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Artemidoros
Artemidoros
Aniketos (Greek: Ἀρτεμίδωρος ὁ Ἀνίκητος; epithet means "the Invincible") was a king who ruled in the area of Gandhara
Gandhara
and Pushkalavati
Pushkalavati
in modern northern Pakistan
Pakistan
and Afghanistan.

Contents

1 A son of Maues?

1.1 New evaluation

2 Time of rule 3 Coins 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

A son of Maues?[edit] Artemidoros
Artemidoros
has a Greek name and has traditionally been seen as an Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
king. His remaining coins generally feature portraits of Artemidoros
Artemidoros
and Hellenistic deities and are typical of Indo-Greek rulers, but on a coin described by numismatician R. C. Senior, Artemidoros
Artemidoros
seems to claim to be the son of the Indo-Scythian
Indo-Scythian
king Maues. Not only does this coin enable a closer dating of Artemidoros; it also sheds new light on the transient ethnic identities during the decline of the Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
kingdom. While Maues
Maues
was 'Great King of Kings', Artemidoros
Artemidoros
only styled himself King; it appears as though he ruled only a smaller part of his father's dominions. He was either challenged by or ruled in tandem with other kings such as Menander II, whose coins have been found alongside his, and Apollodotus II. New evaluation[edit]

Coin showing the additional letter "Cha" after "Putasa".

In a 2009 article however,[1] Bopearachchi
Bopearachchi
disputes the interpretation of the coin according to which Artemidoros
Artemidoros
would be son of Maues. The analysis of several similar coins in good condition and cleaned-up reveals that the obverse should be read rajatirajasa moasa putrasa ca artemidorosa, the ca (pronounced "cha") meaning "and", which opens the way to a possible translation being "King of kings Maues, and the son of Artemidoros".[1] This would suggest that the son of Artemidoros would have issued coins in the name of his father, recognizing at the same time the suzerainty of Maues.[1] In that case, Artemidoros
Artemidoros
would have been a regular Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
king, whose son simply made a transition with the rule of Maues.[1] Time of rule[edit] Bopearachchi
Bopearachchi
has suggested a date of c. 85-80 BCE, but this was before the appearance of the Maues
Maues
coin. Senior's dating is wider, c. 100–80 BCE, because Senior has given Maues
Maues
an earlier date. Coins[edit] During the 1990s, several new types of Artemidoros' coins appeared, of variable quality. R. C. Senior has suggested that Artemidoros
Artemidoros
relied mostly on temporary mints, perhaps because he held no major cities. All his coins were Indian bilinguals. Silver: Obverse: diademed or helmeted bust of king. Reverse: Artemis
Artemis
facing left or right, Nike facing left or right, or king on horseback. Artemis, the eponymous goddess of hunting, is seen using a curved bow, which may have been typical of Scythian tribes and further supports his affiliation with them. Bronzes: Artemis
Artemis
/ humped bull or Artemis
Artemis
/ lion.

Greco-Bactrian
Greco-Bactrian
and Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
kings, territories and chronology Based on Bopearachchi
Bopearachchi
(1991)[2]

Greco-Bactrian
Greco-Bactrian
kings Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
kings

Territories/ dates West Bactria East Bactria Paropamisade Arachosia Gandhara Western Punjab Eastern Punjab Mathura[3]

326-325 BCE Campaigns of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
in India Nanda Empire

312 BCE Creation of the Seleucid Empire Creation of the Maurya Empire

305 BCE Seleucid Empire
Seleucid Empire
after Mauryan war Maurya Empire

280 BCE Foundation of Ai-Khanoum

255–239 BCE Independence of the Greco-Bactrian
Greco-Bactrian
kingdom Diodotus I Emperor Ashoka
Ashoka
(268-232)

239–223 BCE Diodotus II

230–200 BCE Euthydemus I

200–190 BCE Demetrius I Sunga Empire

190-185 BCE Euthydemus II

190–180 BCE Agathocles Pantaleon

185–170 BCE Antimachus I

180–160 BCE

Apollodotus I

175–170 BCE Demetrius II

160–155 BCE

Antimachus II

170–145 BCE Eucratides I

155–130 BCE Yuezhi
Yuezhi
occupation, loss of Ai-Khanoum Eucratides II Plato Heliocles I Menander I

130–120 BCE Yuezhi
Yuezhi
occupation Zoilos I Agathokleia

Yavanarajya inscription

120–110 BCE

Lysias Strato I

110–100 BCE

Antialcidas Heliokles II

100 BCE

Polyxenos Demetrius III

100–95 BCE

Philoxenus

95–90 BCE

Diomedes Amyntas Epander

90 BCE

Theophilos Peukolaos Thraso

90–85 BCE

Nicias Menander II Artemidoros

90–70 BCE

Hermaeus Archebius

Yuezhi
Yuezhi
occupation Maues
Maues
(Indo-Scythian)

75–70 BCE

Vonones Telephos Apollodotus II

65–55 BCE

Spalirises Hippostratos Dionysios

55–35 BCE

Azes I
Azes I
(Indo-Scythians) Zoilos II

55–35 BCE

Vijayamitra/ Azilises Apollophanes

25 BCE – 10 CE

Gondophares Zeionises Kharahostes Strato II Strato III

Gondophares
Gondophares
(Indo-Parthian) Rajuvula
Rajuvula
(Indo-Scythian)

Kujula Kadphises
Kujula Kadphises
(Kushan Empire) Bhadayasa (Indo-Scythian) Sodasa (Indo-Scythian)

See also[edit]

Greco-Bactrian
Greco-Bactrian
Kingdom Seleucid Empire Greco-Buddhism Indo-Scythians Indo-Parthian
Indo-Parthian
Kingdom Kushan Empire

References[edit]

^ a b c d e Osmund Bopearachchi
Bopearachchi
Was Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
Artemidoros
Artemidoros
the son of Indo-Sctythian Maues ^ O. Bopearachchi, "Monnaies gréco-bactriennes et indo-grecques, Catalogue raisonné", Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, 1991, p.453 ^ History of Early Stone Sculpture at Mathura: Ca. 150 BCE - 100 CE, Sonya Rhie Quintanilla, BRILL, 2007, p.9 [1]

The Shape of Ancient Thought. Comparative studies in Greek and Indian Philosophies by Thomas McEvilley (Allworth Press and the School of Visual Arts, 2002) ISBN 1-58115-203-5 The Greeks in Bactria
Bactria
and India, W. W. Tarn, Cambridge University Press.

External links[edit]

Coins of Artemidoros More Coins of Artemidoros

Preceded by: Maues Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
Ruler (Punjab) (c. 80 BCE) Succeeded by: Apollodotus II

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