Americans of Asian descent. The term refers to a
panethnic group that includes diverse populations, which have
ancestral origins in East Asia, Southeast Asia, or South Asia, as
defined by the U.S. Census Bureau. This includes people who
indicate their race(s) on the census as "Asian" or reported entries
such as "Asian Indian, Thai, Chinese, Filipino, Korean, Pakistani,
Japanese, Vietnamese, and Other Asian". Asian
Americans with no
other ancestry comprise 5.4% of the U.S. population, while people who
are Asian alone, and those combined with at least one other race, make
Although migrants from Asia have been in parts of the contemporary
United States since the 17th century, large-scale immigration did not
begin until the mid-18th century. Nativist immigration laws during the
1880s–1920s excluded various Asian groups, eventually prohibiting
almost all Asian immigration to the continental United States. After
immigration laws were reformed during the 1940s–60s, abolishing
national origins quotas, Asian immigration increased rapidly. Analyses
of the 2010 census have shown that Asian
Americans are the fastest
growing racial or ethnic minority in the United States.
1.1 Census definition
2.2.1 Religious Trends
3.1 Early immigration
3.2 Exclusion era
3.3 Postwar immigration
3.4 Asian American movement
4 Notable people
4.1 Arts and entertainment
4.3 Government and politics
4.6 Science and technology
4.6.1 Award recipients
4.7.3 Mixed martial arts
4.7.5 Other sports
5 Cultural influence
5.1 Health and medicine
6 Social and political issues
6.1 Bamboo ceiling
6.2 Illegal immigration
6.3 Race-based violence
6.4 Racial stereotypes
6.4.1 Model minority
6.5 Social and economic disparities among Asian Americans
7 See also
9 Further reading
10 External links
As with other racial and ethnicity based terms, formal and common
usage have changed markedly through the short history of this term.
Prior to the late 1960s, people of Asian ancestry were usually
referred to as Oriental, Asiatic, and Mongoloid. Additionally,
the American definition of 'Asian' originally included West Asian
ethnic groups, particularly Afghan Americans, Jewish Americans,
Armenian Americans, Assyrian Americans, and Arab Americans, although
these groups are now considered Middle Eastern American. The term
Asian American was coined by historian Yuji Ichioka, who is credited
with popularizing the term, to frame a new "inter-ethnic-pan-Asian
American self-defining political group" in the late 1960s.
Changing patterns of immigration and an extensive period of exclusion
of Asian immigrants have resulted in demographic changes that have in
turn affected the formal and common understandings of what defines
Asian American. For example, since the removal of restrictive
"national origins" quotas in 1965, the Asian-American population has
diversified greatly to include more of the peoples with ancestry from
various parts of Asia.
Today, "Asian American" is the accepted term for most formal purposes,
such as government and academic research, although it is often
shortened to Asian in common usage. The most commonly used
definition of Asian American is the
U.S. Census Bureau
U.S. Census Bureau definition,
which includes all people with origins in the Far East, Southeast
Asia, and the Indian subcontinent. This is chiefly because the
census definitions determine many governmental classifications,
notably for equal opportunity programs and measurements.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, "Asian person" in the
United States is sometimes thought of as a person of East Asian
descent. In vernacular usage, "Asian" is often used to refer
to those of
East Asian descent or anyone else of Asian descent with
epicanthic eyefolds. This differs from the U.S. Census
definition and the Asian American Studies departments in many
universities consider all those of East, South or Southeast Asian
descent to be "Asian".
In the US Census, people with origins or ancestry in the Far East,
Southeast Asia, and the
Indian subcontinent are classified as part of
the Asian race; while those with origins or ancestry in North Asia
Central Asia (Kazakhs, Uzbeks, Turkmens, etc.),
Western Asia (diaspora Jews, Turks, Persians, West Asian Arabs, etc.),
Caucasus (Georgians, Armenians, Azeris) are classified as
"white" or "Middle Eastern". As such, "Asian" and "African"
ancestry are seen as racial categories for the purposes of the Census,
since they refer to ancestry only from those parts of the Asian and
African continents that are outside the Middle East and North Africa.
Before 1980, Census forms listed particular Asian ancestries as
separate groups, along with white and black or negro. Asian
Americans had also been classified as "other". In 1977, the
Office of Management and Budget
Office of Management and Budget issued a directive requiring
government agencies to maintain statistics on racial groups, including
on "Asian or Pacific Islander". The 1980 census marked the first
classification of Asians as a large group, combining several
individual ancestry groups into "Asian or Pacific Islander". By the
1990 census, "Asian or Pacific Islander (API)" was included as an
explicit category, although respondents had to select one particular
ancestry as a subcategory. The 2000 census onwards separated the
category into two separate ones, "Asian American" and "Native Hawaiian
and Other Pacific Islander".
The definition of Asian American has variations that derive from the
use of the word American in different contexts. Immigration status,
citizenship (by birthright and by naturalization), acculturation, and
language ability are some variables that are used to define American
for various purposes and may vary in formal and everyday usage.
For example, restricting American to include only U.S. citizens
conflicts with discussions of Asian American businesses, which
generally refer both to citizen and non-citizen owners.
In a PBS interview from 2004, a panel of Asian American writers
discussed how some groups include people of Middle Eastern descent in
the Asian American category. Asian American author Stewart Ikeda
has noted, "The definition of 'Asian American' also frequently depends
on who's asking, who's defining, in what context, and why... the
possible definitions of 'Asian-Pacific American' are many, complex,
and shifting... some scholars in Asian American Studies conferences
suggest that Russians, Iranians, and Israelis all might fit the
field's subject of study." Jeff Yang, of the Wall Street Journal,
writes that the panethnic definition of Asian American is a unique
American construct, and as an identity is "in beta".
Scholars have grappled with the accuracy, correctness, and usefulness
of the term Asian American. The term "Asian" in Asian American most
often comes under fire for encompassing a huge number of people with
ancestry from (or who have immigrated from) a wide range of culturally
diverse countries and traditions. In contrast, leading social sciences
and humanities scholars of race and Asian American identity point out
that because of the racial constructions in the United States,
including the social attitudes toward race and those of Asian
Americans have a "shared racial experience."
Because of this shared experience, the term Asian American is still a
useful panethnic category because of the similarity of some
experiences among Asian Americans, including stereotypes specific to
people in this category.
Asian American population percentage by state in 2010
Percentage Asian American by county, 2010 Census
Main article: Demographics of Asian Americans
The demographics of Asian
Americans describe a heterogeneous group of
people in the United States who can trace their ancestry to one or
more countries in Asia. Because Asian
Americans compose 6% of the
entire U.S. population, the diversity of the group is often
disregarded in media and news discussions of "Asians" or of "Asian
Americans." While there are some commonalities across ethnic
sub-groups, there are significant differences among different Asian
ethnicities that are related to each group's history. The Asian
American population is greatly urbanized, with nearly three-quarters
of them living in metropolitan areas with population greater than 2.5
million. As of July 2015[update],
California had the largest
population of Asian
Americans of any state, and
Hawaii was the only
state where Asian
Americans were the majority of the population.
The demographics of Asian
Americans can further be subdivided into, as
listed in alphabetical order:
East Asian Americans, including Chinese Americans, Japanese Americans,
Korean Americans, Mongolian Americans, Taiwanese Americans, and
South Asian Americans, including Bangladeshi Americans, Bhutanese
Americans, Indian Americans, Nepalese Americans, Pakistani Americans,
and Sri Lankan Americans
Southeast Asian Americans, including Burmese Americans, Cambodian
Americans, Filipino Americans, Hmong Americans, Indonesian Americans,
Laotian Americans, Malaysian Americans, Mien Americans, Singaporean
Americans, Thai Americans, and Vietnamese Americans.
Americans include multiracial or mixed race persons with origins
or ancestry in both the above groups and another race, or multiple of
the above groups.
In 2010, there were 2.8 million people (5 and older) who spoke a
Chinese language at home; after the Spanish language, it is the
third most common language in the United States. Other sizeable
Asian languages are Tagalog, Vietnamese, and Korean, with all three
having more than 1 million speakers in the United States.
In 2012, Alaska, California, Hawaii, Illinois, Massachusetts,
Michigan, Nevada, New Jersey, New York, Texas and Washington were
publishing election material in Asian languages in accordance with the
Voting Rights Act; these languages include Tagalog, Mandarin
Chinese, Vietnamese, Spanish,
Hindi and Bengali. Election
materials were also available in Gujarati, Japanese, Khmer, Korean,
and Thai. According to a poll conducted by the Asian American
Legal Defense and Education Fund in 2013, it found that 48 percent of
Americans considered media in their native language as their
primary news source.
According to the 2000 Census, the more prominent languages of the
Asian American community include the
Chinese languages (Cantonese,
Taishanese, and Hokkien), Tagalog, Vietnamese, Korean, Japanese,
Hindi, Urdu, and Gujarati. In 2008, the Chinese, Japanese, Korean,
Tagalog, and Vietnamese languages are all used in elections in Alaska,
California, Hawaii, Illinois, New York, Texas, and Washington
Pew Research Center
Pew Research Center study found the following breakdown of
religious identity among Asian Americans:
26% unaffiliated with any religion
2% other religion
The percentage of Christians among Asian
Americans has declined
sharply since the 1990s, chiefly due to largescale immigration from
countries in which Christianity is a minority religion (China and
India in particular). In 1990, 63% of the Asian
as Christians, while in 2001 only 43% did. This development has
been accompanied by a rise in traditional Asian religions, with the
people identifying with them doubling during the same decade.
Main article: History of Asian Americans
See also: Asian immigration to the United States
Five images of the Filipino settlement at Saint Malo, Louisiana
Americans originate from many different countries, each
population has its own unique immigration history.
Filipinos have been in the territories that would become the United
States since the 16th century. The earliest known arrival is that
of "Luzonians" in Morro Bay,
California on board the Manila-built
galleon ship Nuestra Senora de Esperanza in 1587, when both the
California were colonies of the Spanish Empire.
Romani people began emigrating to North America in colonial times,
with small groups recorded in Virginia and French Louisiana.[citation
needed] Larger-scale Roma emigration to the United States would follow
subsequently. In 1635, an "East Indian" is listed in
Jamestown, Virginia; preceding wider settlement of Indian
immigrants on the East Coast in the 1790s and the West Coast in the
1800s. In 1763,
Filipinos established the small settlement of
Saint Malo, Louisiana, after fleeing mistreatment aboard Spanish
ships. Since there were no Filipino women with them, these
'Manilamen', as they were known, married
Cajun and Native American
women. The first Japanese person to come to the United States, and
stay any significant period of time was
Nakahama Manjirō who reached
the East Coast in 1841, and
Joseph Heco became the first Japanese
American naturalized US citizen in 1858.
Chinese sailors first came to
Hawaii in 1789, a few years after
James Cook came upon the island. Many settled and married
Hawaiian women. Most Chinese, Korean and Japanese immigrants in Hawaii
arrived in the 19th century as laborers to work on sugar
plantations. There were thousands of Asians in
Hawaii when it was
annexed to the United States in 1898. Later,
Filipinos also came
to work as laborers, attracted by the job opportunities, although they
Large-scale migration from Asia to the United States began when
Chinese immigrants arrived on the West Coast in the mid-19th
century. Forming part of the
California gold rush, these early
Chinese immigrants participated intensively in the mining business and
later in the construction of the transcontinental railroad. By
1852, the number of Chinese immigrants in San Francisco had jumped to
more than 20,000. A wave of Japanese immigration to the United States
began after the
Meiji Restoration in 1868. In 1898, all Filipinos
in the Philippine Islands became American nationals when the United
States took over colonial rule of the islands from Spain following the
latter's defeat in the Spanish–American War.
Under United States law during this period, particularly the
Naturalization Act of 1790, only "free white persons" were eligible to
naturalize as American citizens. Ineligibility for citizenship
prevented Asian immigrants from accessing a variety of rights such as
Bhicaji Balsara became the first known Indian-born person
to gain naturalized U.S. citizenship. Balsara’s naturalization
was not the norm but an exception; in a pair of cases, Ozawa v. United
States (1922) and
United States v. Bhagat Singh Thind
United States v. Bhagat Singh Thind (1923), the
Supreme Court upheld the racial qualification for citizenship and
ruled that Asians were not "white persons." Second-generation Asian
Americans, however, could become U.S. citizens due to the birthright
citizenship clause of the Fourteenth Amendment; this guarantee was
confirmed as applying regardless of race or ancestry by the Supreme
United States v. Wong Kim Ark
United States v. Wong Kim Ark (1898).
From the 1880s to the 1920s, the United States passed laws
inaugurating an era of exclusion of Asian immigrants. Although the
absolute numbers of Asian immigrants were small compared to that of
immigrants from other regions, much of it was concentrated in the
West, and the increase caused some nativist sentiment known as the
"yellow peril". Congress passed restrictive legislation prohibiting
nearly all Chinese immigration in the 1880s. Japanese immigration
was sharply curtailed by a diplomatic agreement in 1907. The Asiatic
Barred Zone Act in 1917 further barred immigration from South Asia
(then-British India), Southeast Asia, and the Middle East. The
Immigration Act of 1924
Immigration Act of 1924 provided that no "alien ineligible for
citizenship" could be admitted as an immigrant to the United States,
consolidating the prohibition of Asian immigration.
World War II-era legislation and judicial rulings gradually increased
the ability of Asian
Americans to immigrate and become naturalized
citizens. Immigration rapidly increased following the enactment of the
Immigration and Nationality Act Amendments of 1965
Immigration and Nationality Act Amendments of 1965 as well as the
influx of refugees from conflicts occurring in
Southeast Asia such as
the Vietnam War. Asian American immigrants have a significant
percentage of individuals who have already achieved professional
status, a first among immigration groups.
Migration Policy Institute reports that the number of Asian
immigrants to the United States "grew from 491,000 in 1960 to about
12.8 million in 2014, representing a 2,597 percent increase." From
2000 to 2010, the Asian American population was the fastest growing
group according to the 2010 U.S. Census. By 2012, the
growth of Asian American population overtook the growth of Latino
American population according to the
Pew Research Center; it also
found that illegal immigration from Asia was significantly less than
from Latin America. In 2015,
Pew Research Center
Pew Research Center found that from
2010 to 2015 more immigrants came from Asia than from Latin America,
and that since 1965 Asians have made up a quarter of all
Asians have made up an increasing proportion of the foreign-born
Americans: "In 1960, Asians represented 5 percent of the U.S.
foreign-born population; by 2014, their share grew to 30 percent of
the nation's 42.4 million immigrants." As of 2016, "Asia is the
second-largest region of birth (after Latin America) of U.S.
immigrants." In 2013, China surpassed Mexico as the top single
country of origin for immigrants to the U.S. Asian immigrants "are
more likely than the overall foreign-born population to be naturalized
citizens"; in 2014, 59% of Asian immigrants had U.S. citizenship,
compared to 47% of all immigrants. Postwar Asian immigration to
the U.S. has been diverse: in 2014, 31% of Asian immigrants to the
U.S. were from
East Asian (predominately China and Korea); 27.7% were
South Asia (predominately India); 32.6% were from Southeastern
Asia (predominately the
Philippines and Vietnam) and 8.3% were from
Asian American movement
Main article: Asian American movement
Asian American movement refers to a pan-Asian movement in the
United States in which
Americans of Asian descent came together to
fight against their shared oppression and to organize for recognition
and advancement of their shared cause during the 1960s to the early
1980s. According to William Wei, the movement was "rooted in a past
history of oppression and a present struggle for liberation." This
occurred around the same time as the Chicano movement, Civil Rights
American Indian Movement
American Indian Movement and the gay liberation movement.
For a more comprehensive list, see List of Asian Americans.
Arts and entertainment
Main article: Asian
Americans in arts and entertainment
See also: Asian-American literature
Americans have been involved in the entertainment industry since
the first half of the 19th century, when
Chang and Eng Bunker
Chang and Eng Bunker (the
original "Siamese Twins") became naturalized citizens. Acting
roles in television, film, and theater were relatively few, and many
available roles were for narrow, stereotypical characters. More
recently, young Asian American comedians and film-makers have found an
YouTube allowing them to gain a strong and loyal fanbase
among their fellow Asian Americans. There have been several Asian
American-centric television shows in American media, beginning with
Mr. T and Tina
Mr. T and Tina in 1976, and as recent as
Fresh Off the Boat
Fresh Off the Boat in
2015. Throughout the 1990s there was a growing amount of Asian
American queer writings and today the list of contributing writers
is long. To name a few:
Merle Woo (1941), Willyce Kim (1946), Russell
Leong (1950), Kitty Tsui (1952),
Dwight Okita (1958), Norman Wong
(1963), Tim Liu (1965),
Chay Yew (1965), and
Justin Chin (1969).
This section is missing information about the history of the subject.
Please expand the section to include this information. Further details
may exist on the talk page. (August 2009)
Americans were largely excluded from labor markets in the
19th century, they started their own businesses. They have started
convenience and grocery stores, professional offices such as medical
and law practices, laundries, restaurants, beauty-related ventures,
hi-tech companies, and many other kinds of enterprises, becoming very
successful and influential in American society. They have dramatically
expanded their involvement across the American economy. Asian
Americans have been disproportionately successful in the hi-tech
sectors of California's Silicon Valley, as evidenced by the Goldsea
100 Compilation of America's Most Successful Asian Entrepreneurs.
Compared to their population base, Asian
Americans today are well
represented in the professional sector and tend to earn higher
Goldsea compilation of Notable Asian American
Professionals show that many have come to occupy high positions at
leading U.S. corporations, including a surprising number as Chief
Americans have made major contributions to the American economy.
In 2012, Asian
Americans own 1.5 million businesses, employ around 3
million people who earn an annual total payroll of around $80
billion. Fashion designer and mogul Vera Wang, who is famous for
designing dresses for high-profile celebrities, started a clothing
company, named after herself, which now offers a broad range of luxury
An Wang founded
Wang Laboratories in June 1951. Amar
Bose founded the
Bose Corporation in 1964.
Charles Wang founded
Computer Associates, later became its CEO and chairman. Two brothers,
David Khym and Kenny Khym founded
Hip hop fashion
Hip hop fashion giant Southpole
(clothing) in 1991.
Jen-Hsun Huang co-founded the
in 1993. Jerry Yang co-founded Yahoo! Inc. in 1994 and became its CEO
Andrea Jung serves as Chairman and CEO of Avon Products. Vinod
Khosla was a founding CEO of
Sun Microsystems and is a general partner
of the prominent venture capital firm Kleiner Perkins Caufield &
Byers. Steve Chen and
Jawed Karim were co-creators of YouTube, and
were beneficiaries of Google's $1.65 billion acquisition of that
company in 2006. In addition to contributing greatly to other fields,
Americans have made considerable contributions in science and
technology in the United States, in such prominent innovative R&D
Silicon Valley and The Triangle.
Government and politics
Main article: Asian
Americans in government and politics
Americans have a high level of political incorporation in terms
of their actual voting population. Since 1907, Asian
been active at the national level and have had multiple officeholders
at local, state, and national levels.
The highest ranked Asian American in the legislature was Senator and
President pro tempore Daniel Inouye, who died in office in 2012; by
order of precedence the highest ranked Asian American in office is
Secretary of Transportation
Secretary of Transportation Elaine Chao. There are several
Americans in the United States Congress. With higher
proportions and densities of Asian American populations,
most consistently sent Asian
Americans to the Senate, and
California have most consistently sent Asian
Americans to the House of
Connie Chung was one of the first Asian American national
correspondents for a major TV news network, reporting for CBS in 1971.
She later co-anchored the CBS Evening News from 1993 to 1995, becoming
the first Asian American national news anchor. At ABC, Ken
Kashiwahara began reporting nationally in 1974. In 1989, Emil
Guillermo, a Filipino American born reporter from San Francisco,
became the first Asian American male to co-host a national news show
when he was senior host at National Public Radio's "All Things
Considered." In 1990, Sheryl WuDunn, a foreign correspondent in the
Beijing Bureau of The New York Times, became the first Asian American
to win a Pulitzer Prize.
Ann Curry joined NBC News as a reporter in
1990, later becoming prominently associated with The Today Show in
Carol Lin is perhaps best known for being the first to break the
9-11 on CNN. Dr.
Sanjay Gupta is currently CNN's chief health
correspondent. Lisa Ling, a former co-host on The View, now provides
special reports for
CNN and The Oprah Winfrey Show, as well as hosting
National Geographic Channel's Explorer. Fareed Zakaria, a naturalized
Indian-born immigrant, is a prominent journalist and author
specializing in international affairs. He is the editor-at-large of
Time magazine, and the host of
Fareed Zakaria GPS on CNN. Juju Chang,
James Hatori, John Yang, Veronica De La Cruz, Michelle Malkin, Betty
Julie Chen have become familiar faces on television news.
John Yang won a Peabody Award. Alex Tizon, a
Seattle Times staff
writer, won a Pulitzer Prize in 1997.
Main article: Military History of Asian Americans
See also: Notable Asian
Americans in the Military
War of 1812
War of 1812 Asian
Americans have served and fought on behalf
of the United States. Serving in both segregated and non-segregated
units until the desegregation of the US Military in 1948, 31 have been
awarded the nation's highest award for combat valor, the Medal of
Honor. Twenty-one of these were conferred upon members of the mostly
Japanese American 100th Infantry Battalion of the 442nd Regimental
Combat Team of World War II, the most highly decorated unit of its
size in the history of the United States Armed Forces. The
highest ranked Asian American military official was Secretary of
Veteran Affairs, four-star general and Army Chief of Staff Eric
Science and technology
Americans have made many notable contributions to Science and
Chien-Shiung Wu was known to many scientists as the "First Lady of
Physics" and played a pivotal role in experimentally demonstrating the
violation of the law of conservation of parity in the field of
particle physics. Fazlur Rahman Khan, also known as named as "The
Father of tubular designs for high-rises", was highlighted by
President Barack Obama in a 2009 speech in Cairo, Egypt, and has
been called "Einstein of Structural engineering". Min Chueh Chang
was the co-inventor of the combined oral contraceptive pill and
contributed significantly to the development of in vitro fertilisation
at the Worcester Foundation for Experimental Biology. David T. Wong
was one of the scientists credited with the discovery of
Fluoxetine as well as the discovery of
atomoxetine, duloxetine and dapoxetine with colleagues.
Michio Kaku has popularized science and has appeared on multiple
programs on television and radio.
Tsung-Dao Lee and
Chen Ning Yang
Chen Ning Yang received the 1957 Nobel Prize in
Physics for theoretical work demonstrating that the conservation of
parity did not always hold and later became American citizens. Har
Gobind Khorana shared the 1968 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
for his work in genetics and protein synthesis. Samuel Chao Chung Ting
received the 1976 Nobel Prize in physics for discovery of the
subatomic particle J/ψ. The mathematician
Shing-Tung Yau won the
Fields Medal in 1982 and
Terence Tao won the
Fields Medal in 2006. The
Shiing-Shen Chern received the
Wolf Prize in Mathematics
Wolf Prize in Mathematics in
Andrew Yao was awarded the
Turing Award in 2000. Subrahmanyan
Chandrasekhar shared the 1983
Nobel Prize in Physics
Nobel Prize in Physics and had the
Chandra X-ray Observatory
Chandra X-ray Observatory named after him. In 1984, Dr. David D. Ho
first reported the "healthy carrier state" of HIV infection, which
identified HIV-positive individuals who showed no physical signs of
Charles J. Pedersen
Charles J. Pedersen shared the 1987 Nobel Prize in chemistry for
his methods of synthesizing crown ethers.
Steven Chu shared the 1997
Nobel Prize in Physics
Nobel Prize in Physics for his research in cooling and trapping atoms
using laser light.
Daniel Tsui shared the 1998 Nobel Prize in Physics
in 1998 for helping discover the fractional Quantum Hall effect. In
Roger Tsien won the Nobel in Chemistry for his work
on engineering and improving the green fluorescent protein (GFP) that
has become a standard tool of modern molecular biology and
Yoichiro Nambu received the 2008 Nobel Prize in Physics
for his work on the consequences of spontaneously broken symmetries in
field theories. In 2009,
Charles K. Kao
Charles K. Kao was awarded Nobel Prize in
Physics "for groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission
of light in fibres for optical communication" and Venkatraman
Ramakrishnan won the prize in Chemistry "for studies of the structure
and function of the ribosome".
Ching W. Tang was the inventor of the
Organic light-emitting diode
Organic light-emitting diode and
Organic solar cell
Organic solar cell and was awarded
Wolf Prize in Chemistry for this achievement. Manjul
American Canadian of Indian origins won the Fields Medal
in mathematics in 2014.
Shuji Nakamura won the 2014 Nobel Prize in
Physics for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes.
Yitang Zhang is a Chinese-born American mathematician working in the
area of number theory. While working for the University of New
Hampshire as a lecturer, Zhang submitted an article to the Annals of
Mathematics in 2013 which established the first finite bound on gaps
between prime numbers, which lead to a 2014 MacArthur award.
This section needs expansion with: examples and additional citations.
You can help by adding to it. (October 2009)
See also: List of Asian American astronauts
Ellison Onizuka became the first Asian American (and third person
East Asian descent) when he made his first space flight aboard
STS-51-C in 1985. Onizuka later died aboard the Space Shuttle
Challenger in 1986.
Taylor Gun-Jin Wang
Taylor Gun-Jin Wang became the first person of
Chinese ethnicity and first Chinese American, in space in 1985; he has
since been followed by
Leroy Chiao in 1994, and
Ed Lu in 1997. In
Franklin Chang-Diaz became the first
Asian Latin American in
Eugene H. Trinh
Eugene H. Trinh became the first Vietnamese American in space
in 1992. In 2001, Mark L. Polansky, a Jewish Korean American, made his
first of three flights into space. In 2003,
Kalpana Chawla became the
Indian American in space, but died aboard the ill-fated Space
Shuttle Columbia. She has since been followed by CDR Sunita Williams
Wataru Misaka broke the NBA color barrier when he played for the New
York Knicks in the 1947–48 season. The next Asian American NBA
player was Raymond Townsend, who played for the Golden State Warriors
Indiana Pacers from 1978 to 1982. Rex Walters, played from
1993 to 2000 with the Nets,
Philadelphia 76ers and Miami Heat; he
is presently the head coach for the University of San Francisco
basketball team. After playing basketball at Harvard University,
Jeremy Lin signed with the NBA's
Golden State Warriors
Golden State Warriors in
2010 and now plays for the Brooklyn Nets.
Jordan Clarkson of the
Los Angeles Lakers
Los Angeles Lakers is also of partial Filipino-American descent.
Kansas Jayhawks assistant coach
Kurtis Townsend is Raymond
Erik Spoelstra became the youngest coach ever in NBA history. He is
currently the head coach of the Miami Heat.
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help
improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (December 2012)
(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Wally Yonamine played professionally for the San
Francisco 49ers in 1947.
Norm Chow is currently the head coach
for the University of
Hawaii and former offensive coordinator for UCLA
after a short stint with the Tennessee Titans of the NFL, after 23
years of coaching other college teams, including four years as
offensive coordinator at USC. In 1962, half Filipino
Roman Gabriel was
the first Asian American to start as an NFL quarterback. Dat Nguyen
was an NFL middle linebacker who was an all-pro selection in 2003 for
the Dallas Cowboys. In 1998, he was named an All-American and won the
Bednarik Award as well as the Lombardi Award, while playing for Texas
Hines Ward who was born to a Korean mother and an
African American father, is a former NFL wide receiver who was the MVP
Super Bowl XL
Super Bowl XL and Ward also won the 12th season of the Dancing with
the Stars television series. Former Patriot's linebacker Tedy Bruschi
is of Filipino and Italian descent. While playing for the Patriots,
Bruschi won three Super Bowl rings and was a two-time All-Pro
selection. Bruschi is currently a NFL analyst at ESPN.
Mixed martial arts
There are several top ranked Asian American mixed martial artists. BJ
Penn is a former UFC lightweight and welterweight champion.
Cung Le is
a former Strikeforce middleweight champion.
Benson Henderson is the
former WEC lightweight champion and a former UFC lightweight champion.
Nam Phan is UFC featherweight fighter.
Americans first made an impact in Olympic sports in the late
1940s and in the 1950s. Sammy Lee became the first Asian American to
earn an Olympic Gold Medal, winning in platform diving in both 1948
and 1952. Victoria Manalo Draves won both gold in platform and
springboard diving in the 1948.
Harold Sakata won a weightlifting
silver medal in the 1948 Olympics, while
Tommy Kono (weightlifting),
Yoshinobu Oyakawa (100-meter backstroke), and
Ford Konno (1500-meter
freestyle) each won gold and set Olympic records in the 1952 Olympics.
Konno won another gold and silver swimming medal at the same Olympics
and added a silver medal in 1956, while Kono set another Olympic
weightlifting record in 1956. Also at the 1952 Olympics, Evelyn
Kawamoto won two bronze medals in swimming.
Amy Chow was a member of the gold medal women's gymnastics team at the
1996 Olympics; she also won an individual silver medal on the uneven
Mohini Bhardwaj won a team silver medal in the 2004
Bryan Clay who is of Half-Japanese descent won the
decathlon gold medal in the 2008 Olympics, the silver medal in the
2004 Olympics, and was the sport's 2005 world champion.
Tiffany Chin won the women's US Figure Skating Championship in
Americans have been prominent in that sport. Kristi
Yamaguchi won three national championships, two world titles, and the
1992 Olympic Gold medal.
Michelle Kwan has won nine national
championships and five world titles, as well as two Olympic medals
(silver in 1998, bronze in 2002).
Apolo Ohno, who is of half-Japanese descent, is a short track
speed skater and an eight-time Olympic medalist as well as the most
decorated American Winter Olympic athlete of all time. He became the
youngest U.S. national champion in 1997 and was the reigning champion
from 2001 to 2009, winning the title a total of 12 times. In 1999, he
became the youngest skater to win a World Cup event title, and became
the first American to win a World Cup overall title in 2001, which he
won again in 2003 and 2005. He won his first overall World
Championship title at the 2008 championships.
Nathan Adrian, who is a hapa of half-Chinese descent, is a
professional American swimmer and three-time Olympic gold medalist who
currently holds the American record in the 50 and 100-yard freestyle
(short course) events. He has won a total of fifteen medals in major
international competitions, twelve gold, two silver, and one bronze
spanning the Olympics, the World, and the Pan Pacific Championships.
Bryan Clay, who won the
2008 Summer Olympics
2008 Summer Olympics gold in the decathlon. He
also previously won a silver medal in the decathlon in the 2004 Summer
Olympics. Clay was dubbed the "World's Greatest Athlete" for the 2008
win with a 240-point margin between him and the next competitor. He is
afro-asian with his father being
Black and his mother being Japanese.
This section needs expansion with: examples and additional citations.
You can help by adding to it. (February 2012)
Michael Chang was a top-ranked tennis player for most of his career,
and the youngest ever winner of a Grand Slam tennis tournament in
men's singles. He won the French Open in 1989. Tiger Woods, who is
partially of Asian descent, is the most successful golfer of his
generation and one of the most famous athletes in the world. Eric
Koston is one of the top street skateboarders and placed first in the
X-Games street competition.
Richard Park is a
Korean American ice
hockey player who currently plays for the Swiss team HC Ambri-Piotta.
Brian Ching, whose father was Chinese, represented the United States
Men's National Soccer Team, scoring 11 goals in 45 caps. He
participated in the
2006 World Cup
2006 World Cup and won the 2007 Gold Cup.
Julie Chu, who is three-quarter Chinese and one-quarter Puerto
Rican, is an American Olympic ice hockey player who played for
the United States women's ice hockey team. She was also US Olympic
Team Flag Bearer for the 2014 Winter Olympic Closing Ceremonies.
In recognition of the unique culture, traditions, and history of Asian
Americans and Pacific Islanders, the
United States government
United States government has
permanently designated the month of May to be Asian Pacific American
Health and medicine
See also: Health status of Asian Americans
Asian immigrants are also changing the American medical landscape
through increasing number of Asian medical practitioners in the United
States. Beginning in the 1960s and 1970s, the US government invited a
number of foreign physicians particularly from India and the
Philippines to address the acute shortage of physicians in rural and
medically underserved urban areas. The trend in importing foreign
medical practitioners, however, became a long-term, chronic solution
as US medical schools failed to produce enough physicians to match the
increasing American population. Amid decreasing interest in medicine
among American college students due to high educational costs and high
rates of job dissatisfaction, loss of morale, stress, and lawsuits,
Asian American immigrants maintained a supply of healthcare
practitioners for millions of Americans. It is well documented that
Asian American international medical graduates including highly
skilled guest workers using the J1 Visa program for medical workers,
tend to serve in health professions shortage areas (HPSA) and
specialties that are not filled by US medical graduates especially
primary care and rural medicine. Thus, Asian American
immigrants play a key role in averting a medical crisis in the US.
A lasting legacy of Asian American involvement in medicine is the
forcing of US medical establishment to accept minority medical
practitioners. One could speculate that the introduction of Asian
physicians and dentists to the American society could have triggered
an acceptance of other minority groups by breaking down stereotypes
and encouraging trust.
Traditional Asian concepts and practices in health and medicine have
attracted greater acceptance and are more widely adopted by American
Ayurveda and traditional
Chinese medicine (which also
includes acupuncture) are two alternative therapy systems that have
been studied and adopted to a great extent. For instance, in the early
1970s the US medical establishment did not believe in the usefulness
of acupuncture. Since then studies have proven the efficacy of
acupuncture for different applications, especially for treatment of
chronic pain. It is now covered by many health insurance plans.
Herbalism and massage therapy (from Ayurveda) are sweeping the spas
across America. Meditation and yoga (from India) have also been widely
adopted by health spas, and spiritual retreats of many religious
bases. They are also part of the spiritual practice of the many
Americans who are not affiliated with a mainline religious
Origins of foreign doctors in the US
Country of Origin
Percentage of Total IMGs in US
Origins of foreign dentists in the US
Country of Origin
Percentage of Total IDGs in US
Origins of foreign nurses in the US
Country of Origin
Percentage of Total INGs in US
(25 and older)
or higher (2010)
Total U.S. population
Sources: 2004 and 2010
Among America's major racial categories, Asian
Americans have the
highest educational qualifications. This varies, however, for
individual ethnic groups. Dr. C.N. Le, Director of the Asian &
Asian American Studies Certificate Program at the University of
Massachusetts, writes that although 42% of all Asian American adults
have at least a college degree,
Vietnamese Americans have a degree
attainment rate of only 16% while Laotians and Cambodians only have
rates around 5%. It has been noted, however, that 2008 US Census
statistics put the bachelor's degree attainment rate of Vietnamese
Americans at 26%, which is not very different from the rate of 27% for
all Americans. According to the
US Census Bureau in 2010, while
the high school graduation rate for Asian
Americans is on par with
those of other ethnic groups, 50% of Asian
Americans have attained at
least a bachelor's degree as compared with the national average of
28%, and 34% for non-Hispanic whites.
Indian Americans have
some of the highest education rates, with nearly 71% having attained
at least a bachelor's degree in 2010. According to Carolyn Chen,
director of the Asian American Studies Program at Northwestern
University, as of December 2012[update] Asian
Americans made up
twelve to eighteen percent of the student population at Ivy League
schools, larger than their share of the population. For example,
the Harvard Class of 2016 is 21% Asian American.
In the years immediately preceding 2012, 61% of Asian American adult
immigrants have a bachelor or higher level college education.
Social and political issues
Main article: Bamboo ceiling
This concept appears to elevate Asian
Americans by portraying them as
an elite group of successful, highly educated, intelligent, and
wealthy individuals, but it can also be considered an overly narrow
and overly one-dimensional portrayal of Asian Americans, leaving out
other human qualities such as vocal leadership, negative emotions,
risk taking, ability to learn from mistakes, and desire for creative
expression. Furthermore, Asian
Americans who do not fit into the
model minority mold can face challenges when people's expectations
based on the model minority myth do not match with reality. Traits
outside of the model minority mold can be seen as negative character
flaws for Asian
Americans despite those very same traits being
positive for the general American majority (e.g., risk taking,
confidence, empowered). For this reason, Asian
Americans encounter a
"bamboo ceiling", the Asian American equivalent of the glass ceiling
in the workplace, with only 1.5% of
Fortune 500 CEOs being Asians, a
percentage smaller than their percentage of the total United States
The bamboo ceiling is defined as a combination of individual,
cultural, and organisational factors that impede Asian Americans'
career progress inside organizations. Since then, a variety of sectors
(including nonprofits, universities, the government) have discussed
the impact of the ceiling as it relates to Asians and the challenges
they face. As described by Anne Fisher, the "bamboo ceiling" refers to
the processes and barriers that serve to exclude Asians and American
people of Asian descent from executive positions on the basis of
subjective factors such as "lack of leadership potential" and "lack of
communication skills" that cannot actually be explained by job
performance or qualifications. Articles regarding the subject
have been published in Crains, Fortune magazine, and The
See also: Deportation of Cambodians from the United States
In 2012, there were 1.3 million alien Asian Americans; and for those
awaiting visas, there were lengthy backlogs with over 450 thousand
Filipinos, over 325 thousand Indians, over 250 thousand Vietnamese,
and over 225 thousand Chinese are awaiting visas. As of 2009,
Filipinos and Indians accounted for the highest number of alien
immigrants for "Asian Americans" with an estimated illegal population
of 270,000 and 200,000 respectively.
Indian Americans are also the
fastest growing alien immigrant group in the United States, an
increase in illegal immigration of 125% since 2000. This is
Koreans (200,000) and Chinese (120,000).
Due to the stereotype of Asian
Americans being successful as a group
and having the lowest crime rates in the United States, illegal
immigration is mostly focused on those from Mexico and Latin America
while leaving out Asians. Asians are the second largest
racial/ethnic alien immigrant group in the U.S. behind Hispanics and
Latinos. While the majority of Asian immigrants to the United
States immigrate legally, up to 15% of Asian immigrants immigrate
without legal documents.
See also: Yellow Peril, Anti-Chinese sentiment in the United States,
Anti-Filipino sentiment § United States, Anti-Japanese sentiment
in the United States, and Anti-Pakistan sentiment
Americans have been the target of violence based on their race
and or ethnicity. This includes, but are not limited to, such events
as the Rock Springs massacre, Watsonville Riots, attacks
Japanese Americans following the attack on Pearl Harbor, and
Korean American businesses targeted during the 1992 Los Angeles
riots. According to historian Arif Dirlik: "Indian massacres of
Chinese was a commonplace experience on the frontier, the most notable
being the 'legendary slaughter by
Paiute Indians of forty to sixty
Chinese miners in 1866.'" In the late 1980s, South Asians in New
Jersey faced assault and other hate crimes by a group known as the
After the September 11 attacks,
Americans were targeted, being
the recipient of numerous hate crimes including murder. Other
Americans have also been the victim of race based violence in
Brooklyn, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and Bloomington,
Indiana. Furthermore, it has been reported that young Asian
Americans are more likely to be a target of violence than their
peers. Racism and discrimination still persists against
Asian Americans, occurring not only to recent immigrants but also
towards well-educated and highly trained professionals.
Recent waves of immigration of Asian
Americans to largely African
American neighborhoods have led to cases of severe racial
tensions. Acts of large-scale violence against Asian American
students by their black classmates have been reported in multiple
cities. In October 2008, 30 black students chased and attacked 5
Asian students at South Philadelphia High School, and a similar
attack on Asian students occurred at the same school one year later,
prompting a protest by Asian students in response.
Asian-owned businesses have been a frequent target of tensions between
black and Asian Americans. During the 1992 Los Angeles riots, more
than 2000 Korean-owned businesses were looted or burned by groups of
African Americans. From 1990 to 1991, a high-profile,
racially-motivated boycott of an Asian-owned shop in Brooklyn was
organized by a local black nationalist activist, eventually resulting
in the owner being forced to sell his business. Another
racially-motivated boycott against an Asian-owned business occurred in
Dallas in 2012, after an Asian American clerk fatally shot an African
American who had robbed his store. During the
Ferguson unrest in
2014, Asian-owned businesses were looted, and Asian-owned stores
were looted during the
2015 Baltimore protests
2015 Baltimore protests while African-American
owned stores were bypassed. Violence against Asian Americans
continue to occur based on their race, with one source asserting
Americans are the fastest growing targets of hate crimes
Stereotypes of East Asians in the United States
Stereotypes of East Asians in the United States and
Stereotypes of South Asians
See also: Ching chong
Until the late 20th century, the term "Asian American" was adopted
mostly by activists, while the average person of Asian ancestries
identified with their specific ethnicity. The murder of Vincent
Chin in 1982 was a pivotal civil rights case, and it marked the
emergence of Asian
Americans as a distinct group in United
Stereotypes of Asians have been largely collectively internalized by
society and these stereotypes have mainly negative repercussions for
Americans and Asian immigrants in daily interactions, current
events, and governmental legislation. In many instances, media
portrayals of East Asians often reflect a dominant Americentric
perception rather than realistic and authentic depictions of true
cultures, customs and behaviors. Asians have experienced
discrimination and have been victims of hate crimes related to their
Study has indicated that most non-Asian
Americans do not generally
differentiate between Asian
Americans of different ethnicities.
Chinese Americans and Asian
Americans are nearly
identical. A 2002 survey of Americans' attitudes toward Asian
Chinese Americans indicated that 24% of the respondents
disapprove of intermarriage with an Asian American, second only to
African Americans; 23% would be uncomfortable supporting an Asian
American presidential candidate, compared to 15% for an African
American, 14% for a woman and 11% for a Jew; 17% would be upset if a
substantial number of Asian
Americans moved into their neighborhood;
25% had somewhat or very negative attitude toward
Chinese Americans in
general. The study did find several positive perceptions of
Chinese Americans: strong family values (91%); honesty as business
people (77%); high value on education (67%).
There is a widespread perception that Asian
Americans are not
"American" but are instead "perpetual foreigners".
Americans often report being asked the question, "Where are you
really from?" by other Americans, regardless of how long they or their
ancestors have lived in United States and been a part of its
society. Many Asian
Americans are themselves not immigrants but
rather born in the United States. Many
Americans are asked
if they are Chinese or Japanese, an assumption based on major groups
of past immigrants.
Main article: Model minority
Americans are sometimes characterized as a model minority in the
United States because many of their cultures encourage a strong work
ethic, a respect for elders, a high degree of professional and
academic success, a high valuation of family, education and
religion. Statistics such as high household income and low
incarceration rate, low rates of many diseases, and higher than
average life expectancy are also discussed as positive aspects of
The implicit advice is that the other minorities should stop
protesting and emulate the Asian American work ethic and devotion to
higher education. Some critics say the depiction replaces biological
racism with cultural racism, and should be dropped. According to
the Washington Post, "the idea that Asian
Americans are distinct among
minority groups and immune to the challenges faced by other people of
color is a particularly sensitive issue for the community, which has
recently fought to reclaim its place in social justice conversations
with movements like #ModelMinorityMutiny."
The model minority concept can also affect Asians' public
education. By comparison with other minorities, Asians often
achieve higher test scores and grades compared to other
Americans. Stereotyping Asian American as over-achievers can lead
to harm if school officials or peers expect all to perform higher than
average. The very high educational attainments of Asian Americans
has often been noted; in 1980, for example, 74% of Chinese Americans,
62% of Japanese Americans, and 55% of
Korean Americans aged 20–21
were in college, compared to only a third of the whites. The disparity
at postgraduate levels is even greater, and the differential is
especially notable in fields making heavy use of mathematics. By 2000,
a plurality of undergraduates at such elite public
UC Berkeley and UCLA, which are obligated by law to not consider
race as a factor in admission, were Asian American. The pattern is
rooted in the pre-World War II era. Native-born Chinese and Japanese
Americans reached educational parity with majority whites in the early
decades of the 20th century.
The model minority concept can be emotionally damaging to some Asian
Americans, particularly since they are expected to live up to those
peers who fit the stereotype. Studies have shown that some Asian
Americans suffer from higher rates of stress, depression, mental
illnesses, and suicides in comparison to other races, indicating
that the pressures to achieve and live up to the model minority image
may take a mental and psychological toll on some Asian Americans.
The "model minority" stereotype fails to distinguish between different
ethnic groups with different histories. When divided up by ethnicity,
it can be seen that the economic and academic successes supposedly
enjoyed by Asian
Americans are concentrated into a few ethnic groups.
Cambodians, Hmong, and Laotians (and to a lesser extent, Vietnamese),
all of whose relatively low achievement rates are possibly due to
their refugee status, and that they are non-voluntary immigrants;
additionally, one in five Hmong and Bangladeshi people live in
Social and economic disparities among Asian Americans
In 2015, Asian American earnings were found to exceed all other racial
groups when all Asian ethnic groups are grouped as a whole. Yet,
a 2014 report from the Census Bureau reported that 12% of Asian
Americans were living below the poverty line, while only 10.1% of
White Americans live below the poverty line.
According to the Center for American Progress, a progressive public
policy research and advocacy organization, when comparing wealth
inequality between Asian
Americans and non-Hispanic White Americans,
Americans suffered a greater gap between wealthy and non-wealthy
Asian Americans. Once country of birth and other demographic
factors are taken into account, a portion of the sub-groups that make
Americans are much more likely than non-Hispanic White
Americans to live in poverty. According to an
article published by
National Public Radio
National Public Radio some Asian ethnic groups
African American when they were quoted as saying "when
you break it down by specific ethnic groups, the Hmong, the
Bangladeshi, they have poverty rates that rival the African-American
There are major disparities that exist among Asian
specific ethnic groups are examined. For example, in 2012, Asian
Americans had the highest educational attainment level of any racial
demographic in the country. Yet, there are many sub groups of
Americans who suffer in terms of education with some sub groups
showing a high rate of dropping out of school or lacking a college
education. This occurs in terms of household income as
well, in 2008 Asian
Americans had the highest median household income
overall of any racial demographic. There are Asian sub
groups have average median incomes lower than both the U.S. average
and non-Hispanic Whites. In 2014, data released by the United
States Census Bureau revealed that 5 Asian American ethnic groups are
in the top 10 lowest earning ethnicities in terms of per capita income
in all of the United States.
The Asian American groups that have low educational attainment and
high rates of poverty both in average individual and median income are
Bhutanese Americans, Bangladeshi Americans,
Cambodian Americans, Burmese Americans, Nepali
Americans, Hmong Americans, and Laotian
Americans. This affects
Vietnamese Americans as well, albeit to a
lesser degree, as early 21st century immigration from Vietnam are not
from refugee backgrounds. These individual ethnicities experience
social issues within their communities, some specific to their
individual communities themselves. Issues such as suicide, crime, and
mental illness. Other issues experienced include deportation, and
poor physical health. Within the
Bhutanese American community, it
has been documented that there are issues of suicide greater than the
world's average. Cambodian Americans, some of who immigrated as
refugees, are subject to deportation. Crime and gang violence are
common social issues among Southeast Asian
Americans of refugee
backgrounds such as Cambodian, Laotian, Hmong, and Vietnamese
United States portal
Social sciences portal
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Asian Americans.
Asian Pacific American Heritage Month
Asian American and Pacific Islander Policy Research Consortium
Asian American studies
Americans in New York City
Asian Hispanic and Latino Americans
Asian Latin Americans
Asian New Zealanders
Asian Pacific American
Jade Ribbon Campaign
Index of Asian American-related articles
^ a b "ACS DEMOGRAPHIC AND HOUSING ESTIMATES: 2016 American Community
Survey 1-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved March
^ a b "Most Children Younger Than Age 1 are Minorities, Census Bureau
Reports – Population – Newsroom – U.S. Census Bureau". United
States Census Bureau. May 17, 2012. Retrieved November 13, 2012.
"Cumulative Estimates of the Components of Resident Population Change
by Race and Hispanic Origin for the United States: April 1, 2010 to
July 1, 2011 (NC-EST2011-04)". United States Census Bureau. United
States Department of Commerce. May 2012. Retrieved May 22, 2013.
"Asian/Pacific American Heritage Month: May 2013" (PDF). United States
Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. March 27, 2013.
Retrieved May 22, 2013. 18.2 million
The estimated number of U.S. residents in 2011 who were Asian, either
alone or in combination with one or more additional races.
"Asian American/Pacific Islander Profile". Office of Minority Health.
United States Department of Health & Human Services. September 17,
2012. Archived from the original on April 3, 2013. Retrieved May 22,
2013. According to the 2011 Census Bureau population estimate, there
are 18.2 million Asian Americans, alone or in combination, living in
the United States. Asian
Americans account for 5.8 percent of the
"Asian American Populations". Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention. United States Department of Health & Human Services.
May 7, 2013. Archived from the original on June 15, 2013. Retrieved
May 20, 2013. In 2011, the population of Asians, including those of
more than one race, was estimated at 18.2 million in the U.S.
^ "As Census approaches, some advocates worried Asian
be undercounted". NBC News. Retrieved November 29, 2017.
^ "Supplemental Table 2. Persons Obtaining Lawful Permanent Resident
Status by Leading Core Based Statistical Areas (CBSAs) of Residence
and Region and Country of Birth: Fiscal Year 2014". U.S. Department of
Homeland Security. Retrieved June 1, 2016.
^ a b Jonathan H. X. Lee; Kathleen M. Nadeau (2011). Encyclopedia of
Asian American Folklore and Folklife. ABC-CLIO. pp. 333–334.
ISBN 978-0-313-35066-5. Since the
Philippines was colonized by
Filipino Americans in general can speak and understand Spanish
^ "Asian Americans: A Mosaic of Faiths". The Pew Forum on Religion
& Public Life.
Pew Research Center. July 19, 2012. Retrieved
February 15, 2013.
Jain *% Unaffiliated 26%, Don't know/Refused 1%
^ Karen R. Humes; Nicholas A. Jones; Roberto R. Ramirez (March 2011).
"Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2010" (PDF). United States
Census Bureau. U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved January 5,
^ a b c U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000 Summary
File 1 Technical
Documentation, 2001, at Appendix B-14. "A person having origins in any
of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian
subcontinent including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan,
Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and
Vietnam. It includes Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Korean,
Japanese, Vietnamese, and Other Asian."
^ "U.S. Census Show Asians Are Fastest Growing Racial Group". NPR.org.
^ a b K. Connie Kang (September 7, 2002). "Yuji Ichioka, 66; Led Way
in Studying Lives of Asian Americans". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved
May 4, 2013. Yet Ichioka created the first inter-ethnic pan-Asian
American political group. And he coined the term "Asian American" to
frame a new self-defining political lexicon. Before that, people of
Asian ancestry were generally called
Oriental or Asiatic.
^ Mio, Jeffrey Scott, ed. (1999). Key Words in Multicultural
Interventions: A Dictionary. ABC-Clio ebook. Greenwood Publishing
Group. p. 20. ISBN 9780313295478. Retrieved August 19, 2014.
The use of the term Asian American began in the late 1960s alongside
the civil rights movement (Uba, 1994) and replaced disparaging labels
of Oriental, Asiatic, and Mongoloid.
^ "Proceedings of the Asiatic Exclusion League" Asiatic Exclusion
League. San Francisco: April 1910. Pg. 7. "To amend section twenty-one
hundred and sixty-nine of the Revised Statutes of the United States.
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United
States of America in Congress assembled, that section twenty-one
hundred and sixty-nine of the Revised Statutes of the United States
be, and the same is hereby, amended by adding thereto the following:
And Mongolians, Malays, and other Asiatics, except Armenians,
Assyrians, and Jews, shall not be naturalized in the United States."
How the U.S. Courts Established the White Race Archived August 11,
2014, at the Wayback Machine.
^ Chin, Gabriel J. (April 18, 2008). "The Civil Rights Revolution
Comes to Immigration Law: A New Look at the Immigration and
Nationality Act of 1965". Rochester, New York: Social Science Research
Network. SSRN 1121504 .
^ Robert M. Jiobu (1988). Ethnicity and Assimilation: Blacks, Chinese,
Filipinos, Koreans, Japanese, Mexicans, Vietnamese, and Whites. SUNY
Press. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-88706-647-4.
Chang, Benjamin (February 2017). "Asian
Americans and Education".
Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Education. 1.
doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780190264093.013.102. Retrieved 27 March
^ "Asian American". Oxford University Press. Retrieved March 29,
^ "Asian". AskOxford.com. Archived from the original on April 15,
2008. Retrieved September 29, 2007. [full citation needed]
^ Epicanthal folds: MedicinePlus Medical Encyclopedia states that "The
presence of an epicanthal fold is normal in people of Asiatic descent"
assuming it the norm for all Asians
Kawamura, Kathleen (2004). "Chapter 28. Asian American Body Images".
In Thomas F. Cash; Thomas Pruzinsky. Body Image: A Handbook of Theory,
Research, and Clinical Practice. Guilford Press. pp. 243–249.
^ "American Community Survey; Puerto Rico Community Survey; 2007
Subject Definitions" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau: 31. [dead link]
"American Community Survey; Puerto Rico Community Survey; 2007 Subject
Definitions" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved April 11,
2011. [permanent dead link]
^ Cornell Asian American Studies Archived May 9, 2008, at the Wayback
Machine.; contains mentions to South Asians
UC Berkeley – General Catalog – Asian American Studies Courses
Archived December 21, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.; South and
Southeast Asian courses are present
"Asian American Studies". 2009–2011 Undergraduate Catalog.
Illinois at Chicago. 2009. Retrieved April 11,
"Welcome to Asian American Studies". Asian American Studies.
California State University, Fullerton. 2003. Archived from the
original on July 11, 2012. Retrieved April 11, 2011.
"Program". Asian American Studies. Stanford University. Retrieved
April 11, 2011.
"About Us". Asian American Studies. Ohio State University. 2007.
Archived from the original on August 11, 2011. Retrieved April 11,
"Welcome". Asian and Asian American Studies Certificate Program.
University of Massachusetts
University of Massachusetts Amherst. 2011. Retrieved April 11,
"Overview". Cornell University Asian American Studies Program. Cornell
University. 2007. Archived from the original on June 15, 2012.
Retrieved April 11, 2011.
^ "State & County QuickFacts: Race". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved
August 31, 2009.
^ U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census of Population, Public Law 94-171
Redistricting Data File.Race at the
Wayback Machine (archived November
3, 2001). (archived from the original on November 3, 2001).
^ "COMPARATIVE ENROLLMENT BY RACE/ETHNIC ORIGIN" (PDF). Diversity and
Inclusion Office. Ferris State University. Retrieved August 9, 2014.
original peoples of Europe, North Africa, or the Middle East.
"Not Quite White: Race Classification and the Arab American
Experience". Arab American Institute.
Arab Americans by the Center for
Contemporary Arab Studies, Georgetown University. April 4, 1997.
Archived from the original on August 26, 2014. Retrieved August 9,
Ian Haney Lopez (1996). "How the U.S. Courts Established the White
Race". Model Minority. New York University Press. Archived from the
original on August 11, 2014. Retrieved August 9, 2014.
"Race". United States Census Bureau. U.S. Department of Commerce.
2010. Retrieved August 9, 2014. White. A person having origins in any
of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa.
It includes people who indicate their race as "White" or report
entries such as Irish, German, Italian, Lebanese, Arab, Moroccan, or
Kleinyesterday, Uri (2015-06-18). "New U.S. census category to include
'Israeli' option - Jewish World Features - Haaretz -
Haaretz.com. Retrieved 2017-02-27.
"Public Comments Received on Federal Register notice 79 FR
71377 : Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2015
National Content Test : U.S. Census Bureau; Department of
Commerce : December 2, 2014 – February 2, 2015" (PDF).
Census.gov. Retrieved 2017-02-27.
^ 1980 Census: Instructions to Respondents, republished by Integrated
Public Use Microdata Series, Minnesota Population Center, University
of Minnesota at http://www.ipums.org Accessed November 19, 2006.
^ Lee, Gordon. Hyphen magazine.
Archived from the original on July 7, 2003. Retrieved June 1,
2016. Unknown parameter DUPLICATE_title= ignored (help);
Missing or empty title= (help). 2003. January 28, 2007 (archived from
the original Archived October 2, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. on
March 17, 2008).
Frank H. Wu (2003). Yellow: race in America beyond black and
white. New York: Basic Books. p. 310. ISBN 9780465006403.
Retrieved April 15, 2011.
^ 1990 Census: Instructions to Respondents, republished by Integrated
Public Use Microdata Series, Minnesota Population Center, University
of Minnesota at http://www.ipums.org Accessed November 19, 2006.
Reeves, Terrance Claudett, Bennett. United States Census Bureau. Asian
and Pacific Islander Population: March 2002. 2003. September 30, 2006.
^ "Census Data / API Identities Research & Statistics
Resources Publications Research Statistics Asian Pacific Institute
on Gender-Based Violence". www.api-gbv.org. Retrieved May 27,
^ Wood, Daniel B. "Common Ground on who's an American." Christian
Science Monitor. January 19, 2006. Retrieved February 16, 2007.
US Census Bureau, Asian Summary of Findings". Retrieved December
^ "Searching For Asian America. Community Chats - PBS". pbs.org.
Retrieved November 22, 2017.
^ S. D. Ikeda. "What's an "Asian American" Now, Anyway?". Archived
from the original on June 10, 2011.
^ Yang, Jeff (October 27, 2012). "Easy Tiger (Nation)". Wall Street
Journal. Retrieved February 19, 2013.
^ a b Han, Chong-Suk Winter (2015). Geisha of a Different Kind: Race
and Sexuality in Gaysian America. New York: New York University Press.
^ Ono, Kent; Pham, Vincent (2009). Asian
Americans and the Media.
Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.
Chou, Rosalind (2012). Asian American Sexual Politics: The
Construction of Race, Gender, and Sexuality. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman
& Littlefield Publishers.
^ Barringer, Felicity (March 2, 1990). "Asian Population in U.S. Grew
by 70% in the 80's". New York Times. Retrieved January 10, 2013.
Lowe, Lisa (2004). "Heterogeneity, Hybridity, Multiplicity: Marking
Asian American Differences" (PDF). In Ono, Kent A. A Companion to
Asian American Studies. Blackwell Companions in Cultural Studies. John
Wiley & Sons. p. 272. ISBN 978-1-4051-1595-7. Archived
from the original on 1991. Retrieved January 10, 2013.
^ Skop, Emily; Li, Wei (2005). "Asians In America's Suburbs: Patterns
And Consequences of Settlement". The Geographical Review. 95:
^ Fehr, Dennis Earl; Fehr, Mary Cain (2009). Teach boldly!: letters to
teachers about contemporary issues in education. Peter Lang.
p. 164. ISBN 978-1-4331-0491-6. Retrieved March 6,
Raymond Arthur Smith (2009). "Issue Brief #160: Asian American Protest
Politics: "The Politics of Identity"" (PDF). Majority Rule and
Minority Rights Issue Briefs. Columbia University. Retrieved March 6,
^ Lott, Juanita Tamayo (9 January 2004). Asian-American Children Are
Members of a Diverse and Urban Population (Report). Population
Reference Bureau. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
Hune, Shirley (16 April 2002). "Demographics and Diversity of Asian
American College Students". New Directions for Student Services. Wiley
Periodicals, Inc. doi:10.1002/ss.35. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
Franklin Ng (1998). The History and Immigration of Asian Americans.
Taylor & Francis. p. 211. ISBN 978-0-8153-2690-8.
Xue Lan Rong; Judith Preissle (26 September 2008). Educating Immigrant
Students in the 21st Century: What Educators Need to Know. SAGE
Publications. p. 133. ISBN 978-1-4522-9405-6.
^ Wile, Rob (26 June 2016). "Latinos are no longer the fastest-growing
racial group in America". Fusion. Doral, Florida. Retrieved 3 May
^ a b c "Asian/Pacific American Heritage Month: May 2012". United
States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. March 21,
2012. Retrieved January 12, 2013.
^ a b Timothy Pratt (October 18, 2012). "More Asian Immigrants Are
Finding Ballots in Their Native Tongue". New York Times. Las Vegas.
Retrieved January 12, 2013.
^ Leslie Berestein Rojas (November 6, 2012). "Five new Asian languages
make their debut at the polls". KPCC. Retrieved January 12,
^ Shaun Tandon (January 17, 2013). "Half of Asian
Americans rely on
ethnic media: poll". Agence France-Presse. Retrieved January 25,
^ "Language Use and English-Speaking Ability: 2000: Census 2000 Brief"
(PDF). census.gov. Retrieved November 22, 2017.
^ EAC Issues Glossaries of Election Terms in Five Asian Languages
Translations to Make Voting More Accessible to a Majority of Asian
American Citizens. Election Assistance Commission. June 20, 2008.
(archived from the original on July 31, 2008)
^ "Asian Americans: A Mosaic of Faiths" (overview) (Archive). Pew
Research. July 19, 2012. Retrieved on May 3, 2014.
^ Leffel, Gregory P. Faith Seeking Action: Mission, Social Movements,
and the Church in Motion. Scarecrow Press, 2007. ISBN 1461658578.
^ Sawyer, Mary R. The Church on the Margins: Living Christian
Community. A&C Black, 2003. ISBN 1563383667. p. 156
^ a b c d Taylor, Paul; D'Vera Cohn; Wendy Wang; Jeffrey S. Passel;
Rakesh Kochhar; Richard Fry; Kim Parker; Cary Funk; Gretchen M.
Livingston; Eileen Patten; Seth Motel; Ana Gonzalez-Barrera (July 12,
2012). "The Rise of Asian Americans" (PDF).
Pew Research Social &
Pew Research Center. Retrieved January 28,
^ "Historical Landmark, declared by the Filipino American National
California Central Coast Chapter, Dedicated
October 21, 1995". Retrieved February 14, 2011.
^ "Historic Site, During the Manila". Michael L. Baird. Retrieved
April 5, 2009.
Eloisa Gomez Borah (1997). "Chronology of
Filipinos in America
Pre-1989" (PDF). Anderson School of Management. University of
California, Los Angeles. Retrieved February 25, 2012.
Gonzalez, Joaquin (2009). Filipino American Faith in Action:
Immigration, Religion, and Civic Engagement. NYU Press.
pp. 21–22. ISBN 9780814732977. Retrieved May 11,
Jackson, Yo, ed. (2006). Encyclopedia of Multicultural Psychology.
SAGE. p. 216. ISBN 9781412909488. Retrieved May 11,
Juan Jr., E. San (2009). "Emergency Signals from the Shipwreck".
Toward Filipino Self-Determination. SUNY series in global modernity.
SUNY Press. pp. 101–102. ISBN 9781438427379. Retrieved May
^ Martha W. McCartney; Lorena S. Walsh; Ywone Edwards-Ingram; Andrew
J. Butts; Beresford Callum (2003). "A Study of the Africans and
African Americans on Jamestown Island and at Green Spring, 1619-1803"
(PDF). Historic Jamestowne. National Park Service. Retrieved May 11,
Francis C.Assisi (May 16, 2007). "Indian Slaves in Colonial America".
India Currents. Archived from the original on November 27, 2012.
Retrieved May 11, 2013.
^ Okihiro, Gary Y. (2005). The Columbia Guide To Asian American
Columbia University Press. p. 178.
ISBN 9780231115117. Retrieved May 10, 2013.
Filipinos in Louisiana". Retrieved January 5, 2011.
^ Wachtel, Alan (2009). Southeast Asian Americans. Marshall Cavendish.
p. 80. ISBN 978-0-7614-4312-4. Retrieved December 5,
^ John E. Van Sant (2000). Pacific Pioneers: Japanese Journeys to
America and Hawaii, 1850-80. University of
Illinois Press. p. 22.
Sang Chi; Emily Moberg Robinson (January 2012). Voices of the Asian
American and Pacific Islander Experience. ABC-CLIO. p. 377.
Joseph Nathan Kane (1964). Famous first facts: a record of first
happenings, discoveries and inventions in the United States. H. W.
Wilson. p. 161.
^ Wai-Jane Cha. "Chinese Merchant-Adventurers and Sugar Masters in
Hawaii: 1802–1852" (PDF). University of
Hawaii at Manoa. Retrieved
January 14, 2011.
Kalei, Kalikiano (August 12, 2010). "The Chinese Experience in
Hawaii". University of Hawai`i Press. Retrieved January 14,
2011. [permanent dead link]
^ Xiaojian Zhao; Edward J.W. Park Ph.D. (November 26, 2013). Asian
Americans: An Encyclopedia of Social, Cultural, Economic, and
Political History [3 volumes]: An Encyclopedia of Social, Cultural,
Economic, and Political History. ABC-CLIO. pp. 357–358.
^ Ronald Takaki, Strangers from a Different Shore: A History of Asian
Americans (2nd ed. 1998) pp 133–78
^ The Office of Multicultural Student Services (1999). "Filipino
Migrant Workers in California". University of Hawaii. Archived from
the original on December 4, 2014. Retrieved January 12, 2011.
Castillo, Adelaida (1976). "FILIPINO MIGRANTS IN SAN DIEGO
1900–1946". The Journal of San Diego History. San Diego Historical
Society. 22 (3). Retrieved January 12, 2011.
^ L. Scott Miller (1995). An American Imperative: Accelerating
Minority Educational Advancement. Yale University Press. p. 19.
^ Chang, Iris (2003). The Chinese in America : a narrative
history. New York: Viking. ISBN 0-670-03123-2.
^ Richard T. Schaefer (March 20, 2008). Encyclopedia of Race,
Ethnicity, and Society. SAGE Publications. p. 872.
^ Stephanie Hinnershitz-Hutchinson (May 2013). "The Legal
Entanglements of Empire, Race, and Filipino Migration to the United
Humanities and Social Sciences Net Online. Retrieved August
Baldoz, Rick (2011). The Third Asiatic Invasion: Migration and Empire
in Filipino America, 1898-1946. NYU Press. p. 204.
ISBN 9780814709214. Retrieved August 7, 2014.
^ "Amazon.com: Impossible Subjects: Illegal Aliens and the Making of
Modern America (Politics and Society in Twentieth-Century America)
eBook: Mae M. Ngai: Books". www.amazon.com. Retrieved February 21,
^ Elliott Robert Barkan (17 January 2013). Immigrants in American
History: Arrival, Adaptation, and Integration [4 volumes]: Arrival,
Adaptation, and Integration. ABC-CLIO. p. 301.
^ Soodalter, Ron (2016). "By Soil Or By Blood". American History.
Not including children of diplomats.
^ Takaki, Strangers from a Different Shore: A History of Asian
Americans (1998) pp 370–78
^ "U.S. Immigration Legislation: 1917 Immigration Act".
library.uwb.edu. Retrieved 2017-02-15.
^ Franks, Joel (2015). "Anti-Asian Exclusion In The United States
During The Nineteenth And Twentieth Centuries: The History Leading To
The Immigration Act Of 1924". Journal of American Ethnic History. 34:
Takaki, Strangers from a Different Shore: A History of Asian Americans
(1998) pp 197–211
^ Elaine Howard Ecklund; Jerry Z. Park. "Asian American Community
Participation and Religion: Civic "Model Minorities?"". Project MUSE.
Baylor University. Retrieved March 7, 2012.
^ a b c d e Jie Zong & Jeanne Batalova, Asian Immigrants in the
Migration Policy Institute (January 6, 2016).
^ a b c Adams, Shar (May 3, 2012). "Growing Asian-American Communities
Underrepresented". The Epoch Times. Archived from the original on
December 15, 2013. Retrieved March 3, 2013.
^ Semple, Kirk (January 8, 2013). "Asian-
Americans Gain Influence in
Philanthropy". New York Times. Retrieved March 3, 2013. From 2000 to
2010, according to the Census Bureau, the number of people who
identified themselves as partly or wholly Asian grew by nearly 46
percent, more than four times the growth rate of the overall
population, making Asian-
Americans the fastest growing racial group in
^ Semple, Ken (18 June 2012). "In a Shift, Biggest Wave of Migrants Is
Now Asian". New York Times. Retrieved 3 May 2017.
"New Asian 'American Dream': Asians Surpass Hispanics in Immigration".
ABC News. United States News. 19 June 2012. Retrieved 3 May
Jonathan H. X. Lee (16 January 2015). History of Asian Americans:
Exploring Diverse Roots: Exploring Diverse Roots. ABC-CLIO.
p. 53. ISBN 978-0-313-38459-2.
^ Rivitz, Jessica (28 September 2015). "Asians on pace to overtake
Hispanics among U.S. immigrants, study shows". CNN. Atlanta. Retrieved
3 May 2017.
^ Erika Lee, Chinese immigrants now largest group of new arrivals to
the U.S., USA Today (July 7, 2015).
^ Rhea, Joseph Tilden (May 1, 2001). Race Pride and the American
Harvard University Press. p. 43.
^ We Are Siamese Twins-Fai的分裂生活 Archived December 22, 2007,
at the Wayback Machine.
^ Lee, Elizabeth (February 28, 2013). "
YouTube Spawns Asian-American
Celebrities". VAO News. Archived from the original on February 18,
2013. Retrieved March 4, 2013.
^ Chow, Kat (February 5, 2015). "A Brief, Weird History Of Squashed
Asian-American TV Shows". NPR. Retrieved February 8, 2015.
Cruz, Lenika (February 4, 2015). "Why There's So Much Riding on Fresh
Off the Boat". The Atlantic. Retrieved February 8, 2015.
Gamboa, Glenn (January 30, 2015). "Eddie Huang a fresh voice in 'Fresh
Off the Boat'". Newsday. Long Island, New York. Retrieved February 8,
Lee, Adrian (February 5, 2015). "Will Fresh Off The Boat wind up being
a noble failure?". MacLeans. Canada. Retrieved February 8, 2015.
Oriel, Christina (December 20, 2014). "Asian American sitcom to air on
ABC in 2015". Asian Journal. Los Angeles. Retrieved February 8,
Beale, Lewis (February 3, 2015). "The Overdue Asian TV Movement". The
Daily Beast. Retrieved February 8, 2015.
Yang, Jeff (May 2, 2014). "Why the 'Fresh Off the Boat' TV Series
Could Change the Game". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved February 8,
Joann Faung Jean Lee (August 1, 2000). Asian American Actors: Oral
Histories from Stage, Screen, and Television. McFarland. p. 98.
Branch, Chris (February 5, 2015). "'Fresh Off The Boat' Brings
Americans To The Table On Network TV". Huffington Post.
Retrieved February 8, 2015.
^ Chin, Justin. Elledge, Jim, and David Groff, eds. "Some Notes,
Thoughts, Recollections, Revisions, and Corrections Regarding
Becoming, Being, and Remaining a Gay Writer". Who's Yer Daddy?: Gay
Writers Celebrate Their Mentors and Forerunners. 1 edition. Madison,
Wis: University of Wisconsin Press, 2012. Print. P. 55
^ "100 Most Successful Asian American Entrepreneurs".
^ "Broad racial disparities persist". Archived from the original on
November 30, 2006. Retrieved December 18, 2006.
^ "Notable Asian American Professionals".
^ "CONNIE CHUNG". World Changers. Portland State University. Archived
from the original on March 9, 2012. Retrieved February 21, 2012.
^ McNaughton, James C.; Edwards, Kristen E.; Price, Jay M.
(2002-11-01). ""Incontestable Proof Will Be Exacted": Historians,
Asian Americans, and the Medal of Honor". The Public Historian. 24
(4): 11–33. doi:10.1525/tph.2002.24.4.11. ISSN 0272-3433.
^ 100th Battalion, 442nd Infantry, globalsecurity.org.
^ Harper, Jon; Tritten, Travis J. (30 May 2014). "VA Secretary Eric
Shinseki resigns". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
^ Weingardt, Richard (2005). Engineering Legends. ASCE Publications.
p. 75. ISBN 0-7844-0801-7.
^ Pfitzer, Kurt (2009). "MUSLIM ENGINEER CITED BY OBAMA HAS ENDURING
LEGACY AT LEHIGH". Lehigh University. Retrieved June 15, 2009.
^ Murthy, Raja (January 13, 2010). "Burj Khalifa and the Tower of
Ideas". Asia Times. Mumbai, India. Retrieved May 19, 2015.
^ Nature Reviews Drug Discovery (2011). "David T. Wong". Nature
Publishing Group. Retrieved September 14, 2012.
^ "Scientist Who Developed Prozac Receives International Honor".
School of Medicine. Indiana University. December 21, 2011. Archived
from the original on August 25, 2012. Retrieved September 17,
^ McDougal, Connie (1997). "The Faith of a Scientist: Alumnus of the
Year David T.Wong Devotes a Lifetime to Neuroscience Research". Office
of University Communications. Seattle Pacific University. Retrieved
September 17, 2012.
^ a b c d Beck, Howard (December 28, 2011). "Newest Knick Out to Prove
He's Not Just a Novelty". New York Times. Retrieved February 7, 2012.
Lin, whose parents are from Taiwan, is the N.B.A.'s first
American-born player of Chinese or Taiwanese descent. He is the
league's fourth Asian American, following Raymond Townsend
(Filipino-American), who played for the Warriors (1978–80) and
Indiana Pacers (1981–82); Wat Misaka (Japanese-American), who was
with the Knicks in 1947–48; and
Rex Walters (half Japanese), who
played from 1993 to 2000 for the Nets,
Philadelphia 76ers and Miami
^ "Rex Walters". Men's Basketball. University of San Francisco
Athletics. Archived from the original on November 23, 2011. Retrieved
February 7, 2012.
^ Haskin, evin (March 24, 2007). "Jayhawks not thinking NBA". The
Topeka Capital-Journal. Retrieved February 7, 2012.
^ Meet new
Miami Heat coach
Erik Spoelstra Archived May 3, 2008, at
the Wayback Machine.
^ Weber, Bruce (March 4, 2011), "Wally Yonamine, 85, Dies; Changed
Japanese Baseball", The New York Times
Bryan Clay Profile & Bio". 2008 Beijing Summer Olympics. NBC.
August 8, 2008. Retrieved August 23, 2008.
^ Allen, Percy (March 15, 1996). "Fed. Way Speedskater Decides To Take
His Time". The Seattle Times. Retrieved December 22, 2009.
^ America's Olympic Crush  Retrieved December 15, 2012
^ "Bosnia-Herzegovina vs US match". Wild East Football. September 27,
2011. Retrieved October 15, 2015.
^ "Vancouver welcomes the world". CNN. January 20, 2010. Retrieved
June 27, 2016.
^ "Hockey player
Julie Chu to be flag bearer in Olympic Closing
Ceremony". Yahoo! Sports. February 21, 2010. Retrieved June 27,
^ "About Asian-Pacific American Heritage Month". Library of Congress.
Retrieved August 18, 2014.
George Bush: "Statement on Signing
Asian/Pacific American Heritage Month", October 23, 1992. Online by
Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project.
^ Koehn NN, Fryer GE Jr, Phillips RL, Miller JB, Green LA. (2007) The
increase in international medical graduates in family practice
residency programs. Journal of Family Medicine, 34(6):468–9.
^ Mick SS, Lee SY. (2007) Are there need-based geographical
differences between international medical graduates and U.S. medical
graduates in rural U.S. counties? J Rural Health. 1999
^ Somnath Saha, MD, MPH; Gretchen Guiton, PhD; Paul F. Wimmers, PhD;
LuAnn Wilkerson, EdD. (2008) "Student Body Racial and Ethnic
Composition and Diversity-Related Outcomes in US Medical Schools".
^ Zhang, X (2003). "Acupuncture: Review and Analysis of Reports on
Controlled Clinical Trials". World Health Organization. Archived from
the original on April 20, 2009. and
Ernst E, Pittler MH, Wider B, Boddy K (2007). "Acupuncture: its
evidence-base is changing". Am J Chin Med. 35 (1): 21–5.
doi:10.1142/S0192415X07004588. PMID 17265547.
^ "International Medical Graduates by Country". American Medical
Association. Archived from the original on July 5, 2008.
^ Sweis, L, and Guay, A. (2007) Foreign-trained dentists licensed in
the United States: Exploring their origins. J Am Dent Assoc
^ "Foreign Educated Nurses". ANA: American Nurses Association.
Archived from the original on July 27, 2011. Retrieved August 31,
^ Pakistan American Educational Attainment Archived February 9, 2010,
at the Wayback Machine. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October
2, 2010.[dead link]
^ "The American Community-Asians: 2004" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau.
February 2007. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 26, 2007.
Retrieved September 5, 2007. (Figure 11, p.15)
^ Pakistani Migration to the United States: An economic perspective
Archived January 22, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved October
^ a b Stella U. Ogunwole; Malcolm P. Drewery Jr; Merarys Rios-Vargas
(May 2012). "The Population With a Bachelor's Degree or Higher by Race
and Hispanic Origin: 2006–2010" (PDF). American Community Survey
Briefs. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved February 18,
^ C.N. Le (2010). "School of Education at Johns Hopkins University-A
Closer Look at Asian
Americans and Education". New Horizons for
Learning. Johns Hopkins University. Archived from the original on June
30, 2015. Retrieved February 18, 2013.
U.S. Census Bureau
U.S. Census Bureau (March 3, 2008). "Asian/Pacific American Heritage
Month: May 2008". Facts for Features. U.S. Census Bureau. Archived
from the original on May 23, 2010. Retrieved March 6, 2013.
^ "Asian/Pacific American Heritage Month: May 2012". Profile America
Facts for Features. United States Census Bureau. March 21, 2012.
Retrieved February 18, 2013.
^ Richard Perez-Pena (February 23, 2012). "U.S. Bachelor Degree Rate
Passes Milestone". New York Times. Retrieved February 18, 2013.
^ Chen, Carolyn (December 19, 2012). "Asians: Too Smart for Their Own
Good?". New York Times. Retrieved March 3, 2013.
^ "A Brief Profile of the Admitted Class of 2016". statistics.
President & Fellows of Harvard College. 2012. Archived from the
original on March 26, 2013. Retrieved April 2, 2013.
^ Cheng, Joy; Charles Hsieh; Scott Lu; Sarah Talog. "Asian Americans
and the Media: Perpetuating the Model Minority". Psychology 457.002.
University of Michigan. Retrieved February 19, 2013.
^ Sylvia Ann Hewlett (July 28, 2011). "Asians in America: What's
Holding Back the "Model Minority?"". Forbes. Retrieved February 19,
^ Anne Fisher (August 8, 2005). "Piercing the 'Bamboo Ceiling'". CNN.
Retrieved June 14, 2012.
^ Anne Fisher (November 18, 2011). "Training executives to think
globally". Crain's New York Business. Retrieved June 14, 2012.
Anne Fisher (October 7, 2011). "Is there a 'bamboo ceiling' at U.S.
companies?". Fortune Magazine. Archived from the original on February
12, 2012. Retrieved June 14, 2012.
Hans Villarica (May 15, 2012). "Study of the Day: There's a 'Bamboo
Ceiling' for Would-Be Asian Leaders". The Atlantic. Retrieved June 14,
^ "Annual Report of Immigration Visa Applicants in the
Family-sponsored and Employment-based preferences Registered at the
National Visa Center as of November 1, 2012" (PDF). Bureau of Consular
Affairs. United States Secretary of State. November 1, 2012. Archived
from the original (PDF) on February 17, 2013. Retrieved February 5,
Demby, Gene (January 31, 2013). "For Asian-Americans, Immigration
Backlogs Are A Major Hurdle". National Public Radio. Retrieved
February 5, 2013.
^ IANS. "Indians fastest-growing illegal immigrants in U.S."
siliconindia.com. Retrieved November 22, 2017.
Illegal Indians in US Archived August 15, 2009, at the Wayback
^ Hoeffer, Michael; Rytina, Nancy; Campbell, Christopher. "Estimates
of the Unauthorized Immigrant Population Residing in the United
States: January 2009" (PDF). Department of Homeland Security. Archived
(PDF) from the original on April 7, 2010. Retrieved April 9,
^ Weingarten, Liza; Raymond Arthur Smith (2009). "Asian American
Immigration Status" (PDF). Majority Rule and Minority Rights Issue
Briefs. Columbia University. Retrieved March 4, 2012. Deemed
successful as a complete group, the national immigration debate often
leaves out Asians focusing instead on South America primarily.
Furthermore, a failed attempt to naturalize can actually result in
deportation. Because fluency in English is one of the criteria for
naturalization, certain ethnicities within the panethnic Asian
American immigrant identity are more strongly affected than others.
But Asians are noticeably absent from the immigration debate,
according to public radio reports.
^ Passel, Jeffrey (March 21, 2005). "Estimates of the Size and
Characteristics of the Undocumented Population" (PDF). Pew Hispanic
Erwin De Leon (2011). "Asian Immigration and the Myth of the "Model
Minority"". WNYC. Archived from the original on June 8, 2012.
Retrieved June 12, 2012.
^ "New Asian Immigrants To US Now Surpass Hispanics". CBSDC. June 19,
2012. Retrieved June 19, 2012. While immigrants from Asia often obtain
visas and arrive legally, many also sneak across the U.S. border or
become undocumented residents after overstaying their visas.
^ Guarino, Mark (June 19, 2012). "How Asians displaced Hispanics as
biggest group of new US immigrants".
Christian Science Monitor.
Retrieved June 21, 2012. For example, 45 percent of Hispanic
immigrants are undocumented compared with about 13 percent of Asian
immigrants, according to the survey.
^ Tanner, Russel; Margie Fletcher Shanks (2008). Rock Springs. Arcadia
Publishing. p. 31 28. ISBN 9780738556420. Retrieved March
^ "Racial Riots". Office of Multicultural Student Services. University
of Hawaii. Archived from the original on January 6, 2012. Retrieved
March 22, 2011.
"Racial hate once flared on Central Coast". The Weekend Pinnacle
Online. October 27, 2006. Archived from the original on July 19, 2011.
Retrieved March 21, 2011. ,
Bellingham Riots in 1916 against
^ Tenbroek, Jacobus; Edward Norton Barnhart; Floyd W. Matson (1975).
Prejudice, war, and the Constitution. University of
p. 352. ISBN 9780520012622. Retrieved March 21, 2011.
^ Chung Kim, Kwang (1999).
Koreans in the hood: conflict with African
Americans. JHU Press. p. 146. ISBN 9780801861048. Retrieved
March 21, 2011.
^ Arif Dirlik; Malcolm Yeung (2001). Chinese on the American Frontier.
Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0847685322.
^ Valarie Kuar Brar (September 30, 2002). "Turbans and Terror: Racism
After Sep. 11". The
Sikh Times. Retrieved March 21, 2011.
Klug, Foster (September 17, 2001). "
Sikh killed, others are targeted;
Arizona man held". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Retrieved March 21,
Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Lisa A. Suzuki; J. Manuel Casas; Charlene M.
Alexander (2009). Handbook of Multicultural Counseling. SAGE.
p. 472. ISBN 9781412964326. Retrieved March 21, 2011.
Min, Pyong Gap (2006). Asian Americans: contemporary trends and
issues. Pine Forge Press. p. 216. ISBN 9781412905565.
Retrieved March 22, 2011.
^ a b "Asian youth persistently harassed by U.S. peers". USA Today.
November 13, 2005. Retrieved March 22, 2011.
^ Hoye, Sarah (October 22, 2010). "Racial violence spurred Asian
students to take a stand". CNN. Archived from the original on January
29, 2011. Retrieved March 22, 2011.
Johnson, Danielle (December 7, 2009). "Attacked Asian Students Afraid
To Go to School". WCAU. Retrieved March 22, 2011.
^ C.W. Nevius (April 29, 2010). "Asian American attacks focus at City
Hall". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved March 22, 2011.
^ Danielle Wiener-Bronner (November 1, 2010). "Asian Students Attacked
At Indiana University". Huffington Post. Retrieved March 22,
^ Lu, Hubert; Peter Schurmann (July 1, 2007). "Asian Parents and
Students Face Challenge of Diversity". Douwei Times. Archived from the
original on March 20, 2012. Retrieved March 22, 2011.
Thomas M. Menino (August 2005). "Report of the 2004 Boston Youth
Survey" (PDF). Harvard Youth Violence Prevention Center. Harvard
School of Public Health. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 12,
2011. Retrieved March 22, 2011.
^ Lee, Evelyn (2000). Working with Asian Americans: A Guide for
Clinicians. New York: Guilford Press. p. 22.
ISBN 9781572305700. Retrieved March 6, 2012.
^ Baltimore Sun: "Black, Korean tension is focus U.S. civil rights
panel to meet in Baltimore" By Erin Texeira July 23, 1998
^ USA Today: "Bullying against Asian students roils Philadelphia high
school" January 22, 2010
CNN: "Racial violence spurred Asian students to take a stand" By Sarah
Hoye October 22, 2010
Sowell, Thomas (May 9, 2010). "Race and Resentment". Real Clear
Politics. Archived from the original on February 14, 2011. Retrieved
March 21, 2011.
^ Teague, Matthew. "Heroes: South Philly High's Protesters."
Philadelphia (magazine). August 2010. 4. Retrieved on May 4, 2016,
^ Teague, Matthew. "Heroes: South Philly High's Protesters."
Philadelphia (magazine). August 2010. 8. Retrieved on January 31,
^ Kim, Kwang Chung (1999).
Koreans in the Hood: Conflict With African
Americans. Baltimore, Maryland: JHU Press. p. 250.
ISBN 9780801861048. Retrieved July 29, 2012.
Abelmann, Nancy; Lie, John (1995). Blue Dreams:
Korean Americans and
the Los Angeles Riots.
Harvard University Press. p. 288.
ISBN 9780674077058. Retrieved July 29, 2012.
Kim, Rose M. (2012). "3. "Violence and Trauma as Constitutive Elements
Korean American Racial Identity Formation: The 1992 L.A.
Riots/Insurrection/Saigu."". Ethnic & Racial Studies. 35 (11):
1999–2018. doi:10.1080/01419870.2011.602090. Retrieved November 8,
^ Goodman, Walter. "Review/Television; The Boycotting of a Korean
Grocery in Brooklyn". The New York Times. July 12, 1990
^ "Racial Tension Rising in Dallas Against Korean Community". The
Chosun Ilbo. January 31, 2012.
"Racial tensions flare in protest of South Dallas gas station". The
Dallas Morning News. February 5, 2012.
^ Mak, Tim (August 20, 2014). "Ferguson's Other Race Problem: Riots
Damaged Asian-Owned Stores". The Daily Beast. The Daily Beast Company
LLC. Retrieved August 21, 2014.
^ Aizenmen, Nurith (April 30, 2015). "Baltimore Unrest Reveals
Tensions Between African-
Americans And Asians". NPR. Retrieved June
^ Thomas Sowell (May 9, 2010). "Race and Resentment". Real Clear
Politics. Archived from the original on February 14, 2011. Retrieved
March 21, 2011.
^ C.N. Le (March 21, 2011). "Anti-Asian Racism & Violence".
asian-nation.org. Archived from the original on April 30, 2011.
Retrieved March 22, 2011.
^ a b Yip, Alethea. "Remembering Vincent Chin". Asian Week. Archived
from the original on March 18, 2007. Retrieved March 14, 2007.
^ ACAPAA. "Pilicy Recommendation Document" (PDF). State of Michigan.
Archived (PDF) from the original on March 8, 2007. Retrieved March 14,
^ Kashiwabara, Amy, Vanishing Son: The Appearance, Disappearance, and
Assimilation of the Asian-American Man in American Mainstream Media,
UC Berkeley Media Resources Center
^ "Pearl Harbor and Asian-Americans". New York Times. October 26,
1991. Retrieved December 31, 2012.
^ Espiritu, Yen le (1993). Asian American panethnicity: bridging
institutions and identities. Temple University Press. p. 139.
ISBN 9781566390965. Retrieved March 18, 2011.
^ a b Committee of 100 (April 25, 2001). "Committee of 100 Announces
Results of Landmark National Survey on American Attitudes towards
Chinese Americans and Asian Americans". Retrieved June 14, 2007.
^ a b Yi, Matthew; et al. (April 27, 2001). "Asian
negatively". The San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved June 14,
^ a b Frank H. Wu. "Asian
Americans and the Perpetual Foreigner
Syndrome". Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved
June 14, 2007.
^ Lien, Pei-te; Mary Margaret Conway; Janelle Wong (2004). The
politics of Asian Americans: diversity and community. Psychology
Press. p. 7. ISBN 9780415934657. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
In addition, because of their perceived racial difference, rapid and
continuous immigration from Asia, and on going detente with communist
regimes in Asia, Asian
Americans are construed as "perpetual
foreigners" who cannot or will not adapt to the language, customs,
religions, and politics of the American mainstream.
^ Wu, Frank H. (2003). Yellow: race in America beyond black and white.
Basic Books. p. 79. ISBN 9780465006403. Retrieved February
^ K. Bergquist. "Image Conscious". Archived from the original on July
9, 2007. Retrieved June 14, 2007.
^ Le, C.N. (2001). "The Model Minority Image". Asian-Nation: The
Landscape of Asian America. C.N. Le. Retrieved February 18,
Wu, Frank H. (2002). "The Model Minority: Asian American 'Success' as
a Race Relations Failure". Yellow: Race in America Beyond
White (PDF). New York: Basic Books. pp. 39–77.
ISBN 9780465006403. Retrieved February 18, 2013.
^ Bureau of Justice Statistics: Criminal Offenders Statistics at the
Wayback Machine (archived July 16, 2008), November 13, 2005. (archived
from the original on July 16, 2008)
William Saletan (March 16, 2005). "The Soft Bigotry of Life
Expectancy". Slate. Asian-
Americans were beating white life expectancy
by six years among men and 6.5 years among women.
^ Chih-Chieh Chou, "Critique on the notion of model minority: an
alternative racism to Asian American?", Asian Ethnicity, October 2008,
Vol. 9#3 Issue 3, pp 219–229
^ Wang, Yanan (October 20, 2015). "Asian
Americans speak out against a
decades-old 'model minority' myth". Washington Post. Retrieved January
^ Kumar, Revathy; Maehr, Martin L. (2010). "Schooling, Cultural
Diversity, and Student Motivation". In Meece, Judith L.; Eccles,
Jacquelynne S. Handbook of Research on Schools, Schooling and Human
Development. Routledge. p. 314. ISBN 9780203874844.
Retrieved February 19, 2013.
Americans outperform whites in terms of their overall or
average grades (GPA), grades in math, and test scores in math", School
Performance Archived February 21, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.,
Tseng, V., Chao, R. K., & Padmawidjaja, I. (2007). Asian Americans
educational experiences. In F. Leong, A. Inman, A. Ebreo, L. Yang, L.
Kinoshita, & M. Fu (Eds.), Handbook of Asian American Psychology,
(2nd Edition) Racial and Ethnic Minority Psychology (REMP) Series (pp.
102–123). Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications (MS Word
format, via Multicultural Families and Adolescents Study Archived
February 28, 2008, at the Wayback Machine., Publications Archived
September 20, 2006, at the Wayback Machine.).
Frank H. Wu (2002). Yellow. Basic Books.
^ Charles Hirschman and Morrison G. Wong, "The Extraordinary
Educational Attainment of Asian-Americans: A Search for Historical
Evidence and Explanations", Social Forces, September 1986, Vol. 65#1
^ Nhan, Doris (May 15, 2012). "Asians Often Burdened as Model
Minority". National Journal. Archived from the original on January 9,
2013. Retrieved February 19, 2013.
^ "Mental Health and Depression in Asian Americans" Archived January
21, 2015, at the Wayback Machine.
^ Cohen, Elizabeth (May 16, 2007). "Push to achieve tied to suicide in
Asian-American women". CNN. Retrieved February 19, 2013.
^ "Socioeconomic Statistics & Demographics :
Asian-Nation :: Asian American History, Demographics, &
Issues". Asian-Nation. Retrieved November 11, 2012.
Hing, Julianne (June 22, 2012). "Asian
Americans to Pew Study: We're
Not Your 'Model Minority'". The Hartford Guardian. Retrieved June 22,
^ Patten, Eileen. "Racial, gender wage gaps persist in U.S. despite
Pew Research Center.
Pew Research Center. Retrieved
July 2, 2016.
^ "Income and Poverty in the United States : 2014" (PDF).
Census.gov. Retrieved 2017-02-27.
^ a b c d "Asian-Americans: Smart, High-Incomes And ... Poor?".
npr.org. Retrieved November 22, 2017.
^ "Wealth Inequality Among Asian
Americans Greater Than Among Whites -
Center for American Progress". americanprogress.org. Retrieved
November 22, 2017.
>"RELEASE: Wealth Inequality Among Asian
Americans Greater Than
Among Whites, Finds New CAP Report Based on Analysis of Exclusive Data
- Center for American Progress". americanprogress.org. Retrieved
November 22, 2017.
>Guo, Jeff (December 20, 2016). "The staggering difference between
Americans and poor Asian Americans". Retrieved November 22,
2017 – via www.washingtonpost.com.
>Yam, Kimberly (January 4, 2017). "Huge Asian-American Wealth Gap
Pretty Much Invalidates 'Model Minority' Concept". Retrieved November
22, 2017 – via Huff Post.
^ Takei, Isao; Sakamoto, Arthur (2011-01-01). "Poverty among Asian
Americans in the 21st Century". Sociological Perspectives. 54 (2):
Wu, Huizhong. "The 'model minority' myth: Why Asian-American poverty
goes unseen". mashable.com. Retrieved November 22, 2017.
Yam, Kimberly (May 8, 2017). "Asian-
Americans Have Highest Poverty
Rate In NYC, But Stereotypes Make The Issue Invisible". Retrieved
November 22, 2017 – via Huff Post.
^ a b "Pass or Fail in Cambodia Town - Episodes - America By The
Numbers". Pass or Fail in Cambodia Town - Episodes - America By The
Numbers. Retrieved November 22, 2017.
^ a b c d "Key facts about Asian Americans, a diverse and growing
population". pewresearch.org. September 8, 2017. Retrieved November
^ a b c d e "Critical Issues Facing Asian
Americans and Pacific
Islanders - The White House". archive.org. March 21, 2016. Archived
from the original on March 21, 2016. Retrieved November 22,
^ PBS (October 2, 2014). "AMERICA BY THE NUMBERS - Model Minority Myth
- PBS". Retrieved November 22, 2017 – via YouTube.
"These groups of Asian-
Americans rarely attend college, but California
is trying to change that". PBS NewsHour. Retrieved November 22,
Ngo, Bic; Lee, Stacey J. (December 1, 2007). "Complicating the Image
of Model Minority Success: A Review of Southeast Asian American
Education". Review of Educational Research. 77 (4): 415–453.
doi:10.3102/0034654307309918. Retrieved November 22, 2017 – via SAGE
^ "Educational Attainment in the United States: 2007" (PDF). U.S.
Census Bureau. 2009.
^ "Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United
States: 2008" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. 2009. p. 9.
^ "Median houseland income in the past 12 months (in 2014
inflation-adjusted dollars)". American Community Survey. United States
Census Bureau. 2014. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
^ a b c "New poverty measure highlights positive effect of government
assistance". Epi.org. Retrieved 9 January 2018.
^ "Key facts about Asian Americans, a diverse and growing population".
Pewresearch.org. 8 September 2017. Retrieved 9 January 2018.
^ Wu, Huizhong. "The 'model minority' myth: Why Asian-American poverty
goes unseen". Mashable.com. Retrieved 9 January 2018.
^ "Nepalese in the U.S. Fact Sheet". Pewsocialtrends.org. 8 September
2017. Retrieved 9 January 2018.
^ Ngo, Bic; Lee, Stacey (December 2007). "Complicating the Image of
Model Minority Success: A Review of Southeast Asian American
Education". Review of Educational Research. 77 (4): 415–453.
doi:10.3102/0034654307309918 – via JSTOR.
"Project MUSE -
Journal of Asian American Studies - Growing Up
American: How Vietnamese Children Adapt to Life in the United States".
Muse.jhu.edu. Retrieved 2009-04-13.
^ NAWHO. "Mental Health and Depression in Asian Americans" (PDF).
National Asian Women's Health Organization. Archived from the original
(PDF) on 2015-01-21. Retrieved 2015-03-20.
Lee, S., & Chang, J. (2012a). "Mental health status of the Hmong
Americans in 2011: Three decades revisited." Journal of Social Work in
Disability and Rehabilitation, 11(1), 55–70.
Lee, S., & Chang, J. (2012b). "Revisiting 37 years later: A brief
summary of existing sources related to Hmong and their mental health
status." Hmong Studies Journal, 13.2, 1–13.
Chung, R. C; Bemak, F.; Wong, S. (2000). "Vietnamese refugees' level
of distress, social support, and acculturation: Implications for
mental health counseling". Journal of Mental Health & Counseling
^ Friis, Robert H.; Garrido-Ortega, Claire; Safer, Alan M.; Wankie,
Che; Griego, Paula A.; Forouzesh, Mohammed; Trefflich, Kirsten; Kuoch,
Kimthai (2011-05-18). "Socioepidemiology of Cigarette Smoking Among
Cambodian Americans in Long Beach, California". Journal of Immigrant
and Minority Health. 14 (2): 272–280. doi:10.1007/s10903-011-9478-1.
^ "New to America, Bhutanese refugees face suicide crisis".
America.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 9 January 2018.
^ Mintier, Tom (2002-11-19). "One-way ticket for convicted
Cambodians". CNN. Retrieved 2006-10-03.
Schwartzapfel, Beth (2005-05-14). "Fighting to Stay". AlterNet.
Americans confronting deportation". Boston Globe.
2013-01-27. Retrieved 2014-05-10.
^ Pirro, John (2010-01-12). "Police tie 2005 Bethel home invasion,
rape to violent NYC gang". The News-Times. Danbury, CT.
Minnesota - Gangland Documentary - Menace Of Destruction Gang (MOD),
Gang Criminal Justice Directory
WILLWERTH, JAMES (2001-06-24). "From Killing Fields to Mean Streets".
Time. ISSN 0040-781X. Retrieved 2017-10-25.
Hanna, Maddie. 10 arrested during series of Lowell gang raids,
Boston.com, July 20, 2008.
Bhatt, Amy, et al. Roots and Reflections: South Asians in the Pacific
Chan, Sucheng. "The changing contours of Asian-American
historiography", Rethinking History, March 2007, Vol. 11 Issue 1, pp
125–147; surveys 100+ studies of defining events; Asian diasporas;
social dynamics; cultural histories.
Chan, Sucheng. Asian Americans: an interpretive history (Twayne,
1991). ISBN 978-0-8057-8437-4
Chau Trinh-Shevrin, Nadia Shilpi Islam, Mariano Jose Rey. Asian
American Communities and Health: Context, Research, Policy, and Action
(Public Health/Vulnerable Populations), 2009.
Cheng, Cindy I-Fen. Citizens of Asian America: Democracy and Race
during the Cold War (2013)
Chin, Gabriel J., Ed., U.S. Commission on Civil Rights: Reports on
Americans (2005) ISBN 978-0-8377-3105-6
Choi, Yoonsun. "Academic Achievement and Problem Behaviors among Asian
Pacific Islander American Adolescents." (Archive, Alternate link)
Journal of Youth and Adolescence. Received August 26, 2006. Accepted
October 13, 2006. Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
doi:10.1007/s10964-006-9152-4. May 2007, Volume 36, Issue 4, pp
Chiu, Monica, ed. Asian
Americans in New England: Culture and
Community (Durham: University of New Hampshire Press, 2009. xviii, 252
pp.) ISBN 978-1-58465-794-1
Kwong, Peter and Dusanka Miscevic. Chinese America: The Untold Story
of America's Oldest New Community (2005)
Lee, Jonathan H. X. History of Asian Americans: Exploring Diverse
Lee, Jonathan H. X. and Fumitaka Matsuoka, eds. Asian American
Religious Cultures (2 vol. 2015)
Lee, Jonathan H. X. and Kathleen M. Nadeau, eds. Encyclopedia of Asian
American Folklore and Folklife (3 vol. 2010)
Ling, Huping, and Allan W. Austin, eds. Asian American History and
Culture: An Encyclopedia (Routledge, 2015)
Lowe, Lisa Immigrant Acts: On Asian American Cultural Politics Durham:
Duke University Press, 1996. ISBN 978-0-8223-1864-4
Matsumoto, Jon. "Asian
Americans Anchor Their Influence." Los Angeles
Times. September 4, 1998.
Okihiro, Gary Y. The Columbia Guide to Asian American History
(Columbia UP, 2005) excerpt and text search
Okihiro, Gary Y. American History Unbound: Asians and Pacific
Islanders (University of
California Press, 2015). xiv, 499 pp.
Pyong Gap Min Asian Americans: Contemporary Trends and Issues Thousand
Oaks, Ca.: Pine Science Press, 2005. ISBN 978-1-4129-0556-5
Takaki, Ronald Strangers from a Different Shore: A History of Asian
Americans New York: Little, Brown, 1998. ISBN 978-0-316-83130-7.
adapted by Rebecca Stefoff: Raising Cane. The World of Plantation
Hawaii, Chelsea House Publishers, New York/Philadelphia 1994,
Tamura, Eileen H. "Using the Past to Inform the Future: An
Historiography of Hawaii's Asian and Pacific Islander Americans",
Amerasia Journal, 2000, Vol. 26 Issue 1, pp 55–85
Wu, Frank H. Yellow: Race in American Beyond
Black and White New York:
Basic Books, 2002. ISBN 978-0-465-00639-7
Zia, Helen Asian American Dreams: The Emergence of an American People
New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2000.
Zhou, Min and
Carl L. Bankston III Growing Up American: How Vietnamese
Children Adapt to Life in the United States New York: Russell Sage
Foundation, 1998. ISBN 978-0-871-54995-2.
"Asian Americans: A Mosaic of Faiths" (full report) (Archive). Pew
Research Center. July 19, 2012.
Journal of Asian American Studies
Asian American Data Links — demographic information and reports from
the U.S. Census Bureau
UCLA Asian American Studies Center
Asian Americans1, 2
Asian Hispanic and Latino
Arts and Entertainment
New York City
U.S. Census Bureau
U.S. Census Bureau definition of Asians refers to a person
having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East,
Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent. 
2 The United States Government classified Kalmyks as Asian until 1951,
Kalmyk Americans were reclassified as White Americans.
U.S. Census Bureau
U.S. Census Bureau considers Mongolians and
Uzbeks as Central
Asians, but a specific Central Asian American group similar to
Middle Eastern American does not yet exist.
U.S. Census Bureau
U.S. Census Bureau reclassifies anyone identifying as "Tibetan
American" as "Chinese American".
Bengali Americans may be classified as Bangladeshi or Indian.
Punjabi Americans may be classified as Indian or Pakistani. Tamil
Americans may be classified as Indian or Sri Lankan.
Demographics of the United States
Unemployment by state
African diaspora in the Americas
Afro-Caribbean / West Indian Americans
Trinidadian and Tobagonian Americans
Black Hispanic and Latino Americans
African immigrants to the United States
Central Africans in the United States
Horn Africans in the United States
North Africans in the United States
Southeast Africans in the United States
Southern Africans in the United States
West Africans in the United States
Asian Hispanic and Latino Americans
Hong Kong Americans
Sri Lankan Americans
White Hispanic and Latino Americans
Pacific Islands Americans
Americans of Euro Oceanic origin
New Zealand Americans
Puerto Ricans (Stateside)
Hispanic and Latino Americans
People of the United States / Americans
Maps of American ancestries
Race and ethnicity in the Census
Race and ethnicity in the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
Overseas Asians and Asian diasporas
Tamils (Sri Lankan)
United States (Hispanic and Latino)
East and Sout