) of Bengal. Shaista Khan
Shaista Khan
eliminated Portuguese and Arakanese pirates from the region, and in 1666 recaptured the port of Chittagong
Chittagong
from the Arakanese king, Sanda Thudhamma. Chittagong
Chittagong
remained a key port throughout Mughal rule.[84] In 1685, Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
dispatched his son, Muhammad Azam Shah, with a force of nearly 50,000 men to capture Bijapur Fort
Bijapur Fort
and defeat Sikandar Adil Shah (the ruler of Bijapur) who refused to be a vassal. The Mughals could not make any advancements upon Bijapur Fort
Bijapur Fort
mainly because of the superior usage of cannon batteries on both sides. Outraged by the stalemate Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
himself arrived on 4 September 1686 and commanded the Siege of Bijapur; after eight days of fighting, the Mughals were victorious.[citation needed] Only one remaining ruler, Abul Hasan Qutb Shah
Abul Hasan Qutb Shah
(the Qutbshahi ruler of Golconda), refused to surrender. He and his servicemen fortified themselves at Golconda
Golconda
and fiercely protected the Kollur Mine, which was then probably the world's most productive diamond mine, and an important economic asset. In 1687, Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
led his grand Mughal army against the Deccan Qutbshahi fortress during the Siege of Golconda. The Qutbshahis had constructed massive fortifications throughout successive generations on a granite hill over 400 ft high with an enormous eight-mile long wall enclosing the city. The main gates of Golconda
Golconda
had the ability to repulse any war elephant attack. Although the Qutbshahis maintained the impregnability of their walls, at night Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
and his infantry erected complex scaffolding that allowed them to scale the high walls. During the eight-month siege the Mughals faced many hardships including the death of their experienced commander Kilich Khan Bahadur. Eventually, Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
and his forces managed to penetrate the walls by capturing a gate, and their entry into the fort led Abul Hasan Qutb Shah
Abul Hasan Qutb Shah
to surrender peacefully. Military equipment[edit] See also: Army of the Mughal Empire, Mughal weapons, and Mughal artillery

Dagger (Khanjar) of Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
(Badshah Alamgir).

Mughal cannon making skills advanced during the 17th century.[85] One of the most impressive Mughal cannons is known as the Zafarbaksh, which is a very rare composite cannon, that required skills in both wrought-iron forge welding and bronze-casting technologies and the in-depth knowledge of the qualities of both metals.[86] Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
military entourage consisted of 16 cannons including the Azdaha Paikar (which, was capable of firing a 33.5 kg ordnance)[87] and Fateh Rahber (20 feet long with Persian and Arabic inscriptions). The Ibrahim Rauza was also a famed cannon, which was well known for its multi-barrels.[88] François Bernier, the personal physician to Aurangzeb, observed versatile Mughal gun-carriages each drawn by two horses.[89] Despite these innovations, most soldiers used bows and arrows, the quality of sword manufacture was so poor that they preferred to use ones imported from England, and the operation of the cannons was entrusted not to Mughals but to European gunners. Other weapons used during the period included rockets, cauldrons of boiling oil, muskets and manjaniqs (stone-throwing catapults).[90] Infantry who were later called Sepoy
Sepoy
and who specialised in siege and artillery emerged during the reign of Aurangzeb[91]

Daulatabad cannon

Kalak Bangadi cannon.

one of the Daulatabad cannons

Kilkila cannon

Aurangabad cannon

War elephants[edit] In 1703, the Mughal commander at Coromandel, Daud Khan Panni
Daud Khan Panni
spent 10,500 coins to purchase 30 to 50 war elephants from Ceylon.[92] Art and Culture[edit] Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
was known to be of a more austere nature than his predecessors. Being religious he encouraged Islamic calligraphy. His reign also saw the building of the Lahore
Lahore
badshahi Mosque, and Bibi ka Maqbara in Aurangabad for his wife Rabia-ud-Daurani. Calligraphy[edit]

Manuscript Quran, parts of which are believed to have been written in Aurangzeb's own hand.[93]

The Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
is known to have patronised works of Islamic Calligraphy during his reign particularly Syed Ali Tabrizi.[94]

Quatrain on the Virtue of Patience by Muhammad Muhsin Lahuri.

Spousal Advice, by Abdallah Lahuri.

Works of Hafez, by Abdallah Lahuri.

Works of Hafez, by Muhammad Tahir Lahuri.

Architecture[edit] Unlike his father, Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
was not much interested in architecture. Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
constructed a small marble mosque known as the Moti Masjid (Pearl Mosque) in the Red Fort
Red Fort
complex in Delhi. He ordered the construction of the Badshahi Mosque
Mosque
in Lahore.[95] He also constructed a mosque on Benares. The mosque he constructed in Srinagar is still the largest in Kashmir. The structure of Bibi Ka Maqbara
Bibi Ka Maqbara
in Aurangabad, which now is a historical monument was constructed by the sons of Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
in remembrance of their mother. The inspiration came from Taj mahal as is quite visible from its architecture.[96]

17th century Badshahi Masjid
Badshahi Masjid
built by Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
in Lahore.

Great Mosque
Mosque
of Aurungzeb and the adjoining Ghats.

Tomb of Sufi
Sufi
saint, Syed Abdul Rahim Shah Bukhari constructed by Aurangzeb.

Textiles[edit] The textile industry in the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
emerged very firmly during the reign of the Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
and was particularly well noted by Francois Bernier, a French physician of the Mughal Emperor. Francois Bernier writes how Karkanahs, or workshops for the artisans, particularly in textiles flourished by "employing hundreds of embroiderers, who were superintended by a master". He further writes how "Artisans manufacture of silk, fine brocade, and other fine muslins, of which are made turbans, robes of gold flowers, and tunics worn by females, so delicately fine as to wear out in one night, and cost even more if they were well embroidered with fine needlework".[97] He also explains the different techniques employed to produce such complicated textiles such as Himru (whose name is Persian for "brocade"), Paithani (whose pattern is identical on both sides), Mushru (satin weave) and how Kalamkari, in which fabrics are painted or block-printed, was a technique that originally came from Persia. Francois Bernier provided some of the first, impressive descriptions of the designs and the soft, delicate texture of Pashmina Shawls also known as Kani, which were very valued for their warmth and comfort among the Mughals, and how these textiles and shawls eventually began to find their way to France and England.[98]

Shawls manufactured in the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
had highly influenced other cultures around the world.

Shawl
Shawl
makers in the Mughal Empire.

Mughal imperial carpet

Foreign relations[edit]

The Mughal imperial palace at Delhi
Delhi
(1701–1708), made by Johann Melchior Dinglinger.[99]

As soon as he became emperor, Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
sent some of the finest ornate gifts such as carpets, lamps, tiles and others to the Islamic shrines at Mecca
Mecca
and Medina. He also ordered the construction of very large ships in Surat
Surat
that would transport these gifts and even pilgrims to the Hijaz. These annual expeditions organised by Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
were led by Mir Aziz Badakhshi who died in Mecca
Mecca
of natural causes but managed to deliver more than 45,000 silver coins and several thousand Kaftans of honour.[100][page needed] Relations with the Uzbek[edit] Subhan Quli, Balkh's Uzbek ruler was the first to recognise him in 1658 and requested for a general alliance, he worked alongside the new Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
since 1647, when Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
was the Subedar
Subedar
of Balkh. Relations with the Safavid
Safavid
dynasty[edit] Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
received the embassy of Abbas II of Persia
Abbas II of Persia
in 1660 and returned them with gifts. However relations between the Mughal Empire and the Safavid
Safavid
dynasty were tense because the Persians attacked the Mughal army positioned near Kandahar. Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
prepared his armies in the Indus River Basin for a counteroffensive, but Abbas II's death in 1666 caused Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
to end all hostilities. Aurangzeb's rebellious son, Sultan
Sultan
Muhammad Akbar, sought refuge with Suleiman I of Persia, who had rescued him from the Imam
Imam
of Musqat
Musqat
and later refused to assist him in any military adventures against Aurangzeb.[101] Relations with the French[edit] In 1667, the French East India Company
East India Company
ambassadors Le Gouz and Bebert presented Louis XIV of France's letter which urged the protection of French merchants from various rebels in the Deccan. In response to the letter Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
issued a Firman
Firman
allowing the French to open a factory in Surat.

March of the Great Mughal (Aurangzeb)

François Bernier, was a French physician and traveller, who for 12 years was the personal physician of Aurangzeb. He described his experiences in Travels in the Mughal Empire.

Map of the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
by Vincenzo Coronelli (1650–1718) of Venice, who served as Royal Geographer to Louis XIV of France.

French map of the Deccan.

Relations with the Sultanate of Maldives[edit] In the 1660s, the Sultan
Sultan
of the Maldives, Ibrahim Iskandar I, requested help from Aurangzeb's representative, the Faujdar
Faujdar
of Balasore. The sultan was concerned about the impact of Dutch and English trading ships but the powers of Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
did not extend to the seas, the Maldives were not under his governance and nothing came of the request.[102] Relations with the Ottoman Empire[edit] In 1688, the desperate Ottoman Sultan
Sultan
Suleiman II
Suleiman II
urgently requested for assistance against the rapidly advancing Austrians, during the Ottoman–Habsburg War. However, Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
and his forces were heavily engaged in the Deccan Wars against the Marathas
Marathas
to commit any formal assistance to their Ottoman allies.[103] Relations with the English[edit]

A member of the English East India Company
East India Company
requests pardon from Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
during the Child's War.

In 1686, the East India Company, which had unsuccessfully tried to obtain a firman, an imperial directive that would grant England regular trading privileges throughout the Mughal empire, initiated the so-called Child's War. This hostility against the empire ended in disaster for the English, particularly when Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
dispatched a strong fleet from Janjira commanded by the Sidi Yaqub and manned by Mappila
Mappila
loyal to Ali Raja
Raja
Ali II and Abyssinian sailors blockaded Bombay
Bombay
in 1689.[104][page needed] In 1690, the company sent envoys to Aurangzeb's camp to plead for a pardon. The company's envoys had to prostrate themselves before the emperor, pay a large indemnity, and promise better behaviour in the future. In September 1695, English pirate Henry Every
Henry Every
perpetrated one of the most profitable pirate raids in history with his capture of a Grand Mughal convoy near Surat. The Indian ships had been returning home from their annual pilgrimage to Mecca
Mecca
when the pirates struck, capturing the Ganj-i-Sawai, reportedly the greatest ship in the Muslim fleet, and its escorts in the process. When news of the piracy reached the mainland, a livid Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
nearly ordered an armed attack against the English-governed city of Bombay, though he finally agreed to compromise after the East India Company
East India Company
promised to pay financial reparations, estimated at £600,000 by the Mughal authorities.[105] Meanwhile, Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
shut down four of the East India Company's factories, imprisoned the workers and captains (who were nearly lynched by a rioting mob), and threatened to put an end to all English trading in India until Every was captured.[105] The Privy Council and East India Company
East India Company
offered a massive bounty for Every's apprehension, leading to the first worldwide manhunt in recorded history.[106] However, Every successfully eluded capture.[citation needed] In 1702, Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
sent Daud Khan Panni, the Mughal Empire's Subhedar of the Carnatic region, to besiege and blockade Fort St. George
Fort St. George
for more than three months.[107] The governor of the fort Thomas Pitt
Thomas Pitt
was instructed by the East India Company
East India Company
to sue for peace. Administrative reforms[edit] Revenue[edit]

By 1690, Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
was acknowledged as: "emperor of the Mughal Sultanate from Cape Comorin
Cape Comorin
to Kabul".[108]

Aurangzeb's exchequer raised a record[citation needed] £100 million in annual revenue through various sources like taxes, customs and land revenue, et al. from 24 provinces.[109] He had an annual yearly revenue of $450 million, more than ten times that of his contemporary Louis XIV of France.[9] Coins[edit]

Half rupee

Rupee coin showing full name

Rupee with square area

A copper dam of Aurangzeb

Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
felt that verses from the Quran
Quran
should not be stamped on coins, as done in former times, because they were constantly touched by the hands and feet of people. His coins had the name of the mint city and the year of issue on one face, and, the following couplet on other:[110]

King Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
Alamgir Stamped coins, in the world, like the bright full moon.[110]

Rebellions[edit]

Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
spent his reign crushing major and minor rebellions throughout the Mughal Empire.

By 1700, the Marathas
Marathas
attacked the Mughal provinces from the Deccan and secessionist agendas from the Rajputs, Hindu
Hindu
Jats, Pashtuns
Pashtuns
and Sikhs rebelled against the Mughal Empire's administrative and economic systems.[111][page needed]

In 1669, the Hindu
Hindu
Jat peasants of Bharatpur around Mathura rebelled and created Bharatpur state but were defeated. In 1659, Shivaji, launched a surprise attack on the Mughal Viceroy Shaista Khan
Shaista Khan
and, while waging war against Aurangzeb. Shivaji
Shivaji
and his forces attacked the Deccan, Janjira and Surat
Surat
and tried to gain control of vast territories. In 1689 Aurangzeb's armies captured Shivaji's son Sambhaji
Sambhaji
and executed him after he had sacked Burhanpur. But, the Marathas
Marathas
continued the fight and it actually started the terminal decline of his empire.[112] In 1679, the Rathore clan under the command of Durgadas Rathore rebelled when Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
didn't give permission to make the young Rathore prince the king and took direct command of Jodhpur. This incident caused great unrest among the Hindu
Hindu
Rajput
Rajput
rulers under Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
and led to many rebellions in Rajputana.[113] In 1672, the Satnami, a sect concentrated in an area near Delhi, under the leadership of Bhirbhan, took over the administration of Narnaul, but they were eventually crushed upon Aurangzeb's personal intervention with very few escaping alive.[114] In 1671, the Battle of Saraighat
Battle of Saraighat
was fought in the easternmost regions of the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
against the Ahom Kingdom. The Mughals led by Mir Jumla II and Shaista Khan
Shaista Khan
attacked and were defeated by the Ahoms. Maharaja Chhatrasal
Maharaja Chhatrasal
was a medieval Indian warrior from Bundela Rajput clan, who fought against the Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Aurangzeb, and established his own kingdom in Bundelkhand, becoming a Maharaja of Panna.[115]

Jat rebellion[edit]

The tomb of Akbar
Akbar
the Great was pillaged by Jat rebels during the reign of Aurangzeb.

In 1669, Hindu
Hindu
Jats began to organise a rebellion that is believed to have been caused by Aurangzeb's imposition of Jizya
Jizya
(a form of organised religious taxation).[116] The Jats were led by Gokula, a rebel landholder from Tilpat. By the year 1670 20,000 Jat rebels were quelled and the Mughal Army
Mughal Army
took control of Tilpat, Gokula's personal fortune amounted to 93,000 gold coins and hundreds of thousands of silver coins.[117] Gokula was caught and executed. But the Jats continued to terrorise the Mughals. Raja
Raja
Ram Jat, in order to avenge his father Gokula's death, plundered Akbar's tomb of its gold, silver and fine carpets, opened Akbar's grave and dragged Akbar's bones and burned them in retaliation.[118][119][120][121][122][123][124] Jats also shot off the tops of the minarets on the gateway to Akbar's Tomb and melted down two silver doors from the Taj Mahal.[125][126][127][128] However, Jats later established their independent state of Bharatpur. Mughal– Maratha
Maratha
Wars[edit] Main article: Mughal– Maratha
Maratha
Wars See also: Maratha
Maratha
Empire

Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
leads the Mughal Army
Mughal Army
during the Battle of Satara.

In 1657, while Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
attacked Golconda
Golconda
and Bijapur in the Deccan, the Hindu
Hindu
Maratha
Maratha
warrior aristocrat, Shivaji, used guerrilla tactics to take control of three Adil Shahi
Adil Shahi
forts formerly under his father's command. With these victories, Shivaji
Shivaji
assumed de facto leadership of many independent Maratha
Maratha
clans. The Marathas
Marathas
harried the flanks of the warring Adil Shahis and Mughals, gaining weapons, forts, and territory.[129] Shivaji's small and ill-equipped army survived an all out Adil Shahi
Adil Shahi
attack, and Shivaji
Shivaji
personally killed the Adil Shahi general, Afzal Khan.[130] With this event, the Marathas
Marathas
transformed into a powerful military force, capturing more and more Adil Shahi
Adil Shahi
and Mughal territories.[131] Shivaji
Shivaji
went on to neutralise Mughal power in the region.[132] In 1659, Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
sent his trusted general and maternal uncle Shaista Khan, the Wali
Wali
in Golconda
Golconda
to recover forts lost to the Maratha rebels. Shaista Khan
Shaista Khan
drove into Maratha
Maratha
territory and took up residence in Pune. But in a daring raid on the governor's palace in Pune
Pune
during a midnight wedding celebration, led by Shivaji
Shivaji
himself, the Marathas
Marathas
killed Shaista Khan's son and Shivaji
Shivaji
maimed Shaista Khan by cutting off three fingers of his hand. Shaista Khan, however, survived and was re-appointed the administrator of Bengal
Bengal
going on to become a key commander in the war against the Ahoms.

A depiction of Shivaji
Shivaji
in Aurangzeb's court in Agra
Agra
in 1666.

Shivaji
Shivaji
captured forts belonging to both Mughals and Bijapur. At last Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
ordered the armament of the Daulatabad Fort with two bombards (the Daulatabad Fort was later used as a Mughal bastion during the Deccan Wars). Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
also sent his general Raja
Raja
Jai Singh of Amber, a Hindu
Hindu
Rajput, to attack the Marathas. Jai Singh won the fort of Purandar after fierce battle in which the Maratha commander Murarbaji
Murarbaji
fell. Foreseeing defeat, Shivaji
Shivaji
agreed for a truce and a meeting with Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
at Delhi. Jai Singh also promised Shivaji
Shivaji
his safety, placing him under the care of his own son, the future Raja
Raja
Ram Singh I. However, circumstances at the Mughal court were beyond the control of the Raja, and when Shivaji
Shivaji
and his son Sambhaji
Sambhaji
went to Agra
Agra
to meet Aurangzeb, they were placed under house arrest, from which they managed to effect a daring escape.[133] Shivaji
Shivaji
returned to the Deccan, and crowned himself Chhatrapati or the ruler of the Maratha
Maratha
Kingdom in 1674.[134] While Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
continued to send troops against him, Shivaji
Shivaji
expanded Maratha
Maratha
control throughout the Deccan until his death in 1680. Shivaji
Shivaji
was succeeded by his son, Sambhaji. Militarily and politically, Mughal efforts to control the Deccan continued to fail.[135] On the other hand, Aurangzeb's third son Akbar
Akbar
left the Mughal court along with a few Muslim Mansabdar supporters and joined Muslim rebels in the Deccan. Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
in response moved his court to Aurangabad and took over command of the Deccan campaign. The rebels were defeated and Akbar
Akbar
fled south to seek refuge with Sambhaji, Shivaji's successor. More battles ensued, and Akbar
Akbar
fled to Persia
Persia
and never returned.[136] In 1689, Aurangzeb's forces captured and executed Sambhaji. His successor Rajaram, later Rajaram's widow Tarabai
Tarabai
and their Maratha forces fought individual battles against the forces of the Mughal Empire. Territory changed hands repeatedly during the years (1689–1707) of interminable warfare . As there was no central authority among the Marathas, Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
was forced to contest every inch of territory, at great cost in lives and money. Even as Aurangzeb drove west, deep into Maratha
Maratha
territory – notably conquering Satara — the Marathas
Marathas
expanded their attacks further into Mughal lands – Malwa, Hyderabad and Jinji in Tamil Nadu. Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
waged continuous war in the Deccan for more than two decades with no resolution.[137] He thus lost about a fifth of his army fighting rebellions led by the Marathas
Marathas
in Deccan India. He travelled a long distance to the Deccan to conquer the Marathas
Marathas
and eventually died at the age of 88, still fighting the Marathas.[138] Aurangzeb's shift from conventional warfare to anti-insurgency in the Deccan region shifted the paradigm of Mughal military thought. There were conflicts between Marathas
Marathas
and Mughals in Pune, Jinji, Malwa
Malwa
and Vadodara. The Mughal Empire's port city of Surat
Surat
was sacked twice by the Marathas
Marathas
during the reign of Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
and the valuable port was in ruins.[139] Matthew White estimates that about 2.5 million of Aurangzeb's army were killed during the Mughal–Maratha Wars
Mughal–Maratha Wars
(100,000 annually during a quarter-century), while 2 million civilians in war-torn lands died due to drought, plague and famine.[140]

A Mughal trooper in the Deccan.

Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
leads his final expedition (1705), leading an army of 500,000 troops.

Mughal-era aristocrat armed with a matchlock musket.

Ahom campaign[edit]

Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
reading the Quran.

While Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
and his brother Shah Shuja had been fighting against each other, the Hindu
Hindu
rulers of Kuch Behar
Kuch Behar
and Assam
Assam
took advantage of the disturbed conditions in the Mughal Empire, had invaded imperial dominions. For three years they were not attacked, but in 1660 Mir Jumla II, the viceroy of Bengal, was ordered to recover the lost territories.[141] The Mughals set out in November 1661, and within weeks occupied the capital of Kuch Behar
Kuch Behar
after a few fierce skirmishes. The Kuch Behar was annexed, and the Mughal Army
Mughal Army
reorganised and began to retake their territories in Assam. Mir Jumla II's forces captured Pandu, Guwahati, and Kajali practically unopposed. In February 1662, Mir Jumla II initiated the Siege of Simalugarh and after the Mughal cannon breached the fortifications, the Ahoms abandoned the fort and escaped. Mir Jumla II then proceeded towards Garhgaon the capital of the Ahom kingdom, which was reached on 17 March 1662, although the ruler Raja Sutamla
Sutamla
fled and the victorious Mughals captured 100 elephants, about 300,000 coins of silver, 8000 shields, 1000 ships, and 173 massive stores of rice.[141] Later that year in December 1663, the aged Mir Jumla II died on his way back to Dacca
Dacca
of natural causes, but skirmishes continued between the Mughals and Ahoms after the rise of Chakradhwaj Singha, who refused to pay further indemnity to the Mughals and during the wars that continued the Mughals suffered great hardships. Munnawar Khan emerged as a leading figure and is known to have supplied food to vulnerable Mughal forces in the region near Mathurapur. Although the Mughals under the command of Syed Firoz Khan the Faujdar
Faujdar
at Guwahati were overrun by two Ahom armies in 1667, but they continued to hold and maintain presence in their eastern territories even after the Battle of Saraighat
Battle of Saraighat
in 1671.[142] The Battle of Saraighat
Battle of Saraighat
was fought in 1671 between the Mughal empire (led by the Kachwaha king, Raja
Raja
Ramsingh I), and the Ahom Kingdom
Ahom Kingdom
(led by Lachit Borphukan) on the Brahmaputra river at Saraighat, now in Guwahati. Although much weaker, the Ahom Army defeated the Mughal Army by brilliant uses of the terrain, clever diplomatic negotiations to buy time, guerrilla tactics, psychological warfare, military intelligence and by exploiting the sole weakness of the Mughal forces—its navy. The Battle of Saraighat
Battle of Saraighat
was the last battle in the last major attempt by the Mughals to extend their empire into Assam. Though the Mughals managed to regain Guwahati
Guwahati
briefly after a later Borphukan deserted it, the Ahoms wrested control in the Battle of Itakhuli in 1682 and maintained it till the end of their rule.[143] Satnami opposition[edit]

Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
dispatched his personal imperial guard during the campaign against the Satnami rebels.

In May 1672, the Satnami sect obeying the commandments of an "old toothless woman" (according to Mughal accounts) organised a massive[clarification needed] revolt in the agricultural heartlands of the Mughal Empire. The Satnamis were known to have shaved off their heads and even eyebrows and had temples in many regions of Northern India. They began a large-scale rebellion 75 miles southwest of Delhi.[144] The Satnamis believed they were invulnerable to Mughal bullets and believed they could multiply in any region they entered. The Satnamis initiated their march upon Delhi
Delhi
and overran small-scale Mughal infantry units.[114] Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
responded by organising a Mughal army of 10,000 troops and artillery, and dispatched detachments of his own personal Mughal imperial guards to carry out several tasks. To boost Mughal morale, Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
wrote Islamic prayers, made amulets, and drew designs that would become emblems in the Mughal Army. This rebellion would have a serious aftermath effect on the Punjab.[144] Sikh
Sikh
opposition[edit]

Zafarnama is the name given to the letter sent by the tenth Sikh
Sikh
Guru, Guru Gobind Singh
Guru Gobind Singh
in 1705 to Aurangzeb. The letter is written in Persian script.

Early in Aurangzeb's reign, various insurgent groups of Sikhs engaged Mughal troops in increasingly bloody battles. The ninth Sikh
Sikh
Guru, Guru Tegh Bahadur, like his predecessors was opposed to conversion of the local population as he considered it wrong. According to Sikh sources, approached by Kashmiri Pandits to help them retain their faith and avoid forced religious conversions, Guru Tegh Bahadur
Guru Tegh Bahadur
took on Aurangzeb. The emperor perceived the rising popularity of the Guru as a threat to his sovereignty and in 1670 had him executed,[145] which infuriated the Sikhs. In response, Guru Tegh Bahadur's son and successor, Guru Gobind Singh, further militarised his followers, starting with the establishment of Khalsa
Khalsa
in 1699, eight years before Aurangzeb's death.[146][147][148] In 1705, Guru Gobind Singh
Guru Gobind Singh
sent a letter entitled Zafarnamah to Aurangzeb. This drew attention to Aurangzeb's cruelty and how he had betrayed Islam.[149][150] The letter caused him much distress and remorse.[151] Guru Gobind Singh's formation of Khalsa
Khalsa
in 1699 led to the establishment of the Sikh Confederacy and later Sikh
Sikh
Empire. Pashtun opposition[edit]

Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
in a pavilion with three courtiers below.

The Pashtun revolt in 1672 under the leadership of the warrior poet Khushal Khan Khattak of Kabul,[152][153] was triggered when soldiers under the orders of the Mughal Governor Amir Khan allegedly molested women of the Pashtun tribes
Pashtun tribes
in modern-day Kunar Province
Kunar Province
of Afghanistan. The Safi tribes retaliated against the soldiers. This attack provoked a reprisal, which triggered a general revolt of most of tribes. Attempting to reassert his authority, Amir Khan led a large Mughal Army
Mughal Army
to the Khyber Pass, where the army was surrounded by tribesmen and routed, with only four men, including the Governor, managing to escape. After that the revolt spread, with the Mughals suffering a near total collapse of their authority in the Pashtun belt. The closure of the important Attock- Kabul
Kabul
trade route along the Grand Trunk road
Grand Trunk road
was particularly disastrous. By 1674, the situation had deteriorated to a point where Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
camped at Attock
Attock
to personally take charge. Switching to diplomacy and bribery along with force of arms, the Mughals eventually split the rebels and partially suppressed the revolt, although they never managed to wield effective authority outside the main trade route. Death and legacy[edit] See also: Tomb of Aurangzeb

Bibi Ka Maqbara, the mausoleum of Aurangzeb's wife Dilras Banu Begum, was commissioned by him

Aurangzeb's tomb in Khuldabad.

By 1689, almost all of Southern India
Southern India
was a part of the Mughal Empire and after the conquest of Golconda, Mughal victories in the south expanded the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
to 4 million square kilometres,[8] with a population estimated to be over 158 million.[7] But this supremacy was short-lived.[154] Jos Gommans, Professor of Colonial and Global History at the University of Leiden,[155] says that "... the highpoint of imperial centralisation under emperor Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
coincided with the start of the imperial downfall."[156] Unlike his predecessors, Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
considered the royal treasury to be held in trust for the citizens of his empire. He made caps and copied the Quran
Quran
to earn money for his use,.[157][158] Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
constructed a small marble mosque known as the Moti Masjid (Pearl Mosque) in the Red Fort
Red Fort
complex in Delhi.[159] However, his constant warfare, especially with the Marathas, drove his empire to the brink of bankruptcy just as much as the wasteful personal spending and opulence of his predecessors.[160]

Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
reading the Quran

The Indologist Stanley Wolpert, emeritus professor at UCLA,[161] says that:

the conquest of the Deccan, to which Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
devoted the last 26 years of his life, was in many ways a Pyrrhic victory, costing an estimated hundred thousand lives a year during its last decade of futile chess game warfare. The expense in gold and rupees can hardly be accurately estimated. Aurangzeb's encampment was like a moving capital – a city of tents 30 miles in circumference, with some 250 bazaars, with a ​1⁄2 million camp followers, 50,000 camels and 30,000 elephants, all of whom had to be fed, stripped the Deccan of any and all of its surplus grain and wealth ... Not only famine but bubonic plague arose ... Even Aurangzeb, had ceased to understand the purpose of it all by the time he was nearing 90 ... "I came alone and I go as a stranger. I do not know who I am, nor what I have been doing," the dying old man confessed to his son, Azam, in February 1707.[162]

The unmarked grave of Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
in the mausoleum at Khuldabad.

Even when ill and dying, Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
made sure that the populace knew he was still alive, for if they had thought otherwise then the turmoil of another war of succession was likely.[163] He died in Ahmednagar
Ahmednagar
on 20 February 1707 at the age of 89, having outlived many of his children. His modest open-air grave in Khuldabad
Khuldabad
expresses his deep devotion to his Islamic beliefs. It is sited in the courtyard of the shrine of the Sufi
Sufi
saint Shaikh Burhan-u'd-din Gharib, who was a disciple of Nizamuddin Auliya
Nizamuddin Auliya
of Delhi. Many Indian historians consider his death year 1707 as the one which marks the end of Medieval Indian history and the start of Modern Indian history when classifying Indian history. This is because of the start of decline of the Mughal empire and the start of domination of European powers in India. Brown writes that after his death, "a string of weak emperors, wars of succession, and coups by noblemen heralded the irrevocable weakening of Mughal power". She notes that the populist but "fairly old-fashioned" explanation for the decline is that there was a reaction to Aurangzeb's oppression.[164] Aurangzeb's son, Bahadur Shah I, succeeded him and the empire, both because of Aurangzeb's over-extension and because of Bahadur Shah's weak military and leadership qualities, entered a period of terminal decline. Immediately after Bahadur Shah occupied the throne, the Maratha Empire – which Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
had held at bay, inflicting high human and monetary costs even on his own empire – consolidated and launched effective invasions of Mughal territory, seizing power from the weak emperor. Within decades of Aurangzeb's death, the Mughal Emperor had little power beyond the walls of Delhi.[165] Aurangzeb's religious zeal exacted a heavy price both to himself and his nation. Will Durant
Will Durant
states:[166]

His deathbed letters are pitiful documents.

I know not who I am, where I shall go, or what will happen to this sinner full of sins. . . . My years have gone by profitless. God has been in my heart, yet my darkened eyes have not recognized his light. . . . There is no hope for me in the future. The fever is gone, but only the skin is left. ... I have greatly sinned, and know not what torments await me. . . . May the peace of God be upon you.

He left instructions that his funeral should be ascetically simple, and that no money should be spent on his shroud except the four rupees that he had made by sewing caps. The top of his coffin was to be covered with a plain piece of canvas. To the poor he left three hundred rupees earned by copying the Koran. He died at the age of eighty-nine, having long outstayed his welcome on the earth. Within seventeen years of his death his empire was broken into fragments. The support of the people, so wisely won by Akbar, had been forfeited by the cruelty of Jehangir, the wastefulness of Jehan, and the intolerance of Aurangzeb. The Moslem minority, already enervated by India's heat, had lost the military ardor and physical vigor of their prime, and no fresh recruits were coming from the north to buttress their declining power. Meanwhile, far away in the west, a little island had sent its traders to cull the riches of India. Soon it would send its guns, and take over this immense empire in which Hindu
Hindu
and Moslem had joined to build one of the great civilizations of history.

During British rule of India, a road in Delhi
Delhi
was named Aurangzeb road. In November 2014, it was renamed to Dr APJ Abdul Kalam Road. Criticism[edit] His critics argue that his ruthless and vindictive religious bigotry made him unsuitable to rule the mixed population of his empire and policies of persecution of Shias, Sufis and non-Muslims to impose practices of orthodox Islamic state, such as imposition of sharia and jizya religious tax on non-Muslims, doubling of custom duties on Hindus while abolishing it for Muslims, executions of Muslims and non-Muslims, destruction of temples, forbidding construction and repairs of some temples, which they argue led to numerous rebellions.[167][168][169][170][171][172][173] G. N. Moin Shakir and Sarma Festschrift argue that he often used political opposition as pretext for religious persecution,[171] and that, as a result, Jats, Marathas, Sikhs, Satnamis and Pashtuns
Pashtuns
all rose against him.[171][174][111][114] He also fought and eventually lost wars with the Ahom kingdom.[141][142][143] Full title[edit] Aurangzeb's full imperial title was: Al- Sultan
Sultan
al-Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram Hazrat Abul Muzaffar Muhy-ud-Din Muhammad Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
Bahadur Alamgir I, Badshah Ghazi, Shahanshah-e-Sultanat-ul-Hindiya Wal Mughaliya.[175][better source needed] In literature[edit]

Front Cover of Shahenshah – The Life of Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
by Vikrant Pande

Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
has prominently featured in the following books

19?? – Hindi fiction novel by Acharya Chatursen Shastri[176] 1970 – Shahenshah (Marathi: शहेनशहा), the Marathi fictional biography by N S Inamdar 2017 – Shahenshah – The Life of Aurangzeb, the English translation by Vikrant Pande of the 1970 Marathi fictional biography by N S Inamdar

See also[edit]

Jaigarh Fort Mughal weapons List of largest empires Muhammad Azam Gujarat under Aurangzeb

References[edit] Notes

^ See also "Aurangzeb, as he was according to Mughal Records"; more links at the bottom of that page. For Muslim historian's record on major Hindu temple
Hindu temple
destruction campaigns, from 1193 to 1729 AD, see Richard Eaton (2000), Temple Desecration and Indo-Muslim States, Journal of Islamic Studies, Vol. 11, Issue 3, pages 283–319 ^ Regarding the tokenistic aspect of Shah Jahan's actions to strengthen Islam
Islam
in his empire, Satish Chandra
Satish Chandra
says, "We may conclude that Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
tried to effect a compromise. While formally declaring the state to be an Islamic one, showing respect to the sharia, and observing its injunctions in his personal life, he did not reject any of the liberal measures of Akbar. ... Shah Jahan's compromise was based not on principle but on expediency."[51] ^ It has however been argued that the Mughal emperor had political motives for this particular execution. See the article on Sarmad Kashani for references.

Citations

^ a b c Spear, Percival. "Aurangzeb". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 6 April 2016.  ^ a b Sarkar, Sir Jadunath (1912). History of Aurangzib Vol. I (PDF). Calcutta: M.C. Sarkar & Sons. p. 61.  ^ a b c Thackeray, Frank W.; editors, John E. Findling, (2012). Events that formed the modern world : from the European Renaissance through the War on Terror. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO. p. 248. ISBN 9781598849011.  ^ Dictionary of Wars. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis. 2013. p. 387. ISBN 9781135954949.  ^ Chapra, Muhammad Umer (2014). Morality and Justice in Islamic Economics and Finance. Edward Elgar Publishing. pp. 62–63. ISBN 9781783475728.  ^ Bayly, C.A. (1990). Indian society and the making of the British Empire (1st pbk. ed.). Cambridge [England]: Cambridge University Press. p. 7. ISBN 9780521386500.  ^ a b c József Böröcz. The European Union and Global Social Change. Routledge. p. 21. Retrieved 26 June 2017.  ^ a b Rein Taagepera
Rein Taagepera
(September 1997). "Expansion and Contraction Patterns of Large Polities: Context for Russia". International Studies Quarterly. 41 (3): 500. doi:10.1111/0020-8833.00053. JSTOR 2600793.  ^ a b Lawrence E. Harrison, Peter L. Berger
Peter L. Berger
(2006). Developing cultures: case studies. Routledge. p. 158.  ^ http://www.fampeople.com/cat-aurangzeb ^ Connections, A World History, Volume 1: World history, World history by CTI Reviews ^ Maddison, Angus (2003): Development Centre Studies The World Economy Historical Statistics: Historical Statistics, OECD Publishing, ISBN 9264104143, pages 259–261 ^ a b c d Audrey Truschke (2017). Aurangzeb: The Life and Legacy of India's Most Controversial King. Stanford University Press.  ^ Ayalon 1986, p. 271. ^ Abraham Eraly (2000), Emperors of the Peacock Throne: The Saga of the Great Mughals, Penguin Books, ISBN 978-0141001432, pages 398–399. According to Abraham Eraly, "in 1670, all temples around Ujjain
Ujjain
were destroyed" and later "300 temples were destroyed in and around Chitor, Udaipur
Udaipur
and Jaipur" among other Hindu
Hindu
temples destroyed elsewhere in campaigns through 1705.

Avari writes, "Aurangzeb's religious policy caused friction between him and the ninth Sikh
Sikh
guru, Tegh Bahadur. In both Punjab
Punjab
and Kashmir the Sikh
Sikh
leader was roused to action by Aurangzeb's excessively zealous Islamic policies. Seized and taken to Delhi, he was called upon by Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
to embrace Islam
Islam
and, on refusal, was tortured for five days and then beheaded in November 1675. Two of the ten Sikh gurus thus died as martyrs at the hands of the Mughals. (Avari (2013), page 155) ^ Avari 2013, p. 115: citing a 2000 study, writes " Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
was perhaps no more culpable than most of the sultans before him; they desecrated the temples associated with Hindu
Hindu
power, not all temples. It is worth noting that, in contrast to the traditional claim of hundreds of Hindu
Hindu
temples having been destroyed by Aurangzeb, a recent study suggests a modest figure of just fifteen destructions." ^ a b Ian Copland; Ian Mabbett; Asim Roy; Kate Brittlebank; Adam Bowles (2013). A History of State and Religion in India. Routledge. p. 119. ISBN 978-1-136-45950-4.  ^ a b B. N. Pande (1996). Aurangzeb
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Bibliography

Avari, Burjor, Islamic Civilization in South Asia: A History of Muslim Power and Presence in the Indian Subcontinent, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-41558-061-8  Durant, Will, The Story of Civilization: Our Oriental Heritage, Simon & Schuster, ISBN 978-1567310238 

Further reading[edit]

Eraly, Abraham (2007). The Mughal world. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 9780297852094.  Hansen, Waldemar (1986) [1972 (Holt, Rinehart, Winston)]. The Peacock Throne: The Drama of Mogul India (Second ed.). Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 9788120802254.  Muḥammad Bakhtāvar Khān. Mir'at al-'Alam: History of Emperor Awangzeb Alamgir. Trans. Sajida Alvi. Lahore: Idārah-ʾi Taḥqīqāt-i Pākistan, 1979. Khan, Khafi (2006) [1718]. Hashim, Muhammad, ed. Muntakhab-ul Lubab. Pakistan: Sang-e-Meel Publications.  Kruijtzer, Gijs (2009). Xenophobia in Seventeenth-century India (PDF). Leiden University Press. ISBN 9789087280680.  Sarkar, Jadunath (1972). History of Aurangzib. Bombay: Orient Longman. Delhi, Khushwant Singh, Penguin USA, Open Market Ed edition, 5 February 2000. (ISBN 0-14-012619-8) Truschke, Audrey (2017). Aurangzeb: The Man and The Myth. Penguin India.  Also published as Truschke, Audrey (2017). Aurangzeb: The Life and Legacy of India's Most Controversial King. Stanford University Press.  A Short History of Pakistan, Dr. Ishtiaque Hussain Qureshi, University of Karachi Press.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
has media related to: Alamgir I (category)

Aurangzeb, as he was according to Mughal Records Article on Aurganzeb from MANAS group page, UCLA [3] by Audrey Truschke, published on AEON The Tragedy of Aureng-zebe Text of John Dryden's drama, based loosely on Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
and the Mughal court, 1675 Coins of Aurangzeb

Aurangzeb Timurid Dynasty Born: 4 November 1618 Died: 3 March 1707

Regnal titles

Preceded by Shah Jahan Mughal Emperor 1658–1707 Succeeded by Bahadur Shah I

v t e

Mughal Empire

Emperors

Babur Humayun Akbar Jahangir Shah Jahan Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
(Alamgir) Muhammad Azam Shah Bahadur Shah I Jahandar Shah Farrukhsiyar Rafi ud-Darajat Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
II Muhammad Shah Ahmad Shah Bahadur Alamgir II Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
III Shah Alam II Akbar
Akbar
II Bahadur Shah II

Battles and conflicts

Battle of Panipat (1526) Gujarat conquest Battle of Khanwa Battle of Ghaghra Siege of Sambhal Battle of Panipat (1556) Battle of Thanesar Siege of Chittorgarh Siege of Ranthambore Battle of Tukaroi Battle of Raj Mahal Battle of Haldighati Battle of Bhuchar Mori Siege of Kandahar Mughal– Safavid
Safavid
War (1622–23) Siege of Orchha Mughal– Safavid
Safavid
War (1649–53) Battle of Samugarh Battle of Khajwa Suppression of Tilpat
Tilpat
rebellion Ahom–Mughal conflicts Siege of Purandhar Tibet–Ladakh–Mughal War Mughal– Maratha
Maratha
Wars

Siege of Bijapur Siege of Jinji

Child's War Siege of Golconda Battle of Karnal Third Battle of Panipat Battle of Buxar Siege of Delhi

Architecture

Taj Mahal Gardens of Babur Fatehpur Sikri

Tomb of Salim Chishti

Humayun's Tomb Red Fort Lahore
Lahore
Fort Jahangir
Jahangir
Mahal Lalbagh Fort Akbar's Tomb Agra
Agra
Fort Chawk Mosque Shalimar Gardens Achabal Gardens Jahangir's Tomb Bibi Ka Maqbara Badshahi Mosque Shahi Bridge Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
Mosque, Thatta Sheesh Mahal Sunehri Masjid Tipu Sultan
Sultan
Mosque Wazir Khan Mosque more

Adversaries

Ibrahim Lodi Rana Sanga Sher Shah Suri Hemu Maharana Pratap Malik Ambar Gokula Pratapaditya Shivaji Lachit Borphukan Khushal Khattak Sir Josiah Child Guru Gobind Singh Henry Every Bajirao I Nader Shah Hector Munro

Provinces

Bengal
Bengal
Subah Gujarat Subah

See also

Art Cuisine Culture Flag Gardens Language Military Painting Persians Tribe Weapons Timurid dynasty

family tree

Successor states

Maratha
Maratha
Empire Rajput
Rajput
states Jats Sikh
Sikh
Empire Nawabs of Bengal Awadh Nizam of Hyderabad Carnatic Kingdom of Mysore Rohilkhand

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 6178410 LCCN: n50038449 ISNI: 0000 0001 0951 0021 GND: 118651161 SELIBR: 340836 SUDOC: 027667529 BNF: cb11966088s (data) ULAN: 500356

.