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Atlanticism
Atlanticism
is a term used to refer to a belief in or support for a close relationship between the United States, Canada
Canada
and Europe regarding political, economic and defence issues, with the belief that it would maintain security and prosperity of the participating countries and protect perceived values that unite them. The term derives from the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
that separates the two continents. The term can be used in a more limited way to imply support for North Atlantic military alliances,[1] or in a more expansive way implying broader cooperation, perceived deeply shared values, a sense of community and some degree of integration between North America
North America
and Europe. In practice, the philosophy of Atlanticism
Atlanticism
encourages active North American, particularly US, engagement in Europe
Europe
and close cooperation between the two sides of the ocean. Atlanticism
Atlanticism
manifested itself most strongly during the Second World War and in its aftermath through the establishment of various euro-Atlantic institutions, most importantly NATO
NATO
and the Marshall Plan. Atlanticism
Atlanticism
varies in strength from region to region and country to country based on a variety of historical and cultural factors. Atlanticism
Atlanticism
is often considered to be particularly strong in eastern and central Europe, and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(linked to the Special Relationship). Politically, it has tended to be associated most heavily and enthusiastically, but certainly not exclusively, with classical liberals, or the political right in Europe. Atlanticism often implies an affinity for American political or social culture as well as the historical bonds between the two continents. There is some tension between Atlanticism
Atlanticism
and continentalism on both sides of the Atlantic, with some people emphasising increased regional cooperation or integration over trans-Atlantic cooperation.[2] However, the relationship between Atlanticism
Atlanticism
and North American or European integration
European integration
is complex and they are not seen in direct opposition to one another by many commentators.[3] Internationalism is the foreign policy belief combining both Atlanticism
Atlanticism
and continentalism.[3] The relative decrease of European power in the world, the fall of the Soviet Union, as well as the spread of Atlanticist norms outside of the North Atlantic region, have decreased the strength of Atlanticist thought since the end of the Cold War. Other international relationships have been increasingly emphasised, although the trans-Atlantic relationship is still arguably the most important in the world.

Contents

1 History 2 Ideology 3 Institutions 4 Prominent Atlanticists 5 See also 6 References

History[edit] Main article: Transatlantic relations

Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
speaking in Berlin, 1987 ("Tear down this wall!") with Helmut Kohl, Chancellor of Germany. Reagan was a committed Atlanticist

Prior to the World Wars, western European countries were generally preoccupied with creating colonial empires in Africa and Asia and not relations with North America. Likewise, the United States
United States
was busy with interventions in Latin America, but had little interest in European affairs, and Canada
Canada
had yet to exercise full foreign policy independence as a part of the British Empire. The experience of having American and Canadian troops fighting with British, French, and other Europeans in Europe
Europe
during the wars fundamentally changed this situation. Though the US (and to some extent Canada) adopted a more isolationist position between the wars, by the time of the Normandy landings
Normandy landings
the Allies were well integrated on all policies. The Atlantic Charter
Atlantic Charter
of 1941 declared by US President Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Churchill established the goals of the Allies for the post-war world, and was later adopted by all the Western allies. Following the Second World War, the Western European countries were anxious to convince the US to remain engaged in European affairs to deter any possible aggression by the Soviet Union. This led to the 1949 North Atlantic Treaty
North Atlantic Treaty
which established the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the main institutional consequence of Atlanticism, which binds all members to defend the others, and led to the long-term garrisoning of American and Canadian troops in Western Europe.

U.S. President Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
(right) and British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher
Margaret Thatcher
in 1986

U.S. President Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
(left) greets British Prime Minister Tony Blair in 1999

After the end of the cold war, the relationship between the United States and Europe
Europe
changed fundamentally, and made both sides less interested in the other. Without the threat of the Soviet Union dominating Europe, the continent became much less of a military priority for the US, and likewise, Europe
Europe
no longer felt as much need for military protection from the US. As a result, the relationship became much less important strategically speaking.[4] Atlanticism
Atlanticism
has undergone significant changes in the 21st century in light of terrorism and the Iraq war, the net effect being a renewed questioning of the idea itself and a new insight that the security of the respective countries may require alliance action outside the North Atlantic territory. After the September 11, 2001, attacks, NATO
NATO
for the first time invoked Article 5,[5] which states that any attack on a member state will be considered an attack against the entire group of members. Planes of NATO's multi-national AWACS unit patrolled the U.S. skies[6] and European countries deployed personnel and equipment.[7] However, the Iraq war
Iraq war
caused fissures within NATO
NATO
and the sharp difference of opinion between the US-led backers of the invasion and opponents strained the alliance. Some commentators, such as Robert Kagan questioned whether Europe
Europe
and the United States
United States
had diverged to such a degree that their alliance was no longer relevant.[8] Ideology[edit] Atlanticism
Atlanticism
is a belief in the necessity of cooperation between North America and Europe. The term can imply a belief that the bilateral relationship between Europe
Europe
and the United States
United States
is important above all others, including intra-European cooperation, especially when it comes to security issues.[9] The term can also be used "as a shorthand for the transatlantic security architecture."[9] Supranational
Supranational
integration of the North Atlantic area had emerged as a focus of thinking among intellectuals on both sides of the Atlantic already in the late 19th century.[10] Although it was not known as Atlanticism
Atlanticism
at the time (the term was coined in 1950), they developed an approach coupling soft and hard power which would to some extent integrate the two sides of the Atlantic. The idea of an attractive "nucleus" union was the greatest soft power element; the empirical fact of the hegemonic global strength such a union would hold was the hard power element. This approach was eventually implemented to a certain degree in the form of NATO, the G7 grouping and other Atlanticist institutions. In the long debate between Atlanticism
Atlanticism
and its critics in the 20th century, the main argument was whether deep and formal Atlantic integration would serve to attract those still outside to seek to join, as Atlanticists argued, or alienate the rest of the world and drive them into opposite alliances.[10] Realists, neutralists, and pacifists, nationalists and globalists tended to believe it would do the latter, citing the Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
as the proof of their views and treating it as the inevitable realpolitik counterpart of NATO.[10] Atlanticism
Atlanticism
is, broadly speaking, particularly strong in Britain[9] (linked to the Special
Special
Relationship), and eastern and central Europe (i.e. the area between Germany
Germany
and Russia).[11] There are numerous reasons for its strength in Eastern Europe, primarily the role of the United States
United States
bringing political freedom there after the First World War, the role of the US in defeating Nazism, its leading role during the Cold War, its relative enthusiasm for bringing the countries of the region into Atlanticist institutions such as NATO, and a suspicion of the intentions of the major Western European powers.[11] Countries such as Denmark, Poland, Romania, and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
are among those who generally hold strong Atlanticist views, while Germany
Germany
tends to promote continentalist views and a strong European Union.[2][3][12] In the early 21st century Atlanticism
Atlanticism
has tended to be slightly stronger on the political right in Europe
Europe
(although many variations do exist from country to country), but the political center-left in the United States. The partisan division should not be overstated, but it exists and has grown since the end of the Cold War.[13] While trans-Atlantic trade and political ties have remained mostly strong throughout the Cold War
Cold War
and beyond, the larger trend has been continentalist economic integration with the European Union
European Union
(and its regional partners) and the North American Free Trade Agreement
North American Free Trade Agreement
notably dividing the Atlantic region into two rival trade blocs. However, many political actors and commentators do not see the two processes as being necessarily opposed to one another,[14] in fact some commentators believe regional integration can reinforce Atlanticism.[1] Article 2 of the North Atlantic Treaty, added by Canada, also attempted to bind the nations together on economic and political fronts. Institutions[edit] The North Atlantic Council
North Atlantic Council
is the premier, governmental forum for discussion and decision-making in an Atlanticist context. Other organizations that can be considered Atlanticist in origin:[10]

NATO Organization for Economic
Economic
Cooperation and Development (OECD) G-6/7/8 North Atlantic Cooperation Council
North Atlantic Cooperation Council
(NACC) Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council
Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council
(EAPC)

Prominent Atlanticists[edit] Well-known Atlanticists include former U.S. Presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt and Ronald Reagan; U.K. Prime Ministers Winston Churchill, Margaret Thatcher, Tony Blair, and Gordon Brown,[15] François Mitterrand,[16] Dean Acheson, Zbigniew Brzezinski,[17] and Javier Solana.[18] See also[edit]

Transatlantic relations United States– European Union
European Union
relations Special
Special
Relationship Western World North Atlantic Treaty
North Atlantic Treaty
Organization (NATO) Mid-Atlantic English Transatlantic Free Trade Area
Transatlantic Free Trade Area
(TAFTA) Eurasianism German Marshall Fund, an atlanticist think tank. Atlantic Council, an atlanticist think tank Streit Council, an atlanticist think tank Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe Bilderberg Group British-American Project Pacificism

References[edit]

^ a b Croci, Osvaldo (December 2008). "Not a Zero-Sum Game: Atlanticism
Atlanticism
and Europeanism in Italian Foreign Policy". The International Spectator: Italian Journal of International Affairs. 43 (4): 137–155. doi:10.1080/03932720802486498. Retrieved 17 July 2013.  ^ a b Mouritzen, Hans (16 May 2007). "Denmark's Super Atlanticism". Nordic International Studies Association. Retrieved 24 June 2015. [permanent dead link] ^ a b c Kořan, Michal, ed. (2010). Czech Foreign Policy in 2007-2009: Analysis. p. 373. ISBN 978-8086506906. Retrieved 24 June 2015.  ^ Daalder, Ivo (2003). "The End of Atlanticism" (PDF). Survival. 45 (2): 147–166. doi:10.1080/00396330312331343536. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 October 2013. Retrieved 9 July 2013.  ^ North Atlantic Council. "Statement by the North Atlantic Council," 2001-10-12. Retrieved on 2007-10-13 ^ Schmitt, Eric. " NATO
NATO
Planes to End Patrol of U.S. Skies," New York Times, 2002-05-02. Retrieved on 2007-10-13. ^ NATO, "Statement to the Press, by NATO
NATO
Secretary General, Lord Robertson," 2001-10-04. Retrieved on 2007-10-13 ^ Kagan, Robert (2003). Of Paradise and Power: America and Europe
Europe
in the New World Order. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.  ^ a b c Dunne, Tim (2004). "'When the shooting starts': Atlanticism
Atlanticism
in British security strategy". International Affairs. 80 (5): 895. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2346.2004.00424.x. Retrieved 10 July 2013.  ^ a b c d Straus, Ira (June 2005). " Atlanticism
Atlanticism
as the core 20th century U.S. strategy for internationalism" (PDF). Streit Council. Annual Meeting of the Society of Historians of American Foreign Relations. Retrieved 10 July 2013.  ^ a b Asmus, Ronald; Alexandr Vondra (July 2005). "The Origins of Atlanticism
Atlanticism
in Central and Eastern Europe". Cambridge Review of International Affairs. 18 (2): 203–216. doi:10.1080/09557570500164439. Retrieved 9 July 2013.  ^ "The new kids on the block," The Economist, 2007-01-04. Retrieved 2007-10-14. Quote: "Romania, under its president, Traian Basescu, is a bastion of Atlanticism
Atlanticism
in the Black Sea
Black Sea
region." ^ Asmus, Ronald; Phillip Everts; Pierangelo Isernia (2004). "Across the Atlantic and Political
Political
Aisle: The Double Divide in U.S. - European Relations" (PDF). German Marshall Fund. Retrieved 17 July 2013.  ^ "The Atlanticist delusion". The Economist. 18 May 2013. Retrieved 9 July 2013.  ^ Settle, Michael (30 July 2007). "'Atlanticist' Brown vows to strengthen special bond with US". Herald Scotland. Retrieved 10 July 2013.  ^ Jolyon Howorth (2002). "Renegotiating the Marriage Contract: Franco-American Relations since 1981". In Sabrina Petra Ramet, Christine Ingebritsen. Coming in from the Cold War: Changes in U.S.-European Interactions Since 1980. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 74. Retrieved 10 July 2013.  ^ "Zbigniew Brzezinski". Atlantic Council. Archived from the original on 13 May 2013. Retrieved 10 July 2013.  ^ Gros-Verheyde, Nicolas (19 March 2009). "A diplomat, Socialist, Atlanticist and European". Europolitics. Retrieved 10 July 2013. [permanen

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