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Arthur Henderson
Arthur Henderson
(13 September 1863 – 20 October 1935) was a British iron moulder and Labour politician. He was the first Labour cabinet minister, won the Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
in 1934 and, uniquely, served three separate terms as Leader of the Labour Party in three different decades. He was popular among his colleagues, who called him "Uncle Arthur" in acknowledgement of his integrity, his devotion to the cause and his imperturbability. He was a transitional figure whose policies were, at first, close to those of the Liberal Party, and the trades unions rejected his emphasis on arbitration and conciliation, and thwarted his goal of unifying the Labour Party and the trade unions.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Union leader 3 The Labour Party 4 Cabinet Minister 5 The "Coupon Election" and the 1920s 6 Foreign Secretary 7 The MacDonald "betrayal" 8 Later career 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

Early life[edit] Arthur Henderson
Arthur Henderson
was born at 10 Paterson Street, Anderston, Glasgow, Scotland, in 1863, the son of Agnes, a domestic servant, and David Henderson, a textile worker who died when Arthur was ten years old. After his father's death, the Hendersons moved to Newcastle upon Tyne in the North-East of England, where Agnes later married Robert Heath. Henderson worked at Robert Stephenson and Sons' General Foundry Works from the age of twelve. After finishing his apprenticeship there aged seventeen, he moved to Southampton
Southampton
for a year and then returned to work as an iron moulder (a type of foundryman) in Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Henderson became a Methodist in 1879 (having previously been a Congregationalist) and became a Local Preacher. After he lost his job in 1884, he concentrated on preaching. Union leader[edit] In 1892, Henderson entered the complex world of trade union politics when he was elected as a paid organiser for the Friendly Society of Iron Founders. He also became a representative on the North East Conciliation Board. Henderson believed that strikes caused more harm than they were worth and tried to avoid them whenever he could. For this reason, he opposed the formation of the General Federation of Trade Unions, as he was convinced that it would lead to more strikes. The Labour Party[edit]

Henderson (on left) in 1906, with other leading figures in the party

In 1900 Henderson was one of the 129 trade union and socialist delegates who passed Keir Hardie's motion to create the Labour Representation Committee (LRC). In 1903, Henderson was elected Treasurer of the LRC and was also elected as Member of Parliament (MP) for Barnard Castle at the a by-election. In 1906, the LRC changed its name to the Labour Party and won 29 seats at the general election. In 1908, when Hardie resigned as Leader of the Labour Party, Henderson was elected to replace him. He remained Leader until his own resignation two years later, in 1910. Cabinet Minister[edit] In 1914 the First World War broke out and Ramsay MacDonald
Ramsay MacDonald
resigned from the Leadership of the Labour Party in protest. Henderson was elected to replace him. In 1915, following Prime Minister
Prime Minister
H. H. Asquith's decision to create a coalition government, Henderson became the first member of the Labour Party to become a member of the Cabinet, as President of the Board of Education. In 1916, David Lloyd George
David Lloyd George
forced Asquith to resign and replaced him as Prime Minister. Henderson became a member of the small War Cabinet with the post of Minister without Portfolio. (The other Labour representatives who joined Henderson in Lloyd George's coalition government were John Hodge, who became Minister of Labour, and George Barnes, who became Minister of Pensions.) Henderson resigned in August 1917 after his proposal for an international conference on the war was rejected by the rest of the Cabinet.[1] Henderson turned his attention to building a strong constituency-based support network for the Labour Party. Previously, it had little national organisation, based largely on branches of unions and socialist societies. Working with Ramsay MacDonald
Ramsay MacDonald
and Sidney Webb, Henderson in 1918 established a national network of constituency organisations. They operated separately from trade unions and the National Executive Committee and were open to everyone sympathetic to the party's policies. Secondly, Henderson secured the adoption of a comprehensive statement of party policies, as drafted by Sidney Webb. Entitled "Labour and the New Social Order," it remained the basic Labour platform until 1950. It proclaimed a socialist party whose principles included a guaranteed minimum standard of living for everyone, nationalisation of industry, and heavy taxation of large incomes and of wealth.[2] The "Coupon Election" and the 1920s[edit] Henderson lost his seat in the "Coupon Election" of 14 December 1918, which had been announced within twenty-four hours of the end of hostilities and which resulted in a landslide victory for a coalition formed by Lloyd George.[3] However, Henderson returned to Parliament in 1919 after winning a by-election in Widnes. He then became Labour's Chief Whip, only to lose his seat again, at the general election of 1922. Vladimir Lenin
Vladimir Lenin
held Henderson in very low regard. In a letter to the Soviet Commissar for Foreign Affairs, Georgy Chicherin, written on 10 February 1922 and referring to the Genoa Conference, Lenin wrote: "Henderson is as stupid as Kerensky, and for this reason he is helping us." [4] Henderson returned to Parliament via another by-election, this time representing Newcastle East, but again, he was unseated at the general election of 1923. He returned to Parliament just two months later after winning another by-election in Burnley. In 1924, Henderson was appointed as Home Secretary
Home Secretary
in the first-ever Labour government, led by MacDonald. This government was defeated later the same year and lost the general election that followed. Having been re-elected in 1924, Henderson refused to challenge MacDonald for the party leadership. Worried about factionalism in the Labour Party, he published a pamphlet, Labour and the Nation, in which he attempted to clarify the party's goals. Foreign Secretary[edit] In 1929, Labour formed another minority government and MacDonald appointed Henderson as Foreign Secretary, a position Henderson used to try to reduce the tensions that had been building up in Europe since the end of the First World War. Diplomatic relations were re-established with the USSR and Henderson guaranteed Britain's full support to the League of Nations.[5] The MacDonald "betrayal"[edit] The Great Depression
Great Depression
plunged the government into a terminal crisis. The Cabinet agreed that it was essential to maintain the Gold Standard and that the Budget needed to be balanced, but were divided over reducing unemployment benefits by 10%. At first, Henderson gave strong support to Prime Minister
Prime Minister
MacDonald throughout the financial and political crisis of August. The financial crisis across Europe was worsening and Britain's gold reserves were at high risk. New York banks provided an emergency loan; but additional money was needed and to get it, the budget had to be balanced. MacDonald and Chancellor of the Exchequer Philip Snowden proposed cuts in unemployment benefits. Henderson rejected that solution and became the leader of nearly half the Cabinet. The Labour Cabinet decided to resign. The king implored MacDonald to remain and form an all-party National government that would make the budget cuts. MacDonald agreed on 24 August 1931 and formed an emergency National Government, with members from all parties. The new cabinet had four Labourites (now called "National Labour Party") who stood with Macdonald, plus four Conservatives and two Liberals. Labour unions were strongly opposed and the Labour Party officially repudiated the new National government. It expelled MacDonald and his supporters from the party. Henderson cast the only vote against the expulsions. Against his own inclinations, Henderson accepted the leadership of the main Labour Party and led it into the general election on 27 October against the cross-party National coalition. It was a disastrous result for Labour, which was reduced to a small minority of 52. MacDonald won the largest landslide in British electoral history, Yet again Henderson lost his seat, at Burnley. The following year, he relinquished the party leadership.[6] Later career[edit] Henderson returned to Parliament after winning a by-election at Clay Cross, achieving the unique feat of being elected a total of five times at by-elections in constituencies where he had not previously been the MP. He holds the record for the greatest number of comebacks from losing a previous seat. Henderson spent the rest of his life trying to halt the gathering storm of war. He worked with the World League of Peace and chaired the Geneva Disarmament Conference, and in 1934 he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. (On 3 April 2013 his Nobel medal was stolen from the official residence of the Lord Mayor of Newcastle.)[7] Henderson died in 1935, aged 72. All three of Henderson's sons saw military service during the Great War, the eldest, David, being killed in action in 1916 whilst serving as a Captain with Middlesex Regiment (Duke of Cambridge's Own). His surviving sons also became Labour politicians: second son William was granted the title of Baron Henderson in 1945, while his third son, Arthur, was created Baron Rowley in 1966. The Labour History Archive and Study Centre at the People's History Museum in Manchester
Manchester
holds the papers of Arthur Henderson
Arthur Henderson
in their collection, spanning from 1915-35.[8] References[edit]

^ Eric Hopkins, 'A Social History of the English Working Classes, 1815–1945 (Hodder & Stoughton, 1979) p. 219. ISBN 0713103167. ^ Bentley B. Gilbert, Britain since 1918 (1980) p 49. ^ Katz, Liane (4 April 2005) "Women and the Welsh Wizard". Politics.guardian.co.uk. Retrieved on 12 September 2015. ^ Handwritten note at the Russian Center for the Preservation and Study of Documents of Recent History, fond 2, opis 2, delo 1,1119, published as Document 88 in The Unknown Lenin, ed. Richard Pipes, Yale University Press, 1996. ISBN 0300076622. ^ David Carlton (1970). MacDonald versus Henderson: The Foreign Policy of the Second Labour Government. Palgrave Macmillan.  ^ Andrew Thorpe, " Arthur Henderson
Arthur Henderson
and the British political crisis of 1931." Historical Journal 31#1 (1988): 117-139. in JSTOR ^ " Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
Medal Stolen in Newcastle". BBC News. 3 April 2013. ^ Collection Catalogues and Descriptions, Labour History Archive and Study Centre 

Further reading[edit]

Carlton, David (1970). MacDonald versus Henderson: The Foreign Policy of the Second Labour Government. Palgrave Macmillan.  Hamilton, Mary Agnes. Arthur Henderson: A Biography (1938), a detailed and favourable account by a former colleague McKibbin, Ross. " Arthur Henderson
Arthur Henderson
as Labour Leader," International Review of Social History (1978) pp. 79–101 Riddell, Neil. "Arthur Henderson, 1931–1932," in Leading Labour: From Keir Hardie
Keir Hardie
to Tony Blair, ed. Kevin Jefferys (1999) Thorpe, Andrew. " Arthur Henderson
Arthur Henderson
and the British Political Crisis of 1931," Historical Journal (1988) pp. 117–139 in JSTOR Winkler, Henry H. "Arthur Henderson," in The Diplomats, 1919–1939, ed. Gordon A. Craig and Felix Gilbert (1953) Winter, J M. "Arthur Henderson, the Russian Revolution and the Reconstruction of the Labour Party," Historical Journal (1972) pp. 753–73. in JSTOR Wrigley, Chris. Arthur Henderson
Arthur Henderson
(1990), a scholarly biography

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of a 1922 Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
article about Arthur Henderson.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Arthur Henderson.

Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Arthur Henderson Nobel biography J. Keir Hardie
Keir Hardie
and Arthur Henderson, Manifesto to the British People (1 August 1914)

Parliament of the United Kingdom

Preceded by Joseph Pease Member of Parliament for Barnard Castle 1903–1918 Succeeded by John Edmund Swan

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Political offices

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Preceded by Ramsay MacDonald Treasurer of the Labour Party 1929–1936 Succeeded by Arthur Greenwood

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PLP Chairs

Hardie Henderson Barnes MacDonald Henderson Hodge* Wardle* Adamson Clynes MacDonald Henderson Lansbury Attlee Lees-Smith* Pethick-Lawrence* Greenwood* Gaitskell Wilson Houghton Mikardo Hughes Willey Dormand Orme Hoyle Soley Corston Clwyd Lloyd Watts Cryer

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Book:Secretaries of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs Category:British Secretaries of State Portal:United Kingdom

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Paymasters General

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v t e

Cabinet of Prime Minister
Prime Minister
Ramsay MacDonald
Ramsay MacDonald
(1924)

Prime Minister
Prime Minister
of the United Kingdom Leader of the House of Commons Foreign Secretary

Ramsay MacDonald

Lord Chancellor Leader of the House of Lords

The Viscount Haldane

Lord President of the Council

The Lord Parmoor

Chancellor of the Exchequer

Philip Snowden

Home Secretary

Arthur Henderson

First Lord of the Admiralty

The Viscount Chelmsford

Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries

Noel Buxton

Secretary of State for Air

The Lord Thomson

Secretary of State for the Colonies

James Henry Thomas

Lord Privy Seal Deputy Leader of the House of Commons

J. R. Clynes

President of the Board of Education

Charles Trevelyan

Secretary of State for India

Sydney Olivier

Secretary of State for War

Stephen Walsh

Minister of Health

John Wheatley

Secretary for Scotland

William Adamson

Minister of Labour

Tom Shaw

Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster

Josiah Wedgwood

Postmaster General

Vernon Hartshorn

President of the Board of Trade

Sidney Webb

First Commissioner of Works

Frederick William Jowett

v t e

Laureates of the Nobel Peace Prize

1901–1925

1901 Henry Dunant / Frédéric Passy 1902 Élie Ducommun / Charles Gobat 1903 Randal Cremer 1904 Institut de Droit International 1905 Bertha von Suttner 1906 Theodore Roosevelt 1907 Ernesto Moneta / Louis Renault 1908 Klas Arnoldson / Fredrik Bajer 1909 A. M. F. Beernaert / Paul Estournelles de Constant 1910 International Peace Bureau 1911 Tobias Asser / Alfred Fried 1912 Elihu Root 1913 Henri La Fontaine 1914 1915 1916 1917 International Committee of the Red Cross 1918 1919 Woodrow Wilson 1920 Léon Bourgeois 1921 Hjalmar Branting / Christian Lange 1922 Fridtjof Nansen 1923 1924 1925 Austen Chamberlain / Charles Dawes

1926–1950

1926 Aristide Briand / Gustav Stresemann 1927 Ferdinand Buisson / Ludwig Quidde 1928 1929 Frank B. Kellogg 1930 Nathan Söderblom 1931 Jane Addams / Nicholas Butler 1932 1933 Norman Angell 1934 Arthur Henderson 1935 Carl von Ossietzky 1936 Carlos Saavedra Lamas 1937 Robert Cecil 1938 Nansen International Office for Refugees 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 International Committee of the Red Cross 1945 Cordell Hull 1946 Emily Balch / John Mott 1947 Friends Service Council / American Friends Service Committee 1948 1949 John Boyd Orr 1950 Ralph Bunche

1951–1975

1951 Léon Jouhaux 1952 Albert Schweitzer 1953 George Marshall 1954 United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees 1955 1956 1957 Lester B. Pearson 1958 Georges Pire 1959 Philip Noel-Baker 1960 Albert Lutuli 1961 Dag Hammarskjöld 1962 Linus Pauling 1963 International Committee of the Red Cross / League of Red Cross Societies 1964 Martin Luther King Jr. 1965 UNICEF 1966 1967 1968 René Cassin 1969 International Labour Organization 1970 Norman Borlaug 1971 Willy Brandt 1972 1973 Lê Đức Thọ (declined award) / Henry Kissinger 1974 Seán MacBride / Eisaku Satō 1975 Andrei Sakharov

1976–2000

1976 Betty Williams / Mairead Corrigan 1977 Amnesty International 1978 Anwar Sadat / Menachem Begin 1979 Mother Teresa 1980 Adolfo Pérez Esquivel 1981 United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees 1982 Alva Myrdal / Alfonso García Robles 1983 Lech Wałęsa 1984 Desmond Tutu 1985 International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War 1986 Elie Wiesel 1987 Óscar Arias 1988 UN Peacekeeping Forces 1989 Tenzin Gyatso (14th Dalai Lama) 1990 Mikhail Gorbachev 1991 Aung San Suu Kyi 1992 Rigoberta Menchú 1993 Nelson Mandela / F. W. de Klerk 1994 Shimon Peres / Yitzhak Rabin / Yasser Arafat 1995 Pugwash Conferences / Joseph Rotblat 1996 Carlos Belo / José Ramos-Horta 1997 International Campaign to Ban Landmines / Jody Williams 1998 John Hume / David Trimble 1999 Médecins Sans Frontières 2000 Kim Dae-jung

2001–present

2001 United Nations / Kofi Annan 2002 Jimmy Carter 2003 Shirin Ebadi 2004 Wangari Maathai 2005 International Atomic Energy Agency / Mohamed ElBaradei 2006 Grameen Bank / Muhammad Yunus 2007 Al Gore / Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2008 Martti Ahtisaari 2009 Barack Obama 2010 Liu Xiaobo 2011 Ellen Johnson Sirleaf / Leymah Gbowee / Tawakkol Karman 2012 European Union 2013 Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons 2014 Kailash Satyarthi / Malala Yousafzai 2015 Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet 2016 Juan Manuel Santos 2017 International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 69727499 LCCN: n87871824 ISNI: 0000 0001 0984 5411 GND: 118886711 SUDOC: 031215777 BNF: cb12247381z (data) SN

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