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Ashgabat
Ashgabat
(Turkmen: Aşgabat, pronounced [ɑʃʁɑˈbɑt̪][citation needed]; Russian: Ашхабад, tr. Ashkhabad, IPA: [ɐʂxɐˈbat]) — named Poltoratsk (Russian: Полтора́цк, IPA: [pəltɐˈrat͡sk]) between 1919 and 1927, is the capital and the largest city of Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
in Central Asia, situated between the Karakum Desert
Karakum Desert
and the Kopet Dag
Kopet Dag
mountain range. The city was founded in 1881, and made the capital of the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic in 1924. Much of the city was destroyed by the 1948 Ashgabat earthquake
1948 Ashgabat earthquake
but has since seen extensive renovation under President Niyazov's urban renewal project.[2] The Karakum Canal runs through the city, carrying waters from the Amu Darya
Amu Darya
from east to west.[3]

Contents

1 Names 2 History 3 Districts 4 Demographics 5 Architecture

5.1 First Baha'i Temple in the world 5.2 After 1991

6 Economy

6.1 Industry 6.2 Shopping 6.3 Transportation

7 Science and education 8 Climate 9 Notable buildings

9.1 Palaces 9.2 Theatres 9.3 Parks and squares

9.3.1 Halk Hakydasy Memorial Complex

9.4 Cinemas 9.5 Mosques 9.6 Churches

10 Sports 11 International relations

11.1 Twin towns and sister cities

12 Gallery 13 References

13.1 Notes 13.2 Sources

14 External links

Names[edit] Ashgabat
Ashgabat
is called Aşgabat in Turkmen, Ашхабад (Ashkhabad) in Russian, and Ešq-ābād (عشق‌آباد) in Persian. Before 1991, the city was usually spelled Ashkhabad in English, a transliteration of the Russian form. It has also been variously spelled Ashkhabat and Ashgabad. From 1919 until 1927 the city was renamed Poltoratsk after a local revolutionary. The name means "city of love" or "city of devotion". Some Turkmen scholars insist that the name goes back to the Parthian era, 3rd century BC, deriving from the name of the founder of the Parthian Empire, Arsaces I of Parthia, in Persian Ashk-Abad (the city of Ashk/Arsaces).[4] History[edit] Ashgabat
Ashgabat
is a relatively young city, having been founded in 1881 as a fortification and named after the nearby settlement of Askhabad (lit. beloved city in Turkmen).[5] Located not far from the site of Nisa, the ancient capital of the Parthian Empire, it grew on the ruins of the Silk Road
Silk Road
city of Konjikala, first mentioned as a wine-producing village in the 2nd century BC and leveled by an earthquake in the 1st century BC (a precursor of the 1948 Ashgabat
Ashgabat
earthquake). Konjikala was rebuilt because of its advantageous location on the Silk Road
Silk Road
and it flourished until its destruction by Mongols in the 13th century. After that it survived as a small village until Russians
Russians
took over in the 19th century.[6][7] A part of Persia
Persia
until the Battle of Geok Tepe, Askhabad was ceded to the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
under the terms of the Akhal Treaty. Russia developed the area as it was close to the border of British-influenced Persia, and the population grew from 2,500 in 1881 to 19,428 (of whom one third were Persian) in 1897.[8] It was regarded as a pleasant town with European style buildings, shops, and hotels. In 1908, the first Bahá'í House of Worship
Bahá'í House of Worship
was built in Askhabat. It was badly damaged in the 1948 earthquake and finally demolished in 1963.[9] The community of the Bahá'í Faith in Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
was largely based in Ashgabat. Soviet rule was established in Ashgabat
Ashgabat
in December 1917. However, in July 1918, a coalition of Mensheviks, Social Revolutionaries, and Tsarist former officers of the Imperial Russian Army
Imperial Russian Army
revolted against the Bolshevik
Bolshevik
rule emanating from Tashkent
Tashkent
and established the Ashkhabad Executive Committee. After receiving some support (but even more promises) from General Malleson, the British withdrew in April 1919 and the Tashkent Soviet
Tashkent Soviet
resumed control of the city. In 1919, the city was renamed Poltoratsk (Полторацк), after Pavel Poltoratsky, the Chairman of the Soviet of National Economy of the Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic.[5][10] When the Turkmen SSR
Turkmen SSR
was established in 1924, Poltoratsk became its capital. The original name (in the form of "Ashkhabad") was restored in 1927.[5] From this period onward, the city experienced rapid growth and industrialisation, although severely disrupted by a major earthquake on October 6, 1948. An estimated 7.3 on the Richter scale, the earthquake killed 110-176,000[11][12][13][14] (⅔ of the population of the city), although the official number announced by Soviet news was only 40,000.[15] In July 2003, street names in Ashgabat
Ashgabat
were replaced by serial numbers except for nine major highways, some named after Saparmurat Niyazov, his father, and his mother. The Presidential
Presidential
Palace Square was designated 2000 to symbolize the beginning of the 21st century. The rest of the streets were assigned larger or smaller four-digit numerical names. Following Niyazov's death in 2006, Soviet-era street names were restored, though in the years since, many of them have been replaced with names honoring Turkmen scholars, poets, military heroes, and figures from art and culture.[16] In 2013, the city was included in the Guinness Book of Records
Guinness Book of Records
as the world's highest concentration of white marble buildings.[17] Ashgabat
Ashgabat
milestones:[18]

1882–1918 – administrative center of Russia's Transcaspian Region 1918–1925 – administrative center of the Turkmen Oblast in Turkestan ASSR since February 1925 – capital of Turkmen SSR since October 1991 – capital of independent Turkmenistan

Districts[edit] Ashgabat
Ashgabat
is divided into the following districts:[19]

Archabil District (Turkmen: Arçabil etraby, Арчабильский) Berkararlyk District (Turkmen: Berkararlyk etraby, Беркарарлыкский) Kopetdag District (Turkmen: Köpetdag etraby, Копетдагский) Bagtyyarlyk District (Turkmen: Bagtyýarlyk etraby, Багтырялыкский) Chandybil District (Turkmen: Çandybil etraby, Чандыбильский)

In 2013, the following areas from Ahal Region
Ahal Region
merged with Ashgabat city:[20]

Abadan District (Turkmen: Abadan etraby, Абаданский) Ruhabad District (Turkmen: Ruhabat etraby, Рухабадский)

Demographics[edit] According to estimates of the 2012 Turkmen census the Turkmen form 85% of the city's population. Russians
Russians
form 7.7% of the population, followed by Armenians
Armenians
(1.5%), Turks (1.1%), Uzbeks
Uzbeks
(1.1%), and Azeris (1%).[21] Architecture[edit] First Baha'i Temple in the world[edit]

First Bahá'í House of Worship
Bahá'í House of Worship
1908

Main article: Bahá'í Faith in Turkmenistan When Ashgabat
Ashgabat
was under Russian rule, the number of Bahá'ís in the city rose to over 1,000, and a Bahá'í community was established, with its own schools, medical facilities and cemetery. The community elected one of the first Bahá'í local administrative institutions. In 1908 the Bahá'í community completed the construction of the first Bahá'í House of Worship, sometimes referred to by its Arabic name of mašriqu-l-'aḏkār (Arabic: مشرق اﻻذكار‎),[22] where people of all religions may worship God
God
without denominational restrictions.[23] The building was designed under the guidance of `Abdu'l-Bahá
`Abdu'l-Bahá
by Ustad' Ali-Akbar Banna Yazdi who also wrote a history of the Baha'is in Ashgabat.[24][25] The House of Worship itself was surrounded by gardens, with four buildings at the four corners of the gardens: a school, a hostel where travelling Bahá'ís were entertained, a small hospital, and a building for groundskeepers.[25] Under the Soviet policy towards religion, the Bahá'ís, strictly adhering to their principle of obedience to legal government, abandoned these properties in 1928.[26] For the decade from 1938 to 1948, when it was seriously damaged by the earthquake, it was an art gallery. It was demolished in 1963.[23] After 1991[edit] After exiting the Soviet Union, the city gained many high-rise residential buildings. Modern construction techniques allow high-rise development (mainly 12 storeys) with relatively good protection against earthquakes. Primarily consisting of residential towers, the first floor is typically given a shopping area and a service department. Many of the buildings are made of white marble. The Arch of Neutrality was dismantled and re-erected in its original form in the south of the capital. Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
Tower, at a height of 211 meters, is the tallest building in the country. Ashgabat
Ashgabat
is primarily a government and administrative centre. The business centre of Ashgabat
Ashgabat
is on the Archabil highway. Construction of several ministries and departments, teaching and research and cultural centres is complete. Development of office buildings and public spaces along the avenue continues.[27]

Panorama of Ashgabat

Economy[edit] The principal industries are cotton textiles and metal working. It is a major stop on the Trans-Caspian railway. A large percentage of the employment in Ashgabat
Ashgabat
is provided by the state institutions; such as the ministries, undersecretariats, and other administrative bodies of the Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
government. There are also many foreign citizens working as diplomats or clerks in the embassies of their respective countries. Ashgabat
Ashgabat
lends its name to the Ashgabat
Ashgabat
agreement, signed by India, Oman, Iran, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
and Kazakhstan, for creating an international transport and transit corridor facilitating transportation of goods between Central Asia
Central Asia
and the Persian Gulf.[28] Industry[edit] More than 43 large and 128 medium-sized industrial enterprises along with over 1,700 small industrial facilities are located in Ashgabat and its suburbs.[29] The most important are “Ashneftemash”, “Turkmenkabel”, “Turkmenbashi Textile Complex” etc.[30] Shopping[edit]

Turkmen carpets in Altyn Asyr
Altyn Asyr
Bazaar

Both locals and visitors go to Altyn Asyr Bazaar
Altyn Asyr Bazaar
in Choganly, where many items, including traditional fabrics and hand-woven carpets, can be bought. Modern shopping areas are mostly found in central streets, including the modern Turkish mall Ýimpaş and shopping centers Paýtagt and Aşgabat.[31] The local residents like traditional bazaars: Russian bazaar, Teke bazaar, Daşoguz
Daşoguz
bazaar, Mir bazaar, Jennet bazaar, etc. Yimpas closed as of December 2016.[32] Transportation[edit]

Ashgabat
Ashgabat
International Airport

The city is served by the Ashgabat
Ashgabat
International Airport. Turkmenistan Airlines has its headquarters in the city.[33] Ashgabat
Ashgabat
offers air service to and from all the major cities of the Turkmenistan, as well as some destinations in Asia and Europe, especially in countries that are members of the CIS. Ashgabat
Ashgabat
is served by the following foreign airlines: Belavia, Lufthansa, Turkish Airlines, S7 Airlines, flydubai, China Southern Airlines
China Southern Airlines
and Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
Airways. The Trans-Caspian Railway (Turkmenbashi - Balkanabat
Balkanabat
- Bereket
Bereket
- Ashgabat
Ashgabat
- Mary - Türkmenabat) runs through Ashgabat
Ashgabat
from east to west. Since 2006 there as also been a train line towards the north, the Trans Karakum railway. In May 2009 the restoration of Ashgabat railway station was completed. In Ashgabat
Ashgabat
there are two intercity bus stations, one located near the Teke Bazaar, the second at the old airport. There are daily buses to Archman, Dashoguz and Turkmenabat. The new International Passenger Bus Terminal of Ashgabat
Ashgabat
was commissioned on September 5, 2014.[34][35] Public transport in the city consists mainly of buses. More than 60 bus lines cover a total range of more than 2,230 kilometres (1,386 miles) with 700 buses running on urban routes. Currently the city primarily uses Mercedes-Benz and Hyundai buses.[36] Bus timetables and detailed schematic map of the route are at every stop. Distances between stops are about 300–500 meters. From October 19, 1964 to December 31, 2011 the city also had the Ashgabat
Ashgabat
trolleybus system. At the beginning of the twentieth century narrow-gauge railway operated by steam-power, connecting the city with the suburbs Firyuza. On 18 October 2006, the Ashgabat Cable Car opened, connecting the city with the foothills of the Kopetdag.[37] Ashgabat Monorail
Ashgabat Monorail
commenced service in 2016, becoming the first monorail in the Central Asia
Central Asia
region.[38] In January 2018 it was reported that black cars had been impounded for weeks in Ashgabat, a result of President Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov's conviction that black cars bring bad luck.[39] Science and education[edit] Ashgabat
Ashgabat
is the most important educational center of Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
with a large number of places of education. Turkmen State University
Turkmen State University
was founded in 1950: the main university building is located in Saparmurat Turkmenbashi Avenue. The Turkmen State Medical University is situated in Ashgabat
Ashgabat
also: it reports to the Ministry of Health and the medical industry of Turkmenistan. Other prominent institutions are the Turkmen State Institute of Economics and Management, a main business school founded in 1980, as well as the Turkmen State Institute of Architecture and Construction and The National Institute of Sports and Tourism of Turkmenistan. There is only one foreign university - International Turkmen-Turkish University. In 2016, Technology University of Oguzhan was opened with Japanese education support and subjects are taught in English and Japanese. Climate[edit] The Kopet-Dag mountain range is about 25 kilometres (16 mi) to the south, and Ashgabat's northern boundary touches the Kara-Kum desert. Because of this Ashgabat
Ashgabat
has an arid climate with hot, dry summers and cool, short winters. The average high temperature in July is 38.3 °C (100.9 °F). Nighttimes in the summer are warm, with an average minimum temperature in July of 23.8 °C (75 °F). The average January high temperature is 8.6 °C (47.5 °F), and the average low temperature is −0.4 °C (31.3 °F). The highest temperature ever recorded in Ashgabat
Ashgabat
is 47.2 °C (117 °F), recorded in June 2015.[40] A low temperature of −24.1 °C (−11 °F) was recorded in January 1969.[40] Snow is infrequent in the area. Annual precipitation is only 201 millimetres (7.91 in); March and April are the wettest months, and summer drought, from late June to September, is virtually absolute.

Ashgabat

Climate chart (explanation)

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    20     9 0

    24     11 1

    41     17 6

    32     24 12

    21     30 17

    6     36 22

    3     38 24

    2     37 22

    3     32 16

    10     24 10

    19     17 5

    20     10 1

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation
Precipitation
totals in mm

Source: pogoda.ru.net[40]

Imperial conversion

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    0.8     47 31

    0.9     52 34

    1.6     62 42

    1.3     75 53

    0.8     86 62

    0.2     97 71

    0.1     101 75

    0.1     99 71

    0.1     89 61

    0.4     76 50

    0.7     62 41

    0.8     51 34

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation
Precipitation
totals in inches

Climate data for Ashgabat

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 28.7 (83.7) 32.6 (90.7) 38.6 (101.5) 39.4 (102.9) 44.5 (112.1) 47.2 (117) 46.0 (114.8) 45.7 (114.3) 45.6 (114.1) 40.1 (104.2) 37.0 (98.6) 33.1 (91.6) 47.2 (117)

Average high °C (°F) 8.6 (47.5) 11.2 (52.2) 16.5 (61.7) 24.1 (75.4) 30.1 (86.2) 36.0 (96.8) 38.3 (100.9) 37.2 (99) 31.7 (89.1) 24.3 (75.7) 16.8 (62.2) 10.4 (50.7) 23.8 (74.8)

Daily mean °C (°F) 3.5 (38.3) 5.5 (41.9) 10.4 (50.7) 17.4 (63.3) 23.3 (73.9) 29.0 (84.2) 31.3 (88.3) 29.6 (85.3) 23.6 (74.5) 16.5 (61.7) 10.2 (50.4) 5.1 (41.2) 17.1 (62.8)

Average low °C (°F) −0.4 (31.3) 1.0 (33.8) 5.5 (41.9) 11.6 (52.9) 16.6 (61.9) 21.5 (70.7) 23.8 (74.8) 21.7 (71.1) 16.1 (61) 10.1 (50.2) 5.2 (41.4) 1.2 (34.2) 11.2 (52.2)

Record low °C (°F) −24.1 (−11.4) −20.8 (−5.4) −13.3 (8.1) −0.8 (30.6) 1.3 (34.3) 9.2 (48.6) 13.8 (56.8) 9.5 (49.1) 2.0 (35.6) −5.1 (22.8) −13.1 (8.4) −16 (3) −24.1 (−11.4)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 20 (0.79) 24 (0.94) 41 (1.61) 32 (1.26) 21 (0.83) 6 (0.24) 3 (0.12) 2 (0.08) 3 (0.12) 10 (0.39) 19 (0.75) 20 (0.79) 201 (7.91)

Average rainy days 9 9 13 12 10 5 3 2 3 6 8 10 90

Average snowy days 5 5 1 0.03 0 0 0 0 0 0.1 1 3 15

Average relative humidity (%) 78 72 66 58 47 35 34 34 40 54 68 77 55

Mean monthly sunshine hours 112.7 119.4 146.2 194.4 275.1 335.5 353.8 348.1 289.2 216.8 157.2 104.4 2,652.8

Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net[41]

Source #2: NOAA (sun, 1961–1990)[42]

Notable buildings[edit] Museums include the Turkmen Fine Arts Museum and Turkmen Carpet Museum, noted for their impressive collection of woven carpets as well as a Turkmen history museum and the Ashgabat
Ashgabat
National Museum of History, which displays artifacts dating back to the Parthian and Persian civilizations. The Academy of Sciences of Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
is an important institute of higher learning. Ashgabat
Ashgabat
was also home to the Arch of Neutrality, a 250 ft (76 m) tall tripod crowned by a golden statue of late president Saparmurat Niyazov
Saparmurat Niyazov
(also known as Turkmenbashi, or leader of all Turkmen). The 50 ft (15 m) high statue, which rotated in order to always face the sun during daylight hours, was removed on August 26, 2010 after Niyazov’s successor, current president Berdimuhamedov, made it clear earlier in the year that the statue was going to be taken out of Ashgabat’s parliament square.[43] In 2011 a Monument to the Constitution was built, its total height of 607 ft (185 m) makes it the second tallest building in Turkmenistan.[44] Alem Cultural and Entertainment Center was recognised by Guinness World Records as the world's tallest Ferris wheel in an enclosed space.[45] The Ashgabat Flagpole
Ashgabat Flagpole
is the fourth tallest free-standing flagpole in the world, standing at 436 ft (133 m) tall. The Ashgabat
Ashgabat
Fountain has the world's greatest number of fountain pools in a public place.[46][47] Ashgabat
Ashgabat
also features Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
Tower which is the tallest tower in Turkmenistan, the decorative octagonal Star of Oguzkhan is recognized as the world's largest architectural image of the star and entered in the Guinness World Records.[48] Palaces[edit]

Oguzkhan Palace, the official presidential headquarters. Ruhyýet Palace, a place for official state events, forums, meetings, inaugurations. Wedding Palace, is a civil registry building.[49]

Theatres[edit]

Main Drama Theatre, named after first president Saparmurat Niyazov. Turkmen Drama Theater, named after Mollanepes, a famous national writer who lived in the past centuries. Turkmen National Theatre of Youth, named after Turkmen ruler Alp Arslan. Turkmen State Puppet Theater State Russian Drama Theatre, named after Russian poet Alexander Pushkin. Turkmen State Circus

Parks and squares[edit] Ashgabat
Ashgabat
has many parks and open spaces, mainly established in the early years of the Independence and well maintained and expanded thereafter. The most important of these parks are: the Botanical Garden, Güneş, Turkmen-Turkish friendship, Independence. The oldest city park, Ashgabat, was founded in 1887.[50] In the center of Ashgabat
Ashgabat
is the Inspiration Alley, an art-park complex which is a favorite place for many locals. The amusement park World of Turkmenbashi Tales is a local equivalent to Disneyland. Squares: 10 Years of Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
Independence, Magtymguly, Eternal Flame, Zelili, Chyrchyk, Garashsyzlyk, March 8, Gerogly, Dolphin, 15 years of Independence, Ruhyýet, 10 ýyl Abadançylyk.[51] Halk Hakydasy Memorial Complex[edit] Halk Hakydasy Memorial Complex
Halk Hakydasy Memorial Complex
was opened in 2014 in remembrance of those killed in the Battle of Geok Tepe
Battle of Geok Tepe
during World War II, and to commemorate of the victims of the 1948 Ashgabat
Ashgabat
earthquake. It is located in the southwestern part of the city.[52][53] Cinemas[edit] Ashgabat
Ashgabat
has several cinemas. In 2011, Aşgabat Cinema, the first 3-D cinema in Turkmenistan, opened in Ashgabat.[54] The Watan and Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
theaters were reconstructed. Mosques[edit]

Ärtogrul Gazy Mosque, a gift from Turkey, was inaugurated in 1998 and resembles the Blue Mosque in Istanbul. Mosque in Keshi district Mosque in the 8th Microdistrict Iranian mosque

Churches[edit]

Saint Alexander Nevsky
Alexander Nevsky
Church (founded in 1882, dedicated in 1900) Church of Saint Nicholas the Miracle-Worker House of Prayer of the Resurrection of Jesus Christ Chapel of the Transfiguration, Ashgabat

Sports[edit] The main sporting venues in Ashgabat
Ashgabat
are the Olympic Stadium, Ashgabat Stadium, the National Olympic ice rink, Sports complex for winter sports and the Olympic water sports complex. Ashgabat
Ashgabat
was chosen as the host city of the V Asian Indoor Games
Asian Indoor Games
and Martial Arts,[55] and was also the first city in Central Asia
Central Asia
to host the Asian Indoor Games. In 2010, an Olympic Village was built in the south of the city. It is aimed to be completed by 2015, at a cost of $5 billion. The city's professional football clubs Altyn Asyr, FC Ashgabat, HTTU Aşgabat and FC Hazyna
FC Hazyna
play in the Ýokary Liga, the top flight of Turkmenistan. International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Turkmenistan Twin towns and sister cities[edit] Ashgabat
Ashgabat
is twinned with:

Athens, Greece[citation needed] Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States[56] Ankara, Turkey[57] Astana, Kazakhstan[58] Kiev, Ukraine[59][60]

Gallery[edit]

View of Ashgabat

Panorama from Ashgabat
Ashgabat
TV Tower

Serdaryň Saglyk Ýoly - The longer walk of health, viewed from the shorter route

View of the Ashgabat
Ashgabat
skyline from the Ashgabat
Ashgabat
city park

References[edit] Notes[edit]

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Turkmenistan
enters record books for having the most white marble buildings World news". London: theguardian.com. 2013-05-26. Retrieved 2013-11-24.  ^ Independent Neutral Turkmenistan: 10 Glorious Years of the Epoch of Turkmenbashi the Great, Ashgabat, 2001, pp. 39-40 (in Russian) ^ "??" (PDF). Stat.gov.tm. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 2, 2013. Retrieved 2013-11-24.  ^ "Туркменистан: золотой век". Turkmenistan.gov.tm. 2013-05-27. Retrieved 2013-11-24.  ^ Asgabat. "Национальный и религиозный состав населения Туркменистана сегодня". Retrieved 2016-05-27.  ^ Smith, Peter (2000). "Mashriqu'l-Adhkhár". A concise encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. p. 235. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.  ^ a b Rafati, V.; Sahba, F. (1989). "Bahai temples". Encyclopædia Iranica.  ^ Akiner, Shirin (1991). Kegan, Paul, ed. Cultural Change and Continuity in Central Asia. Routledge. p. 293.  ^ a b "Baha'i House of Worship - Ashkabad, Central Asia". The National Spiritual Assembly of the Baha'is of the United States. 2007. Archived from the original on August 8, 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-03.  ^ Effendi, Shoghi (1936-03-11). The World Order of Bahá'u'lláh. Haifa, Palestine: US Bahá’í Publishing Trust, 1991 first pocket-size edition. pp. 64–67.  ^ "Туркменистан: золотой век". Turkmenistan.gov.tm. Retrieved 2013-11-24.  ^ " Ashgabat
Ashgabat
Agreement". The Hans India. Retrieved August 2, 2017.  ^ “Ашхабад, Туркменистан”. Retrieved on 12 March 2015. ^ Федор, Забродин. “Сделано в Туркменистане”, “Turkmenistan.ru”. Retrieved on 12 March 2015. ^ Ashgabat
Ashgabat
Shopping Mall Archived October 5, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "The shopping centre Yimpas in Ashgabat
Ashgabat
dismisses staff before closing - Chronicles of Turkmenistan". December 12, 2016. Retrieved August 2, 2017.  ^ "Directory: World Airlines." Flight International. 30 March-5 April 2004. [1]. ^ " Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
to launch international bus service". Retrieved August 2, 2017.  ^ "В Ашхабаде будет построен пассажирский автовокзал международного класса Интернет-газета". Turkmenistan.ru. Retrieved 2013-11-24.  ^ "Туркменистан: золотой век". Turkmenistan.gov.tm. 2013-01-28. Retrieved 2013-11-24.  ^ "Turkmen president attends inaugurations of three facilities dated to 15th anniversary of Turkmenistan". Turkmenistan.ru. Retrieved 2013-11-24.  ^ [2] ^ "'Bad Luck' For Black Car Owners In Turkmen Capital". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 8 January 2018.  ^ a b c "Weather and Climate-The Climate of Ashgabat" (in Russian). Weather and Climate. Retrieved August 21, 2012.  ^ "Weather and Climate- The Climate of Ashgabat" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Retrieved 14 May 2015.  ^ " Ashgabat
Ashgabat
Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 14 May 2015.  ^ "Niyazov's influence in Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
falls with golden statue". Centralasianewswire.com. Retrieved 2013-11-24.  ^ The Monument Of The Constitution Archived October 29, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. ^ " Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
builds largest indoor Ferris wheel". May 24, 2012. Retrieved August 2, 2017.  ^ "Most fountain pools in a public place". Retrieved August 2, 2017.  ^ Ashgabat
Ashgabat
in Guinness book ^ "Largest architectural star record set in Turkmenistan". November 14, 2011. Retrieved August 2, 2017.  ^ Weddenig palace Archived September 23, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Monument-symbol of city and amusement park inaugurated in Ashgabat - Turkmenistan.ru". www.turkmenistan.ru. Retrieved August 2, 2017.  ^ "Parks, squares and entertainment centers". Ashgabat.gov.tm. Archived from the original on June 13, 2013. Retrieved 2013-11-24.  ^ Посещение Мемориального комплекса «Народная память» Archived December 11, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Президент Туркменистана принял участие в открытии мемориального комплекса и траурных мероприятиях Дня памяти - Интернет-газета Turkmenistan.Ru". www.turkmenistan.ru. Retrieved August 2, 2017.  ^ " Ashgabat
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residents get 3D cinema - Turkmenistan.ru". www.turkmenistan.ru. Retrieved August 2, 2017.  ^ [3][dead link] ^ "Sister Cities Delegation to visit Ashgabat
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from Albuquerque, New Mexico." U.S. Embassy in Turkmenistan
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website. 20 May 2015. Retrieved 25 March 2018. ^ "Kardeş Kentleri Listesi ve 5 Mayıs Avrupa Günü Kutlaması [via WaybackMachine.com]" (in Turkish). Ankara
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Büyükşehir Belediyesi - Tüm Hakları Saklıdır. Archived from the original on January 14, 2009. Retrieved 2013-07-21.  ^ " Ashgabat
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Sources[edit]

Е. М. Поспелов (Ye. M. Pospelov). "Имена городов: вчера и сегодня (1917–1992). Топонимический словарь." (City Names: Yesterday and Today (1917–1992). Toponymic Dictionary.) Москва, "Русские словари", 1993.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Aşgabat.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Ashgabat.

Official website Ashgabat
Ashgabat
Photo Gallery impressions of Ashgabat
Ashgabat
(in German) The city of white marble Ashgabat
Ashgabat
Photo Gallery. Pictures of modern Ashgabat. Page on modern Ashgabat
Ashgabat
(in Russian) Pre-1948 photo of Baha’i House of Worship in Ashgabat www.ashgabatairport.com - Ashgabat International Airport
Ashgabat International Airport
unofficial website (English) Tourism in Ashgabat Travel to Ashgabat
Ashgabat
from "Abassayoh"

v t e

Capitals of Asia

Dependent territories and states with limited recognition are in italics

North and Central Asia South Asia Southeast Asia West and Southwest Asia

Ashgabat, Turkmenistan Astana, Kazakhstan* Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan Dushanbe, Tajikistan Moscow, Russia* Tashkent, Uzbekistan

East Asia

Beijing, China Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Hong Kong
(China) Macau, Macau
Macau
(China) Pyongyang, North Korea Seoul, South Korea Taipei, Taiwan
Taiwan
(ROC) Tokyo, Japan Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

Kabul, Afghanistan Dhaka, Bangladesh Diego Garcia, BIOT (UK) Islamabad, Pakistan Kathmandu, Nepal Kotte, Sri Lanka Malé, Maldives New Delhi, India Thimphu, Bhutan

Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Bangkok, Thailand Dili, East Timor Flying Fish Cove, Christmas Island
Christmas Island
(Australia) Hanoi, Vietnam Jakarta, Indonesia* Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Manila, Philippines Naypyidaw, Myanmar Phnom Penh, Cambodia Singapore Vientiane, Laos West Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands
West Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands
(Australia)

Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Amman, Jordan Ankara, Turkey* Baghdad, Iraq Baku, Azerbaijan* Beirut, Lebanon Cairo, Egypt* Doha, Qatar Jerusalem, Israel/Palestine † Kuwait
Kuwait
City, Kuwait Manama, Bahrain

Muscat, Oman Nicosia, Cyprus* North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus* Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Sana'a, Yemen Stepanakert, Artsakh* Sukhumi, Abkhazia* Tbilisi, Georgia* Tehran, Iran Tskhinvali, South Ossetia* Yerevan, Armenia*

*Transcontinental country. † Disputed. See: Positions on Jerusalem.

v t e

Cities of Turkmenistan

Capital: Ashgabat

Abadan Akdepe Anau Baharly Balkanabat Baýramaly Bereket Birata Daşoguz Esenguly Gyzyletrek Hazar Kerki Konye-Urgench Magdanly Mary Seýdi Serdar Tagtabazar Tejen Türkmenabat Turkmenbashi Ýolöten

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 236371

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