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Aristide Briand
Aristide Briand
(French: [a.ʁis.tid bʁi.jɑ̃]; 28 March 1862 – 7 March 1932) was a French statesman who served eleven terms as Prime Minister of France
Prime Minister of France
during the French Third Republic
French Third Republic
and was a co-laureate of the 1926 Nobel Peace Prize.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Activism 3 Prime Minister of France

3.1 Pre-War 3.2 First World War

3.2.1 1914-15 3.2.2 1916 3.2.3 Reconstructed government

3.3 1920s

4 Kellogg–Briand Pact 5 Briand Plan for European union 6 Governments

6.1 Briand's first Government, 24 July 1909 – 3 November 1910 6.2 Briand's second Government, 3 November 1910 – 2 March 1911 6.3 Briand's third and fourth Governments, 21 January – 22 March 1913 6.4 Briand's fifth Government, 29 October 1915 – 12 December 1916 6.5 Briand's sixth Government, 12 December 1916 – 20 March 1917 6.6 Briand's seventh Government, 16 January 1921 – 15 January 1922 6.7 Briand's eighth Government, 28 November 1925 – 9 March 1926 6.8 Briand's ninth Government, 9 March – 23 June 1926 6.9 Briand's tenth Government, 23 June – 19 July 1926 6.10 Briand's eleventh Government, 29 July – 3 November 1929

7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links

Early life[edit] He was born in Nantes, Loire-Atlantique of a petit bourgeois family. He attended the Nantes
Nantes
Lycée, where, in 1877, he developed a close friendship with Jules Verne.[1] He studied law, and soon went into politics, associating himself with the most advanced movements, writing articles for the Syndicalist journal Le Peuple, and directing the Lanterne for some time. From this he passed to the Petite République, leaving it to found L'Humanité, in collaboration with Jean Jaurès.[2] Activism[edit] At the same time he was prominent in the movement for the formation of trade unions, and at the congress of workers at Nantes
Nantes
in 1894, he secured the adoption of the labor union idea against the adherents of Jules Guesde. From that time, Briand was one of the leaders of the French Socialist Party. In 1902, after several unsuccessful attempts, he was elected deputy. He declared himself a strong partisan of the union of the Left in what was known as the Bloc, to check the reactionary Deputies of the Right.[2] From the beginning of his career in the Chamber of Deputies, Briand was occupied with the question of the separation of church and state. He was appointed the reporter of the commission charged with the preparation of the 1905 law on separation, and his report at once marked him out as one of the coming leaders. He succeeded in carrying his project through with but slight modifications, and without dividing the parties upon whose support he relied.[2] He was the principal author of the law of separation, but, not content with preparing it; he wished to apply it as well. The ministry of Maurice Rouvier
Maurice Rouvier
was allowing disturbances during the taking of inventories of church property, a clause of the law for which Briand was not responsible. Consequently, he accepted the portfolio of Public Instruction and Worship in the Sarrien ministry (1906). So far as the Chamber was concerned, his success was complete. But the acceptance of a position in a bourgeois ministry led to his exclusion from the Unified Socialist Party (March 1906). As opposed to Jaurès, he contended that the Socialists should co-operate actively with the Radicals in all matters of reform, and not stand aloof to await the complete fulfillment of their ideals.[2] He himself was atheist.[3][4] He became a freemason in the lodge Le Trait d'Union in July 1887 while the lodge didn't record his name in spite of his repeated requests.[5] The lodge declared "unworthy" to him on 6 September 1889.[6] In 1895 he joined the lodge Les Chevaliers du Travail that was established in 1893.[5] Prime Minister of France[edit]

Portrait of Aristide Briand

Pre-War[edit] Briand served as Minister of Justice under Clemenceau in 1908-9, before succeeding Clemenceau as Prime Minister on 24 July 1909, serving until 2 March 1911. In social policy, Briand’s first ministry was notable for the passage of a bill in April 1910 for workers' and farmers' pensions.[7] That same year, compulsory sickness and old-age insurance was introduced for 8 million rural and urban workers. However, a law court decision in 1912 that questioned the legality of compulsion “enabled a large proportion of employers and workers to evade the law.”[8] Briand again served as Minister of Justice 1912-13 under the premiership of the rightwinger Raymond Poincaré
Raymond Poincaré
(soon to become President of the Republic), before again becoming Prime Minister for a few months from 21 January 1913 until 22 March 1913. First World War[edit] 1914-15[edit] At the end of August 1914, following the outbreak of the First World War, Briand again became Minister of Justice when René Viviani reconstructed his ministry. In the winter of 1914-15 Briand was one of those who pushed for an expedition to Salonika, in the hope of helping Serbia, and perhaps bringing Greece, Romania, Bulgaria and Italy into the war as a pro-French bloc, which would also act as a barrier to future Russian expansion in the Balkans. He got on well with Lloyd George, who was also, contrary to military advice, keen for operations in the Balkans, and had a long talk with him on 4 February 1915. Briand was the main mover in persuading Maurice Sarrail
Maurice Sarrail
to accept the Salonika command in August 1915.[9] In October 1915 following an unsuccessful French offensive and the entry of Bulgaria, Briand again became Prime Minister (29 October 1915), succeeding René Viviani. He also became Foreign Minister for the first time, a post held by Théophile Delcassé
Théophile Delcassé
until the final weeks of the previous government. He was also pledged to “unité de front”, not just between the military and Parliament but also closer links with the other Allies, a pledge met with “prolonged, thunderous applause” by the deputies.[10] Draft proposals for Allied cooperation, prepared by Lord Esher and Maurice Hankey were on the table by the time British Prime Minister H. H. Asquith visited Paris on 17 November (mainly to discuss Greece, and only his second wartime talks with France; the first had been with Viviani in July 1915).[10] The opening weeks of Briand's ministry required him to broker an agreement between General Gallieni, the new War Minister, and General Joffre, newly (2 December) promoted to “Commander-in-Chief of the French Armies” (generalissimo) over all theatres apart from North Africa.[11][12] 1916[edit] In the poisonous atmosphere after the opening of the German attack at Verdun (21 February 1916), Gallieni read an angry report at the Council of Ministers on 7 March criticising Joffre's conduct of operations over the last eighteen months and demanding ministerial control, then resigned. He was falsely suspected of wanting to launch a military takeover of the government.[13] Briand knew that publication of the report would damage morale and might bring down the government. Gallieni was persuaded to remain in office until a replacement had been agreed.[14] General Roques was appointed after it had been ensured that Joffre had no objections.[15] The first formal Allied conference met in Paris on 26 March 1916 (Italy did not participate) but initially made little impact, perhaps because Briand had vetoed the British suggestion of a permanent secretariat,[16] or perhaps because there had been three informal sets of Anglo-French talks in the last quarter of 1915, one of which, the Chantilly meeting, had already seen strategy plans drawn up.[10] Late in March 1916 Joffre and Briand blocked the withdrawal of five British divisions from Salonika. Briand was widely suspected of wanting to make his mistress Princess George Queen of Greece.[17] In the spring of 1916 Briand urged Sarrail to take the offensive in the Balkans to take some of the heat off Verdun, although the British, preoccupied with the upcoming Somme offensive, declined to send further troops and Sarrail’s offensive that summer was not a success.[18] Briand also attended the conference at Saleux on 31 May 1916 about the upcoming Anglo-French offensive on the Somme, with President Poincaré (on whose train it was held), General Foch (commander, Army Group North) and the British Commander-in-Chief General Haig.[19] The first Secret Session of the Chamber of Deputies was held in June 1916 to discuss the shortcomings of the defence at Verdun. The government won a vote of confidence but with a clause demanding “effective supervision” of the army. The Parliamentary Army Commission elected Abel Ferry
Abel Ferry
as a commissioner (1 August). By October Ferry was presenting his fourth report on army railways, to Joffre’s fury.[20] Late in 1916 Roques had been sent on a fact-finding mission to Salonika after Britain, Italy and Russia had pushed for the dismissal of the theatre commander Sarrail. To Briand’s and Joffre’s surprise, Roques returned recommending that Sarrail be reinforced and that Sarrail no longer report to Joffre. Coming on the back of the disappointing results of the Somme campaign and the defeat of Romania, Roques’ report further discredited Briand and Joffre and added to the Parliamentary Deputies’ demands for a closed session.[21] In November Ferry presented a report on the shortage of manpower. A secret session was held on 21 November about calling up the Class of 1918[22] followed by another a week later.[20] On 27 November Briand proposed that Joffre be effectively demoted to commander-in-chief in northern France, with both he and Sarrail reporting to the War Minister, although he withdrew this proposal after Joffre threatened resignation. The Closed Session began on 28 November and lasted until 7 December. Briand had little choice but to make concessions to preserve his government, and in a speech of 29 November he promised to repeal Joffre's promotion of December 1915 and in vague terms to appoint a general as technical adviser to the government. Briand survived a confidence vote by 344-160 (six months earlier he had won a confidence vote 440-80).[21] Reconstructed government[edit] On 13 December Briand formed a new government, reducing the size of the Council of Ministers from 23 to 10 and replacing Roques with General Lyautey. That day his government survived a vote of confidence by 30 votes, and Joffre was appointed "general-in-chief of the French armies, technical adviser to the government, consultative member of the War Committee" (he was persuaded to accept by Briand, but soon found that he had been stripped of real power and asked to be relieved altogether on 26 December), with Nivelle replacing him as commander-in-chief of the Armies of the North and Northeast.[23] A Senate Secret Session on 21 December attacked Briand's plans for a smaller war cabinet as “yet another level of bureaucracy”; on 23 December Briand pledged that he would continue to push for a “permanent Allied bureau” to secure constant cooperation between the Allied nations.[24] Briand's reduced War Cabinet was formed in imitation of the small executive body formed by Lloyd George, just appointed Prime Minister of Britain, but in practice Briand's often met just prior to meetings of the main Cabinet. Painlevé declined the job of War Minister as he would have preferred Petain as commander-in-chief rather than the inexperienced Nivelle.[25] Like President Poincaré Briand had thought Petain too cautious to be suitable.[26] Nivelle's appointment caused great friction between the British and French high commands, after Lloyd George attempted to have Haig placed under Nivelle's command at the Calais Conference in January. Briand only reluctantly agreed to attend another allied conference in London (12–13 March 1917) to resolve the matter.[27] Briand resigned as Prime Minister on 20 March 1917 as a result of disagreements over the prospective Nivelle Offensive, to be succeeded by Alexandre Ribot. 1920s[edit] Briand returned to power in 1921. He supervised the French role in the Washington Naval Conference
Washington Naval Conference
of 1921–22. Three factors guided the French strategy and necessitated a Mediterranean focus: the French navy needed to carry a great many goods, the Mediterranean was the axis of chief interest, and a supply of oil was essential. The primary goal was to defend French North Africa, and Briand made practical choices, for naval policy was a reflection of overall foreign policy. The Conference agreed on the American proposal that capital ships be limited to a ratio of 5 to 5 to 3 for the United States, Britain, and Japan, with Italy and France allocated 1.7 each. France's participation reflected its need to deal with its diminishing power and reduced human, material, and financial resources.[28] Briand's efforts to come to an agreement over reparations with the Germans failed in the wake of German intransigence, and he was succeeded by the more bellicose Raymond Poincaré. In the wake of the Ruhr Crisis, however, Briand's more conciliatory style became more acceptable, and he returned to the Quai d'Orsay
Quai d'Orsay
in 1925. He would remain foreign minister until his death in 1932. During this time, he was a member of 14 cabinets, three of which he headed himself. Briand negotiated the Briand-Ceretti Agreement with the Vatican, giving the French government a role in the appointment of Catholic bishops. Kellogg–Briand Pact[edit] Main article: Kellogg–Briand Pact

Aristide Briand
Aristide Briand
and Gustav Stresemann

Aristide Briand
Aristide Briand
received the 1926 Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
together with Gustav Stresemann
Gustav Stresemann
of Germany for the Locarno Treaties[29] (Austen Chamberlain of the United Kingdom had received a share of the Peace Prize a year earlier for the same agreement[30]). A 1927 proposal by Briand and United States Secretary of State Frank B. Kellogg for a universal pact outlawing war led the following year to the Pact of Paris, aka the Kellogg–Briand Pact.[31] Briand Plan for European union[edit] As foreign minister Briand formulated an original proposal for a new economic union of Europe.[32] Described as Briand's Locarno diplomacy and as an aspect of Franco-German rapprochement, it was his answer to Germany's quick economic recovery and future political power. Briand made his proposals in a speech in favor of a European Union
European Union
in the League of Nations
League of Nations
on 5 September 1929, and in 1930, in his "Memorandum on the Organization of a Regime of European Federal Union" for the Government of France.[33] The idea was to provide a framework to contain France's former enemy while preserving as much of the 1919 Versailles settlement as possible. The Briand plan entailed the economic collaboration of the great industrial areas of Europe and the provision of political security to Eastern Europe against Soviet threats. The basis was economic cooperation, but his fundamental concept was political, for it was political power that would determine economic choices. The plan, under the Memorandum on the Organization of a System of European Federal Union, was in the end presented as a French initiative to the League of Nations. With the death of his principal supporter, German foreign minister Gustav Stresemann, and the onset of the Great Depression in 1929, Briand's plan was never adopted but it suggested an economic framework for developments after World War II that eventually resulted in the European Union.[34] Governments[edit]

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Briand's first Government, 24 July 1909 – 3 November 1910[edit]

Aristide Briand
Aristide Briand
– President of the Council and Minister of the Interior and Worship Stéphen Pichon
Stéphen Pichon
– Minister of Foreign Affairs Jean Brun – Minister of War Georges Cochery – Minister of Finance René Viviani
René Viviani
– Minister of Labour and Social Security Provisions Louis Barthou
Louis Barthou
– Minister of Justice Auguste Boué de Lapeyrère – Minister of Marine Gaston Doumergue
Gaston Doumergue
– Minister of Public Instruction and Fine Arts Joseph Ruau
Joseph Ruau
– Minister of Agriculture Georges Trouillot
Georges Trouillot
– Minister of Colonies Alexandre Millerand
Alexandre Millerand
– Minister of Public Works, Posts, and Telegraphs Jean Dupuy – Minister of Commerce and Industry

Briand's second Government, 3 November 1910 – 2 March 1911[edit]

Aristide Briand
Aristide Briand
– President of the Council and Minister of the Interior and Worship Stéphen Pichon
Stéphen Pichon
– Minister of Foreign Affairs Jean Brun – Minister of War Louis Lucien Klotz
Louis Lucien Klotz
– Minister of Finance Louis Lafferre
Louis Lafferre
– Minister of Labour and Social Security Provisions Théodore Girard – Minister of Justice Auguste Boué de Lapeyrère – Minister of Marine Maurice Faure
Maurice Faure
– Minister of Public Instruction and Fine Arts Maurice Raynaud – Minister of Agriculture Jean Morel – Minister of Colonies Louis Puech
Louis Puech
– Minister of Public Works, Posts, and Telegraphs Jean Dupuy – Minister of Commerce and Industry

Changes

23 February 1911 – Briand succeeds Brun as interim Minister of War.

Briand's third and fourth Governments, 21 January – 22 March 1913[edit]

Aristide Briand
Aristide Briand
– President of the Council and Minister of the Interior Charles Jonnart
Charles Jonnart
– Minister of Foreign Affairs Eugène Étienne
Eugène Étienne
– Minister of War Louis Lucien Klotz
Louis Lucien Klotz
– Minister of Finance René Besnard
René Besnard
– Minister of Labour and Social Security Provisions Louis Barthou
Louis Barthou
– Minister of Justice Pierre Baudin – Minister of Marine Théodore Steeg – Minister of Public Instruction and Fine Arts Fernand David
Fernand David
– Minister of Agriculture Jean Morel – Minister of Colonies Jean Dupuy – Minister of Public Works, Posts, and Telegraphs Gabriel Guist'hau
Gabriel Guist'hau
– Minister of Commerce and Industry

Briand's fifth Government, 29 October 1915 – 12 December 1916[edit]

Aristide Briand
Aristide Briand
– President of the Council and Minister of Foreign Affairs Joseph Galliéni
Joseph Galliéni
– Minister of War Louis Malvy
Louis Malvy
– Minister of the Interior Alexandre Ribot
Alexandre Ribot
– Minister of Finance Albert Métin
Albert Métin
– Minister of Labour and Social Security Provisions René Viviani
René Viviani
– Minister of Justice Lucien Lacaze
Lucien Lacaze
– Minister of Marine Paul Painlevé
Paul Painlevé
– Minister of Public Instruction and Fine Arts Jules Méline
Jules Méline
– Minister of Agriculture Gaston Doumergue
Gaston Doumergue
– Minister of Colonies Marcel Sembat
Marcel Sembat
– Minister of Public Works Étienne Clémentel
Étienne Clémentel
– Minister of Commerce, Industry, Posts, and Telegraphs Léon Bourgeois
Léon Bourgeois
– Minister of State Denys Cochin
Denys Cochin
– Minister of State Émile Combes
Émile Combes
– Minister of State Charles de Freycinet
Charles de Freycinet
– Minister of State Jules Guesde
Jules Guesde
– Minister of State

Changes

15 November 1915 – Paul Painlevé
Paul Painlevé
becomes Minister of Inventions for the National Defense in addition to being Minister of Public Instruction and Fine Arts. 16 March 1916 – Pierre Auguste Roques
Pierre Auguste Roques
succeeds Galliéni as Minister of War

Briand's sixth Government, 12 December 1916 – 20 March 1917[edit]

Aristide Briand
Aristide Briand
– President of the Council and Minister of Foreign Affairs Hubert Lyautey
Hubert Lyautey
– Minister of War Albert Thomas – Minister of Armaments and War Manufacturing Louis Malvy
Louis Malvy
– Minister of the Interior Alexandre Ribot
Alexandre Ribot
– Minister of Finance Étienne Clémentel
Étienne Clémentel
– Minister of Commerce, Industry, Labour, Social Security Provisions, Agriculture, Posts, and Telegraphs René Viviani
René Viviani
– Minister of Justice, Public Instruction, and Fine Arts Lucien Lacaze
Lucien Lacaze
– Minister of Marine Édouard Herriot
Édouard Herriot
– Minister of Supply, Public Works, and Transport Gaston Doumergue
Gaston Doumergue
– Minister of Colonies

Changes

15 March 1917 – Lucien Lacaze
Lucien Lacaze
succeeds Lyautey as interim Minister of War.

Briand's seventh Government, 16 January 1921 – 15 January 1922[edit]

Aristide Briand
Aristide Briand
– President of the Council and Minister of Foreign Affairs Louis Barthou
Louis Barthou
– Minister of War Pierre Marraud
Pierre Marraud
– Minister of the Interior Paul Doumer
Paul Doumer
– Minister of Finance Charles Daniel-Vincent
Charles Daniel-Vincent
– Minister of Labour Laurent Bonnevay – Minister of Justice Gabriel Guist'hau
Gabriel Guist'hau
– Minister of Marine Léon Bérard
Léon Bérard
– Minister of Public Instruction and Fine Arts André Maginot
André Maginot
– Minister of War Pensions, Grants, and Allowances Edmond Lefebvre du Prey – Minister of Agriculture Albert Sarraut
Albert Sarraut
– Minister of Colonies Yves Le Trocquer – Minister of Public Works Georges Leredu
Georges Leredu
– Minister of Hygiene, Welfare Work, and Social Security Provisions Lucien Dior – Minister of Commerce and Industry Louis Loucheur
Louis Loucheur
– Minister of Liberated Regions

Briand's eighth Government, 28 November 1925 – 9 March 1926[edit]

Aristide Briand
Aristide Briand
– President of the Council and Minister of Foreign Affairs Paul Painlevé
Paul Painlevé
– Minister of War Camille Chautemps
Camille Chautemps
– Minister of the Interior Louis Loucheur
Louis Loucheur
– Minister of Finance Antoine Durafour
Antoine Durafour
– Minister of Labour, Hygiene, Welfare Work, and Social Security Provisions René Renoult
René Renoult
– Minister of Justice Georges Leygues
Georges Leygues
– Minister of Marine Édouard Daladier
Édouard Daladier
– Minister of Public Instruction and Fine Arts Paul Jourdain
Paul Jourdain
– Minister of Pensions Jean Durand – Minister of Agriculture Léon Perrier – Minister of Colonies Anatole de Monzie – Minister of Public Works Charles Daniel-Vincent
Charles Daniel-Vincent
– Minister of Commerce and Industry

Changes

16 December 1925 – Paul Doumer
Paul Doumer
succeeds Loucheur as Minister of Finance.

Briand's ninth Government, 9 March – 23 June 1926[edit]

Aristide Briand
Aristide Briand
– President of the Council and Minister of Foreign Affairs Paul Painlevé
Paul Painlevé
– Minister of War Louis Malvy
Louis Malvy
– Minister of the Interior Raoul Péret
Raoul Péret
– Minister of Finance Antoine Durafour
Antoine Durafour
– Minister of Labour, Hygiene, Welfare Work, and Social Security Provisions Pierre Laval
Pierre Laval
– Minister of Justice Georges Leygues
Georges Leygues
– Minister of Marine Lucien Lamoureux – Minister of Public Instruction and Fine Arts Paul Jourdain
Paul Jourdain
– Minister of Pensions Jean Durand – Minister of Agriculture Léon Perrier – Minister of Colonies Anatole de Monzie – Minister of Public Works Charles Daniel-Vincent
Charles Daniel-Vincent
– Minister of Commerce and Industry

Changes

10 April 1926 – Jean Durand succeeds Malvy as Minister of the Interior. François Binet succeeds Durand as Minister of Agriculture.

Briand's tenth Government, 23 June – 19 July 1926[edit]

Aristide Briand
Aristide Briand
– President of the Council and Minister of Foreign Affairs Adolphe Guillaumat
Adolphe Guillaumat
– Minister of War Jean Durand – Minister of the Interior Joseph Caillaux
Joseph Caillaux
– Minister of Finance Antoine Durafour
Antoine Durafour
– Minister of Labour, Hygiene, Welfare Work, and Social Security Provisions Pierre Laval
Pierre Laval
– Minister of Justice Georges Leygues
Georges Leygues
– Minister of Marine Bertrand Nogaro – Minister of Public Instruction and Fine Arts Paul Jourdain
Paul Jourdain
– Minister of Pensions François Binet – Minister of Agriculture Léon Perrier – Minister of Colonies Charles Daniel-Vincent
Charles Daniel-Vincent
– Minister of Public Works Fernand Chapsal
Fernand Chapsal
– Minister of Commerce and Industry

Briand's eleventh Government, 29 July – 3 November 1929[edit]

Aristide Briand
Aristide Briand
– President of the Council and Minister of Foreign Affairs Paul Painlevé
Paul Painlevé
– Minister of War André Tardieu
André Tardieu
– Minister of the Interior Henry Chéron
Henry Chéron
– Minister of Finance Louis Loucheur
Louis Loucheur
– Minister of Labour, Hygiene, Welfare Work, and Social Security Provisions Louis Barthou
Louis Barthou
– Minister of Justice Georges Leygues
Georges Leygues
– Minister of Marine Laurent Eynac – Minister of Air Pierre Marraud
Pierre Marraud
– Minister of Public Instruction and Fine Arts Louis Antériou
Louis Antériou
– Minister of Pensions Jean Hennessy
Jean Hennessy
– Minister of Agriculture André Maginot
André Maginot
– Minister of Colonies Pierre Forgeot
Pierre Forgeot
– Minister of Public Works Georges Bonnefous
Georges Bonnefous
– Minister of Commerce and Industry

See also[edit]

List of people on the cover of Time Magazine: 1920s

Notes[edit]

^ Aristide Briand
Aristide Briand
– Biography ^ a b c d  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Briand, Aristide". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 515–516.  ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=CKdHAQAAMAAJ&pg=PA150&lpg=PA150&dq=Aristide+Briand+atheist&source=bl&ots=xT8n4irVq5&sig=lb_Z---tbfRbRF8ulljYGUmqmMc&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi0hqqgy-rOAhWPMx4KHf2gDP4Q6AEIHDAA#v=onepage&q=Aristide%20Briand%20atheist&f=false ^ http://www.et97.com/view/824752.htm ^ a b Osterrieder, Markus (2010). "Der prophezeite Krieg" (PDF) (in German). CeltoSlavica. p. 10. Retrieved 10 November 2014. Zwar war er im Juli 1887 am Tag der Initiation in die Loge Le Trait d’Union nicht anwesend, obwohl er mehrfach den Antrag auf Aufnahme gestellt hatte, trat jedoch 1895 der sozialistisch orientierten, antikapitalistischen und antiparlamentarischen Loge Les Chevaliers du Travail (gegründet 1893) bei, [. . .] Vgl Michel Gaudart de SOULAGES, Hubert LAMANT: Dictionnaire des francs-maçons français. Paris 1995, S. 197-198; Henri CASTEIX: Aristide Briand
Aristide Briand
et la franc-maçonnerie. Histoire sans passion de la franc-maçonnerie française. Paris 1987, S. 229-236; Encyclopédie de la franc-maçonnerie. Hrsg. v. Eric SAUNIER. Paris 1999, S. 146f.; Dictionnaire de la franc-‐maçonnerie. Hrsg. v. Daniel LIGOU. Paris 2004, S. 243-245.  ^ Mayeur, Jean Marie (2003). Les parlementaires de la troisième république (in French). Publications de la Sorbonne. p. 114. ISBN 9782859444846. Retrieved 10 November 2014.  ^ http://www.cheminsdememoire.gouv.fr/en/aristide-briand ^ Foundations of the Welfare State, 2nd Edition by Pat Thane, published 1996 ^ Greenhalgh 2014, p.100 &108 ^ a b c Greenhalgh 2005, p. 36 & 38-9 ^ There had already been friction between the two men when Gallieni, Joffre's former superior, had been recalled from retirement to be Military governor of Paris
Military governor of Paris
during the First Battle of the Marne earlier in the war. ^ Doughty 2005, pp229-32 ^ Clayton 2003, pp97-8 ^ Doughty 2005, pp284-5 ^ Doughty 2005, p285 ^ French ministers’ meetings were not then minuted, whereas in the UK at that time the Prime Minister had to write a report of meetings to the King, until the end of the year when formal agenda and minutes, drawn up by Hankey, were introduced by Lloyd George ^ Palmer 1998, p55 ^ Greenhalgh 2014, p.159 ^ Greenhalgh 2005, p.50 ^ a b Greenhalgh 2014, p. 167-8 ^ a b Doughty 2005, p318-20 ^ i.e. teenagers who would not normally have been liable for military service until that year ^ Doughty 2005, p320-1 ^ Greenhalgh 2005, p.137 ^ Greenhalgh 2014, p.172 ^ Greenhalgh 2014, p.170 ^ Greenhalgh 2005, p.139 ^ Blatt, Joel (1993). "France and the Washington conference". Diplomacy & Statecraft. 4 (3): 192. doi:10.1080/09592299308405900.  ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
1926". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2018-03-26.  ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
1925". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2018-03-26.  ^ "The Kellogg-Briand Pact, 1928". Milestones in the History of U.S. Foreign Relations. Office of the Historian, United States Department of State. Archived from the original on February 4, 2009. Retrieved 28 December 2017.  ^ Navari, Cornelia (1992). "Origins of the Briand plan". Diplomacy & Statecraft. 3: 74. doi:10.1080/09592299208405844.  ^ Briand, Aristide (1930-05-01). Memorandum on the Organization of a System of Federal European Union. France. Ministry of Foreign Affairs - via World Digital Library. Retrieved 2014-06-19.  ^ D. Weigall and P. Stirk, eds., The Origins and Development of the European Community (Leicester University Press, 1992), pp. 11–15 ISBN 0718514289.

References[edit]

 Adam, George Jeffreys (1922). "Briand, Aristide". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 30 (12th ed.). London & New York.  Bernard, Philippe; Dubief, Henri; Forster, Thony (1985). The Decline of the Third Republic, 1914–1938. The Cambridge History of Modern France. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-35854-X.  Doughty, Robert A. (2005). Pyrrhic Victory. Havard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-02726-8.  Greenhalgh, Elizabeth (2005). Victory Through Coalition. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-09629-4.  Greenhalgh, Elizabeth (2014). The French Army and the First World War. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-60568-8.  Mayeur, Jean-Marie; Rebirioux, Madeleine; Foster, J. R. (1984). The Third Republic from its Origins to the Great War, 1871–1914. The Cambridge History of Modern France. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 2-7351-0067-7.  Palmer, Alan (1998). Victory 1918. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-84124-6.  Wright, Julian (2005). "Social Reform, State Reform, and Aristide Briand's Moment of Hope in France, 1909–1910". French Historical Studies. 28 (1): 31–67. doi:10.1215/00161071-28-1-31. 

Georges Suarez’s multi-volume biography of Briand (1938–52) is of particular value to historians as it cites documents lost in 1940.[1] External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Aristide Briand.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original works written by or about: Aristide Briand

Nobel biography Timeline for the 150th anniversary of Aristide Briand

Political offices

Preceded by Jean-Baptiste Bienvenu-Martin Minister of Public Instruction and Fine Arts 1906–1908 Succeeded by Gaston Doumergue

Minister of Worship 1906–1911 Succeeded by Ernest Monis

Preceded by Edmond Guyot-Dessaigne Minister of Justice 1908–1909 Succeeded by Louis Barthou

Preceded by Georges Clemenceau Prime Minister of France 1909–1911 Succeeded by Ernest Monis

Minister of the Interior 1909–1911

Preceded by Jean Brun interim Minister of War 1911 Succeeded by Maurice Berteaux

Preceded by Jean Cruppi Minister of Justice 1912–1913 Succeeded by Louis Barthou

Preceded by Raymond Poincaré Prime Minister of France 1913 Succeeded by Louis Barthou

Preceded by Théodore Steeg Minister of the Interior 1913 Succeeded by Louis Lucien Klotz

Preceded by Jean-Baptiste Bienvenu-Martin Minister of Justice 1914–1915 Succeeded by René Viviani

Preceded by René Viviani Prime Minister of France 1915–1917 Succeeded by Alexandre Ribot

Minister of Foreign Affairs 1915–1917

Preceded by Georges Leygues Prime Minister of France 1921–1922 Succeeded by Raymond Poincaré

Minister of Foreign Affairs 1921–1922

Preceded by Édouard Herriot Minister of Foreign Affairs 1925–1926 Succeeded by Édouard Herriot

Preceded by Paul Painlevé Prime Minister of France 1925–1926

Preceded by Édouard Herriot Minister of Foreign Affairs 1926–1932 Succeeded by Pierre Laval

Preceded by Raymond Poincaré Prime Minister of France 1929 Succeeded by André Tardieu

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Laureates of the Nobel Peace Prize

1901–1925

1901 Henry Dunant / Frédéric Passy 1902 Élie Ducommun / Charles Gobat 1903 Randal Cremer 1904 Institut de Droit International 1905 Bertha von Suttner 1906 Theodore Roosevelt 1907 Ernesto Moneta / Louis Renault 1908 Klas Arnoldson / Fredrik Bajer 1909 A. M. F. Beernaert / Paul Estournelles de Constant 1910 International Peace Bureau 1911 Tobias Asser / Alfred Fried 1912 Elihu Root 1913 Henri La Fontaine 1914 1915 1916 1917 International Committee of the Red Cross 1918 1919 Woodrow Wilson 1920 Léon Bourgeois 1921 Hjalmar Branting / Christian Lange 1922 Fridtjof Nansen 1923 1924 1925 Austen Chamberlain / Charles Dawes

1926–1950

1926 Aristide Briand / Gustav Stresemann 1927 Ferdinand Buisson / Ludwig Quidde 1928 1929 Frank B. Kellogg 1930 Nathan Söderblom 1931 Jane Addams / Nicholas Butler 1932 1933 Norman Angell 1934 Arthur Henderson 1935 Carl von Ossietzky 1936 Carlos Saavedra Lamas 1937 Robert Cecil 1938 Nansen International Office for Refugees 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 International Committee of the Red Cross 1945 Cordell Hull 1946 Emily Balch / John Mott 1947 Friends Service Council / American Friends Service Committee 1948 1949 John Boyd Orr 1950 Ralph Bunche

1951–1975

1951 Léon Jouhaux 1952 Albert Schweitzer 1953 George Marshall 1954 United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees 1955 1956 1957 Lester B. Pearson 1958 Georges Pire 1959 Philip Noel-Baker 1960 Albert Lutuli 1961 Dag Hammarskjöld 1962 Linus Pauling 1963 International Committee of the Red Cross / League of Red Cross Societies 1964 Martin Luther King Jr. 1965 UNICEF 1966 1967 1968 René Cassin 1969 International Labour Organization 1970 Norman Borlaug 1971 Willy Brandt 1972 1973 Lê Đức Thọ (declined award) / Henry Kissinger 1974 Seán MacBride / Eisaku Satō 1975 Andrei Sakharov

1976–2000

1976 Betty Williams / Mairead Corrigan 1977 Amnesty International 1978 Anwar Sadat / Menachem Begin 1979 Mother Teresa 1980 Adolfo Pérez Esquivel 1981 United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees 1982 Alva Myrdal / Alfonso García Robles 1983 Lech Wałęsa 1984 Desmond Tutu 1985 International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War 1986 Elie Wiesel 1987 Óscar Arias 1988 UN Peacekeeping Forces 1989 Tenzin Gyatso (14th Dalai Lama) 1990 Mikhail Gorbachev 1991 Aung San Suu Kyi 1992 Rigoberta Menchú 1993 Nelson Mandela / F. W. de Klerk 1994 Shimon Peres / Yitzhak Rabin / Yasser Arafat 1995 Pugwash Conferences / Joseph Rotblat 1996 Carlos Belo / José Ramos-Horta 1997 International Campaign to Ban Landmines / Jody Williams 1998 John Hume / David Trimble 1999 Médecins Sans Frontières 2000 Kim Dae-jung

2001–present

2001 United Nations / Kofi Annan 2002 Jimmy Carter 2003 Shirin Ebadi 2004 Wangari Maathai 2005 International Atomic Energy Agency / Mohamed ElBaradei 2006 Grameen Bank / Muhammad Yunus 2007 Al Gore / Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2008 Martti Ahtisaari 2009 Barack Obama 2010 Liu Xiaobo 2011 Ellen Johnson Sirleaf / Leymah Gbowee / Tawakkol Karman 2012 European Union 2013 Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons 2014 Kailash Satyarthi / Malala Yousafzai 2015 Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet 2016 Juan Manuel Santos 2017 International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons

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Heads of government of France

Restoration

Talleyrand Richelieu Dessolles Decazes Richelieu Villèle Martignac Polignac

July Monarchy

V. de Broglie Laffitte Perier Soult Gérard Maret Mortier V. de Broglie Thiers Molé Soult Thiers Soult Guizot Molé

Second Republic

Dupont de l'Eure Arago Cavaignac Barrot Hautpoul Faucher

Second Empire

Ollivier Cousin-Montauban

Government of National Defense

Trochu

Third Republic

Dufaure A. de Broglie Cissey Buffet Dufaure Simon A. de Broglie Rochebouët Dufaure Waddington Freycinet Ferry Gambetta Freycinet Duclerc Fallières Ferry Brisson Freycinet Goblet Rouvier Floquet Tirard Freycinet Loubet Ribot Dupuy Casimir-Perier Dupuy Ribot Bourgeois Méline Brisson Dupuy Waldeck-Rousseau Combes Rouvier Sarrien Clemenceau Briand Monis Caillaux Poincaré Briand Barthou Doumergue Ribot Viviani Briand Ribot Painlevé Clemenceau Millerand Leygues Briand Poincaré François-Marsal Herriot Painlevé Briand Herriot Poincaré Briand Tardieu Chautemps Tardieu Steeg Laval Tardieu Herriot Paul-Boncour Daladier Sarraut Chautemps Daladier Doumergue Flandin Bouisson Laval Sarraut Blum Chautemps Blum Daladier Reynaud Pétain

Vichy France

Pétain Laval Flandin Darlan Laval

Provisional Government

De Gaulle Gouin Bidault Blum

Fourth Republic

Ramadier Schuman Marie Schuman Queuille Bidault Queuille Pleven Queuille Pleven Faure Pinay Mayer Laniel Mendès France Faure Mollet Bourgès-Maunoury Gaillard Pflimlin De Gaulle

Fifth Republic

De Gaulle Debré Pompidou Couve de Murville Chaban-Delmas Messmer Chirac Barre Mauroy Fabius Chirac Rocard Cresson Bérégovoy Balladur Juppé Jospin Raffarin Villepin Fillon Ayrault Valls Cazeneuve Philippe

v t e

Foreign Ministers of France

Ancien Régime

Revol Villeroy A. J. Richelieu Sillery R. Phélypeaux Bouthillier Chavigny Brienne Lionne Pomponne Croissy Torcy Huxelles Dubois Morville Chauvelin Chaillou Noailles Argenson Puisieulx Saint-Contest Rouillé Bernis E. Choiseul C. Choiseul E. Choiseul L. Phélypeaux Aiguillon Bertin Vergennes Montmorin Vauguyon Montmorin Lessart Dumouriez Naillac Chambonas Dubouchage Sainte-Croix

First Republic

Lebrun-Tondu Deforgues Goujon Herman Delacroix Talleyrand Reinhard Talleyrand

First Empire

Talleyrand Champagny Bassano Caulaincourt

First Restoration

Laforest Talleyrand

Hundred Days

Caulaincourt Bignon

Second Restoration

Talleyrand A. E. Richelieu Dessolles Pasquier M. Montmorency Chateaubriand Damas La Ferronays Montmorency-Laval Portalis Polignac Mortemart

July Monarchy

Bignon Jourdan Molé Maison Sébastiani V. Broglie Rigny Bresson Rigny V. Broglie Thiers Molé Montebello Soult Thiers Guizot

Second Republic

Lamartine Bastide Bedeau Bastide Drouyn de Lhuys Tocqueville Rayneval La Hitte Drouyn de Lhuys Brénier Baroche Turgot Drouyn de Lhuys

Second Empire

Drouyn de Lhuys Walewski Baroche Thouvenel Drouyn de Lhuys La Valette Moustier La Valette La Tour Auvergne Daru Ollivier Gramont La Tour d'Auvergne

Third Republic

Favre Rémusat A. Broglie Decazes Banneville Waddington Freycinet Barthélemy-Saint-Hilaire Gambetta Freycinet Duclerc Fallières Challemel-Lacour Ferry Freycinet Flourens Goblet Spuller Ribot Develle Casimir-Perier Hanotaux Berthelot Bourgeois Hanotaux Delcassé Rouvier Bourgeois Pichon Cruppi Selves Poincaré Jonnart Pichon Doumergue Bourgeois Viviani Doumergue Delcassé Viviani Briand Ribot Barthou Pichon Millerand Leygues Briand Poincaré Lefebvre Herriot Briand Herriot Briand Laval Tardieu Herriot Paul-Boncour Daladier Barthou Laval Flandin Delbos Paul-Boncour Bonnet Daladier Reynaud Daladier Reynaud Baudouin

Vichy France

Baudouin Laval Flandin Darlan Laval

Provisional Government

Bidault Blum

Fourth Republic

Bidault Schuman Bidault Mendès France Faure Pinay Pineau Pleven Couve de Murville

Fifth Republic

Couve de Murville Debré Schumann Bettencourt Jobert Sauvagnargues Guiringaud François-Poncet Cheysson Dumas Raimond Dumas Juppé Charette Védrine Villepin Barnier Douste-Blazy Kouchner Alliot-Marie Juppé Fabius Ayrault Le Drian

v t e

Laïcité

Laws

France

Jules Ferry
Jules Ferry
laws Separation of the Churches and the State (1905) About-Picard law Secularity and conspicuous religious symbols in schools Face covering

Turkey

Atatürk's Reforms Constitution

Mexico

Leyes de Reforma Calles Law

Concepts and history

France

Briand-Ceretti Agreement

Turkey

Secularism

Belgium

First School War Second School War Organized secularism Central Secular Council Centre d'action laïque

Albania

Secularism

People and organisations

France

Émile Combes Aristide Briand Jean Jaurès Radical Party Radical Party of the Left Grand Orient de France

Turkey

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Young Turks

Albania

Sami Frashëri King Zog Aleksandër Xhuvani

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 49268606 LCCN: n50041434 ISNI: 0000 0000 8343 4795 GND: 118674056 SELIBR: 180016 SUDOC: 030356733 BNF: cb12178868t (data) BIBSYS: 2078479 NLA: 35728360 NDL: 001104926 NKC: skuk0000165 BNE: XX1212253 SNAC: w6kh1rhg

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