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The Assembly of Year XIII (Spanish: Asamblea del Año XIII) was a meeting called by the Second Triumvirate governing the young republic of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata
United Provinces of the Río de la Plata
(today's Uruguay, part of Argentina
Argentina
and Bolivia) on October 1812. One of the objectives of the assembly was to define an institutional government system for the republic. Without the presence of representatives from some of the provinces (such as the Oriental Province), it was inaugurated on January 31, 1813 (hence the name). At the same time, it was to proclaim independence from Spain, and write the first constitution of the young state. Accomplishments[edit] During the assembly, different interests delayed the declaration of independence, but a number of common points were successfully established:

The national coat of arms was chosen. The national anthem was commended. The Freedom of Wombs
Freedom of Wombs
(Libertad de vientres) law, which put an end to slavery, was passed (it dictated that children born from slaves since the passing of the law were automatically free citizens). All titles of nobility (from the colonial period) were voided and suppressed. The creation of the national currency was ordered. The Spanish Inquisition
Spanish Inquisition
and the practice of torture were abolished. A statute was approved that replaced as Executive Power the Second Triumvirate for a unipersonal Supreme Directorship

See also[edit]

Argentine War of Independence Instructions of the Year XIII United Provinces of the Río de la Plata

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Heads of state of Argentina

May Revolution
May Revolution
and Independence War Period up to Asamblea del Año XIII
Asamblea del Año XIII
(1810–1814)

Primera Junta Junta Grande First Triumvirate Second Triumvirate

Supreme Directors of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata (1814–1820)

Gervasio Antonio de Posadas Carlos María de Alvear Juan José Viamonte José Rondeau Ignacio Álvarez Thomas Antonio González de Balcarce Juan Martín de Pueyrredón José Rondeau Juan Pedro Aguirre

Unitarian Republic – First Presidential Government (1826–1827)

Bernardino Rivadavia Vicente López y Planes

Pacto Federal
Pacto Federal
and Argentine Confederation
Argentine Confederation
(1827–1862)

Manuel Dorrego Juan Manuel de Rosas Juan Ramón Balcarce Juan José Viamonte Manuel Vicente Maza Juan Manuel de Rosas Justo José de Urquiza Santiago Derqui Juan Esteban Pedernera

National Organization – Argentine Republic (1862–1880)

Bartolomé Mitre Domingo Faustino Sarmiento Nicolás Avellaneda

Generation of '80
Generation of '80
– Oligarchic Republic (1880–1916)

Julio Argentino Roca Miguel Juárez Celman Carlos Pellegrini Luis Sáenz Peña José Evaristo Uriburu Julio Argentino Roca Manuel Quintana José Figueroa Alcorta Roque Sáenz Peña Victorino de la Plaza

First Radical Civic Union
Radical Civic Union
terms, after secret ballot (1916–1930)

Hipólito Yrigoyen Marcelo Torcuato de Alvear Hipólito Yrigoyen

Infamous Decade
Infamous Decade
(1930–1943)

José Félix Uriburu Agustín Pedro Justo Roberto María Ortiz Ramón Castillo

Revolution of '43 military dictatorships (1943–1946)

Arturo Rawson Pedro Pablo Ramírez Edelmiro Julián Farrell

First Peronist terms (1946–1955)

Juan Domingo Perón

Revolución Libertadora
Revolución Libertadora
military dictatorships (1955–1958)

Eduardo Lonardi Pedro Eugenio Aramburu

Fragile civilian governments – Proscription of Peronism (1958–1966)

Arturo Frondizi José María Guido Arturo Umberto Illia

Revolución Argentina
Argentina
military dictatorships (1966–1973)

Juan Carlos Onganía Roberto M. Levingston Alejandro Agustín Lanusse

Return of Perón (1973–1976)

Héctor José Cámpora Raúl Alberto Lastiri Juan Domingo Perón Isabel Martínez de Perón

National Reorganization Process
National Reorganization Process
military dictatorships (1976–1983)

Jorge Rafael Videla Roberto Eduardo Viola Leopoldo Galtieri Reynaldo Bignone

Return to democracy (1983–present)

Raúl Ricardo Alfonsín Carlos Saúl Menem Fernando de la Rúa Adolfo Rodríguez Saá Eduardo Duhalde Néstor Kirchner Cristina Fernández de Kirchner Mauricio Macri

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