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Athanasius of Alexandria
Alexandria
(/ˌæθəˈneɪʃəs/; Greek: Ἀθανάσιος Ἀλεξανδρείας, Athanásios Alexandrías; c. 296–298 – 2 May 373), also called Athanasius the Great, Athanasius the Confessor or, primarily in the Coptic Orthodox Church, Athanasius the Apostolic, was the 20th bishop of Alexandria (as Athanasius I). His on-again-off-again episcopate spanned 45 years (c. 8 June 328 – 2 May 373), of which over 17 encompassed five exiles, when his episcopate is replaced on the order of four different Roman emperors. Athanasius was a Christian theologian, a Church Father, the chief defender of Trinitarianism
Trinitarianism
against Arianism, and a noted Egyptian leader of the fourth century. Conflict with Arius
Arius
and Arianism
Arianism
as well as successive Roman emperors shaped Athanasius' career. In 325, at the age of 27, Athanasius began his leading role against the Arians as a deacon and assistant to Bishop
Bishop
Alexander of Alexandria
Alexandria
during the First Council of Nicaea. Roman emperor Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
had convened the council in May–August 325 to address the Arian position that the Son of God, Jesus of Nazareth, is of a distinct substance from the Father.[2] Three years after that council, Athanasius succeeded his mentor as archbishop of Alexandria. In addition to the conflict with the Arians (including powerful and influential Arian churchmen led by Eusebius
Eusebius
of Nicomedia), he struggled against the Emperors Constantine, Constantius II, Julian the Apostate and Valens. He was known as Athanasius Contra Mundum (Latin for Athanasius Against the World). Nonetheless, within a few years after his death, Gregory of Nazianzus called him the "Pillar of the Church". His writings were well regarded by all following Church fathers in the West and the East, who noted their rich devotion to the Word-become-man, great pastoral concern and profound interest in monasticism. Athanasius is counted as one of the four great Eastern Doctors of the Church
Doctors of the Church
in the Roman Catholic Church.[3] In the Eastern Orthodox Church, he is labeled as the "Father of Orthodoxy". Some Protestants label him as "Father of the Canon". Athanasius is venerated as a Christian saint, whose feast day is 2 May in Western Christianity, 15 May in the Coptic Orthodox Church, and 18 January in the other Eastern Orthodox Churches. He is venerated by the Oriental and Eastern Orthodox Churches, the Roman Catholic Church, the Lutherans, and the Anglican Communion.

Contents

1 Biography

1.1 Education 1.2 Opposition to Arianism 1.3 Patriarch

1.3.1 First exile 1.3.2 Second exile 1.3.3 Third exile 1.3.4 Fourth exile 1.3.5 Fifth exile 1.3.6 Final years and death

2 Works

2.1 Polemical and theological works 2.2 Biographical and ascetic 2.3 Misattributed works

3 Veneration 4 Character 5 Historical significance and controversies

5.1 New Testament
New Testament
canon 5.2 Episcopal consecration 5.3 Supporters 5.4 Critics

6 Selected works 7 See also 8 References 9 Sources 10 Further reading 11 External links

Biography[edit]

A statue of Athanasius in Catania, Sicily.

Athanasius was born to a Christian family in the city of Alexandria[4] or possibly the nearby Nile Delta town of Damanhur sometime between the years 293 and 298. The earlier date is sometimes assigned due to the maturity revealed in his two earliest treatises Contra Gentes (Against the Heathens) and De Incarnatione (On the Incarnation), which were admittedly written about the year 318 before Arianism
Arianism
had begun to make itself felt, as those writings do not show an awareness of Arianism.[1] However Cornelius Clifford places his birth no earlier than 296 and no later than 298, based on the fact that Athanasius indicates no first hand recollection of the Maximian persecution of 303, which he suggests Athanasius would have remembered if he had been ten years old at the time. Secondly, the Festal Epistles state that the Arians had accused Athanasius, among other charges, of not having yet attained the canonical age (30) and thus could not have been properly ordained as Patriarch
Patriarch
of Alexandria
Alexandria
in 328. The accusation must have seemed plausible.[1] The Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
places his year of birth around 297.[4] Education[edit] His parents were wealthy enough to afford giving him a fine secular education.[1] He was, nevertheless, clearly not a member of the Egyptian aristocracy.[5] Some Western scholars consider his command of Greek, in which he wrote most (if not all) of his surviving works, evidence that he may have been a Greek born in Alexandria. Historical evidence, however, indicates that he was fluent in Coptic as well given the regions of Egypt
Egypt
where he preached.[5] Some surviving copies of his writings are in fact in Coptic, though scholars differ as to whether he himself wrote them in Coptic originally (which would make him the first patriarch to do so), or whether these were translations of writings originally in Greek.[6][5] Rufinus relates a story that as Bishop
Bishop
Alexander stood by a window, he watched boys playing on the seashore below, imitating the ritual of Christian baptism. He sent for the children and discovered that one of the boys (Athanasius) had acted as bishop. After questioning Athanasius, Bishop
Bishop
Alexander informed him that the baptisms were genuine, as both the form and matter of the sacrament had been performed through the recitation of the correct words and the administration of water, and that he must not continue to do this as those baptized had not been properly catechized. He invited Athanasius and his playfellows to prepare for clerical careers.[7] Alexandria
Alexandria
was the most important trade center in the whole empire during Athanasius's boyhood. Intellectually, morally, and politically—it epitomized the ethnically diverse Graeco-Roman world, even more than Rome or Constantinople, Antioch or Marseilles.[7] Its famous catechetical school, while sacrificing none of its famous passion for orthodoxy since the days of Pantaenus, Clement of Alexandria, Origen
Origen
of Alexandria, Dionysius and Theognostus, had begun to take on an almost secular character in the comprehensiveness of its interests, and had counted influential pagans among its serious auditors.[8] Athanasius recounts being a student, as well as being educated by the Martyrs of the Great (tenth) and last persecution of Christianity
Christianity
by pagan Rome.[citation needed] This persecution was most severe in the East, particularly in Egypt
Egypt
and Palestine. Peter of Alexandria, the 17th archbishop of Alexandria, was martyred in 311 in the closing days of that persecution, and may have been one of those teachers. His successor as bishop of Alexandria, Alexander of Alexandria
Alexandria
(312–328) was an Origenist as well as a documented mentor of Athanasius.[citation needed]. According to Sozomen; "the Bishop Alexander 'invited Athanasius to be his commensal and secretary. He had been well educated, and was versed in grammar and rhetoric, and had already, while still a young man, and before reaching the episcopate, given proof to those who dwelt with him of his wisdom and acumen' ".(Soz., II, xvii) [1] Athanasius' earliest work, Against the Heathen – On the Incarnation (written before 319), bears traces of Origenist Alexandrian thought (such as repeatedly quoting Plato
Plato
and using a definition from Aristotle's Organon) but in an orthodox way. Athanasius was also familiar with the theories of various philosophical schools, and in particular with the developments of Neo-Platonism. Ultimately, Athanasius would modify the philosophical thought of the School of Alexandria
Alexandria
away from the Origenist principles such as the "entirely allegorical interpretation of the text". Still, in later works, Athanasius quotes Homer
Homer
more than once (Hist. Ar. 68, Orat. iv. 29). In his letter to Emperor Constantius, he presents a defense of himself bearing unmistakable traces of a study of Demosthenes
Demosthenes
de Corona.[citation needed]

St. Athanasius (1883–84), by Carl Rohl-Smith, Frederik's Church, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Athanasius knew Greek and admitted not knowing Hebrew
Hebrew
[see, e.g., the 39th Festal Letter of St. Athan.]. The Old Testament
Old Testament
passages he quotes frequently come from the Septuagint
Septuagint
Greek translation. Only rarely did he use other Greek versions (to Aquila once in the Ecthesis, to other versions once or twice on the Psalms), and his knowledge of the Old Testament
Old Testament
was limited to the Septuagint.[9] Nonetheless, during his later exile, with no access to a copy of the Scriptures, Athanasius could quote from memory every verse in the Old Testament with a supposed reference to the Trinity
Trinity
without missing any.[citation needed] The combination of Scriptural study and of Greek learning was characteristic of the famous Alexandrian School. Bishop
Bishop
(or Patriarch, the highest ecclesial rank in the Centre of the Church, in Alexandria) Alexander ordained Athanasius a deacon in 319.[10] In 325, Athanasius served as Alexander's secretary at the First Council of Nicaea. Already a recognized theologian and ascetic, he was the obvious choice to replace his aging mentor Alexander as the Patriarch
Patriarch
of Alexandria,[11] despite the opposition of the followers of Arius
Arius
and Meletius of Lycopolis.[10] At length, in the Council of Nicaea, the term "consubstantial" (homoṏusion) was suggested by Athanasius: it was immediately adopted, and a formulary of faith embodying it was drawn up by Hosius of Córdoba. From this time to the end of the Arian controversies the word "consubstantial" continued to be the test of Catholic orthodoxy. The formulary of faith drawn up by Hosius is known as the Nicene Creed.[12]. However, "he was not the originator of the famous 'homoṏusion'. The term had been proposed in a non-obvious and illegitimate sense by Paul of Samosata to the Fathers at Antioch, and had been rejected by them as savouring of materialistic conceptions of the Godhead."[1] While still a deacon under Alexander's care (or early in his patriarchate as discussed below) Athanasius may have also become acquainted with some of the solitaries of the Egyptian desert, and in particular Anthony the Great, whose life he is said to have written.[7] Opposition to Arianism[edit] Further information: Arian controversy In about 319, when Athanasius was a deacon, a presbyter named Arius came into a direct conflict with Alexander of Alexandria. It appears that Arius
Arius
reproached Alexander for what he felt were misguided or heretical teachings being taught by the bishop.[13] Arius' theological views appear to have been firmly rooted in Alexandrian Christianity.[14] He embraced a subordinationist Christology
Christology
which taught that Christ was the divine Son (Logos) of God, made, not begotten, heavily influenced by Alexandrian thinkers like Origen,[15] and which was a common Christological view in Alexandria
Alexandria
at the time.[16] Arius
Arius
had support from a powerful bishop named Eusebius
Eusebius
of Nicomedia (not to be confused with Eusebius
Eusebius
of Caesarea),[17] illustrating how Arius's subordinationist Christology
Christology
was shared by other Christians in the Empire. Arius
Arius
was subsequently excommunicated by Alexander, and he would begin to elicit the support of many bishops who agreed with his position. Patriarch[edit] Frances A. M. Forbes writes that when the Patriarch
Patriarch
Alexander was on his death-bed he called Athanasius, who fled fearing he would be constrained to be made Bishop. "When the Bishops of the Church assembled to elect their new Patriarch, the whole Catholic population surrounded the church, holding up their hands to Heaven and crying; "Give us Athanasius!" The Bishops had nothing better. Athanasius was thus elected, as Gregory tells us..." ( Pope
Pope
Gregory I, would have full access to the Vatican Archives).[18] T. Gilmartin, (Professor of History, Maynooth, 1890), writes in Church History, Vol. 1, Ch XVII: "On the death of Alexander, five months after the termination of the Council of Nicaea, Athanasius was unanimously elected to fill the vacant see. He was most unwilling to accept the dignity, for he clearly foresaw the difficulties in which it would involve him. The clergy and people were determined to have him as their bishop, Patriarch
Patriarch
of Alexandria, and refused to accept any excuses. He at length consented to accept a responsibility that he sought in vain to escape, and was consecrated in 326, when he was about thirty years of age."[12] Athanasius' episcopate began on 9 May 328 as the Alexandrian Council elected Athanasius to succeed the aged Alexander. That council also denounced various heresies and schisms, many of which continued to preoccupy his 45-year-long episcopate (c. 8 June 328 – 2 May 373). Patriarch
Patriarch
Athanasius spent over 17 years in five exiles ordered by four different Roman Emperors, not counting approximately six more incidents in which Athanasius fled Alexandria
Alexandria
to escape people seeking to take his life. This gave rise to the expression "Athanasius contra mundum" or "Athanasius against the world".[11] During his first years as bishop, Athanasius visited the churches of his territory, which at that time included all of Egypt
Egypt
and Libya. He established contacts with the hermits and monks of the desert, including Pachomius, which proved very valuable to him over the years. Shortly thereafter, Athanasius became occupied with the theological disputes against Arians within the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
that would occupy much of his life.[11] First exile[edit] Athanasius' first problem lay with Meletius of Lycopolis and his followers, who had failed to abide by the First Council of Nicaea. That council also anathematized Arius. Accused of mistreating Arians and Meletians, Athanasius answered those charges at a gathering of bishops in Tyre, the First Synod
Synod
of Tyre, in 335. There, Eusebius
Eusebius
of Nicomedia and other supporters of Arius
Arius
deposed Athanasius.[10] On 6 November, both sides of the dispute met with Emperor Constantine I
Constantine I
in Constantinople.[19] At that meeting, the Arians claimed Athanasius would try to cut off essential Egyptian grain supplies to Constantinople. He was found guilty, and sent into exile to Augusta Treverorum in Gaul (now Trier
Trier
in Germany).[10][11][20] When Athanasius reached his destination in exile in 336, Maximinus of Trier
Trier
received him, but not as a disgraced person. Athanasius stayed with him for two years. Paul I of Constantinople, who was banished by the Emperor Constantius, also stayed with him. Maximinus cautioned the Emperor Constans
Constans
against the Arians, revealing their plots.[21] Second exile[edit]

Fresco at Hosios Loukas, Greece (11th century)

Statue of the saint in St Athanasius's Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
in Evanston, Illinois

When Emperor Constantine I
Constantine I
died, Athanasius was allowed to return to his See of Alexandria. Shortly thereafter, however, Constantine's son, the new Roman Emperor Constantius II, renewed the order for Athanasius's banishment in 338. Athanasius went to Rome, where he was under the protection of Constans, the Emperor of the West. During this time, Gregory of Cappadocia was installed as the Patriarch
Patriarch
of Alexandria, usurping the absent Athanasius. Athanasius did, however, remain in contact with his people through his annual Festal Letters, in which he also announced on which date Easter
Easter
would be celebrated that year.[11] In 339 or 340, nearly one hundred bishops met at Alexandria, declared in favor of Athanasius,[22] and vigorously rejected the criticisms of the Eusebian faction at Tyre. Plus, Pope Julius I wrote to the supporters of Arius
Arius
strongly urging Athanasius's reinstatement, but that effort proved in vain. Pope Julius I called a synod in Rome in 340 to address the matter, which proclaimed Athanasius the rightful bishop of Alexandria.[23] Early in the year 343 we find Athanasius had travelled, via Rome, from Alexandria, North Africa, to Gaul; nowadays Belgium / Holland and surrounding areas, where Hosius of Córdoba
Hosius of Córdoba
was Bishop, the great champion of orthodoxy in the West. Together they set out for Sardica, Sofia. A full Council of the Church was convened / summoned there in deference to the Roman pontiff's wishes. The travel was a mammoth task in itself. At this great gathering of prelates, leaders of the Church, the case of Athanasius was taken up once more, that is, Athanasius was formally questioned over misdemeanours and even murder, (a man called Arsenius and using his body for magic, – an absurd charge. They even produced Arsenius' severed hand.[20]).[1] The Council was convoked for the purpose of inquiring into the charges against Athanasius and other bishops, on account of which they were deposed from their sees by the Semi-Arian Synod
Synod
of Antioch (341), and went into exile. It was called according to Socrates, (E. H. ii. 20) by the two Emperors, Constans
Constans
and Constantius; but, according to Baronius by Pope
Pope
Julius (337–352), (Ad an. 343). One hundred and seventy six attended. Eusebian bishops objected to the admission of Athanasius and other deposed bishops to the Council, except as accused persons to answer the charges brought against them. Their objections were overridden by the orthodox bishops, about a hundred were orthodox, who were the majority. The Eusebians, seeing they had no chance of having their views carried, retired to Philoppopolis in Thrace, Philippopolis (Thracia), where they held an opposition council, under the presidency of the Patriarch
Patriarch
of Antioch, and confirmed the decrees of the Synod
Synod
of Antioch.[12] His innocence was reaffirmed at the Council of Sardica. Two conciliar letters were prepared, one to the clergy and faithful of Alexandria, the other to the bishops of Egypt
Egypt
and Libya, in which the will of the Council was made known. Meanwhile, the Eusebian party had gone to Philippopolis, where they issued an anathema against Athanasius and his supporters. The persecution against the orthodox party broke out with renewed vigour, and Constantius was induced to prepare drastic measures against Athanasius and the priests who were devoted to him. Orders were given that if the Saint
Saint
attempt to re-enter his see, he should be put to death. Athanasius, accordingly, withdrew from Sardica to Naissus
Naissus
in Mysia, where he celebrated the Easter
Easter
festival of the year 344.[1] It was Hosius who presided over the Council of Sardica, as he did for the First Council of Nicaea, which like the 341 synod, found Athanasius innocent.[24] &.[12] He celebrated his last Easter
Easter
in exile in Aquileia
Aquileia
in April 345, received by bishop Fortunatianus.[25] Eastern Bishop
Bishop
Gregory of Cappadocia died, probably of violence in June of 345. (Gregory, an Arian bishop, had taken over the See of Alexandria.) The emissary to the Emperor Constantius sent by the bishops of the Sardica
Sardica
Council to report the finding of the Council, who had been met at first with most insulting treatment, now received a favourable hearing. Constantius was forced to reconsider his decision, owing to a threatening letter from his brother Constans
Constans
and the uncertain conditions of affairs on the Persian border, and he accordingly made up his mind to yield. But three separate letters were needed to overcome the natural hesitation of Athanasius. He passed rapidly from Aquileia
Aquileia
to Treves, from Treves
Treves
to Rome and from Rome by way of the northern route to Adrianople, Edirne, and Antioch, Ankara, where he met Constantius. He was accorded a gracious interview by the Emperor, and sent back to his See in triumph, and began his memorable ten years of peace, which lasted to the third exile, 356.[1] Pope
Pope
Julius died in April 352, and was succeeded by Liberius. For two years Liberius had been favourable to the cause of Athanasius; but driven at last into exile, he was induced to sign an ambiguous formula, from which the great Nicene text, the "homoousion", had been studiously omitted. In 355 a council was held at Milan, where in spite of the vigorous opposition of a handful of loyal prelates among the Western bishops, a fourth condemnation of Athanasius was announced to the world. With his friends scattered, the saintly Hosius in exile, and Pope Liberius
Pope Liberius
denounced as acquiescing in Arian formularies, Athanasius could hardly hope to escape. On the night of 8 February 356, while engaged in services in the Church of St. Thomas, a band of armed men burst in to secure his arrest. It was the beginning of his third exile.[1] T. Gilmartin, (Professor of History, Maynooth, 1890), writes in Church History, Vol. 1, Ch XVII: By Constantius' order, the sole ruler of The Roman Empire at the death of his brother Constans, the Council of Arles in 353, was held, which was presided over by Vincent, Bishop
Bishop
of Capua, in the name of Pope
Pope
Liberius. The fathers terrified of the threats of the Emperor, an avowed Arian, they consented to the condemnation of Athanasius. The Pope
Pope
refused to accept their decision, and requested the Emperor to hold another Council, in which the charges against Athanasius could be freely investigated. To this Constantius consented, for he felt able to control the Council in Milan.[12] Three hundred bishops assembled in Milan, most from the West, only a few from the East, in 355. They met in the Church of Milan. Shortly, the Emperor ordered them to a hall in the Imperial Palace, thus ending any free debate. He presented an Arian formula of faith for their acceptance. He threatened any who refused with exile and death. All, with the exception of Dionysius (bishop of Milan), and the two Papal Legates, viz., Eusebius of Vercelli
Eusebius of Vercelli
and Lucifer of Cagliari, consented to the Arian Creed and the condemnation of Athanasius. Those who refused were sent into exile. The decrees were forwarded to the Pope for approval, but were rejected, because of the violence to which the bishops were subjected.[12] Third exile[edit]

Athanasius at the Council of Nicea, William of Tyre
William of Tyre
manuscripts.

Through the influence of the Eusebian faction at Constantinople, an Arian bishop, George of Cappadocia, was now appointed to rule the see of Alexandria. Athanasius, after remaining some days in the neighbourhood of the city, finally withdrew into the desert of Upper Egypt, where he remained for a period of six years, living the life of the monks, devoting himself to the composition of a group of writings; "Apology to Constantius", the "Apology for his Flight", the "Letter to the Monks", and the "History of the Arians".[1] Constantius, renewing his previous policies favoring the Arians, banished Athanasius from Alexandria
Alexandria
once again. This was followed, in 356, by an attempt to arrest Athanasius during a vigil service.[26] Athanasius fled to Upper Egypt, where he stayed in several monasteries and other houses. During this period, Athanasius completed his work Four Orations against the Arians and defended his own recent conduct in the Apology to Constantius and Apology for His Flight. Constantius' persistence in his opposition to Athanasius, combined with reports Athanasius received about the persecution of non-Arians by the new Arian bishop George of Laodicea, prompted Athanasius to write his more emotional History of the Arians, in which he described Constantius as a precursor of the Antichrist.[11] Constantius ordered Liberius into exile in 356 giving him three days to comply. He was ordered into banishment to Beroea, in Thrace. He sent expensive presents if he were to accept the Arian position, which Liberius refused. He sent him five hundred pieces of gold "to bear his charges" which Liberius refused, saying he might bestow them on his flatters; as he did also a like present from the empress, bidding the messenger learn to believe in Christ, and not to persecute the Church of God. Attempts were made to leave the presents in The Church, but Liberius threw them out. Constantius hereupon sent for him under a strict guard to Milan, where in a conference recorded by Theodore, he boldly told Constantius that Athanasius had been acquitted at Sardica, and his enemies proved calumniators (see: "calumny") and impostors, and that it was unjust to condemn a person who could not be legally convicted of any crime. The emperor was reduced to silence on every article, but being the more out of patience, ordered him into banishment.[12] Liberius went into exile. Constantius, after two years went to Rome to celebrate the twentieth year of his reign. The ladies joined in a petition to him that he would restore Liberius. He assented, upon condition that he should comply with the bishops, then, at court. He subscribed the condemnation of Athanasius, and a confession or creed which had been framed by the Arians at Sirmium. And he no sooner had recovered his see that he declared himself for the Creed of Niceae, as Theodoret testifies. (Theodoret, Hist. lib. ii. c. 17.).[27] The Emperor knew what he wanted people to believe. So did the bishops at his court. Athanasius stuck by the orthodox creed.[20] Constantius was an avowed Arian, became sole ruler in 350, at the death of his brother, Constans.[12] T. Gilmartin, (Professor of History, Maynooth, 1890), writes in Church History, Vol. 1, Ch XVII:

The Arians sought the approval of an Ecumenical Council. They sought to hold two councils. Constantius, summoned the bishops of the East to meet at Seleucia in Isauria, and those of the West to Rimini
Rimini
in Italy. A preliminary conference was held by the Arians at Sirmium, to agree a formula of faith. A "Homoeon" creed was adopted, declaring The Son to be "like the Father". The two met in autumn of 359. At Seleucia, one hundred and fifty bishops, of which one hundred and five were semi-Arian. The semi-Arians refused to accept anything less than the "Homoiousion", (see: Homoiousian), formulary of faith. The Imperial Prefect was obliged to disband, without agreeing on any creed.[12]

Acacius, the leader of the "Homoean" party went to Constantinople, where the Sirmian formulary of faith was approved by the "Home Synod", (consisted of those bishops who happened to be present at the Court for the time), and a decree of deposition issued against the leaders of the semi-Arians. At Rimini
Rimini
were over four hundred of which eighty were Arian, the rest were orthodox. The orthodox fathers refused to accept any creed but the Nicene, while the others were equally in favour of the Sirmian. Each party sent a deputation to the Emperor to say there was no probability to agreement, and asked for the bishops to return to their dioceses. For the purpose of wearing-down the orthodox bishops; (Sulpitius Severius says), Constantius delayed his answer for several months, and finally prevailed on them to accept the Sirmian creed. It was after this Council that Jerome
Jerome
said: " ...the whole world groaned in astonishment to find itself Arian."[12] The Arians no longer presented an unbroken front to their orthodox opponents. The Emperor Constantius, who had been the cause of so much trouble, died on 4 November 361 and was succeeded by Julian. The proclamation of the new prince's accession was the signal for a pagan outbreak against the still dominant Arian faction in Alexandria. George, the usurping Bishop, was flung into prison and murdered. An obscure presbyter of the name of Pistus was immediately chosen by the Arians to succeed him, when fresh news arrived that filled the orthodox party with hope. An edict had been put forth by Julian permitting the exiled bishops of the "Galileans" to return to their "towns and provinces". Athanasius received a summons from his own flock, and he accordingly re-entered his episcopal capitol on 22 February 362.[1] In 362 he convened a council at Alexandria, and presided over it with Eusebius
Eusebius
of Vercelli. Athanasius appealed for unity among all those who had faith in Christianity, even if they differed on matters of terminology. This prepared the groundwork for his definition of the orthodox doctrine of the Trinity. However, the council also was directed against those who denied the divinity of the Holy Spirit, the human soul of Christ, and Christ's divinity. Mild measures were agreed on for those heretic bishops who repented, but severe penance was decreed for the chief leaders of the major heresies.[28] With characteristic energy he set to work to re-establish the somewhat shattered fortunes of the orthodox party and to purge the theological atmosphere of uncertainty. To clear up the misunderstandings that had arisen in the course of the previous years, an attempt was made to determine still further the significance of the Nicene formularies. In the meanwhile, Julian, who seems to have become suddenly jealous of the influence that Athanasius was exercising at Alexandria, addressed an order to Ecdicius, the Prefect of Egypt, peremptorily commanding the expulsion of the restored primate, on the ground that he had never been included in the imperial act of clemency. The edict was communicated to the bishop by Pythicodorus Trico, who, though described in the "Chronicon Athanasianum" (XXXV) as a "philosopher", seems to have behaved with brutal insolence. On 23 October the people gathered about the proscribed bishop to protest against the emperor's decree; but Athanasius urged them to submit, consoling them with the promise that his absence would be of short duration.[1] Fourth exile[edit] In 362, the new Emperor Julian, noted for his opposition to Christianity, ordered Athanasius to leave Alexandria
Alexandria
once again. Athanasius left for Upper Egypt, remaining there with the Desert Fathers until Julian's death on 26 June 363. Athanasius returned in secret to Alexandria, where he soon received a document from the new emperor, Jovian, reinstating him once more in his episcopal functions.[1] His first act was to convene a council which reaffirmed the terms of the Nicene Creed. Early in September 363 he set out for Antioch on the Orontes, bearing a synodal letter, in which the pronouncements of this council had been embodied. At Antioch he had an interview with the new emperor, who received him graciously and even asked him to prepare an exposition of the orthodox faith. The following February Jovian died; and in October, 364, Athanasius was once more an exile.[1] Fifth exile[edit] Two years later, the Emperor Valens, who favored the Arian position, in his turn exiled Athanasius. This time Athanasius simply left for the outskirts of Alexandria, where he stayed for only a few months before the local authorities convinced Valens
Valens
to retract his order of exile.[11] Some early reports state that Athanasius spent this period of exile at his family's ancestral tomb[10] in a Christian cemetery. It was during this period, the final exile, that he is said to have spent four months in hiding in his father's tomb. (Soz., "Hist. Eccl.", VI, xii; Soc., "Hist. Eccl.", IV, xii).[1] The accession of Valens
Valens
gave a fresh lease of life to the Arian party. He issued a decree banishing the bishops who had been deposed by Constantius, but who had been permitted by Jovian to return to their sees. The news created the greatest consternation in the city of Alexandria
Alexandria
itself, and the prefect, in order to prevent a serious outbreak, gave public assurance that the very special case of Athanasius would be laid before the emperor. But Athanasius seems to have divined what was preparing in secret against him. He quietly withdrew from Alexandria, 5 October, and took up his abode in a country house outside the city. Valens, who seems to have sincerely dreaded the possible consequences of another popular outbreak, within a few weeks issued orders allowing Athanasius to return to his episcopal see.[1] In 366 Pope Liberius
Pope Liberius
died and was succeeded by Pope
Pope
Damasus, a man of strong character and holy life. Two years later, in a council of the Church, it was decreed that no Bishop
Bishop
should be consecrated unless he held the Creed of Nicea. (F. A. Forbes).[18] Final years and death[edit] After returning to Alexandria
Alexandria
in early 366, Athanasius spent his final years repairing all the damage done during the earlier years of violence, dissent, and exile. He resumed writing and preaching undisturbed, and characteristically re-emphasized the view of the Incarnation which had been defined at Nicaea. On 2 May 373, having consecrated Peter II, one of his presbyters as his successor, Athanasius died peacefully in his own bed, surrounded by his clergy and faithful supporters.[7] Works[edit] In Coptic literature, Athanasius is the first patriarch of Alexandria to use Coptic as well as Greek in his writings.[6] Polemical and theological works[edit] Athanasius was not a speculative theologian. As he stated in his First Letters to Serapion, he held on to "the tradition, teaching, and faith proclaimed by the apostles and guarded by the fathers."[10] He held that not only was the Son of God
Son of God
consubstantial with the Father, but so was the Holy Spirit, which had a great deal of influence in the development of later doctrines regarding the Trinity.[10] Athanasius' "Letter Concerning the Decrees of the Council of Nicaea" (De Decretis), is an important historical as well as theological account of the proceedings of that council, and another letter from 367 is the first known listing of all those books now accepted as the New Testament.[10] (Earlier similar lists vary by the omission or addition of a few books.) Examples of Athanasius' polemical writings against his theological opponents include Orations Against the Arians, his defence of the divinity of the Holy Spirit
Holy Spirit
(Letters to Serapion in the 360s, and On the Holy Spirit), against Macedonianism and On the Incarnation. Athanasius also wrote a two-part Against the Heathen and The Incarnation of the Word of God. Completed probably early in his life, before the Arian controversy,[29] they constitute the first classic work of developed Orthodox theology. In the first part, Athanasius attacks several pagan practices and beliefs. The second part presents teachings on the redemption.[10] Also in these books, Athanasius put forward the belief, referencing John 1:1–4, that the Son of God, the eternal Word (Logos) through whom God created the world, entered that world in human form to lead men back into the harmony from which they had earlier fallen away. His other important works include his Letters to Serapion, which defends the divinity of the Holy Spirit. In a letter to Epictetus of Corinth, Athanasius anticipates future controversies in his defense of the humanity of Christ. Another of his letters, to Dracontius, urges that monk to leave the desert for the more active duties of a bishop.[11] Athanasius also wrote several works of Biblical exegesis, primarily on Old Testament
Old Testament
materials. The most important of these is his Epistle to Marcellinus (PG 27:12–45) on how to incorporate Psalm saying into one's spiritual practice. Excerpts remain of his discussions concerning the Book of Genesis, the Song of Solomon, and Psalms. Perhaps his most notable letter was his Festal Letter, written to his Church in Alexandria
Alexandria
when he was in exile, as he could not be in their presence. This letter clearly shows his stand that accepting Jesus as the Divine Son of God
Son of God
is not optional but necessary:

I know moreover that not only this thing saddens you, but also the fact that while others have obtained the churches by violence, you are meanwhile cast out from your places. For they hold the places, but you the Apostolic Faith. They are, it is true, in the places, but outside of the true Faith; while you are outside the places indeed, but the Faith, within you. Let us consider whether is the greater, the place or the Faith. Clearly the true Faith. Who then has lost more, or who possesses more? He who holds the place, or he who holds the Faith?[30]

Biographical and ascetic[edit]

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People (by era or century)

Antiquity

Ancient African Origen Gregory of Nyssa Pseudo-Dionysius

Desert Fathers

Paul of Thebes Anthony the Great Arsenius the Great Poemen Macarius of Egypt Moses
Moses
the Black Syncletica Athanasius John Chrysostom Hilarion John Cassian

11th · 12th

Bernard of Clairvaux Guigo II Hildegard of Bingen Symeon the New Theologian

13th · 14th

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Franciscan

Francis of Assisi Anthony of Padua Bonaventure Jacopone da Todi Angela of Foligno

English

Richard Rolle Walter Hilton Julian of Norwich Margery Kempe

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Hadewijch Beatrice of Nazareth John of Ruysbroeck

German

Meister Eckhart Johannes Tauler Henry Suso

Female

Beatrice of Nazareth Bridget of Sweden Catherine of Siena Mechthild of Magdeburg Marguerite Porete

15th · 16th

Spanish

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Others

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17th · 18th

French

Pierre de Bérulle Jean-Jacques Olier Louis de Montfort Charles de Condren John Eudes John of St. Samson

Others

María de Ágreda Anne Catherine Emmerich Veronica Giuliani Francis de Sales

19th

Dina Bélanger Catherine Labouré Mélanie Calvat Maximin Giraud Bernadette Soubirous Conchita de Armida Luisa Piccarreta Mary of the Divine Heart Thérèse of Lisieux Gemma Galgani

20th

Padre Pio Therese Neumann Marthe Robin Adrienne von Speyr Alexandrina of Balazar Faustina Kowalska Berthe Petit Sister Lúcia
Sister Lúcia
of Fátima Edgar Cayce Simone Weil Alfred Delp Thomas Merton Charles de Foucauld

Contemporary papal views

Aspects of meditation (Orationis Formas, 1989) Reflection on the New Age (2003)

Literature · Media

Lingua Ignota Ordo Virtutum Scivias Ascent of Mount Carmel Dark Night of the Soul Spiritual Canticle Way of Perfection Book of the First Monks The Interior Castle Abbey of the Holy Ghost A Dialogue of Comfort against Tribulation Diary: Divine Mercy in My Soul From Willow Creek to Sacred Heart The Glories of Mary The Imitation of Christ The Ladder of Divine Ascent Philokalia Revelations of Divine Love Spiritual Canticle The Story of a Soul Theologia Germanica Devotio Moderna The Miracle of Our Lady of Fatima Sol de Fátima The Cloud of Unknowing The Consolation of Philosophy The Mirror of Simple Souls Sister Catherine Treatise Tractatus de Purgatorio
Purgatorio
Sancti Patricii The Vision of Adamnán Divine Comedy

Inferno Purgatorio Paradiso

v t e

His biography of Anthony the Great
Anthony the Great
entitled Life of Antony[31](Βίος καὶ Πολιτεία Πατρὸς Ἀντωνίου, Vita Antonii) became his most widely read work. Translated into several languages, it became something of a best seller in its day and played an important role in the spreading of the ascetic ideal in Eastern and Western Christianity.[11] It depicted Anthony as an illiterate yet holy man who continuously engaged in spiritual exercises in the Egyptian desert and struggled against demonic powers. It later served as an inspiration to Christian monastics in both the East and the West.[32] Athanasius' works on ascetism also include a Discourse on Virginity, a short work on Love and Self-Control, and a treatise On Sickness and Health (of which only fragments remain). Misattributed works[edit] There are several other works ascribed to him, although not necessarily generally accepted as being his own. These include the so-called Athanasian creed
Athanasian creed
(which is today generally seen as being of 5th-century Galician origin), and a complete Expositions on the Psalms (PG 27: 60–545).[10] Veneration[edit] Athanasius was originally buried in Alexandria, Egypt, but his remains were later transferred to the Chiesa di San Zaccaria
Chiesa di San Zaccaria
in Venice, Italy. During Pope
Pope
Shenouda III's visit to Rome from 4 to 10 May 1973, Pope Paul VI gave the Coptic Patriarch
Patriarch
a relic of Athanasius,[33] which he brought back to Egypt
Egypt
on 15 May.[34] The relic is currently preserved under the new Saint
Saint
Mark's Coptic Orthodox Cathedral in Cairo, Egypt. However, the majority of Athanasius's corpse remains in the Venetian church.[35] All major Christian denominations which officially recognize saints venerate Athanasius. Western Christians observe his feast day on 2 May, the anniversary of his death. The Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
considers Athanasius a Doctor of the Church.[3] For Coptic Christians, his feast day is Pashons 7 (now circa 15 May). Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendars remember Athanasius on 18 January. Gregory of Nazianzus
Gregory of Nazianzus
(330–390, also a Doctor of the Church), said: "When I praise Athanasius, virtue itself is my theme: for I name every virtue as often as I mention him who was possessed of all virtues. He was the true pillar of the Church. His life and conduct were the rule of bishops, and his doctrine the rule of the orthodox faith."[7]

Tomb of Saint
Saint
Zaccaria and Saint
Saint
Athanasius in Venice

Athanasius's Shrine
Shrine
(where a portion of his relics are preserved) under St. Mark's Cathedral, Cairo

Procession of a statue at Bellante

Character[edit] Historian Cornelius Clifford said in his account: "Athanasius was the greatest champion of Catholic belief on the subject of the Incarnation that the Church has ever known and in his lifetime earned the characteristic title of "Father of Orthodoxy", by which he has been distinguished ever since." [1] Bl. John Henry Newman described him as a "principal instrument, after the Apostles, by which the sacred truths of Christianity
Christianity
have been conveyed and secured to the world". [Letters..] Historian Cornelius Clifford says: "His career almost personifies a crisis in the history of Christianity; and he may be said rather to have shaped the events in which he took part than to have been shaped by them." [1] The greater majority of Church leaders and the emperors fell into support for Arianism, so much so that Jerome, 340–420, wrote of the period: "The whole world groaned and was amazed to find itself Arian".[12] He, Athanasius, even suffered an unjust excommunication from Pope Liberius
Pope Liberius
(325–366) who was exiled and leant towards the Arians, until he was allowed back to the See of Rome. Athanasius stood virtually alone against the world.[21] (..see: "Third Exile", above.) Historical significance and controversies[edit] New Testament
New Testament
canon[edit] See also: Biblical canon It was the custom of the bishops of Alexandria
Alexandria
to circulate a letter after Epiphany each year establishing the date of Easter, and therefore other moveable feasts. They also took the occasion to discuss other matters. Athanasius wrote forty-five festal letters.[36] Athanasius' 39th Festal Letter, written in 367, is widely regarded as a milestone in the evolution of the canon of New Testament
New Testament
books.[37] Athanasius is the first person to identify the same 27 books of the New Testament
New Testament
that are in use today. Up until then, various similar lists of works to be read in churches were in use. Athanasius compiled the list to resolve questions about such texts as The Epistle of Barnabas. Athanasius includes the Book of Baruch
Book of Baruch
and the Letter of Jeremiah
Jeremiah
and places the Book of Esther
Book of Esther
among the "7 books not in the canon but to be read" along with the Wisdom of Solomon, Sirach (Ecclesiasticus), Judith, Tobit, the Didache, and the Shepherd of Hermas.[38] Athanasius' list is similar to the Codex Vaticanus in the Vatican Library, probably written in Rome, in 340 by Alexandrian scribes for Emperor Constans, during the period of Athanasius' seven-year exile in the city. The establishment of the canon was not a unilateral decision by a bishop in Alexandria, but the result of a process of careful investigation and deliberation, as documented in a codex of the Greek Bible and, twenty-seven years later, in his festal letter.[36] Pope
Pope
Damasus I, the Bishop
Bishop
of Rome in 382, promulgated a list of books which contained a New Testament
New Testament
canon identical to that of Athanasius. A synod in Hippo in 393 repeated Athanasius' and Damasus' New Testament list (without the Epistle to the Hebrews), and the Council of Carthage (397) repeated Athanasius' and Damasus' complete New Testament list.[39] Scholars debate whether Athanasius' list in 367 formed the basis for later lists. Because Athanasius' Canon is the closest canon of any of the Church Fathers
Church Fathers
to the one used by Protestant churches today, many Protestants point to Athanasius as the Father of the Canon.[38][40] Episcopal consecration[edit] In the light of Mother F. A. Forbes' research and reference to Pope Saint
Saint
Gregory's writings, it would appear that Athanasius was constrained to be Bishop: She writes that when the Patriarch
Patriarch
Alexander was on his death-bed he called Athanasius, who fled fearing he would be constrained to be made Bishop. "When the Bishops of the Church assembled to elect their new Patriarch, the whole Catholic population surrounded the church, holding up their hands to Heaven and crying; "Give us Athanasius!" The Bishops had nothing better. Athanasius was thus elected, as Gregory tells us..." ( Pope
Pope
Gregory I, would have full access to the Vatican Archives).[18] Alban Butler, writes on the subject: "Five months after this great Council, Nicae, St Alexander lying on his death-bed, recommended to his clergy and people the choice of Athanasius for his successor, thrice repeating his name. In consequence of his recommendation, the bishops of all Egypt
Egypt
assembled at Alexandria, and finding the people and clergy unanimous in their choice of Athanasius for patriarch, they confirmed the election about the middle of year 326. He seems, then, to have been about thirty years of age."[21] Supporters[edit]

Athanasius (left) and his supporter Cyril of Alexandria. 17th century depiction.

Christian denominations worldwide revere Athanasius as a saint, teacher, and father. They cite his defense of the Christology described in the first chapter of the Gospel of St. John[1:1–4] and his significant theological works ( C. S. Lewis
C. S. Lewis
calls On the Incarnation of the Word of God a "masterpiece")[41] as evidence of his righteousness. They also emphasize his close relationship with Anthony the Great, the ancient monk who was one of the founders of the Christian monastic movement. The Gospel of St. John and particularly the first chapter demonstrates the Divinity
Divinity
of Jesus. This Gospel in itself is the greatest support of Athanasius' stand. The Gospel of St. John's first chapter began to be said at the end of Mass, we believe as a result of Athanasius, and his life's stand, but quietly. The Last Gospel of The Mass, The Eucharist, St. John[1:1–14], together with the prayer; "Placeat tibi", the Blessing, are all private devotions that have been gradually absorbed by the liturgical service. The beginning of John's Gospel was much used as an object of special devotion throughout the Middle Ages. Nevertheless, the practice of saying it at the altar grew; eventually Pius V
Pius V
made this practice universal for the Roman Rite in his edition of the Missal (1570).[42] It became a firm custom with exceptions in using an other Gospel in use from 1920. So the Missals showed different last Gospel for certain Feast days. A Prayer Card for the St. John's Gospel.[43] Also:[44] Gregory of Nazianzus
Gregory of Nazianzus
(330–390) begins Or. 21 with: "When I praise Athanasius, virtue itself is my theme: for I name every virtue as often as I mention him who was possessed of all virtues. He was the true pillar of the church. His life and conduct were the rule of bishops, and his doctrine the rule of the orthodox faith."[7] Cyril of Alexandria
Alexandria
(370–444) in the first letter says: "Athanasius is one who can be trusted: he would not say anything that is not in accord with sacred scripture." (Ep 1). Many modern historians point out that such a hostile attitude towards Athanasius is based on an unfair judgment of historical sources.[45] Saint
Saint
Pope Pius X
Pope Pius X
said in a letter to philosopher-friend and correspondent in the closing years of his life, (Epist. lxxi, ad Max.): "Let what was confessed by the fathers of Nicaea prevail".[7] Critics[edit] Throughout most of his career, Athanasius had many detractors. Classics scholar Timothy Barnes recounts ancient allegations against Athanasius: from defiling an altar, to selling Church grain that had been meant to feed the poor for his own personal gain, and even violence and murder to suppress dissent.[46] Athanasius used "Arian" to describe both followers of Arius, and as a derogatory polemical term for Christians who disagreed with his formulation of the Trinity.[47] Athanasius called many of his opponents "Arian", except for Meletius (Miletus).[48] Scholars now believe that the Arian Party was not monolithic,[49] but held drastically different theological views that spanned the early Christian theological spectrum.[50][51][52] They supported the tenets of Origenist thought and subordinationist theology,[53] but had little else in common. Moreover, many labelled "Arian" did not consider themselves followers of Arius.[54] In addition, non- Homoousian bishops disagreed with being labeled as followers of Arius, since Arius
Arius
was merely a presbyter, while they were fully ordained bishops.[55] However, others point to the Council of Nicaea as proof in and of itself that Arianism
Arianism
was a real theological ideology.[citation needed] The old allegations continue to be made against Athanasius however many centuries later. For example, Richard E. Rubenstein suggests that Athanasius ascended to the rank of bishop in Alexandria
Alexandria
under questionable circumstances because some questioned whether he had reached the minimum age of 30 years, and further that Athanasius employed force when it suited his cause or personal interests. Thus, he argues that a small number of bishops who supported Athanasius held a private consecration to make him bishop.[56] Selected works[edit]

Athanasius. Contra Gentes – De Incarnatione (translated by Thompson, Robert W.), text and ET (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1971). On the Incarnation at theologynetwork.org Letters to Serapion (on the Holy Spirit) at archive.org

See also[edit]

Athanasian Creed Apostles' Creed Homoousian Pontifical Greek College of Saint
Saint
Athanasius Eastern Catholic Church Orthodox Church Eugenius of Carthage

References[edit]

^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: St. Athanasius". www.newadvent.org. Retrieved 2018-03-14.  ^ Durant, Will. Caesar and Christ. New York: Simon and Schuster. 1972. ^ a b Chapman, John. "Doctors of the Church". The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 5. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1909. 6 December 2015 ^ a b "St. Athanasius the Great the Patriarch
Patriarch
of Alexandria". oca.org. Retrieved 2018-03-14.  ^ a b c Barnes, Timothy David
David
(2001). Athanasius and Constantius: Theology and Politics in the Constantinian Empire. p. 13.  ^ a b "Coptic literature". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved May 9, 2017.  ^ a b c d e f g Clifford, Cornelius, Catholic Encyclopedia
Catholic Encyclopedia
1930, Volume 2, pp. 35–40 "Athanasius". ^ Eusebius, Hist. Eccl., VI, xix ^ Ἀλεξανδρεὺς τῷ γένει, ἀνὴρ λόγιος, δυνατὸς ὢν ἐν ταῖς γραφαῖς ^ a b c d e f g h i j Encyclopedia Americana, vol. 2 Danbury, Connecticut: Grolier Incorporated, 1997. ISBN 0-7172-0129-5. ^ a b c d e f g h i Encyclopædia Britannica, 15th edition. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ISBN 0-85229-633-9 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k T. Gilmartin, Manual of Church History, Vol. 1. Ch XVII, 1890 ^ Kannengiesser, Charles, "Alexander and Arius
Arius
of Alexandria: The last Ante-Nicene theologians", Miscelanea En Homenaje Al P. Antonio Orbe Compostellanum Vol. XXXV, no. 1-2. (Santiago de Compostela, 1990), 398 ^ Williams, Rowan, Arius: Heresy
Heresy
and Tradition (London: Darton, Longman and Todd, 1987),175 ^ Williams, 175 ^ Williams 154–155 ^ Alexander of Alexandria's Catholic Epistle ^ a b c F. A. Forbes; " Saint
Saint
Athanasius", 1919 ^ Barnes, Timothy D., Athanasius and Constantius: Theology and Politics in the Constantinian Empire (Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1993), 23 ^ a b c Christianity, Daily Telegraph 1999 ^ a b c Butler, Albin, Butler's Lives of The Saints 1860, Volume 1. ^ Clark, William R. (2007). A History of the Councils of the Church: from the Original Documents, to the close of the Second Council of Nicaea A.D. 787. Wipf and Stock Publishers. p. 47. ISBN 9781556352478.  ^ Davis, Leo Donald (1983). The First Seven Ecumenical Councils (325–787): Their History and Theology. Liturgical Press. p. 82. ISBN 9780814656167.  ^ "St. Athanasius - Christian Classics Ethereal Library - Christian Classics Ethereal Library". www.ccel.org. Retrieved 2018-03-14.  ^ Barnes, Timothy David, Athanasius and Constantius, Harvard 2001, p. 66 ^ Graves, Dan. Athanasius Exiled Again Christianity.com. Web. Retrieved 8 March 2016. ^ Butler, Albin, Butler's Lives of The Saints 1860, Volume 1 ^  Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Councils of Alexandria". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  ^ Justo L. Gonzalez in A History of Christian Thought notes (p. 292) that E. Schwartz places this work later, around 335, but "his arguments have not been generally accepted". The introduction to the CSMV translation of On the Incarnation places the work in 318, around the time Athanasius was ordained to the diaconate (St Athanasius On the Incarnation, Mowbray, England 1953) ^ fragment conjectured to belong to a festal letter ^ "Athanasius of Alexandria: Vita S. Antoni [Life of St. Antony] (written bwtween 356 and 362)". Fordham University. Retrieved 14 July 2016.  ^ "Athanasius". Christian History Learn the History of Christianity & the Church. Retrieved 2018-03-14.  ^ "Metropolitan Bishoy of Damiette". Retrieved 2012-09-25.  ^ " Saint
Saint
Athanasius". Avarewase.org. Retrieved 2012-09-25.  ^ "The Incorrupt Relics of Saint
Saint
Athanasios the Great". Johnsanidopoulos.com. Retrieved 2 May 2014.  ^ a b "367 Athanasius Defines the New Testament". Christian History Learn the History of Christianity
Christianity
& the Church. Retrieved 2018-03-14.  ^ Gwynn, David
David
M., Athanasius of Alexandria, Oxford University Press, 2012 ISBN 9780199210954 ^ a b Aboagye-Mensah, Robert. " Bishop
Bishop
Athanasius: His Life, Ministry and Legacy to African Christianity
Christianity
and the Global Church", Seeing New Facets of the Diamond, (Gillian Mary Bediako, Bernhardt Quarshie, J. Kwabena Asamoah-Gyadu, ed.), Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2015 ISBN 9781498217293 ^ Von Dehsen, Christian. "St. Athanasius", Philosophers and Religious Leaders, Routledge, 2013 ISBN 9781135951023 ^ "Excerpt from Letter 39". Ccel.org. 2005-07-13. Retrieved 2012-09-25.  ^ Introduction to St. Athanasius on the Incarnation. Translated and edited by Sister Penelope Lawson, published by Mowbray 1944. p. 9 ^ Fortescue, Adrian, Catholic Encyclopedia
Catholic Encyclopedia
1907, Volume 6, pp. 662–663 "Gospel" ^ Pope
Pope
Benedict XV, Missale Romanum, IX Additions & Variations of the Rubrics of The Missal ^ Jungmann, El Sacrificio de la Misa, No. 659, 660 ^ Arnold, 24–99; Ng, 273–292. ^ Barnes, Timothy D., Athanasius and Constantius: Theology and Politics in the Constantinian Empire (Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1993), 37 ^ Barnes "Athanasius and Constantius", 14, 128 ^ Barnes "Athanasius and Constantius",135 ^ Haas, Christopher, "The Arians of Alexandria", Vigiliae Christianae Vol. 47, no. 3 (1993), 239 ^ Chadwick, Henry, "Faith and Order at the Council of Nicaea", Harvard Theological Review LIII (Cambridge Mass: 1960),173 ^ Williams, 63 ^ Kannengiesser "Alexander and Arius", 403 ^ Kannengiesser, "Athanasius of Alexandria
Alexandria
vs. Arius: The Alexandrian Crisis", in The Roots of Egyptian Christianity
Christianity
(Studies in Antiquity and Christianity), ed. Birger A. Pearson and James E. Goehring (1986),208 ^ Williams, 82 ^ Rubinstein, Richard, When Jesus Became God, The Struggle to Define Christianity
Christianity
during the Last Days of Rome, 1999 ^ Rubenstein, Richard E., When Jesus Became God: The Epic Fight over Christ's Divinity
Divinity
in the Last Days of Rome (New York: Harcourt Brace & Company, 1999), 105–106

Sources[edit]

Alexander of Alexandria
Alexandria
"Catholic Epistle", The Ecole Initiative, ecole.evansville.edu Anatolios, Khaled, Athanasius: The Coherence of His Thought (New York: Routledge, 1998). Arnold, Duane W.-H., The Early Episcopal Career of Athanasius of Alexandria
Alexandria
(Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame, 1991). Arius, "Arius's letter to Eusebius
Eusebius
of Nicomedia", Ecclesiastical History, ed. Theodoret. Ser. 2, Vol. 3, 41, The Ecole Initiative, ecole.evansville.edu Attwater, Donald and Catherine Rachel John. The Penguin Dictionary of Saints. 3rd edition. (New York: Penguin, 1993). ISBN 0-14-051312-4. Barnes, Timothy D., Athanasius and Constantius: Theology and Politics in the Constantinian Empire (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1993). Barnes, Timothy D., Constantine and Eusebius
Eusebius
(Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1981) Bouter, P.F. (2010). Athanasius (in Dutch). Kampen: Kok.  Brakke, David. Athanasius and the Politics of Asceticism
Asceticism
(1995) Clifford, Cornelius, "Athanasius", Catholic Encyclopedia
Catholic Encyclopedia
Vol. 2 (1907), 35–40 Chadwick, Henry, "Faith and Order at the Council of Nicaea", Harvard Theological Review LIII (Cambridge Mass: Harvard University Press, 1960), 171–195. Ernest, James D., The Bible in Athanasius of Alexandria
Alexandria
(Leiden: Brill, 2004). Freeman, Charles, The Closing of the Western Mind: The Rise of Faith and the Fall of Reason (Alfred A. Knopf, 2003). Haas, Christopher. "The Arians of Alexandria", Vigiliae Christianae Vol. 47, no. 3 (1993), 234–245. Hanson, R.P.C., The Search for the Christian Doctrine of God: The Arian Controversy, 318–381 (T.&T. Clark, 1988). Kannengiesser, Charles, "Alexander and Arius
Arius
of Alexandria: The last Ante-Nicene theologians", Miscelanea En Homenaje Al P. Antonio Orbe Compostellanum Vol. XXXV, no. 1-2. (Santiago de Compostela, 1990), 391–403. Kannengiesser, Charles "Athanasius of Alexandria
Alexandria
vs. Arius: The Alexandrian Crisis", in The Roots of Egyptian Christianity
Christianity
(Studies in Antiquity and Christianity), ed. Birger A. Pearson and James E. Goehring (1986), 204–215. Ng, Nathan K. K., The Spirituality of Athanasius (1991). Pettersen, Alvyn (1995). Athanasius. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: Morehouse.  Rubenstein, Richard E., When Jesus Became God: The Epic Fight over Christ's Divinity
Divinity
in the Last Days of Rome (New York: Harcourt Brace & Company, 1999). Williams, Rowan, Arius: Heresy
Heresy
and Tradition (London: Darton, Longman and Todd, 1987).

Further reading[edit]

Anatolios, Khaled. Athanasius (London: Routledge, 2004). [Contains selections from the Orations against the Arians (pp. 87–175) and Letters to Serapion on the Holy Spirit
Holy Spirit
(pp. 212–33), together with the full texts of On the Council of Nicaea (pp. 176–211) and Letter 40: To Adelphius (pp. 234–42)] Gregg, Robert C. Athanasius: The Life of Antony and the Letter to Marcellinus, Classics of Western Spirituality (New York: Paulist Press, 1980). Schaff, Philip (1867). History of the Christian Church: Nicene and Post-Nicene Christianity, AD 311–600. 3rd. Peabody, Massachusetts: Hendrickson.  Schaff, Philip; Henry Wace (1903). A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church: St. Athanasius: Select Works and Letters. 4th. New York: Scribner. 

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Athanasius of Alexandria

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia
Catholic Encyclopedia
article St. Athanasius.

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Saint
Athanasius at Wikimedia Commons Works written by or about Athanasius of Alexandria
Alexandria
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has original text related to this article: Ἀθανάσιος Ἀλεξανδρείας Official web site of the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate
Patriarchate
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Alexandria
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of Alexandria
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Athanasius at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Athanasius of Alexandria
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at Internet Archive Works by Athanasius of Alexandria
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at LibriVox
LibriVox
(public domain audiobooks) Archibald Robinson, Athanasius: Select Letters and Works (Edinburgh 1885) The so-called Athanasian Creed
Athanasian Creed
(not written by Athanasius, see Athanasian Creed
Athanasian Creed
above) Athanasius Select Resources, Bilingual Anthology (in Greek original and English) Two audio lectures about Athanasius on the Deity of Christ, Dr N Needham Concorida Cyclopedia: Athanasius Christian Cyclopedia: Athanasius Opera Omnia by Migne Patrologia Graeca with analytical indexes St Athanasius the Great the Archbishop of Alexandria
Alexandria
Orthodox icon and synaxarion English Key to Athanasius Werke The Writings of Athanasius in Chronological Order Introducing...Athanasius audio resource by Dr. Michael Reeves. Two lectures on theologynetwork.org Letter of Saint
Saint
Athanasius to His Flock at the Our Lady of the Rosary Library St. Athanasius Patriarch
Patriarch
of Alexandria
Alexandria
at the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Colonnade Statue in St Peter's Square

Titles of the Great Christian Church

Preceded by Alexander I Pope
Pope
and Patriarch
Patriarch
of Alexandria 328–373 or 328–339 346–373 Succeeded by Peter II Gregory of Cappadocia (Anti-patriarch) Peter II

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Popes and Patriarchs of Alexandria
Alexandria
of the See of Saint
Saint
Mark

Patriarchs prior to the Chalcedonian schism (43–451)

Mark I the Evangelist (founder) Anianus Avilius Kedronos Primus Justus Eumenius Markianos* Celadion Agrippinus Julian Demetrius I Heraclas Dionysius Maximus Theonas Peter I Achillas Alexander I Athanasius I Peter II Timothy I Theophilus I Cyril I Dioscorus I

Coptic Orthodox Popes and Patriarchs (451–present)

Timothy II Peter III Athanasius II John I John II Dioscorus II Timothy III Theodosius I Peter IV Damian Anastasius Andronicus Benjamin I Agathon John III Isaac Simeon I Alexander II Cosmas I Theodore I Michael I Mina I John IV Mark II James Simeon II Joseph I Michael II Cosmas II Shenouda I Michael III Gabriel
Gabriel
I Cosmas III Macarius I Theophilus II (AKA Theophanes) Mina II Abraham Philotheos Zacharias Shenouda II Christodolos Cyril II Michael IV Macarius II Gabriel
Gabriel
II Michael V John V Mark III John VI Cyril III Athanasius III John VII Gabriel
Gabriel
III John VII Theodosius III John VIII John IX Benjamin II Peter V Mark IV John X Gabriel
Gabriel
IV Matthew I Gabriel
Gabriel
V John XI Matthew II Gabriel
Gabriel
VI Michael VI John XII John XIII Gabriel
Gabriel
VII John XIV Gabriel
Gabriel
VIII Mark V John XV Matthew III Mark VI Matthew IV John XVI Peter VI John XVII Mark VII John XVIII Mark VIII Peter VII Cyril IV Demetrius II Cyril V John XIX Macarius III Joseph II Cyril VI Shenouda III Tawadros II (current)

Greek Orthodox Popes and Patriarchs (451–present)

Proterius Timothy II Timothy III John I Peter III Athanasius II John II John III Dioscorus II Timothy IV Theodosius I Gainas Paul Zoilus Apollinarius John IV Eulogius Theodore I John V George I Cyrus Peter IV Peter V Peter VI Cosmas I Politianus Eustatius Christopher I Sophronius I Michael I Michael II Christodoulos Eutychius Sophronius II Isaac Job Elias I Arsenius Theophilus II George II Leontius Alexander II John VI Cyril II Sabbas Sophronius III Elias II Eleutherius Mark III* Nicholas I Gregory I Nicholas II Athanasius III Gregory II Gregory III Niphon Mark IV Nicholas III Gregory IV Nicholas IV Athanasius IV Mark V Philotheus Mark VI Gregory V Joachim I Silvester Meletius I Pegas Cyril III Gerasimus I Metrophanes Nicephorus Joannicius Paisius Parthenius I Gerasimus II Samuel Cosmas II Cosmas III Matthew Cyprian Gerasimus III Parthenius II Theophilus III Hierotheus I Artemius Hierotheus II Callinicus Jacob Nicanor Sophronius IV Photius Meletius II Nicholas V Christopher II Nicholas VI Parthenius III Peter VII Theodore II (current)

Latin Catholic Patriarchs (1276 –1954 )

Atanasio (Athanasius) Egidio da Ferrara (Giles)  ?Humbert II, Dauphin of Vienne Juan (John) Guillaume de Chanac Arnaud Bernard du Pouget (Arnaldo Bernardi) uncanonical Jean de Cardaillac Pietro Amely di Brunac  ? Johannes Walteri von Sinten uncanonical Simon of Cramaud Pietro Amely di Brunac Leonardo Dolfin Ugo Roberti Pietro Amaury di Lordat Lancelotus de Navarra Giovanni Contarini Pietro Vitalis di Mauléon Giovanni Vitelleschi Marco Condulmer Jean d’Harcourt Arnaldo Rogerii de Palas Pedro de Urrea Pedro González de Mendoza Diego Hurtado de Mendoza Alonso de Fonseca y Acevedo Bernardino Carafa Cesare Riario Guido Ascanio Sforza di Santa Fiora Ottaviano Maria Sforza Julius Gonzaga Cristoforo Guidalotti Ciocchi del Monte Jacques Cortès Tommaso Alessandro Riario Enrico Caetani Giovanni Battista Albani Camillo Caetani Séraphin Olivier-Razali Alessandro di Sangro Honoratus Caetani Federico Borromeo Allesandro Crescenzi Aloysius Bevilacqua Pietro Draghi Bartoli Gregorio Giuseppe Gaetani de Aragonia Carlo Ambrosio Mezzabarba Filippo Carlo Spada Girolamo Crispi Giuseppe Antonio Davanzati Lodovico Agnello Anastasi Francisco Mattei Augustus Foscolo Paolo Angelo Ballerini Domenico Marinangeli Paolo de Huyn Luca Ermenegildo Pasetto

Melkite Catholic Titular Patriarchs (1724–present)

Cyril VI Tanas Athanasius IV Jawhar Maximos II Hakim Theodosius V Dahan Athanasius IV Jawhar Cyril VII Siaj Agapius II Matar Ignatius IV Sarrouf Athanasius V Matar Macarius IV Tawil Ignatius V Qattan Maximos III Mazloum Clement Bahouth Gregory II Youssef-Sayur Peter IV Jaraijiry Cyril VIII Geha Demetrius I Qadi Cyril IX Moghabghab Maximos IV Sayegh Maximos V Hakim Gregory III Laham Youssef I Absi

Coptic Catholic Patriarchs (1824–present)

Maximos Jouwed Kyrillos Makarios Stéphanos I Sidarouss Stéphanos II Ghattas Antonios I Naguib Ibrahim Isaac
Isaac
Sidrak

*Markianos is considered Mark II on the Greek side of the subsequent schism, hence this numbering of Mark III. Category Commons

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Doctors of the Catholic Church

Gregory the Great Ambrose Augustine of Hippo Jerome John Chrysostom Basil of Caesarea Gregory of Nazianzus Athanasius of Alexandria Cyril of Alexandria Cyril of Jerusalem John of Damascus Bede
Bede
the Venerable Ephrem the Syrian Thomas Aquinas Bonaventure Anselm of Canterbury Isidore of Seville Peter Chrysologus Leo the Great Peter Damian Bernard of Clairvaux Hilary of Poitiers Alphonsus Liguori Francis de Sales Peter Canisius John of the Cross Robert Bellarmine Albertus Magnus Anthony of Padua Lawrence of Brindisi Teresa of Ávila Catherine of Siena Thérèse of Lisieux John of Ávila Hildegard of Bingen Gregory of Narek

Catholicism portal

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Saints of the Catholic Church

Virgin Mary

Mother of God (Theotokos) Immaculate Conception Perpetual virginity Assumption Marian apparition

Guadalupe Laus Miraculous Medal Lourdes Fatima

Titles of Mary

Apostles

Andrew Barnabas Bartholomew James of Alphaeus James the Greater John Jude Matthew Matthias Paul Peter Philip Simon Thomas

Archangels

Gabriel Michael Raphael

Confessors

Anatolius Chariton the Confessor Edward the Confessor Maximus the Confessor Michael of Synnada Paphnutius the Confessor Paul I of Constantinople Salonius Theophanes the Confessor

Disciples

Apollos Mary Magdalene Priscilla and Aquila Silvanus Stephen Timothy Titus Seventy disciples

Doctors

Gregory the Great Ambrose Augustine of Hippo Jerome John Chrysostom Basil of Caesarea Gregory of Nazianzus Athanasius of Alexandria Cyril of Alexandria Cyril of Jerusalem John of Damascus Bede
Bede
the Venerable Ephrem the Syrian Thomas Aquinas Bonaventure Anselm of Canterbury Isidore of Seville Peter Chrysologus Leo the Great Peter Damian Bernard of Clairvaux Hilary of Poitiers Alphonsus Liguori Francis de Sales Peter Canisius John of the Cross Robert Bellarmine Albertus Magnus Anthony of Padua Lawrence of Brindisi Teresa of Ávila Catherine of Siena Thérèse of Lisieux John of Ávila Hildegard of Bingen Gregory of Narek

Evangelists

Matthew Mark Luke John

Church Fathers

Alexander of Alexandria Alexander of Jerusalem Ambrose
Ambrose
of Milan Anatolius Athanasius of Alexandria Augustine of Hippo Caesarius of Arles Caius Cappadocian Fathers Clement of Alexandria Clement of Rome Cyprian
Cyprian
of Carthage Cyril of Alexandria Cyril of Jerusalem Damasus I Desert Fathers Desert Mothers Dionysius of Alexandria Dionysius of Corinth Dionysius Ephrem the Syrian Epiphanius of Salamis Fulgentius of Ruspe Gregory the Great Gregory of Nazianzus Gregory of Nyssa Hilary of Poitiers Hippolytus of Rome Ignatius of Antioch Irenaeus
Irenaeus
of Lyons Isidore of Seville Jerome
Jerome
of Stridonium John Chrysostom John of Damascus Maximus the Confessor Melito of Sardis Quadratus of Athens Papias of Hierapolis Peter Chrysologus Polycarp
Polycarp
of Smyrna Theophilus of Antioch Victorinus of Pettau Vincent of Lérins Zephyrinus

Martyrs

Canadian Martyrs Carthusian Martyrs Forty Martyrs of England and Wales Four Crowned Martyrs Great Martyr The Holy Innocents Irish Martyrs Joan of Arc Lübeck martyrs Korean Martyrs Martyrology Martyrs of Albania Martyrs of China Martyrs of Japan Martyrs of Laos Martyrs of Natal Martyrs of Otranto Martyrs of the Spanish Civil War Maximilian Kolbe Perpetua and Felicity Saints of the Cristero War Stephen Three Martyrs of Chimbote Uganda Martyrs Vietnamese Martyrs

Patriarchs

Adam Abel Abraham Isaac Jacob Joseph Joseph (father of Jesus) David Noah Solomon Matriarchs

Popes

Adeodatus I Adeodatus II Adrian III Agapetus I Agatho Alexander I Anacletus Anastasius I Anicetus Anterus Benedict II Boniface I Boniface IV Caius Callixtus I Celestine I Celestine V Clement I Cornelius Damasus I Dionysius Eleuterus Eugene I Eusebius Eutychian Evaristus Fabian Felix I Felix III Felix IV Gelasius I Gregory I Gregory II Gregory III Gregory VII Hilarius Hormisdas Hyginus Innocent I John I John XXIII John Paul II Julius I Leo I Leo II Leo III Leo IV Leo IX Linus Lucius I Marcellinus Marcellus I Mark Martin I Miltiades Nicholas I Paschal I Paul I Peter Pius I Pius V Pius X Pontian Sergius I Silverius Simplicius Siricius Sixtus I Sixtus II Sixtus III Soter Stephen I Stephen IV Sylvester I Symmachus Telesphorus Urban I Victor I Vitalian Zachary Zephyrinus Zosimus

Prophets

Agabus Amos Anna Baruch ben Neriah David Dalua Elijah Ezekiel Habakkuk Haggai Hosea Isaiah Jeremiah Job Joel John the Baptist Jonah Judas Barsabbas Malachi Melchizedek Micah Moses Nahum Obadiah Samuel Seven Maccabees and their mother Simeon Zechariah (prophet) Zechariah (NT) Zephaniah

Virgins

Agatha of Sicily Agnes of Rome Bernadette Soubirous Brigid of Kildare Cecilia Clare of Assisi Eulalia of Mérida Euphemia Genevieve Kateri Tekakwitha Lucy of Syracuse Maria Goretti Mother Teresa Narcisa de Jesús Rose of Lima

See also

Military saints Virtuous pagan

Catholicism portal Saints portal

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Coptic Orthodox Saints

Theotokos

Our Lady of Assiut Our Lady of Warraq Our Lady of Zeitoun

,

,

,

Seven Archangels

Michael Gabriel Raphael Suriel Zedekiel Sarathiel Aniel

Patriarchs

Abraham Isaac Jacob Joseph

Prophets

Moses Job Samuel David Hosea Amos Micah Joel Obadiah Jonah Nahum Habakkuk Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah Malachi Isaiah Jeremiah Baruch Ezekiel Daniel John the Baptist

Apostles

Andrew Bartholomew James, son of Alphaeus James, son of Zebedee John Jude Matthew Matthias Peter Philip Simon Thomas

Evangelists

Matthew Mark Luke John

Disciples

Apollos Barnabas Mary Magdalene Philemon Priscilla and Aquila Silvanus Stephen Timothy Titus Seventy disciples

Martyrs

21 martyrs in Libya Abāmūn Abāmūn Abanoub Abaskhiron Alexandrian Martyrs Apollonia Barbara Bashnouna Basilides Catherine Chiaffredo Theodore Stratelates Chrysanthus Colluthus Cyprian Cyrus Sarah Damian Daria Dasya George Demiana Dorothea Epimachus Faustus, Abibus and Dionysius Felix Gallicanus George el-Mozahem Gereon Theban Legion Varus Theodora and Didymus Hor, Besoy, and Daydara Otimus Memnon Rais Imbaba Martyrs John Moura John of Senhout Elias and four companions Justina Kosheh Martyrs Saint
Saint
Marina the Martyr Malati Maspero Martyrs Maurice Menas Mohrael Nah Hammadi Philotheos Potamiana Regula Sidhom Bishay Thecla Theoclia Veronica Wanas Wadamoun

Popes

Mark I Anianus Avilius Kedron Primus Justus Eumenes Markianos Celadion Agrippinus Julian Demetrius I Heraclas Dionysius Maximus Theonas Peter I Achillas Alexander I Athanasius I Peter II Timothy I Theophilus I Cyril I Dioscorus I Timothy II Peter III Athanasius II John I John II Dioscorus II Timothy III Theodosius I Peter IV Damian Anastasius Andronicus Benjamin I Agathon John III Isaac Simeon I Alexander II Cosmas I Theodore I Michael I Mina I John IV Mark II James Simeon II Joseph I Michael II Cosmas II Shenouda I Michael III Gabriel
Gabriel
I Cosmas III Macarius I Theophanes Mina II Abraham Philotheos Zacharias Shenouda II Christodolos Cyril II Michael IV Macarius II Gabriel
Gabriel
II Michael V John V Mark III John VI Cyril III Athanasius III John VII Gabriel
Gabriel
III John VII Theodosius III John VIII John IX Benjamin II Peter V Mark IV John X Gabriel
Gabriel
IV Matthew I Cyril VI Shenouda III Tawadros II (current)

Bishops

Abadiu of Antinoe Abraam of Faiyum Alexander of Jerusalem Amun of Scetes Athanasius of Beni Suef Basil of Caesarea Cyril of Jerusalem Epiphanius of Cyprus Eusebius
Eusebius
of Caesarea Gregory of Nyssa Gregory of Neocaesarea Hadra of Aswan Ignatius of Antioch Isidorus of Hermonpolis Jacob
Jacob
of Nisibis James of Cairo James of Jerusalem John of Nikiu John of Jerusalem Karas of California Macarius of Edkow Mikhaeil of Asyut Narcissus of Jerusalem Nicholas of Myra Paphnutius of Scetes Paphnutius of Thebes Peter Elrahawy of Gaza Pisentius of Qift Pisentius of Hermonthis Pisora of Masil Polycarp
Polycarp
of Smyrna Porphyry of Gaza Ptolemy of Minuf Psote
Psote
of Ebsay Sarapamon of Monufia Sarapamon of Niku Serapion of Thmuis Severian of Gabala Yousab el-Abah of Girga Timothy of Ansena Zacharias of Sakha

Anchorites

Annasimon Babnuda Balamon Elisa Ezekiel Ghalion Hedra Hermina Karas Keriakos Latsoun Mary Misael Olaghi Onuphrius Paphnutius Paul Pijimi Shenouda Silas Stephanos Stratios Timothy Thomas Yousab Zosimas

Monks

Ababius Abdel Messih El-Makari Abib and Apollo Abraham
Abraham
of Farshut Abraham
Abraham
of Scetes Amun Anthony the Great Awgin Bashnouna Hilarion Isaac
Isaac
of Nineveh Isidore of Pelusium John Climacus John the Dwarf Macarius of Alexandria Macarius of Egypt Moses
Moses
the Black Mother Irini Hospitius Nilus of Sinai Pachomius
Pachomius
the Great Pambo Parsoma Paul of Thebes Paul of Tammah Paul the Simple Patapios of Thebes Pishoy Poemen Samuel
Samuel
the Confessor Saint
Saint
Patapios of Thebes Tekle Haymanot Clement of Alexandria Sisoes the Great Theodorus of Tabennese Theodora of Alexandria

Other Saints

Ambrose Didymus the Blind Euphrosyne Freig Candidus Simon the Tanner Verena

Oriental Orthodoxy
Oriental Orthodoxy
portal

v t e

Autocephalous and autonomous churches of Oriental Orthodoxy

Autocephalous churches

Coptic Orthodox Church
Coptic Orthodox Church
of Alexandria Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church Armenian Apostolic Church Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church Syriac Orthodox Church Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church

Autonomous churches

Coptic Orthodox: French Coptic Orthodox Church

Armenian Apostolic: Holy See of Cilicia Armenian Patriarchate
Patriarchate
of Constantinople Armenian Patriarchate
Patriarchate
of Jerusalem

Syriac Orthodox: Malankara Jacobite

Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church: Brahmavar (Goan) Orthodox Church

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Ethiopian Saints by Feast Day

January

Abeluzius
Abeluzius
(15th) Tekle Haymanot
Tekle Haymanot
(24th)

February

Tekle Haymanot
Tekle Haymanot
(24th)

March

Tekle Haymanot
Tekle Haymanot
(24th)

April

Tekle Haymanot
Tekle Haymanot
(24th)

May

Saint
Saint
Abraham
Abraham
(5th) Yared
Yared
(19th) Tekle Haymanot
Tekle Haymanot
(24th) Kaleb (28th) Ablak (30th)

June

Tekle Haymanot
Tekle Haymanot
(24th)

July

Moses the Black
Moses the Black
(1st) Giyorgis of Segla
Giyorgis of Segla
(14th) Tekle Haymanot
Tekle Haymanot
(24th)

August

Frumentius
Frumentius
(1st) Abraham, Ethnus, Acrates, James, and John
Abraham, Ethnus, Acrates, James, and John
(3rd) Tekle Haymanot
Tekle Haymanot
(17th and 24th)

September

Abnodius
Abnodius
(3rd) Melki of Clysma (11th) Daysa the Egyptian (12th) Anbas (13th) Mamas the Martyr (15th) Lebna Dengel
Lebna Dengel
(15th) Fasilidas
Fasilidas
(19th) Yasay (19th) Matronya (20th) Aflahos (22nd) Tekle Haymanot
Tekle Haymanot
(24th) Absadi
Absadi
(27th)

October

Sharda Hawaryat (1st) Matlan the physician (4th) Lawa-Krestos (5th) Basalota Mika’el (5th) ‘Oyoranos (5th) ‘Abtlemanos of Shoka (7th) Abuna Aregawi
Abuna Aregawi
(24th) Ezana (1st) Saizana
Saizana
(1st) Tekle Haymanot
Tekle Haymanot
(24th)

November

Tekle Haymanot
Tekle Haymanot
(24th)

December

Iyasus Mo'a
Iyasus Mo'a
(5th) Samuel
Samuel
of Waldebba (21st) Tekle Haymanot
Tekle Haymanot
(24th)

Related topics

Giustino de Jacobis (Roman Catholic), Nine Saints • Armenian Apostolic liturgical calendar, Coptic calendar, Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar • Category:Ethiopian saints

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 105155222 LCCN: n79145591 ISNI: 0000 0001 2103 5972 GND: 118504843 SELIBR: 174815 SUDOC: 026693895 BNF: cb11889341x (data) BIBSYS: 90276470 NLA: 35009755 NDL: 00462526 NKC: jn19981000155 ICCU: ITICCUCFIV07443 SN

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