Arthur Lincoln Frothingham, Jr. (1859 – July 1923) was an early
professor of art history at
Princeton University and an archaeologist.
4 Further reading
Frothingham was born in Boston, Massachusetts, and came from a wealthy
family background, which allowed him to study languages at the
Catholic Seminary of San Apollinare in Rome and the Royal University
of Rome between 1868 and 1881. In 1882, he began teaching Semitic
languages at Johns Hopkins University. He completed his doctorate in
Germany, at the
University of Leipzig
University of Leipzig in 1883, and he married Helen
Bulkley Post. In 1884, he was secretary of the newly founded
Archaeological Institute of America, and in 1885, with Princeton
professor Allan Marquand, he co-founded the American Journal of
Archaeology, the journal of the Institute, and became the first
editor. He remained editor of the Journal until 1896.
Frothingham lectured at Princeton when it was still known as the
College of New Jersey (1885). In 1886, he became a professor there,
teaching art history and archaeology, although it is rumored that he
took no salary at first. Among his courses were offerings in
renaissance art history, among the first post-classical art courses
taught at the College. Together with Allan Marquand, Frothingham
worked to rewrite Moritz Carrière's Bilder Atlas as a fourth volume
of the Iconographic Encyclopedia (1887). About 1890, Frothingham and
Marquand began to have major difficulties working together, perhaps
stemming from the overlap in their areas of expertise and teaching.
Frothingham taught his renaissance course (which was largely medieval
monuments) for the last time in 1892-93.
During the 1890s, Frothingham became the associate director of the
American Academy in Rome, a position that largely involved directing
visitors and acting as an agent for American museums. In this
capacity, he acquired twenty-nine Etruscan tomb groups excavated by
Francesco Mancinelli at
Narce as well as from other sites. Frothingham
also studied the topography of
Latium and was intertested in an
excavation at the site of Norba, but he was not granted a permit for
Back at Princeton, Frothingham was innovative in the curriculum. He
added a famous course that he called "Subjects and Symbols in Early
Christian Art," which would serve as the prototype to iconographic
studies for which Princeton would later become famous. When Marquand
returned from a year at the American Academy in Rome, he found that
Frothingham was teaching yet another new course: Italian art of the
Middle Ages. Marquand was unhappy with this, and since he controlled
the salaries of art historians that were paid from the Frederic
Marquand Bequest, he stopped Frothingham's salary mid-semester.
The university's president
Francis Landey Patton
Francis Landey Patton paid Frothingham for
the rest of the semester and reconfigured Frothingham's position as
one of ancient art and archaeology, but stripped him of the ability to
teach medieval art or be editor of the American Journal of
Archaeology. Frothingham and Marquand co-wrote a textbook in 1896, A
Textbook of the History of Sculpture. Frothingham remained professor
of ancient history and archaeology at Princeton until 1906. In
1903-04, however, his thinly-disguised medieval course, now lasting
two full semesters, caused trouble with university officials. His name
was removed from the faculty rolls the following year and though he
remained in the city of Princeton, New Jersey, the rest of his life,
publishing as a private scholar, he never again taught.
In 1895-96, Frothingham was an associate director of the American
School of Classical Studies at Rome. He prepared articles on
architecture for the New International Encyclopedia. In the years
after World War I, Frothingham studied the issues of immigrant
populations in the United States, testifying at the Lusk hearings in
Washington D.C.. Toward the end of his life, he traveled to
study fascism. He died in
New York City
New York City of heart disease.
The Monuments of Christian Rome from Constantine to the Renaissance.
New York: Macmillan, 1925.
and Marquand, Allan. A Text-Book of the History of Sculpture. New
York: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1896.
and Sturgis, Russell. A History of Architecture. 4 vols. New York: The
Baker & Taylor Company,1906-15.
Architecture, Mythology, the Fine Arts, Technology. volume 4 of, Heck,
Johann Georg and Baird, Spencer Fullerton. Iconographic Encyclopaedia
of Science, Literature, and Art. New York: R. Garrigue, 1887.
de Puma, Richard Daniel. "Frothingham, Arthur Lincoln, Jr."
Encyclopedia of the History of Classical Archaeology. Nancy Thomson de
Grummond, ed. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996, vol. 1,
Lavin, Marilyn Aronberg. The Eye of the Tiger: the Founding and
Development of the Department of Art and Archaeology, 1883-1923,
Princeton University. Princeton, NJ: Department of Art and Archaeology
and The Art Museum, Princeton University, 1983, pp. 14–18.
[obituary:] "A. L. Frothingham Dies in 65th Year." New York Times,
July 29, 1923, p. S6.
Gilman, D. C.; Peck, H. T.; Colby, F. M., eds. (1906).
"Frothingham, Arthur Lincoln".
New International Encyclopedia
New International Encyclopedia (1st
ed.). New York: Dodd, Mead.
H. N. F. (October–December 1923). "Arthur Lincoln Frothingham".
American Journal of Archaeology. 27 (4): 381–382. Retrieved
ISNI: 0000 0003 6974 9995
BNF: cb124533806 (data)