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Assisi
Assisi
(Italian pronunciation: [asˈsiːzi], from the Latin: Asisium) is a town and comune of Italy
Italy
in the Province of Perugia
Province of Perugia
in the Umbria
Umbria
region, on the western flank of Monte Subasio. It is generally regarded as the birthplace of the Latin poet Propertius, born around 50–45 BC. It is the birthplace of St. Francis, who founded the Franciscan
Franciscan
religious order in the town in 1208, and St. Clare (Chiara d'Offreducci), the founder of the Poor Sisters, which later became the Order of Poor Clares
Poor Clares
after her death. The 19th-century Saint
Saint
Gabriel of Our Lady of Sorrows
Gabriel of Our Lady of Sorrows
was also born in Assisi.

Contents

1 History 2 Main sights

2.1 Churches 2.2 Other landmarks 2.3 Art

3 Culture 4 Saints 5 Transport 6 International relations

6.1 Twin towns – Sister cities

7 Appearances in media

7.1 In video games

8 Sources 9 External links

History[edit] Around 1000 BC a wave of immigrants settled in the upper Tiber
Tiber
valley as far as the Adriatic Sea, and also in the neighborhood of Assisi. These were the Umbrians, living in small fortified settlements on high ground. From 450 BC these settlements were gradually taken over by the Etruscans. The Romans took control of central Italy
Italy
after the Battle of Sentinum in 295 BC. They built the flourishing municipium Asisium on a series of terraces on Monte Subasio. Roman remains can still be found in Assisi: city walls, the forum (now Piazza del Comune), a theatre, an amphitheatre and the Temple of Minerva (now transformed into the Church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva). In 1997, the remains of a Roman villa were also discovered containing several well-preserved rooms with frescoes and mosaics in a condition rarely found outside sites such as Pompei. In 238 AD Assisi
Assisi
was converted to Christianity by bishop Rufino, who was martyred at Costano. According to tradition, his remains rest in the Cathedral Church of San Rufino in Assisi. The Ostrogoths
Ostrogoths
of king Totila
Totila
destroyed most of the town in 545. Assisi
Assisi
then came under the rule of the Lombards
Lombards
as part of the Lombard and then Frankish Duchy of Spoleto. The thriving commune became an independent Ghibelline commune in the 11th century. Constantly struggling with the Guelph Perugia, it was during one of those battles, the battle at Ponte San Giovanni, that Francesco di Bernardone, ( Saint
Saint
Francis of Assisi), was taken prisoner, setting in motion the events that eventually led him to live as a beggar, renounce the world and establish the Order of Friars Minor.

Temple of Minerva in the Piazza del Comune.

The city, which had remained within the confines of the Roman walls, began to expand outside these walls in the 13th century. In this period the city was under papal jurisdiction. The Rocca Maggiore, the imperial fortress on top of the hill above the city, which had been plundered by the people in 1189, was rebuilt in 1367 on orders of the papal legate, cardinal Gil de Albornoz. In the beginning Assisi
Assisi
fell under the rule of Perugia
Perugia
and later under several despots, such as the soldier of fortune Biordo Michelotti, Gian Galeazzo Visconti
Gian Galeazzo Visconti
and his successor Francesco I Sforza, dukes of Milan, Jacopo Piccinino and Federico II da Montefeltro, lord of Urbino. The city went into a deep decline through the plague of the Black Death
Black Death
in 1348. The city came again under papal jurisdiction under the rule of Pope Pius II (1458–1464). In 1569 construction was started of the Basilica of Santa Maria degli Angeli. During the Renaissance and in later centuries, the city continued to develop peacefully, as the 17th-century palazzi of the Bernabei and Giacobetti attest. Now the site of many a pilgrimage, Assisi
Assisi
is linked in legend with its native son, St. Francis. The gentle saint founded the Franciscan
Franciscan
order and shares honors with St. Catherine of Siena
Catherine of Siena
as the patron saint of Italy. He is remembered by many, even non-Christians, as a lover of nature (his preaching to an audience of birds is one of the legends of his life).

The basilica in May 2017

Assisi
Assisi
was hit by two devastating earthquakes, that shook Umbria
Umbria
in September 1997. But the recovery and restoration have been remarkable, although much remains to be done. Massive damage was caused to many historical sites, but the major attraction, the Basilica di San Francesco, reopened less than 2 years later. Main sights[edit] UNESCO
UNESCO
collectively designated the Franciscan
Franciscan
structures of Assisi
Assisi
as a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
in 2000. Churches[edit]

The Basilica of San Francesco d'Assisi (St. Francis). The Franciscan monastery, il Sacro Convento, and the lower and upper church (Italian: Basilica inferiore and Basilica superiore) of St Francis were begun immediately after his canonization in 1228, and completed in 1253. The lower church has frescoes by the late-medieval artists Cimabue
Cimabue
and Giotto; the upper church houses frescoes of scenes in the life of St. Francis previously ascribed to Giotto, but now thought to be by artists of the circle of Pietro Cavallini
Pietro Cavallini
from Rome. The Basilica was badly damaged by a 5.5 earthquake on 26 September 1997, during which part of the vault collapsed, killing four people inside the church and carrying with it a fresco by Cimabue. The edifice was closed for two years for restoration. Santa Maria Maggiore (St. Mary the Greater), the earliest extant church in Assisi. The Cathedral of San Rufino (St. Rufinus), with a Romanesque façade with three rose windows and a 16th‑century interior; part of it is built on a Roman cistern. Basilica of Santa Chiara (St. Clare) with its massive lateral buttresses, rose window, and simple Gothic interior, begun in 1257, contains the tomb of the namesake saint and 13th‑century frescoes and paintings. Basilica of Santa Maria degli Angeli
Basilica of Santa Maria degli Angeli
(St. Mary of the Angels), which houses the Porziuncola. Chiesa Nuova, built over the presumed parental home of St. Francis Santo Stefano, one of the oldest churches of Assisi. Eremo delle Carceri, a small monastery with church at a canyon above the town, where St. Francis retreated and preached to birds Church of San Pietro (St. Peter), built by the Benedictines in the 10th century and rebuilt in the 13th century. It has a rectangular façade with three rose windows; the Gothic chapel of the Holy Sacrament houses a triptych by Matteo di Gualdo.

Other landmarks[edit]

Eremo delle Carceri.

The town is dominated by two medieval castles. The larger, called Rocca Maggiore, is a massive reconstruction by Cardinal Albornoz (1366) and expanded by popes Pius II (polygonal tower, 1458) and Paul III (the cylindrical bastion near the entrance, 1535-1538). The smaller of the two was built in Roman era: it has been only partially reserved, a small portion and three towers being open to the public. Other sights include:

the Roman amphitheater, built in the early 1st century AD. Its elliptical plan is identifiable from the medieval houses built around it, and from an arch of travertine cunei. The arena now houses a garden.[1] the Piazza del Comune
Comune
("Communal Square"), with the Palazzo del Capitano del Popolo (mid-13th century, featuring a series of merlons added in 1927), the adjoining Torre del Popolo ("People's Tower", 1305) the Palazzo dei Priori ("Palace of the Priors", 1275-1493). The fountains with three lions in the southern side dates from the 16th century. The Temple of Minerva, also facing the Piazza del Comune The abbey of St. Benedict, founded in the 10th century on the Monte Subasio. Remains include the crypt (late 11th century), the apse and the external walls.

Pietro Lorenzetti
Pietro Lorenzetti
fresco detail, Assisi
Assisi
Basilica, 1310–1329.

Art[edit]

See also Art in Assisi

Assisi
Assisi
has had a rich tradition of art through the centuries and is now home to a number of well known artistic works.[2] Artists Pietro Lorenzetti
Pietro Lorenzetti
and Simone Martini
Simone Martini
worked shoulder to shoulder at Assisi. The Basilica of San Francesco d'Assisi includes a number of artistic works. Simone Martini's 1317 fresco there reflects the influence of Giotto in realism and the use of brilliant colors. Lorenzetti's fresco at the lower church of the Basilica includes a series of panels depicting the Crucifixion of Jesus, Deposition from the Cross, and Entombment of Christ. The figures Lorenzetti painted display emotions, yet the figures in these scenes are governed by geometric emotional interactions, unlike many prior depictions which appeared to be independent iconic aggregations. Lorenzetti's 1330 Madonna dei Tramonti
Madonna dei Tramonti
also reflects the ongoing influence of Giotto on his Marian art, midway through his career.[3][4] Culture[edit]

c. 1920 travel poster

Festival Calendimaggio, held on 1–5 May, is a re-enactment of medieval and Renaissance life in the form of a challenge between the upper faction and the lower faction of the town. It includes processions, theatrical presentations, flag-wavers and dances. Assisi
Assisi
Embroidery
Embroidery
is a form of counted-thread embroidery which has been practised in Assisi
Assisi
since the 13th century. Today the town has many groups coming to enjoy the simple peace of St. Francis. One such group has restored an 11th-century room and added altars to the world's religions. Other organizations, such as Assisi Performing Arts, complement Assisi's tranquility with music and other cultural events. Saints[edit] Assisi
Assisi
was the home of several saints. They include:

Agnes of Assisi Clare of Assisi Francis of Assisi Gabriel of Our Lady of Sorrows Rufinus of Assisi Vitalis of Assisi Sylvester of Assisi

Transport[edit] Assisi
Assisi
railway station, opened in 1866, forms part of the Foligno–Terontola railway, which also links Florence with Rome. The station is located at Piazza Dante Alighieri, in the frazione of Santa Maria degli Angeli, about 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) southwest of the city centre. International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Italy Twin towns – Sister cities[edit] Assisi
Assisi
is twinned with:

Bethlehem, Palestine[5] Santiago de Compostela, Spain San Francisco, USA Wadowice, Poland Monte Sant'Angelo, Italy
Italy
(since 2013)

Appearances in media[edit] In video games[edit]

One of rally tracks in Gran Turismo series is set in a fictitious Città d'Aria, which is directly based on Assisi, and closely resembles its layout. This track appeared first in the Gran Turismo 4: Prologue.

Sources[edit]

^ Harris, W.; DARMC, R. Talbert; S. Gillies, J. Åhlfeldt; J. Becker, T. Elliott. "Places: 413037 (Asisium)". Pleiades. Retrieved November 8, 2014.  ^ Lorenzetti works at Web Gallery of Art ^ Uffizi Galleries ^ Umbria
Umbria
Art ^ " Bethlehem
Bethlehem
Municipality". www.bethlehem-city.org. Archived from the original on 24 July 2010. Retrieved 10 October 2009. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Assisi.

Assisi
Assisi
travel guide from Wikivoyage  Ashby, Thomas (1911). "Asisium". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 762. 

v t e

Franciscans

General

Rule of St. Francis Rule of St. Clare Tau Cross Custodian of the Holy Land Minister Generals Basilica of Saint
Saint
Francis of Assisi Assisi Monte di Pietá Franciscan
Franciscan
missions to the Maya Studium Biblicum Franciscanum Franciscans
Franciscans
International Franciscan
Franciscan
orders in Protestantism

Orders and groups

Order of Friars Minor Order of Friars Minor
Order of Friars Minor
Conventual Order of Friars Minor
Order of Friars Minor
Capuchin Franciscan
Franciscan
Friars of the Immaculate Poor Clares Capuchin Poor Clares Colettine Poor Clares Conceptionists Secular Franciscan
Franciscan
Order Third Order of Saint
Saint
Francis Order of Minims Militia Immaculatae

Popes

Nicholas IV Sixtus IV Sixtus V Clement XIV Pius X John XXIII

  Category Catholicism portal

v t e

World Heritage Sites in Italy

Northwest

Crespi d'Adda Genoa Mantua
Mantua
and Sabbioneta Monte San Giorgio1 Porto Venere, Palmaria, Tino and Tinetto, Cinque Terre

Corniglia Manarola Monterosso al Mare Riomaggiore Vernazza

Residences of the Royal House of Savoy

Castle
Castle
of Moncalieri Castle
Castle
of Racconigi Castle
Castle
of Rivoli Castello del Valentino Royal Palace of Turin Palazzo Carignano Palazzo Madama, Turin Palace of Venaria Palazzina di caccia of Stupinigi Villa della Regina

Rhaetian Railway
Rhaetian Railway
in the Albula / Bernina Landscapes1 Rock Drawings in Valcamonica Sacri Monti of Piedmont and Lombardy Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan Vineyard Landscape of Piedmont: Langhe- Roero
Roero
and Monferrato

Northeast

Aquileia The Dolomites Ferrara Modena Cathedral, Torre della Ghirlandina
Torre della Ghirlandina
and Piazza Grande, Modena Orto botanico di Padova Ravenna Venice Verona City of Vicenza and the Palladian Villas of the Veneto

Central

Assisi Basilica of Saint
Saint
Francis of Assisi Etruscan Necropolises of Cerveteri
Cerveteri
and Tarquinia Florence Hadrian's Villa Medici villas Piazza del Duomo, Pisa Pienza Rome2 San Gimignano Siena Urbino Val d'Orcia Villa d'Este

South

Alberobello Amalfi Coast Castel del Monte, Apulia Cilento
Cilento
and Vallo di Diano
Vallo di Diano
National Park, Paestum
Paestum
and Velia, Certosa di Padula Herculaneum Oplontis
Oplontis
and Villa Poppaea Naples Palace of Caserta, Aqueduct of Vanvitelli
Aqueduct of Vanvitelli
and San Leucio
San Leucio
Complex Pompeii Sassi di Matera

Islands

Aeolian Islands Arab-Norman Palermo and the Cathedral Churches of Cefalù and Monreale Archaeological Area of Agrigento Barumini nuraghes Mount Etna Syracuse and Necropolis of Pantalica Val di Noto

Caltagirone Catania Militello in Val di Catania Modica Noto Palazzolo Acreide Ragusa Scicli

Villa Romana del Casale

Countrywide

Longobards in Italy, Places of Power (568–774 A.D.)

Brescia Cividale del Friuli Castelseprio Spoleto Temple of Clitumnus
Temple of Clitumnus
located at Campello sul Clitunno Santa Sofia located at Benevento Sanctuary of Monte Sant'Angelo
Monte Sant'Angelo
located at Monte Sant'Angelo

Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps3 Primeval Beech Forests of Europe4 Venetian Works of Defence between 15th and 17th centuries5

Bergamo Palmanova Peschiera del Garda

1 Shared with Switzerland 2 Shared with the Holy See 3 Shared with Austria, France, Germany, Slovenia, and Switzerland 4 Shared with Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Germany, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain
Spain
and Ukraine 5 Shared with Croatia
Croatia
and Montenegro

v t e

Umbria
Umbria
· Comuni of the Province of Perugia

Assisi Bastia Umbra Bettona Bevagna Campello sul Clitunno Cannara Cascia Castel Ritaldi Castiglione del Lago Cerreto di Spoleto Citerna Città della Pieve Città di Castello Collazzone Corciano Costacciaro Deruta Foligno Fossato di Vico Fratta Todina Giano dell'Umbria Gualdo Cattaneo Gualdo Tadino Gubbio Lisciano Niccone Magione Marsciano Massa Martana Monte Castello di Vibio Monte Santa Maria Tiberina Montefalco Monteleone di Spoleto Montone Nocera Umbra Norcia Paciano Panicale Passignano sul Trasimeno Perugia Piegaro Pietralunga Poggiodomo Preci San Giustino Sant'Anatolia di Narco Scheggia e Pascelupo Scheggino Sellano Sigillo Spello Spoleto Todi Torgiano Trevi Tuoro sul Trasimeno Umbertide Valfabbrica Vallo di Nera Valtopina

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 148912155 N

.