Americans of Asian descent. The term refers to a
panethnic group that includes diverse populations, which have
ancestral origins in East Asia, Southeast Asia, or South Asia, as
defined by the U.S. Census Bureau. This includes people who
indicate their race(s) on the census as "Asian" or reported entries
such as "Asian Indian, Thai, Chinese, Filipino, Korean, Pakistani,
Japanese, Vietnamese, and Other Asian". Asian
Americans with no
other ancestry comprise 5.4% of the U.S. population, while people who
are Asian alone, and those combined with at least one other race, make
Although migrants from Asia have been in parts of the contemporary
United States since the 17th century, large-scale immigration did not
begin until the mid-18th century. Nativist immigration laws during the
1880s–1920s excluded various Asian groups, eventually prohibiting
almost all Asian immigration to the continental United States. After
immigration laws were reformed during the 1940s–60s, abolishing
national origins quotas, Asian immigration increased rapidly. Analyses
of the 2010 census have shown that Asian
Americans are the fastest
growing racial or ethnic minority in the United States.
1.1 Census definition
2.2.1 Religious Trends
3.1 Early immigration
3.2 Exclusion era
3.3 Postwar immigration
3.4 Asian American movement
4 Notable people
4.1 Arts and entertainment
4.3 Government and politics
4.6 Science and technology
4.6.1 Award recipients
4.7.3 Mixed martial arts
4.7.5 Other sports
5 Cultural influence
5.1 Health and medicine
6 Social and political issues
6.1 Bamboo ceiling
6.2 Illegal immigration
6.3 Race-based violence
6.4 Racial stereotypes
6.4.1 Model minority
6.5 Social and economic disparities among Asian Americans
7 See also
9 Further reading
10 External links
As with other racial and ethnicity based terms, formal and common
usage have changed markedly through the short history of this term.
Prior to the late 1960s, people of Asian ancestry were usually
referred to as Oriental, Asiatic, and Mongoloid. Additionally,
the American definition of 'Asian' originally included West Asian
ethnic groups, particularly Afghan Americans, Jewish Americans,
Armenian Americans, Assyrian Americans, and Arab Americans, although
these groups are now considered Middle Eastern American. The term
Asian American was coined by historian Yuji Ichioka, who is credited
with popularizing the term, to frame a new "inter-ethnic-pan-Asian
American self-defining political group" in the late 1960s.
Changing patterns of immigration and an extensive period of exclusion
of Asian immigrants have resulted in demographic changes that have in
turn affected the formal and common understandings of what defines
Asian American. For example, since the removal of restrictive
"national origins" quotas in 1965, the Asian-American population has
diversified greatly to include more of the peoples with ancestry from
various parts of Asia.
Today, "Asian American" is the accepted term for most formal purposes,
such as government and academic research, although it is often
shortened to Asian in common usage. The most commonly used
definition of Asian American is the
U.S. Census Bureau
U.S. Census Bureau definition,
which includes all people with origins in the Far East, Southeast
Asia, and the Indian subcontinent. This is chiefly because the
census definitions determine many governmental classifications,
notably for equal opportunity programs and measurements.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, "Asian person" in the
United States is sometimes thought of as a person of East Asian
descent. In vernacular usage, "Asian" is often used to refer
to those of
East Asian descent or anyone else of Asian descent with
epicanthic eyefolds. This differs from the U.S. Census
definition and the Asian American Studies departments in many
universities consider all those of East, South or Southeast Asian
descent to be "Asian".
In the US Census, people with origins or ancestry in the Far East,
Southeast Asia, and the
Indian subcontinent are classified as part of
the Asian race; while those with origins or ancestry in North Asia
Central Asia (Kazakhs, Uzbeks, Turkmens, etc.),
Western Asia (diaspora Jews, Turks, Persians, West Asian Arabs, etc.),
Caucasus (Georgians, Armenians, Azeris) are classified as
"white" or "Middle Eastern". As such, "Asian" and "African"
ancestry are seen as racial categories for the purposes of the Census,
since they refer to ancestry only from those parts of the Asian and
African continents that are outside the Middle East and North Africa.
Before 1980, Census forms listed particular Asian ancestries as
separate groups, along with white and black or negro. Asian
Americans had also been classified as "other". In 1977, the
Office of Management and Budget
Office of Management and Budget issued a directive requiring
government agencies to maintain statistics on racial groups, including
on "Asian or Pacific Islander". The 1980 census marked the first
classification of Asians as a large group, combining several
individual ancestry groups into "Asian or Pacific Islander". By the
1990 census, "Asian or Pacific Islander (API)" was included as an
explicit category, although respondents had to select one particular
ancestry as a subcategory. The 2000 census onwards separated the
category into two separate ones, "Asian American" and "Native Hawaiian
and Other Pacific Islander".
The definition of Asian American has variations that derive from the
use of the word American in different contexts. Immigration status,
citizenship (by birthright and by naturalization), acculturation, and
language ability are some variables that are used to define American
for various purposes and may vary in formal and everyday usage.
For example, restricting American to include only U.S. citizens
conflicts with discussions of Asian American businesses, which
generally refer both to citizen and non-citizen owners.
In a PBS interview from 2004, a panel of Asian American writers
discussed how some groups include people of Middle Eastern descent in
the Asian American category. Asian American author Stewart Ikeda
has noted, "The definition of 'Asian American' also frequently depends
on who's asking, who's defining, in what context, and why... the
possible definitions of 'Asian-Pacific American' are many, complex,
and shifting... some scholars in Asian American Studies conferences
suggest that Russians, Iranians, and Israelis all might fit the
field's subject of study." Jeff Yang, of the Wall Street Journal,
writes that the panethnic definition of Asian American is a unique
American construct, and as an identity is "in beta".
Scholars have grappled with the accuracy, correctness, and usefulness
of the term Asian American. The term "Asian" in Asian American most
often comes under fire for encompassing a huge number of people with
ancestry from (or who have immigrated from) a wide range of culturally
diverse countries and traditions. In contrast, leading social sciences
and humanities scholars of race and Asian American identity point out
that because of the racial constructions in the United States,
including the social attitudes toward race and those of Asian
Americans have a "shared racial experience."
Because of this shared experience, the term Asian American is still a
useful panethnic category because of the similarity of some
experiences among Asian Americans, including stereotypes specific to
people in this category.
Asian American population percentage by state in 2010
Percentage Asian American by county, 2010 Census
Main article: Demographics of Asian Americans
The demographics of Asian
Americans describe a heterogeneous group of
people in the United States who can trace their ancestry to one or
more countries in Asia. Because Asian
Americans compose 6% of the
entire U.S. population, the diversity of the group is often
disregarded in media and news discussions of "Asians" or of "Asian
Americans." While there are some commonalities across ethnic
sub-groups, there are significant differences among different Asian
ethnicities that are related to each group's history. The Asian
American population is greatly urbanized, with nearly three-quarters
of them living in metropolitan areas with population greater than 2.5
million. As of July 2015[update],
California had the largest
population of Asian
Americans of any state, and
Hawaii was the only
state where Asian
Americans were the majority of the population.
The demographics of Asian
Americans can further be subdivided into, as
listed in alphabetical order:
East Asian Americans, including Chinese Americans, Japanese Americans,
Korean Americans, Mongolian Americans, Taiwanese Americans, and
South Asian Americans, including Bangladeshi Americans, Bhutanese
Americans, Indian Americans, Nepalese Americans, Pakistani Americans,
and Sri Lankan Americans
Southeast Asian Americans, including Burmese Americans, Cambodian
Americans, Filipino Americans, Hmong Americans, Indonesian Americans,
Laotian Americans, Malaysian Americans, Mien Americans, Singaporean
Americans, Thai Americans, and Vietnamese Americans.
Americans include multiracial or mixed race persons with origins
or ancestry in both the above groups and another race, or multiple of
the above groups.
In 2010, there were 2.8 million people (5 and older) who spoke a
Chinese language at home; after the Spanish language, it is the
third most common language in the United States. Other sizeable
Asian languages are Tagalog, Vietnamese, and Korean, with all three
having more than 1 million speakers in the United States.
In 2012, Alaska, California, Hawaii, Illinois, Massachusetts,
Michigan, Nevada, New Jersey, New York, Texas and Washington were
publishing election material in Asian languages in accordance with the
Voting Rights Act; these languages include Tagalog, Mandarin
Chinese, Vietnamese, Spanish,
Hindi and Bengali. Election
materials were also available in Gujarati, Japanese, Khmer, Korean,
and Thai. According to a poll conducted by the Asian American
Legal Defense and Education Fund in 2013, it found that 48 percent of
Americans considered media in their native language as their
primary news source.
According to the 2000 Census, the more prominent languages of the
Asian American community include the
Chinese languages (Cantonese,
Taishanese, and Hokkien), Tagalog, Vietnamese, Korean, Japanese,
Hindi, Urdu, and Gujarati. In 2008, the Chinese, Japanese, Korean,
Tagalog, and Vietnamese languages are all used in elections in Alaska,
California, Hawaii, Illinois, New York, Texas, and Washington
Pew Research Center
Pew Research Center study found the following breakdown of
religious identity among Asian Americans:
26% unaffiliated with any religion
2% other religion
The percentage of Christians among Asian
Americans has declined
sharply since the 1990s, chiefly due to largescale immigration from
countries in which Christianity is a minority religion (China and
India in particular). In 1990, 63% of the Asian
as Christians, while in 2001 only 43% did. This development has
been accompanied by a rise in traditional Asian religions, with the
people identifying with them doubling during the same decade.
Main article: History of Asian Americans
See also: Asian immigration to the United States
Five images of the Filipino settlement at Saint Malo, Louisiana
Americans originate from many different countries, each
population has its own unique immigration history.
Filipinos have been in the territories that would become the United
States since the 16th century. The earliest known arrival is that
of "Luzonians" in Morro Bay,
California on board the Manila-built
galleon ship Nuestra Senora de Esperanza in 1587, when both the
California were colonies of the Spanish Empire.
Romani people began emigrating to North America in colonial times,
with small groups recorded in Virginia and French Louisiana.[citation
needed] Larger-scale Roma emigration to the United States would follow
subsequently. In 1635, an "East Indian" is listed in
Jamestown, Virginia; preceding wider settlement of Indian
immigrants on the East Coast in the 1790s and the West Coast in the
1800s. In 1763,
Filipinos established the small settlement of
Saint Malo, Louisiana, after fleeing mistreatment aboard Spanish
ships. Since there were no Filipino women with them, these
'Manilamen', as they were known, married
Cajun and Native American
women. The first Japanese person to come to the United States, and
stay any significant period of time was
Nakahama Manjirō who reached
the East Coast in 1841, and
Joseph Heco became the first Japanese
American naturalized US citizen in 1858.
Chinese sailors first came to
Hawaii in 1789, a few years after
James Cook came upon the island. Many settled and married
Hawaiian women. Most Chinese, Korean and Japanese immigrants in Hawaii
arrived in the 19th century as laborers to work on sugar
plantations. There were thousands of Asians in
Hawaii when it was
annexed to the United States in 1898. Later,
Filipinos also came
to work as laborers, attracted by the job opportunities, although they
Large-scale migration from Asia to the United States began when
Chinese immigrants arrived on the West Coast in the mid-19th
century. Forming part of the
California gold rush, these early
Chinese immigrants participated intensively in the mining business and
later in the construction of the transcontinental railroad. By
1852, the number of Chinese immigrants in San Francisco had jumped to
more than 20,000. A wave of Japanese immigration to the United States
began after the
Meiji Restoration in 1868. In 1898, all Filipinos
in the Philippine Islands became American nationals when the United
States took over colonial rule of the islands from Spain following the
latter's defeat in the Spanish–American War.
Under United States law during this period, particularly the
Naturalization Act of 1790, only "free white persons" were eligible to
naturalize as American citizens. Ineligibility for citizenship
prevented Asian immigrants from accessing a variety of rights such as
Bhicaji Balsara became the first known Indian-born person
to gain naturalized U.S. citizenship. Balsara’s naturalization
was not the norm but an exception; in a pair of cases, Ozawa v. United
States (1922) and
United States v. Bhagat Singh Thind
United States v. Bhagat Singh Thind (1923), the
Supreme Court upheld the racial qualification for citizenship and
ruled that Asians were not "white persons." Second-generation Asian
Americans, however, could become U.S. citizens due to the birthright
citizenship clause of the Fourteenth Amendment; this guarantee was
confirmed as applying regardless of race or ancestry by the Supreme
United States v. Wong Kim Ark
United States v. Wong Kim Ark (1898).
From the 1880s to the 1920s, the United States passed laws
inaugurating an era of exclusion of Asian immigrants. Although the
absolute numbers of Asian immigrants were small compared to that of
immigrants from other regions, much of it was concentrated in the
West, and the increase caused some nativist sentiment known as the
"yellow peril". Congress passed restrictive legislation prohibiting
nearly all Chinese immigration in the 1880s. Japanese immigration
was sharply curtailed by a diplomatic agreement in 1907. The Asiatic
Barred Zone Act in 1917 further barred immigration from South Asia
(then-British India), Southeast Asia, and the Middle East. The
Immigration Act of 1924
Immigration Act of 1924 provided that no "alien ineligible for
citizenship" could be admitted as an immigrant to the United States,
consolidating the prohibition of Asian immigration.
World War II-era legislation and judicial rulings gradually increased
the ability of Asian
Americans to immigrate and become naturalized
citizens. Immigration rapidly increased following the enactment of the
Immigration and Nationality Act Amendments of 1965
Immigration and Nationality Act Amendments of 1965 as well as the
influx of refugees from conflicts occurring in
Southeast Asia such as
the Vietnam War. Asian American immigrants have a significant
percentage of individuals who have already achieved professional
status, a first among immigration groups.
Migration Policy Institute reports that the number of Asian
immigrants to the United States "grew from 491,000 in 1960 to about
12.8 million in 2014, representing a 2,597 percent increase." From
2000 to 2010, the Asian American population was the fastest growing
group according to the 2010 U.S. Census. By 2012, the
growth of Asian American population overtook the growth of Latino
American population according to the
Pew Research Center; it also
found that illegal immigration from Asia was significantly less than
from Latin America. In 2015,
Pew Research Center
Pew Research Center found that from
2010 to 2015 more immigrants came from Asia than from Latin America,
and that since 1965 Asians have made up a quarter of all
Asians have made up an increasing proportion of the foreign-born
Americans: "In 1960, Asians represented 5 percent of the U.S.
foreign-born population; by 2014, their share grew to 30 percent of
the nation's 42.4 million immigrants." As of 2016, "Asia is the
second-largest region of birth (after Latin America) of U.S.
immigrants." In 2013, China surpassed Mexico as the top single
country of origin for immigrants to the U.S. Asian immigrants "are
more likely than the overall foreign-born population to be naturalized
citizens"; in 2014, 59% of Asian immigrants had U.S. citizenship,
compared to 47% of all immigrants. Postwar Asian immigration to
the U.S. has been diverse: in 2014, 31% of Asian immigrants to the
U.S. were from
East Asian (predominately China and Korea); 27.7% were
South Asia (predominately India); 32.6% were from Southeastern
Asia (predominately the
Philippines and Vietnam) and 8.3% were from
Asian American movement
Main article: Asian American movement
Asian American movement refers to a pan-Asian movement in the
United States in which
Americans of Asian descent came together to
fight against their shared oppression and to organize for recognition
and advancement of their shared cause during the 1960s to the early
1980s. According to William Wei, the movement was "rooted in a past
history of oppression and a present struggle for liberation." This
occurred around the same time as the Chicano movement, Civil Rights
American Indian Movement
American Indian Movement and the gay liberation movement.
For a more comprehensive list, see List of Asian Americans.
Arts and entertainment
Main article: Asian
Americans in arts and entertainment
See also: Asian-American literature
Americans have been involved in the entertainment industry since
the first half of the 19th century, when
Chang and Eng Bunker
Chang and Eng Bunker (the
original "Siamese Twins") became naturalized citizens. Acting
roles in television, film, and theater were relatively few, and many
available roles were for narrow, stereotypical characters. More
recently, young Asian American comedians and film-makers have found an
YouTube allowing them to gain a strong and loyal fanbase
among their fellow Asian Americans. There have been several Asian
American-centric television shows in American media, beginning with
Mr. T and Tina
Mr. T and Tina in 1976, and as recent as
Fresh Off the Boat
Fresh Off the Boat in
2015. Throughout the 1990s there was a growing amount of Asian
American queer writings and today the list of contributing writers
is long. To name a few:
Merle Woo (1941), Willyce Kim (1946), Russell
Leong (1950), Kitty Tsui (1952),
Dwight Okita (1958), Norman Wong
(1963), Tim Liu (1965),
Chay Yew (1965), and
Justin Chin (1969).
This section is missing information about the history of the subject.
Please expand the section to include this information. Further details
may exist on the talk page. (August 2009)
Americans were largely excluded from labor markets in the
19th century, they started their own businesses. They have started
convenience and grocery stores, professional offices such as medical
and law practices, laundries, restaurants, beauty-related ventures,
hi-tech companies, and many other kinds of enterprises, becoming very
successful and influential in American society. They have dramatically
expanded their involvement across the American economy. Asian
Americans have been disproportionately successful in the hi-tech
sectors of California's Silicon Valley, as evidenced by the Goldsea
100 Compilation of America's Most Successful Asian Entrepreneurs.
Compared to their population base, Asian
Americans today are well
represented in the professional sector and tend to earn higher
Goldsea compilation of Notable Asian American
Professionals show that many have come to occupy high positions at
leading U.S. corporations, including a surprising number as Chief
Americans have made major contributions to the American economy.
In 2012, Asian
Americans own 1.5 million businesses, employ around 3
million people who earn an annual total payroll of around $80
billion. Fashion designer and mogul Vera Wang, who is famous for
designing dresses for high-profile celebrities, started a clothing
company, named after herself, which now offers a broad range of luxury
An Wang founded
Wang Laboratories in June 1951. Amar
Bose founded the
Bose Corporation in 1964.
Charles Wang founded
Computer Associates, later became its CEO and chairman. Two brothers,
David Khym and Kenny Khym founded
Hip hop fashion
Hip hop fashion giant Southpole
(clothing) in 1991.
Jen-Hsun Huang co-founded the
in 1993. Jerry Yang co-founded Yahoo! Inc. in 1994 and became its CEO
Andrea Jung serves as Chairman and CEO of Avon Products. Vinod
Khosla was a founding CEO of
Sun Microsystems and is a general partner
of the prominent venture capital firm Kleiner Perkins Caufield &
Byers. Steve Chen and
Jawed Karim were co-creators of YouTube, and
were beneficiaries of Google's $1.65 billion acquisition of that
company in 2006. In addition to contributing greatly to other fields,
Americans have made considerable contributions in science and
technology in the United States, in such prominent innovative R&D
Silicon Valley and The Triangle.
Government and politics
Main article: Asian
Americans in government and politics
Americans have a high level of political incorporation in terms
of their actual voting population. Since 1907, Asian
been active at the national level and have had multiple officeholders
at local, state, and national levels.
The highest ranked Asian American in the legislature was Senator and
President pro tempore Daniel Inouye, who died in office in 2012; by
order of precedence the highest ranked Asian American in office is
Secretary of Transportation
Secretary of Transportation Elaine Chao. There are several
Americans in the United States Congress. With higher
proportions and densities of Asian American populations,
most consistently sent Asian
Americans to the Senate, and
California have most consistently sent Asian
Americans to the House of
Connie Chung was one of the first Asian American national
correspondents for a major TV news network, reporting for CBS in 1971.
She later co-anchored the CBS Evening News from 1993 to 1995, becoming
the first Asian American national news anchor. At ABC, Ken
Kashiwahara began reporting nationally in 1974. In 1989, Emil
Guillermo, a Filipino American born reporter from San Francisco,
became the first Asian American male to co-host a national news show
when he was senior host at National Public Radio's "All Things
Considered." In 1990, Sheryl WuDunn, a foreign correspondent in the
Beijing Bureau of The New York Times, became the first Asian American
to win a Pulitzer Prize.
Ann Curry joined NBC News as a reporter in
1990, later becoming prominently associated with The Today Show in
Carol Lin is perhaps best known for being the first to break the
9-11 on CNN. Dr.
Sanjay Gupta is currently CNN's chief health
correspondent. Lisa Ling, a former co-host on The View, now provides
special reports for
CNN and The Oprah Winfrey Show, as well as hosting
National Geographic Channel's Explorer. Fareed Zakaria, a naturalized
Indian-born immigrant, is a prominent journalist and author
specializing in international affairs. He is the editor-at-large of
Time magazine, and the host of
Fareed Zakaria GPS on CNN. Juju Chang,
James Hatori, John Yang, Veronica De La Cruz, Michelle Malkin, Betty
Julie Chen have become familiar faces on television news.
John Yang won a Peabody Award. Alex Tizon, a
Seattle Times staff
writer, won a Pulitzer Prize in 1997.
Main article: Military History of Asian Americans
See also: Notable Asian
Americans in the Military
War of 1812
War of 1812 Asian
Americans have served and fought on behalf
of the United States. Serving in both segregated and non-segregated
units until the desegregation of the US Military in 1948, 31 have been
awarded the nation's highest award for combat valor, the Medal of
Honor. Twenty-one of these were conferred upon members of the mostly
Japanese American 100th Infantry Battalion of the 442nd Regimental
Combat Team of World War II, the most highly decorated unit of its
size in the history of the United States Armed Forces. The
highest ranked Asian American military official was Secretary of
Veteran Affairs, four-star general and Army Chief of Staff Eric
Science and technology
Americans have made many notable contributions to Science and
Chien-Shiung Wu was known to many scientists as the "First Lady of
Physics" and played a pivotal role in experimentally demonstrating the
violation of the law of conservation of parity in the field of
particle physics. Fazlur Rahman Khan, also known as named as "The
Father of tubular designs for high-rises", was highlighted by
President Barack Obama in a 2009 speech in Cairo, Egypt, and has
been called "Einstein of Structural engineering". Min Chueh Chang
was the co-inventor of the combined oral contraceptive pill and
contributed significantly to the development of in vitro fertilisation
at the Worcester Foundation for Experimental Biology. David T. Wong
was one of the scientists credited with the discovery of
Fluoxetine as well as the discovery of
atomoxetine, duloxetine and dapoxetine with colleagues.
Michio Kaku has popularized science and has appeared on multiple
programs on television and radio.
Tsung-Dao Lee and
Chen Ning Yang
Chen Ning Yang received the 1957 Nobel Prize in
Physics for theoretical work demonstrating that the conservation of
parity did not always hold and later became American citizens. Har
Gobind Khorana shared the 1968 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
for his work in genetics and protein synthesis. Samuel Chao Chung Ting
received the 1976 Nobel Prize in physics for discovery of the
subatomic particle J/ψ. The mathematician
Shing-Tung Yau won the
Fields Medal in 1982 and
Terence Tao won the
Fields Medal in 2006. The
Shiing-Shen Chern received the
Wolf Prize in Mathematics
Wolf Prize in Mathematics in
Andrew Yao was awarded the
Turing Award in 2000. Subrahmanyan
Chandrasekhar shared the 1983
Nobel Prize in Physics
Nobel Prize in Physics and had the
Chandra X-ray Observatory
Chandra X-ray Observatory named after him. In 1984, Dr. David D. Ho
first reported the "healthy carrier state" of HIV infection, which
identified HIV-positive individuals who showed no physical signs of
Charles J. Pedersen
Charles J. Pedersen shared the 1987 Nobel Prize in chemistry for
his methods of synthesizing crown ethers.
Steven Chu shared the 1997
Nobel Prize in Physics
Nobel Prize in Physics for his research in cooling and trapping atoms
using laser light.
Daniel Tsui shared the 1998 Nobel Prize in Physics
in 1998 for helping discover the fractional Quantum Hall effect. In
Roger Tsien won the Nobel in Chemistry for his work
on engineering and improving the green fluorescent protein (GFP) that
has become a standard tool of modern molecular biology and
Yoichiro Nambu received the 2008 Nobel Prize in Physics
for his work on the consequences of spontaneously broken symmetries in
field theories. In 2009,
Charles K. Kao
Charles K. Kao was awarded Nobel Prize in
Physics "for groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission
of light in fibres for optical communication" and Venkatraman
Ramakrishnan won the prize in Chemistry "for studies of the structure
and function of the ribosome".
Ching W. Tang was the inventor of the
Organic light-emitting diode
Organic light-emitting diode and
Organic solar cell
Organic solar cell and was awarded
Wolf Prize in Chemistry for this achievement. Manjul
American Canadian of Indian origins won the Fields Medal
in mathematics in 2014.
Shuji Nakamura won the 2014 Nobel Prize in
Physics for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes.
Yitang Zhang is a Chinese-born American mathematician working in the
area of number theory. While working for the University of New
Hampshire as a lecturer, Zhang submitted an article to the Annals of
Mathematics in 2013 which established the first finite bound on gaps
between prime numbers, which lead to a 2014 MacArthur award.
This section needs expansion with: examples and additional citations.
You can help by adding to it. (October 2009)
See also: List of Asian American astronauts
Ellison Onizuka became the first Asian American (and third person
East Asian descent) when he made his first space flight aboard
STS-51-C in 1985. Onizuka later died aboard the Space Shuttle
Challenger in 1986.
Taylor Gun-Jin Wang
Taylor Gun-Jin Wang became the first person of
Chinese ethnicity and first Chinese American, in space in 1985; he has
since been followed by
Leroy Chiao in 1994, and
Ed Lu in 1997. In
Franklin Chang-Diaz became the first
Asian Latin American in
Eugene H. Trinh
Eugene H. Trinh became the first Vietnamese American in space
in 1992. In 2001, Mark L. Polansky, a Jewish Korean American, made his
first of three flights into space. In 2003,
Kalpana Chawla became the
Indian American in space, but died aboard the ill-fated Space
Shuttle Columbia. She has since been followed by CDR Sunita Williams
Wataru Misaka broke the NBA color barrier when he played for the New
York Knicks in the 1947–48 season. The next Asian American NBA
player was Raymond Townsend, who played for the Golden State Warriors
Indiana Pacers from 1978 to 1982. Rex Walters, played from
1993 to 2000 with the Nets,
Philadelphia 76ers and Miami Heat; he
is presently the head coach for the University of San Francisco
basketball team. After playing basketball at Harvard University,
Jeremy Lin signed with the NBA's
Golden State Warriors
Golden State Warriors in
2010 and now plays for the Brooklyn Nets.
Jordan Clarkson of the
Los Angeles Lakers
Los Angeles Lakers is also of partial Filipino-American descent.
Kansas Jayhawks assistant coach
Kurtis Townsend is Raymond
Erik Spoelstra became the youngest coach ever in NBA history. He is
currently the head coach of the Miami Heat.
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improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
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Wally Yonamine played professionally for the San
Francisco 49ers in 1947.
Norm Chow is currently the head coach
for the University of
Hawaii and former offensive coordinator for UCLA
after a short stint with the Tennessee Titans of the NFL, after 23
years of coaching other college teams, including four years as
offensive coordinator at USC. In 1962, half Filipino
Roman Gabriel was
the first Asian American to start as an NFL quarterback. Dat Nguyen
was an NFL middle linebacker who was an all-pro selection in 2003 for
the Dallas Cowboys. In 1998, he was named an All-American and won the
Bednarik Award as well as the Lombardi Award, while playing for Texas
Hines Ward who was born to a Korean mother and an
African American father, is a former NFL wide receiver who was the MVP
Super Bowl XL
Super Bowl XL and Ward also won the 12th season of the Dancing with
the Stars television series. Former Patriot's linebacker Tedy Bruschi
is of Filipino and Italian descent. While playing for the Patriots,
Bruschi won three Super Bowl rings and was a two-time All-Pro
selection. Bruschi is currently a NFL analyst at ESPN.
Mixed martial arts
There are several top ranked Asian American mixed martial artists. BJ
Penn is a former UFC lightweight and welterweight champion.
Cung Le is
a former Strikeforce middleweight champion.
Benson Henderson is the
former WEC lightweight champion and a former UFC lightweight champion.
Nam Phan is UFC featherweight fighter.
Americans first made an impact in Olympic sports in the late
1940s and in the 1950s. Sammy Lee became the first Asian American to
earn an Olympic Gold Medal, winning in platform diving in both 1948
and 1952. Victoria Manalo Draves won both gold in platform and
springboard diving in the 1948.
Harold Sakata won a weightlifting
silver medal in the 1948 Olympics, while
Tommy Kono (weightlifting),
Yoshinobu Oyakawa (100-meter backstroke), and
Ford Konno (1500-meter
freestyle) each won gold and set Olympic records in the 1952 Olympics.
Konno won another gold and silver swimming medal at the same Olympics
and added a silver medal in 1956, while Kono set another Olympic
weightlifting record in 1956. Also at the 1952 Olympics, Evelyn
Kawamoto won two bronze medals in swimming.
Amy Chow was a member of the gold medal women's gymnastics team at the
1996 Olympics; she also won an individual silver medal on the uneven
Mohini Bhardwaj won a team silver medal in the 2004
Bryan Clay who is of Half-Japanese descent won the
decathlon gold medal in the 2008 Olympics, the silver medal in the
2004 Olympics, and was the sport's 2005 world champion.
Tiffany Chin won the women's US Figure Skating Championship in
Americans have been prominent in that sport. Kristi
Yamaguchi won three national championships, two world titles, and the
1992 Olympic Gold medal.
Michelle Kwan has won nine national
championships and five world titles, as well as two Olympic medals
(silver in 1998, bronze in 2002).
Apolo Ohno, who is of half-Japanese descent, is a short track
speed skater and an eight-time Olympic medalist as well as the most
decorated American Winter Olympic athlete of all time. He became the
youngest U.S. national champion in 1997 and was the reigning champion
from 2001 to 2009, winning the title a total of 12 times. In 1999, he
became the youngest skater to win a World Cup event title, and became
the first American to win a World Cup overall title in 2001, which he
won again in 2003 and 2005. He won his first overall World
Championship title at the 2008 championships.
Nathan Adrian, who is a hapa of half-Chinese descent, is a
professional American swimmer and three-time Olympic gold medalist who
currently holds the American record in the 50 and 100-yard freestyle
(short course) events. He has won a total of fifteen medals in major
international competitions, twelve gold, two silver, and one bronze
spanning the Olympics, the World, and the Pan Pacific Championships.
Bryan Clay, who won the
2008 Summer Olympics
2008 Summer Olympics gold in the decathlon. He
also previously won a silver medal in the decathlon in the 2004 Summer
Olympics. Clay was dubbed the "World's Greatest Athlete" for the 2008
win with a 240-point margin between him and the next competitor. He is
afro-asian with his father being
Black and his mother being Japanese.
This section needs expansion with: examples and additional citations.
You can help by adding to it. (February 2012)
Michael Chang was a top-ranked tennis player for most of his career,
and the youngest ever winner of a Grand Slam tennis tournament in
men's singles. He won the French Open in 1989. Tiger Woods, who is
partially of Asian descent, is the most successful golfer of his
generation and one of the most famous athletes in the world. Eric
Koston is one of the top street skateboarders and placed first in the
X-Games street competition.
Richard Park is a
Korean American ice
hockey player who currently plays for the Swiss team HC Ambri-Piotta.
Brian Ching, whose father was Chinese, represented the United States
Men's National Soccer Team, scoring 11 goals in 45 caps. He
participated in the
2006 World Cup
2006 World Cup and won the 2007 Gold Cup.
Julie Chu, who is three-quarter Chinese and one-quarter Puerto
Rican, is an American Olympic ice hockey player who played for
the United States women's ice hockey team. She was also US Olympic
Team Flag Bearer for the 2014 Winter Olympic Closing Ceremonies.
In recognition of the unique culture, traditions, and history of Asian
Americans and Pacific Islanders, the
United States government
United States government has
permanently designated the month of May to be Asian Pacific American
Health and medicine
See also: Health status of Asian Americans
Asian immigrants are also changing the American medical landscape
through increasing number of Asian medical practitioners in the United
States. Beginning in the 1960s and 1970s, the US government invited a
number of foreign physicians particularly from India and the
Philippines to address the acute shortage of physicians in rural and
medically underserved urban areas. The trend in importing foreign
medical practitioners, however, became a long-term, chronic solution
as US medical schools failed to produce enough physicians to match the
increasing American population. Amid decreasing interest in medicine
among American college students due to high educational costs and high
rates of job dissatisfaction, loss of morale, stress, and lawsuits,
Asian American immigrants maintained a supply of healthcare
practitioners for millions of Americans. It is well documented that
Asian American international medical graduates including highly
skilled guest workers using the J1 Visa program for medical workers,
tend to serve in health professions shortage areas (HPSA) and
specialties that are not filled by US medical graduates especially
primary care and rural medicine. Thus, Asian American
immigrants play a key role in averting a medical crisis in the US.
A lasting legacy of Asian American involvement in medicine is the
forcing of US medical establishment to accept minority medical
practitioners. One could speculate that the introduction of Asian
physicians and dentists to the American society could have triggered
an acceptance of other minority groups by breaking down stereotypes
and encouraging trust.
Traditional Asian concepts and practices in health and medicine have
attracted greater acceptance and are more widely adopted by American
Ayurveda and traditional
Chinese medicine (which also
includes acupuncture) are two alternative therapy systems that have
been studied and adopted to a great extent. For instance, in the early
1970s the US medical establishment did not believe in the usefulness
of acupuncture. Since then studies have proven the efficacy of
acupuncture for different applications, especially for treatment of
chronic pain. It is now covered by many health insurance plans.
Herbalism and massage therapy (from Ayurveda) are sweeping the spas
across America. Meditation and yoga (from India) have also been widely
adopted by health spas, and spiritual retreats of many religious
bases. They are also part of the spiritual practice of the many
Americans who are not affiliated with a mainline religious
Origins of foreign doctors in the US
Country of Origin
Percentage of Total IMGs in US
Origins of foreign dentists in the US
Country of Origin
Percentage of Total IDGs in US
Origins of foreign nurses in the US
Country of Origin
Percentage of Total INGs in US
(25 and older)
or higher (2010)
Total U.S. population
Sources: 2004 and 2010
Among America's major racial categories, Asian
Americans have the
highest educational qualifications. This varies, however, for
individual ethnic groups. Dr. C.N. Le, Director of the Asian &
Asian American Studies Certificate Program at the University of
Massachusetts, writes that although 42% of all Asian American adults
have at least a college degree,
Vietnamese Americans have a degree
attainment rate of only 16% while Laotians and Cambodians only have
rates around 5%. It has been noted, however, that 2008 US Census
statistics put the bachelor's degree attainment rate of Vietnamese
Americans at 26%, which is not very different from the rate of 27% for
all Americans. According to the
US Census Bureau in 2010, while
the high school graduation rate for Asian
Americans is on par with
those of other ethnic groups, 50% of Asian
Americans have attained at
least a bachelor's degree as compared with the national average of
28%, and 34% for non-Hispanic whites.
Indian Americans have
some of the highest education rates, with nearly 71% having attained
at least a bachelor's degree in 2010. According to Carolyn Chen,
director of the Asian American Studies Program at Northwestern
University, as of December 2012[update] Asian
Americans made up
twelve to eighteen percent of the student population at Ivy League
schools, larger than their share of the population. For example,
the Harvard Class of 2016 is 21% Asian American.
In the years immediately preceding 2012, 61% of Asian American adult
immigrants have a bachelor or higher level college education.
Social and political issues
Main article: Bamboo ceiling
This concept appears to elevate Asian
Americans by portraying them as
an elite group of successful, highly educated, intelligent, and
wealthy individuals, but it can also be considered an overly narrow
and overly one-dimensional portrayal of Asian Americans, leaving out
other human qualities such as vocal leadership, negative emotions,
risk taking, ability to learn from mistakes, and desire for creative
expression. Furthermore, Asian
Americans who do not fit into the
model minority mold can face challenges when people's expectations
based on the model minority myth do not match with reality. Traits
outside of the model minority mold can be seen as negative character
flaws for Asian
Americans despite those very same traits being
positive for the general American majority (e.g., risk taking,
confidence, empowered). For this reason, Asian
Americans encounter a
"bamboo ceiling", the Asian American equivalent of the glass ceiling
in the workplace, with only 1.5% of
Fortune 500 CEOs being Asians, a
percentage smaller than their percentage of the total United States
The bamboo ceiling is defined as a combination of individual,
cultural, and organisational factors that impede Asian Americans'
career progress inside organizations. Since then, a variety of sectors
(including nonprofits, universities, the government) have discussed
the impact of the ceiling as it relates to Asians and the challenges
they face. As described by Anne Fisher, the "bamboo ceiling" refers to
the processes and barriers that serve to exclude Asians and American
people of Asian descent from executive positions on the basis of
subjective factors such as "lack of leadership potential" and "lack of
communication skills" that cannot actually be explained by job
performance or qualifications. Articles regarding the subject
have been published in Crains, Fortune magazine, and The
See also: Deportation of Cambodians from the United States
In 2012, there were 1.3 million alien Asian Americans; and for those
awaiting visas, there were lengthy backlogs with over 450 thousand
Filipinos, over 325 thousand Indians, over 250 thousand Vietnamese,
and over 225 thousand Chinese are awaiting visas. As of 2009,
Filipinos and Indians accounted for the highest number of alien
immigrants for "Asian Americans" with an estimated illegal population
of 270,000 and 200,000 respectively.
Indian Americans are also the
fastest growing alien immigrant group in the United States, an
increase in illegal immigration of 125% since 2000. This is
Koreans (200,000) and Chinese (120,000).
Due to the stereotype of Asian
Americans being successful as a group
and having the lowest crime rates in the United States, illegal
immigration is mostly focused on those from Mexico and Latin America
while leaving out Asians. Asians are the second largest
racial/ethnic alien immigrant group in the U.S. behind Hispanics and
Latinos. While the majority of Asian immigrants to the United
States immigrate legally, up to 15% of Asian immigrants immigrate
without legal documents.
See also: Yellow Peril, Anti-Chinese sentiment in the United States,
Anti-Filipino sentiment § United States, Anti-Japanese sentiment
in the United States, and Anti-Pakistan sentiment
Americans have been the target of violence based on their race
and or ethnicity. This includes, but are not limited to, such events
as the Rock Springs massacre, Watsonville Riots, attacks
Japanese Americans following the attack on Pearl Harbor, and
Korean American businesses targeted during the 1992 Los Angeles
riots. According to historian Arif Dirlik: "Indian massacres of
Chinese was a commonplace experience on the frontier, the most notable
being the 'legendary slaughter by
Paiute Indians of forty to sixty
Chinese miners in 1866.'" In the late 1980s, South Asians in New
Jersey faced assault and other hate crimes by a group known as the
After the September 11 attacks,
Americans were targeted, being
the recipient of numerous hate crimes including murder. Other
Americans have also been the victim of race based violence in
Brooklyn, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and Bloomington,
Indiana. Furthermore, it has been reported that young Asian
Americans are more likely to be a target of violence than their
peers. Racism and discrimination still persists against
Asian Americans, occurring not only to recent immigrants but also
towards well-educated and highly trained professionals.
Recent waves of immigration of Asian
Americans to largely African
American neighborhoods have led to cases of severe racial
tensions. Acts of large-scale violence against Asian American
students by their black classmates have been reported in multiple
cities. In October 2008, 30 black students chased and attacked 5
Asian students at South Philadelphia High School, and a similar
attack on Asian students occurred at the same school one year later,
prompting a protest by Asian students in response.
Asian-owned businesses have been a frequent target of tensions between
black and Asian Americans. During the 1992 Los Angeles riots, more
than 2000 Korean-owned businesses were looted or burned by groups of
African Americans. From 1990 to 1991, a high-profile,
racially-motivated boycott of an Asian-owned shop in Brooklyn was
organized by a local black nationalist activist, eventually resulting
in the owner being forced to sell his business. Another
racially-motivated boycott against an Asian-owned business occurred in
Dallas in 2012, after an Asian American clerk fatally shot an African
American who had robbed his store. During the
Ferguson unrest in
2014, Asian-owned businesses were looted, and Asian-owned stores
were looted during the
2015 Baltimore protests
2015 Baltimore protests while African-American
owned stores were bypassed. Violence against Asian Americans
continue to occur based on their race, with one source asserting
Americans are the fastest growing targets of hate crimes
Stereotypes of East Asians in the United States
Stereotypes of East Asians in the United States and
Stereotypes of South Asians
See also: Ching chong
Until the late 20th century, the term "Asian American" was adopted
mostly by activists, while the average person of Asian ancestries
identified with their specific ethnicity. The murder of Vincent
Chin in 1982 was a pivotal civil rights case, and it marked the
emergence of Asian
Americans as a distinct group in United
Stereotypes of Asians have been largely collectively internalized by
society and these stereotypes have mainly negative repercussions for
Americans and Asian immigrants in daily interactions, current
events, and governmental legislation. In many instances, media
portrayals of East Asians often reflect a dominant Americentric
perception rather than realistic and authentic depictions of true
cultures, customs and behaviors. Asians have experienced
discrimination and have been victims of hate crimes related to their
Study has indicated that most non-Asian
Americans do not generally
differentiate between Asian
Americans of different ethnicities.
Chinese Americans and Asian
Americans are nearly
identical. A 2002 survey of Americans' attitudes toward Asian
Chinese Americans indicated that 24% of the respondents
disapprove of intermarriage with an Asian American, second only to
African Americans; 23% would be uncomfortable supporting an Asian
American presidential candidate, compared to 15% for an African
American, 14% for a woman and 11% for a Jew; 17% would be upset if a
substantial number of Asian
Americans moved into their neighborhood;
25% had somewhat or very negative attitude toward
Chinese Americans in
general. The study did find several positive perceptions of
Chinese Americans: strong family values (91%); honesty as business
people (77%); high value on education (67%).
There is a widespread perception that Asian
Americans are not
"American" but are instead "perpetual foreigners".
Americans often report being asked the question, "Where are you
really from?" by other Americans, regardless of how long they or their
ancestors have lived in United States and been a part of its
society. Many Asian
Americans are themselves not immigrants but
rather born in the United States. Many
Americans are asked
if they are Chinese or Japanese, an assumption based on major groups
of past immigrants.
Main article: Model minority
Americans are sometimes characterized as a model minority in the
United States because many of their cultures encourage a strong work
ethic, a respect for elders, a high degree of professional and
academic success, a high valuation of family, education and
religion. Statistics such as high household income and low
incarceration rate, low rates of many diseases, and higher than
average life expectancy are also discussed as positive aspects of
The implicit advice is that the other minorities should stop
protesting and emulate the Asian American work ethic and devotion to
higher education. Some critics say the depiction replaces biological
racism with cultural racism, and should be dropped. According to
the Washington Post, "the idea that Asian
Americans are distinct among
minority groups and immune to the challenges faced by other people of
color is a particularly sensitive issue for the community, which has
recently fought to reclaim its place in social justice conversations
with movements like #ModelMinorityMutiny."
The model minority concept can also affect Asians' public
education. By comparison with other minorities, Asians often
achieve higher test scores and grades compared to other
Americans. Stereotyping Asian American as over-achievers can lead
to harm if school officials or peers expect all to perform higher than
average. The very high educational attainments of Asian Americans
has often been noted; in 1980, for example, 74% of Chinese Americans,
62% of Japanese Americans, and 55% of
Korean Americans aged 20–21
were in college, compared to only a third of the whites. The disparity
at postgraduate levels is even greater, and the differential is
especially notable in fields making heavy use of mathematics. By 2000,
a plurality of undergraduates at such elite public
UC Berkeley and UCLA, which are obligated by law to not consider
race as a factor in admission, were Asian American. The pattern is
rooted in the pre-World War II era. Native-born Chinese and Japanese
Americans reached educational parity with majority whites in the early
decades of the 20th century.
The model minority concept can be emotionally damaging to some Asian
Americans, particularly since they are expected to live up to those
peers who fit the stereotype. Studies have shown that some Asian
Americans suffer from higher rates of stress, depression, mental
illnesses, and suicides in comparison to other races, indicating
that the pressures to achieve and live up to the model minority image
may take a mental and psychological toll on some Asian Americans.
The "model minority" stereotype fails to distinguish between different
ethnic groups with different histories. When divided up by ethnicity,
it can be seen that the economic and academic successes supposedly
enjoyed by Asian
Americans are concentrated into a few ethnic groups.
Cambodians, Hmong, and Laotians (and to a lesser extent, Vietnamese),
all of whose relatively low achievement rates are possibly due to
their refugee status, and that they are non-voluntary immigrants;
additionally, one in five Hmong and Bangladeshi people live in
Social and economic disparities among Asian Americans
In 2015, Asian American earnings were found to exceed all other racial
groups when all Asian ethnic groups are grouped as a whole. Yet,
a 2014 report from the Census Bureau reported that 12% of Asian
Americans were living below the poverty line, while only 10.1% of
White Americans live below the poverty line.
According to the Center for American Progress, a progressive public
policy research and advocacy organization, when comparing wealth
inequality between Asian
Americans and non-Hispanic White Americans,
Americans suffered a greater gap between wealthy and non-wealthy
Asian Americans. Once country of birth and other demographic
factors are taken into account, a portion of the sub-groups that make
Americans are much more likely than non-Hispanic White
Americans to live in poverty. According to an
article published by
National Public Radio
National Public Radio some Asian ethnic groups
African American when they were quoted as saying "when
you break it down by specific ethnic groups, the Hmong, the
Bangladeshi, they have poverty rates that rival the African-American
There are major disparities that exist among Asian
specific ethnic groups are examined. For example, in 2012, Asian
Americans had the highest educational attainment level of any racial
demographic in the country. Yet, there are many sub groups of
Americans who suffer in terms of education with some sub groups
showing a high rate of dropping out of school or lacking a college
education. This occurs in terms of household income as
well, in 2008 Asian
Americans had the highest median household income
overall of any racial demographic. There are Asian sub
groups have average median incomes lower than both the U.S. average
and non-Hispanic Whites. In 2014, data released by the United
States Census Bureau revealed that 5 Asian American ethnic groups are
in the top 10 lowest earning ethnicities in terms of per capita income
in all of the United States.
The Asian American groups that have low educational attainment and
high rates of poverty both in average individual and median income are
Bhutanese Americans, Bangladeshi Americans,
Cambodian Americans, Burmese Americans, Nepali
Americans, Hmong Americans, and Laotian
Americans. This affects
Vietnamese Americans as well, albeit to a
lesser degree, as early 21st century immigration from Vietnam are not
from refugee backgrounds. These individual ethnicities experience
social issues within their communities, some specific to their
individual communities themselves. Issues such as suicide, crime, and
mental illness. Other issues experienced include deportation, and
poor physical health. Within the
Bhutanese American community, it
has been documented that there are issues of suicide greater than the
world's average. Cambodian Americans, some of who immigrated as
refugees, are subject to deportation. Crime and gang violence are
common social issues among Southeast Asian
Americans of refugee
backgrounds such as Cambodian, Laotian, Hmong, and Vietnamese
United States portal
Social sciences portal
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Asian Americans.
Asian Pacific American Heritage Month
Asian American and Pacific Islander Policy Research Consortium
Asian American studies
Americans in New York City
Asian Hispanic and Latino Americans
Asian Latin Americans
Asian New Zealanders
Asian Pacific American
Jade Ribbon Campaign
Index of Asian American-related articles
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ISBN 978-0-313-35066-5. Since the
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Jain *% Unaffiliated 26%, Don't know/Refused 1%
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subcontinent including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan,
Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and
Vietnam. It includes Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Korean,
Japanese, Vietnamese, and Other Asian."
^ "U.S. Census Show Asians Are Fastest Growing Racial Group". NPR.org.
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American political group. And he coined the term "Asian American" to
frame a new self-defining political lexicon. Before that, people of
Asian ancestry were generally called
Oriental or Asiatic.
^ Mio, Jeffrey Scott, ed. (1999). Key Words in Multicultural
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the civil rights movement (Uba, 1994) and replaced disparaging labels
of Oriental, Asiatic, and Mongoloid.
^ "Proceedings of the Asiatic Exclusion League" Asiatic Exclusion
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hundred and sixty-nine of the Revised Statutes of the United States.
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United
States of America in Congress assembled, that section twenty-one
hundred and sixty-nine of the Revised Statutes of the United States
be, and the same is hereby, amended by adding thereto the following:
And Mongolians, Malays, and other Asiatics, except Armenians,
Assyrians, and Jews, shall not be naturalized in the United States."
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^ Epicanthal folds: MedicinePlus Medical Encyclopedia states that "The
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Kawamura, Kathleen (2004). "Chapter 28. Asian American Body Images".
In Thomas F. Cash; Thomas Pruzinsky. Body Image: A Handbook of Theory,
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UCLA Asian American Studies Center
Asian Americans1, 2
Asian Hispanic and Latino
Arts and Entertainment
New York City
U.S. Census Bureau
U.S. Census Bureau definition of Asians refers to a person
having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East,
Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent. 
2 The United States Government classified Kalmyks as Asian until 1951,
Kalmyk Americans were reclassified as White Americans.
U.S. Census Bureau
U.S. Census Bureau considers Mongolians and
Uzbeks as Central
Asians, but a specific Central Asian American group similar to
Middle Eastern American does not yet exist.
U.S. Census Bureau
U.S. Census Bureau reclassifies anyone identifying as "Tibetan
American" as "Chinese American".
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Punjabi Americans may be classified as Indian or Pakistani. Tamil
Americans may be classified as Indian or Sri Lankan.
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