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Arnulf of Carinthia
Arnulf of Carinthia
(c. 850 – December 8, 899) was the duke of Carinthia who overthrew his uncle, Emperor Charles the Fat, became the Carolingian
Carolingian
king of East Francia[2] from 887, the disputed King of Italy
Italy
from 894 and the disputed Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
from February 22, 896 until his death at Regensburg, Bavaria.

Contents

1 Early life

1.1 Illegitimacy and early life 1.2 Regional ruler

2 King of East Francia

2.1 Intervention in West Francia 2.2 Wars with Moravia

3 King of Italy
King of Italy
and Holy Roman Emperor 4 Final years 5 See also 6 References 7 Sources

Early life[edit] Illegitimacy and early life[edit] Arnulf was the illegitimate son of Carloman of Bavaria,[3] and his wife Liutswind,[4] who may have been the sister of Ernst, Count of the Bavarian Nordgau Margraviate in the area of the Upper Palatinate, or perhaps the burgrave of Passau, according to other sources. After Arnulf's birth, Carloman married, before 861, a daughter of that same Count Ernst, who died after 8 August 879. As it is mainly West-Franconian historiography[5] that speaks of Arnulf's illegitimacy, it is quite possible that the two females are actually one and the same person and that Carloman married Arnulf's mother, thus legitimizing his son.[6] Arnulf was granted the rule over the Duchy of Carinthia, a Frankish vassal state and successor of the ancient Principality of Carantania by his father Carloman, after Carloman reconciled with his own father, king Louis the German
Louis the German
and was made king in Duchy of Bavaria. Arnulf spent his childhood in Mosaburch or Mosapurc, which is widely believed to be Moosburg in Carinthia, a few miles away from one of the Imperial residences, the Carolingian
Carolingian
Kaiserpfalz
Kaiserpfalz
at Karnburg (Krnski grad), which had been the residence of the Carantanian princes. Arnulf kept his seat here and from later events it may be inferred that the Carantanians, from an early time, treated him as their own Duke. Later, after he had been crowned King of East Francia, Arnulf turned his old territory of Carinthia into the March of Carinthia, a part of the Duchy of Bavaria. Regional ruler[edit] After king Carloman was incapacitated by a stroke in 879, Louis the Younger inherited Bavaria, Charles the Fat
Charles the Fat
was given the Kingdom of Italy
Italy
and Arnulf was confirmed in Carinthia by an agreement with Carloman. However, Bavaria
Bavaria
was more or less ruled by Arnulf.[7] Arnulf already ruled Bavaria
Bavaria
during the summer and autumn of 879 while his father arranged his succession and he himself was granted "Pannonia," in the words of the Annales Fuldenses,[8] or "Carantanum," in the words of Regino of Prüm.[9] The division of the realm was confirmed in 880 after Carloman’s death. When Engelschalk II of Pannonia
Pannonia
in 882 rebelled against Aribo, Margrave of Pannonia
Pannonia
and ignited the Wilhelminer War, Arnulf supported him and accepted his and his brother's homage. This ruined Arnulf's relationship with his uncle the Emperor and put him at war with Svatopluk of Moravia. Pannonia
Pannonia
was invaded, but Arnulf refused to give up the young Wilhelminers. Arnulf did not make peace with Svatopluk until late 885, by which time Moravian ruler was loyal to the emperor. Some scholars see this war as destroying Arnulf's hopes at succeeding Charles the Fat. King of East Francia[edit] Arnulf took the leading role in the deposition of his uncle, Emperor Charles the Fat. With the support of the Frankish nobles, Arnulf called a Diet at Tribur and deposed Charles in November 887, under threat of military action.[10][11] Charles peacefully agreed to this involuntary retirement, but not without first chastising his nephew for his treachery and asking for a few royal villas in Swabia, which Arnulf granted him,[12] on which to live out his final months.[3] Arnulf, having distinguished himself in the war against the Slavs, was then elected king by the nobles of East Francia
East Francia
(only the eastern realm, though Charles had ruled the whole of the Frankish Empire).[13] West Francia, the Kingdom of Burgundy
Kingdom of Burgundy
and the Kingdom of Italy
Italy
at this point elected their own kings from the Carolingian
Carolingian
family. Like all early Germanic rulers, he was heavily involved in ecclesiastical disputes. In 895, at the Diet of Tribur, he presided over a dispute between the Episcopal sees of Bremen, Hamburg
Hamburg
and Cologne
Cologne
over jurisdictional authority, which saw Bremen
Bremen
and Hamburg remain a combined see, independent of the see of Cologne.[14] Arnulf was a fighter, not a negotiator. In 890 he was successfully battling Slavs
Slavs
in Pannonia.[15] In early/mid-891, Vikings
Vikings
invaded Lotharingia,[16] and crushed an East Frankish army at Maastricht.[17] Terms such as "Vikings", "Danes", "Northmen" and "Norwegians" have been used loosely and interchangeably to describe these invaders. [18] At the subsequent Battle of Leuven (September 891), in Lotharingia, Arnulf repelled the Vikings,[17] and essentially ended their attacks on that front.[3] The Annales Fuldenses
Annales Fuldenses
report that there were so many dead Northmen that their bodies blocked the run of the river. After this victory Arnulf built a new castle on an island in the Dijle
Dijle
river (Dutch: Dijle, English and French: Dyle).[19] Intervention in West Francia[edit] Arnulf took advantage of the problems in West Francia
West Francia
after the death of Charles the Fat
Charles the Fat
to secure the territory of Lotharingia, which he converted into a kingdom for his son Zwentibold.[20] In 889 Arnulf supported the claim of Louis the Blind
Louis the Blind
to the kingdom of Provence, after receiving a personal appeal from Louis’ mother, Ermengard, who came to see Arnulf at Forchheim
Forchheim
in May 889.[21] Recognising the superiority of Arnulf’s position, in 888 king Odo of France formally accepted the suzerainty of Arnulf.[22] In 893 Arnulf switched his support from Odo to Charles the Simple
Charles the Simple
after being persuaded by Fulk, Archbishop of Reims, that it was in his best interests.[23] Arnulf then took advantage of the following fighting between Odo and Charles in 894, taking more territory from West Francia.[24] At one point, Charles the Simple
Charles the Simple
was forced to flee to Arnulf and ask for his protection.[25] His intervention soon forced Pope Formosus
Pope Formosus
to get involved, as he was worried that a divided and war weary West Francia
West Francia
would be easy prey for the Vikings.[24] In 895 Arnulf summoned both Charles and Odo to his residence at Worms. Charles’s advisers convinced him not to go, and he sent a representative in his place. Odo, on the other hand, personally attended, together with a large retinue, bearing many gifts for Arnulf.[26] Angered by the non-appearance of Charles, he welcomed Odo at the Diet of Worms in May 895, and again supported Odo's claim to the throne of West Francia.[26] In the same assembly he crowned his illegitimate son Zwentibold
Zwentibold
as the king of Lotharingia.[26] Wars with Moravia[edit] As early as 880 Arnulf had designs on Great Moravia, and had the Frankish bishop Wiching
Wiching
of Nitra
Nitra
interfere with the missionary activities of Eastern Orthodox priest Methodius, with the aim of preventing any potential for creating a unified Moravian state.[27] Arnulf failed to conquer the whole of Great Moravia
Great Moravia
in wars of 892, 893, and 899. Yet Arnulf did achieve some successes, in particular in 895, when Duchy of Bohemia
Duchy of Bohemia
broke away from Great Moravia
Great Moravia
and became his vassal state. An accord was reached between him and Duke of Bohemia Borivoj I (reigned 870-95). Bohemia was thus freed from the dangers of Frankish invasion. In 893 or 894 Great Moravia
Great Moravia
probably lost a part of its territory — present-day Western Hungary
Hungary
— to him. As a reward, Wiching
Wiching
became Arnulf’s chancellor in 892.[28] In his attempts to conquer Moravia, in 899 Arnulf reached out to Magyars who had settled in Pannonia, and with their help he imposed a measure of control over Moravia.[29][29][30] King of Italy
King of Italy
and Holy Roman Emperor[edit]

Arnulf of Carinthia, 13c picture

Arnulf of Carinthia
Arnulf of Carinthia
and Louis the Child
Louis the Child
by Johann Jakob Jung (19th century).

In Italy
Italy
Guy III of Spoleto
Guy III of Spoleto
and Berengar of Friuli
Berengar of Friuli
fought over the Iron Crown of Lombardy. Berengar had been crowned king in 887, but Guy was then crowned in 889. While Pope Stephen V supported Guy, even crowning him Roman Emperor in 891, Arnulf threw his support behind Berengar.[31] In 893 the new Pope Formosus, not trusting the newly crowned co-emperors Guy III of Spoleto
Guy III of Spoleto
and his son Lambert II of Spoleto, sent an embassy to Omuntesberch, where Arnulf was meeting with Svatopluk I of Moravia,[32] to request that Arnulf come and liberate Italy,[33] where he would be crowned emperor in Rome. Arnulf met the Primores of the Kingdom of Italy, dismissed them with gifts and promised to assist the pope.[34] Arnulf then sent his son Zwentibold
Zwentibold
with a Bavarian army to join Berengar of Friuli. They defeated Guy, but were bought off and left in autumn. When pope Formosus again asked Arnulf to invade, the duke personally led an army across the Alps
Alps
early in 894. In January 894 Bergamo
Bergamo
fell, and Count Ambrose, Guy’s representative in the city, was hung from a tree by the city’s gates.[35] Conquering all of the territory north of the Po River, Arnulf forced the surrender of Milan
Milan
and then drove Guy out of Pavia, where he was crowned King of Italy.[22] Arnulf went no further before Guy died suddenly in late autumn, and a fever incapacitated his troops.[34] His march northward through the Alps
Alps
was interrupted by Rudolph I of Burgundy, and it was only with great difficulty that Arnulf crossed the mountain range.[35] In retaliation, Arnulf ordered his illegitimate son Zwentibold
Zwentibold
to ravage Rudolph's kingdom.[35] In the meantime, Lambert and his mother Ageltrude travelled to Rome
Rome
to receive papal confirmation of his imperial succession, but when pope Formosus, still desiring to crown Arnulf, refused, he was imprisoned in Castel Sant'Angelo. In September 895 a new papal embassy arrived in Regensburg
Regensburg
beseeching Arnulf's aid. In October Arnulf undertook his second campaign into Italy.[34] He crossed the Alps
Alps
quickly and again, took Pavia, but then he continued slowly, garnering support among the nobility of Tuscany. First Maginulf, Count of Milan, and then Walfred of Friuli, joined him. Eventually even Adalbert II of Tuscany
Tuscany
abandoned Lambert. Finding Rome
Rome
locked against him and held by Ageltrude,[34] Arnulf had to take the city by force on February 21, 896, freeing the pope.[36] Arnulf was then greeted at the Ponte Milvio
Ponte Milvio
by the Roman Senate
Roman Senate
who escorted him into the Leonine City, where he was received by Pope Formosus
Pope Formosus
on the steps of the Santi Apostoli.[36] On February 22, 896 Formosus led the king into the church of St.Peter, anointed and crowned him as emperor, and saluted him as Augustus.[37] Arnulf then proceeded to the Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls, where he received the homage of the Roman people,[36] who swore "never to hand over the city to Lambert or his mother Ageltrude".[38] Arnulf then proceeded to exile to Bavaria
Bavaria
two leading senators, Constantine and Stephen, who had helped Ageltrude to seize Rome.[39] Leaving one of his vassals, Farold, to hold Rome, two weeks later Arnulf marched on Spoleto, where Ageltrude had fled to join Lambert,[38] but now Arnulf suffered a stroke, forcing him to call off the campaign and return to Bavaria.[3] Rumours of the time made Arnulf's condition to be a result of poisoning at the hand of Ageltrude.[38] Arnulf retained power in Italy
Italy
only as long as he was personally there.[40][41] On his way north, he stopped at Pavia
Pavia
where he crowned his illegitimate son Ratold, as sub-King of Italy, after which he left Ratold in Milan
Milan
in an attempt to preserve his hold on Italy.[42] That same year pope Formosus died, leaving Lambert once again in power, and both he and Berengar proceeded to kill any officials who had been appointed by Arnulf, forcing Ratold to flee from Milan
Milan
to Bavaria.[43] For the rest of his life Arnulf excersised very little control in Italy, and his agents in Rome
Rome
did not prevent the accession of Pope Stephen VI in 896.[44] Pope initially gave his support to Arnulf, but eventually became a supporter of Lambert.[45] Final years[edit] After 896 Arnulf's health - besides suffering a stroke he had morbus pediculosis, infestation of pubic lice of the eyelid – prevented him from effectively dealing with the problems besetting his reign. Italy was lost,[42] raiders from Moravia and Magyars
Magyars
were continually raiding his lands, and Lotharingia
Lotharingia
was in revolt against Zwentibold.[46] He was also plagued by escalating violence and power struggles between the lower Frankish nobility.[47] On December 8, 899 Arnulf died at Ratisbonin present-day Bavaria.[1] He is entombed in St. Emmeram's Basilica at Regensburg, which is now known as Schloss Thurn und Taxis, the palace of the Princes of Thurn und Taxis. He was succeeded as the king of East Francia
East Francia
by his only legitimate son from Ota (died 903), Louis the Child.[48] After his death in 911 at age 17 or 18, the east Frankish branch of Carolingian
Carolingian
dynasty ceased to exist. Arnulf had had the nobility to recognize the rights of his illegitimate sons Zwentibold
Zwentibold
and Ratold as his successors. Zwentibold, whom he had made King of Lotharingia
Lotharingia
in 895, continued to rule there until his murder in 900.

See also[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Arnulf of Carinthia.

Kings of Germany
Germany
family tree List of Frankish Kings

References[edit]

^ a b The Biographical Dictionary of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, Vol. III, Part II (page 623), printed by William Clowes and Sons, Stamford Street, London, 1844 ^ East Francia
East Francia
had been split from the rest of Frankish Realm
Frankish Realm
by the Treaty of Verdun
Treaty of Verdun
in 843. It evolved into Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
after end of Carolingian
Carolingian
rule. ^ a b c d Canduci, pg. 222 ^ Also Litwinde or Litwindie ^ Konecny Silvia: Die Frauen des karolingischen Königshauses. Die politische Bedeutung der Ehe und die Stellung der Frau in der fränkischen Herrscherfamilie vom 7. bis zum 10. Jahrhundert. PhD thesis Vienna 1976, p. 139 ^ Mediaeval Genealogy: Liutswind: Archived September 2, 2003, at the Wayback Machine. Various theories about her descent and her relation to Carloman (in German) ^ Reuter, Timothy (trans.) The Annals of Fulda. (Manchester Medieval series, Ninth-Century Histories, Volume II.) Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1992. 882 (p. 104 and n3) ^ Reuter, Timothy (trans.) The Annals of Fulda. (Manchester Medieval series, Ninth-Century Histories, Volume II.) Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1992. 884 (pp 108–111) ^ MacLean, Simon. Kingship and Politics in the Late Ninth Century: Charles the Fat
Charles the Fat
and the end of the Carolingian
Carolingian
Empire. Cambridge University Press: 2003. pg. 135 ^ Comyn, pg. 78 ^ Mann III, pg. 376 ^ Duckett, pg. 12 ^ Comyn, pg. 80 ^ Mann IV, pg. 66 ^ Duckett, pg. 16 ^ Duckett, pg. 17 ^ a b Duckett, pg. 20 ^ Arnulf's opponents in 890 have sometimes been described as "Normans", although the term has become more strongly associated with the Scandinavians that were allies of West Francia
West Francia
from 911 and settled in the Duchy of Normandy. ^ Latin
Latin
Luvanium, local Lovon. ^ Comyn, pg. 82 ^ Mann III, pg. 382 ^ a b Bryce, pg. xxxv ^ Mann IV, pg. 55 ^ a b Mann IV, pg. 56 ^ Duckett, pg. 25 ^ a b c Duckett, pg. 26 ^ Mann III, pg. 243 ^ Mann, III, pg. 244 ^ a b Comyn, pg. 83 ^ Mann IV, pg. 13 ^ Mann III, pg. 378 ^ Mann III, pg. 379 ^ Mann IV, pg. 50 ^ a b c d Mann IV, pg. 51 ^ a b c Duckett, pg. 22 ^ a b c Mann IV, pg. 52 ^ Annals of Fulda, an. 896 ^ a b c Mann IV, pg. 53 ^ Duckett, pg. 28 ^ Bryce, pg. 79 ^ Mann IV, pg. 80 ^ a b Duckett, pg. 30 ^ Mann IV, pg. 81 ^ Mann IV, pg. 77 ^ Mann IV, pg. 84 – Silver coins from the pontificate of Stephen VI show the transition from Arnulf (“Arnolfvs Imp. Roma”) to Lambert (“Lamverto Imp. Roma”) ^ Duckett, pg. 33 ^ Duckett, pg. 36 ^ Mann IV, pg. 100

Sources[edit]

Canduci, Alexander (2010), Triumph & Tragedy: The Rise and Fall of Rome's Immortal Emperors, Pier 9, ISBN 978-1-74196-598-8  Duckett, Eleanor (1968). Death and Life in the Tenth Century. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Comyn, Robert. History of the Western Empire, from its Restoration by Charlemagne
Charlemagne
to the Accession of Charles V, Vol. I. 1851 Bryce, James, The Holy Roman Empire, MacMillan. 1913 Mann, Horace, K. The Lives of the Popes in the Early Middle Ages, Vol III: The Popes During the Carolingian
Carolingian
Empire, 858–891. 1925 Mann, Horace, K. The Lives of the Popes in the Early Middle Ages, Vol IV: The Popes in the Days of Feudal Anarchy, 891–999. 1925

Emperor Arnulf of Carinthia Carolingian
Carolingian
dynasty  Died: 8 December 899

Regnal titles

Preceded by Charles III King of East Francia 887–899 Succeeded by Louis the Child

Preceded by Lambert (Holy) Roman Emperor Disputed by: Lambert of Spoleto
Spoleto
896–898 896–899 Succeeded by Louis III

King of Italy 894–899 With Ratold (896) disputed by: Lambert of Spoleto
Spoleto
(896–898) Berengar I (896–899)

Preceded by Charles III the Fat King of Lotharingia 887–894 Succeeded by Zwentibold

Preceded by Bořivoj I rulers of Bohemia 888–899 Succeeded by Spytihněv I

v t e

Holy Roman Emperors

Carolingian
Carolingian
Empire (800–888)

Charles I (Charlemagne) Louis I Lothair I Louis II Charles II Charles III Guy Lambert Arnulf Louis III Berengar

Holy Roman Empire (800/962–1806)

Otto I Otto II Otto III Henry II Conrad II Henry III Henry IV Henry V Lothair II Frederick I Henry VI Otto IV Frederick II Henry VII Louis IV Charles IV Sigismund Frederick III Maximilian I Charles V Ferdinand I Maximilian II Rudolph II Matthias Ferdinand II Ferdinand III Leopold I Joseph I Charles VI Charles VII Francis I Joseph II Leopold II Francis II

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East Francia
East Francia
within the Carolingian
Carolingian
Empire (843–911)

Louis the German Carloman Louis the Younger Charles the Fat Arnulf Louis the Child

East Francia
East Francia
(911–962)

Conrad I Henry I Arnulf Otto I

Kingdom of Germany
Germany
within the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
(962–1806)

Otto I Otto II Otto III Henry II Conrad II Henry III Henry IV Rudolf Hermann Conrad (III) Henry V Lothair II Conrad III Henry (VI) Frederick I Henry VI Philip Otto IV Frederick II Henry (VII) Conrad IV Henry (VIII) William Richard Alfonso Rudolf I Adolf Albert I Henry VII Louis IV Frederick (III) Günther Charles IV Wenceslaus Rupert Jobst Sigismund Albert II Frederick III Maximilian I Charles V Ferdinand I Maximilian II Rudolf II Matthias Ferdinand II Ferdinand III Ferdinand IV Leopold I Joseph I Charles VI Charles VII Francis I Joseph II Leopold II Francis II

Confederation of the Rhine
Confederation of the Rhine
(1806–1813)

Napoleon
Napoleon
I

German Confederation
German Confederation
(1815–1848)

Francis I Ferdinand I

German Empire
German Empire
(1848/1849)

Archduke John of Austria
Archduke John of Austria
(Imperial Regent)

German Confederation
German Confederation
(1850–1866)

Franz Joseph I

North German Confederation
German Confederation
(1867–1871)

William I

German Empire
German Empire
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William I Frederick III William II

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 266365345 LCCN: nb2004000816 ISNI: 0000 0000 7970 4588 GND: 118650440 SUDOC: 078158486 BNF: cb1629

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