Coordinates: 34°S 64°W / 34°S 64°W / -34; -64
República Argentina (Spanish)
Coat of arms
"En unión y libertad"
("In Unity and Freedom")
Himno Nacional Argentino
("Argentine National Anthem")
Sol de Mayo
(Sun of May)
Location of Argentina (dark green)
in South America (grey)
and largest city
34°36′S 58°23′W / 34.600°S 58.383°W / -34.600;
Guarani in Corrientes;
Qom, Mocoví and Wichí in Chaco
77.1% Roman Catholicism
Federal presidential constitutional republic
• Vice President
• Upper house
• Lower house
Chamber of Deputies
Independence from Spain
• May Revolution
25 May 1810
9 July 1816
1 May 1853
2,780,400 km2 (1,073,500 sq mi)[B] (8th)
• Water (%)
• 2016 estimate
• 2010 census
14.4/km2 (37.3/sq mi) (214th)
$952.464 billion (25th)
• Per capita
$639.224 billion (21st)
• Per capita
very high · 45th
Peso ($) (ARS)
Drives on the
ISO 3166 code
^ Though not declared official de jure, the
Spanish language is the
only one used in the wording of laws, decrees, resolutions, official
documents and public acts.
^ Trains driven on left.
Argentina (/ˌɑːrdʒənˈtiːnə/ ( listen);
Spanish: [aɾxenˈtina]), officially the Argentine Republic[A]
(Spanish: República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly
in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the
Southern Cone with its neighbor
Chile to the west, the country is also
Paraguay to the north,
Brazil to the
Uruguay and the
South Atlantic Ocean
South Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the
Drake Passage to the south. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2
(1,073,500 sq mi),[B]
Argentina is the eighth-largest
country in the world, the second largest in Latin America, and the
largest Spanish-speaking nation. It is subdivided into twenty-three
provinces (Spanish: provincias, singular provincia) and one autonomous
city (ciudad autónoma), Buenos Aires, which is the federal capital of
the nation (Spanish: Capital Federal) as decided by Congress. The
provinces and the capital have their own constitutions, but exist
under a federal system.
Argentina claims sovereignty over part of
Falkland Islands (Spanish: Islas Malvinas), and South
Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.
The earliest recorded human presence in the area of modern-day
Argentina dates back to the
Paleolithic period. The country has
its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th
Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty
of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in
1776. The declaration and fight for independence (1810–1818) was
followed by an extended civil war that lasted until 1861, culminating
in the country's reorganization as a federation of provinces with
Buenos Aires as its capital city. The country thereafter enjoyed
relative peace and stability, with massive waves of European
immigration radically reshaping its cultural and demographic outlook.
The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina
becoming the seventh wealthiest developed nation in the world by the
early 20th century.
Argentina descended into political instability and
periodic economic crises that pushed it back into
underdevelopment, though it nevertheless remained among the
fifteen richest countries until the mid-20th century. In 1976 a
U.S.-backed coup occurred which forced
Isabel Martínez de Perón
Isabel Martínez de Perón from
power and installed a right-wing military dictatorship under Jorge
Rafael Videla known as the National Reorganization Process, which
lasted until the transition to democracy in 1983; the military
government persecuted and murdered numerous political critics,
activists, and leftists in the Dirty War, a period of state terrorism
which lasted until the junta's dissolution. Public dissent and anger
over the dictatorship's repressions led to a transition to democracy
in 1983 when
Raúl Alfonsín was elected President; several of the
junta's leaders were later convicted of their crimes and sentenced to
Argentina retains its historic status as a middle
power in international affairs, and is a prominent regional power
Southern Cone and Latin America.
Argentina has the
second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin
America and is a member of the G-15 and
G-20 major economies. It is
also a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, World Trade
Organization, Mercosur, Union of South American Nations, Community of
Latin American and Caribbean States and the Organization of
Ibero-American States. It is the country with the second highest Human
Development Index in
Latin America with a rating of "very high".
Because of its stability, market size and growing high-tech
Argentina is classified as an upper-middle-income economy
in the 2018 fiscal year.
1 Name and etymology
2.1 Pre-Columbian era
2.2 Colonial era
2.3 Independence and civil wars
2.4 Rise of the modern nation
2.5 Infamous Decade
2.6 Peronist years
Military dictatorship and the Dirty War
2.8 20th—21st centuries, Kirchner era
4.3 Foreign relations
4.4 Armed forces
5.3 Media and communications
5.4 Science and technology
6.6 Health care
7.5 Visual arts
7.9 National symbols
8 See also
12 External links
Name and etymology
The description of the country by the word
Argentina has been found on
a Venice map in 1536.
In English the name "Argentina" probably comes from the Spanish
language, however the naming itself is not Spanish, but Italian.
Argentina (masculine argentino) means in Italian "(made) of silver,
silver coloured", probably borrowed from the Old French adjective
argentine "(made) of silver" > "silver coloured" already mentioned
in the 12th century. The French word argentine is the feminine
form of argentin and derives from argent "silver" with the suffix -in
(same construction as Old French acerin "(made) of steel", from acier
"steel" + -in or sapin "(made) of fir wood", from OF sap "fir" + -in).
The Italian naming "Argentina" for the country implies
"land of silver" or
Argentina costa "coast of silver". In Italian, the
adjective or the proper noun is often used in an autonomous way as a
substantive and replaces it and it is said l'
Argentina (It cannot be
for the proper noun in French for example).
Argentina was probably first given by the Venetian and
Genoese navigators, such as Giovanni Caboto. In Spanish and
Portuguese, the words for "silver" are respectively plata and prata
and "(made) of silver" is said plateado and prateado.
first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among
the first European explorers of the
La Plata Basin.
The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La
Argentina,[C] a 1602 poem by
Martín del Barco Centenera
Martín del Barco Centenera describing
the region. Although "Argentina" was already in common usage by
the 18th century, the country was formally named "
Viceroyalty of the
Río de la Plata" by the Spanish Empire, and "United Provinces of the
Río de la Plata" after independence.
The 1826 constitution included the first use of the name "Argentine
Republic" in legal documents. The name "Argentine Confederation"
was also commonly used and was formalized in the Argentine
Constitution of 1853. In 1860 a presidential decree settled the
country's name as "Argentine Republic", and that year's
constitutional amendment ruled all the names since 1810 as legally
English language the country was traditionally called "the
Argentine", mimicking the typical Spanish usage la Argentina and
perhaps resulting from a mistaken shortening of the fuller name
'Argentine Republic'. 'The Argentine' fell out of fashion during the
mid-to-late 20th century, and now the country is simply referred to as
Spanish language "Argentina" is feminine ("La [República]
Argentina"), taking the feminine article "La" as the initial syllable
of "Argentina" is unstressed.
Main article: History of Argentina
Main article: Indigenous peoples in Argentina
The Cave of the Hands in Santa Cruz province, with indigenous artwork
dating from 13,000–9,000 years ago
The earliest traces of human life in the area now known as Argentina
are dated from the
Paleolithic period, with further traces in the
Mesolithic and Neolithic. Until the period of European
Argentina was relatively sparsely populated by a wide
number of diverse cultures with different social organizations,
which can be divided into three main groups. The first group are
basic hunters and food gatherers without development of pottery, such
Yaghan in the extreme south. The second group are
advanced hunters and food gatherers which include the Puelche,
Querandí and Serranos in the center-east; and the Tehuelche in the
south—all of them conquered by the
Mapuche spreading from
Chile—and the Kom and
Wichi in the north. The last group are
farmers with pottery, like the Charrúa,
Minuane and Guaraní in the
northeast, with slash and burn semisedentary existence; the
Diaguita sedentary trading culture in the northwest, which
was conquered by the
Inca Empire around 1480; the
Hênîa and Kâmîare in the country's center, and the
Huarpe in the
center-west, a culture that raised llama cattle and was strongly
influenced by the Incas.
Main article: Colonial Argentina
See also: Spanish colonization of the Americas
The surrender of Beresford to
Santiago de Liniers
Santiago de Liniers during the British
invasions of the Río de la Plata
Europeans first arrived in the region with the 1502 voyage of Amerigo
Vespucci. The Spanish navigators
Juan Díaz de Solís and Sebastian
Cabot visited the territory that is now
Argentina in 1516 and 1526,
respectively. In 1536
Pedro de Mendoza
Pedro de Mendoza founded the small
settlement of Buenos Aires, which was abandoned in 1541.
Further colonization efforts came from Paraguay—establishing the
Governorate of the Río de la Plata—
Peru and Chile. Francisco de
Santiago del Estero
Santiago del Estero in 1553. Londres was founded in
1558; Mendoza, in 1561; San Juan, in 1562; San Miguel de Tucumán, in
Juan de Garay
Juan de Garay founded Santa Fe in 1573 and the same year
Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera
Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera set up Córdoba. Garay went further
south to re-found
Buenos Aires in 1580. San Luis was established
Spanish Empire subordinated the economic potential of the
Argentine territory to the immediate wealth of the silver and gold
Bolivia and Peru, and as such it became part of the
Peru until the creation of the
Viceroyalty of the Río
de la Plata in 1776 with
Buenos Aires as its capital.
Buenos Aires repelled two ill-fated British invasions in 1806 and
1807. The ideas of the
Age of Enlightenment
Age of Enlightenment and the example of the
Atlantic Revolutions generated criticism of the absolutist
monarchy that ruled the country. As in the rest of Spanish America,
the overthrow of Ferdinand VII during the
Peninsular War created great
Independence and civil wars
Argentine War of Independence
Argentine War of Independence and Argentine Civil Wars
Portrait of General José de San Martin, Libertador of Argentina,
Chile and Peru
Beginning a process from which
Argentina was to emerge as successor
state to the Viceroyalty, the 1810
May Revolution replaced the
Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros
Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros with the First Junta, a new
Buenos Aires composed by locals. In the first
clashes of the Independence War the Junta crushed a royalist
counter-revolution in Córdoba, but failed to overcome those of
the Banda Oriental, Upper
Peru and Paraguay, which later became
Revolutionaries split into two antagonist groups: the Centralists and
the Federalists—a move that would define Argentina's first decades
of independence. The
Assembly of the Year XIII
Assembly of the Year XIII appointed Gervasio
Antonio de Posadas as Argentina's first Supreme Director.
In 1816 the
Congress of Tucumán
Congress of Tucumán formalized the Declaration of
Independence. One year later General Martín Miguel de Güemes
stopped royalists on the north, and General
José de San Martín
José de San Martín took
an army across the
Andes and secured the independence of Chile; then
he led the fight to the Spanish stronghold of
Lima and proclaimed the
independence of Peru.[E] In 1819
Buenos Aires enacted a centralist
constitution that was soon abrogated by federalists.
The 1820 Battle of Cepeda, fought between the Centralists and the
Federalists, resulted in the end of the Supreme Director rule. In 1826
Buenos Aires enacted another centralist constitution, with Bernardino
Rivadavia being appointed as the first president of the country.
However, the interior provinces soon rose against him, forced his
resignation and discarded the constitution. Centralists and
Federalists resumed the civil war; the latter prevailed and formed the
Argentine Confederation in 1831, led by Juan Manuel de Rosas.
During his regime he faced a French blockade (1838–1840), the War of
the Confederation (1836–1839), and a combined Anglo-French blockade
(1845–1850), but remained undefeated and prevented further loss of
national territory. His trade restriction policies, however,
angered the interior provinces and in 1852 Justo José de Urquiza,
another powerful caudillo, beat him out of power. As new president of
the Confederation, Urquiza enacted the liberal and federal 1853
Buenos Aires seceded but was forced back into the
Confederation after being defeated in the 1859 Battle of Cepeda.
Rise of the modern nation
List of Presidents of Argentina
List of Presidents of Argentina and Generation of '80
Argentine–Chilean naval arms race
Argentine–Chilean naval arms race and South American
People gathered in front of the
Buenos Aires Cabildo during the May
Overpowering Urquiza in the 1861 Battle of Pavón, Bartolomé Mitre
Buenos Aires predominance and was elected as the first
president of the reunified country. He was followed by Domingo
Faustino Sarmiento and Nicolás Avellaneda; these three presidencies
set up the bases of the modern Argentine State.
Argentina Centennial was celebrated on 25 May 1910.
Julio Argentino Roca in 1880, ten consecutive federal
governments emphasized liberal economic policies. The massive wave of
European immigration they promoted—second only to the United
States'—led to a near-reinvention of Argentine society and economy
that by 1908 had placed the country as the seventh wealthiest
developed nation in the world. Driven by this immigration wave and
decreasing mortality, the Argentine population grew fivefold and the
economy 15-fold: from 1870 to 1910 Argentina's wheat exports went
from 100,000 to 2,500,000 t (110,000 to 2,760,000 short tons) per
year, while frozen beef exports increased from 25,000 to
365,000 t (28,000 to 402,000 short tons) per year, placing
Argentina as one of the world's top five exporters. Its railway
mileage rose from 503 to 31,104 km (313 to 19,327 mi).
Fostered by a new public, compulsory, free and secular education
system, literacy skyrocketed from 22% to 65%, a level higher than most
Latin American nations would reach even fifty years later.
GDP grew so fast that despite the huge immigration
influx, per capita income between 1862 and 1920 went from 67% of
developed country levels to 100%: In 1865,
Argentina was already
one of the top 25 nations by per capita income. By 1908, it had
Canada and The
Netherlands to reach 7th
place—behind Switzerland, New Zealand, Australia, the United States,
United Kingdom and Belgium. Argentina's per capita income was 70%
higher than Italy's, 90% higher than Spain's, 180% higher than Japan's
and 400% higher than Brazil's. Despite these unique achievements,
the country was slow to meet its original goals of
industrialization: after steep development of capital-intensive
local industries in the 1920s, a significant part of the manufacture
sector remained labor-intensive in the 1930s.
In 1912, President
Roque Sáenz Peña
Roque Sáenz Peña enacted universal and secret
male suffrage, which allowed Hipólito Yrigoyen, leader of the Radical
Civic Union (or UCR), to win the 1916 election. He enacted social and
economic reforms and extended assistance to small farms and
Argentina stayed neutral during World War I. The second
administration of Yrigoyen faced an economic crisis, precipitated by
the Great Depression.
Main article: Infamous Decade
In 1930, Yrigoyen was ousted from power by the military led by José
Félix Uriburu. Although
Argentina remained among the fifteen richest
countries until mid-century, this coup d'état marks the start of
the steady economic and social decline that pushed the country back
Official presidential portrait of
Juan Domingo Perón
Juan Domingo Perón and his wife Eva
Uriburu ruled for two years; then
Agustín Pedro Justo
Agustín Pedro Justo was elected in
a fraudulent election, and signed a controversial treaty with the
Argentina stayed neutral during World War II, a
decision that had full British support but was rejected by the United
States after the attack on Pearl Harbor. A new military coup toppled
the government, and
Argentina declared war on the Axis Powers a month
before the end of World War II in Europe. The minister of welfare,
Juan Domingo Perón, was fired and jailed because of his high
popularity among workers. His liberation was forced by a massive
popular demonstration, and he went on to win the 1946 election.
Main article: Peronism
Perón created a political movement known as Peronism. He nationalized
strategic industries and services, improved wages and working
conditions, paid the full external debt and achieved nearly full
employment. The economy, however, began to decline in 1950 because of
over-expenditure. His highly popular wife, Eva Perón, played a
central political role. She pushed Congress to enact women's suffrage
in 1947, and developed an unprecedented social assistance to the
most vulnerable sectors of society. However, her declining health
did not allow her to run for the vice-presidency in 1951, and she died
of cancer the following year. Perón was reelected in 1951, surpassing
even his 1946 performance. In 1955 the Navy bombed the Plaza de Mayo
in an ill-fated attempt to kill the President. A few months later,
during the self-called Liberating Revolution coup, he resigned and
went into exile in Spain.
The new head of State, Pedro Eugenio Aramburu, proscribed
banned all of its manifestations; nevertheless, Peronists kept an
Arturo Frondizi from the UCR won the following
elections. He encouraged investment to achieve energetic and
industrial self-sufficiency, reversed a chronic trade deficit and
Peronism proscription; yet his efforts to stay on good terms
with Peronists and the military earned him the rejection of both and a
new coup forced him out. But Senate Chief José María Guido
reacted swiftly and applied the anti-power vacuum legislation,
becoming president instead; elections were repealed and Peronism
Arturo Illia was elected in 1963 and led to an
overall increase in prosperity; however his attempts to legalize
Peronism resulted in his overthrow in 1966 by the Juan Carlos
Onganía-led coup d'état called the Argentine Revolution, creating a
new military government that sought to rule indefinitely.
Military dictatorship and the Dirty War
Main article: Dirty War
The "Dirty War" (Spanish: Guerra Sucia) was part of Operation Condor,
originally planned by the CIA, and for which the United States
government provided technical support and supplied military aid to
during the Johnson, Nixon, Ford, Carter, and Reagan administrations.
Dirty War involved state terrorism in
Argentina and elsewhere in
Southern Cone against political dissidents, with military and
security forces employing urban and rural violence against left-wing
guerrillas, political dissidents, and anyone believed to be associated
with socialism or somehow contrary to the neoliberal economic policies
of the regime. Victims of the state terrorism included an
estimated 15,000 to 30,000 victims, included left-wing activists and
militants, trade unionists, students, journalists, Marxists, Peronist
guerrillas and alleged sympathizers. The guerrillas, whose number
of victims are nearly 500–540 between military and police
officials and up to 230 civilians were already unactive in
1976, so instead of a war the actual situation was a genocide
practiced by the Junta over the civilian population.
Raúl Alfonsín, first democratically elected president following the
Declassified documents of the Chilean secret police cite an official
estimate by the
Batallón de Inteligencia 601
Batallón de Inteligencia 601 of 22,000 killed or
"disappeared" between 1975 and mid-1978. During this period, in which
it was later revealed 8,625 "disappeared" in the form of PEN (Poder
Ejecutivo Nacional, anglicized as "National Executive Power")
detainees who were held in clandestine detention camps throughout
Argentina before eventually being freed under diplomatic pressure.
The number of people believed to have been killed or "disappeared",
depending on the source, range from 9,089 to 30,000 in the period from
1976 to 1983, when the military was forced from power following
Argentina's defeat in the Falklands War. The National
Commission on the Disappearance of Persons estimates that around
13,000 were disappeared.
After democratic government was restored, Congress passed legislation
to provide compensation to victims' families. Some 11,000 Argentines
have applied to the relevant authorities and received up to US
$200,000 each as monetary compensation for the loss of loved ones
during the military dictatorship.
The exact chronology of the repression is still debated, however, as
in some senses the long political war started in 1969.
were targeted for assassination by the Peronist and Marxist
paramilitaries as early as 1969, and individual cases of
state-sponsored terrorism against
Peronism and the left can be traced
back to the
Bombing of Plaza de Mayo
Bombing of Plaza de Mayo in 1955. The
Trelew massacre of
1972, the actions of the
Argentine Anticommunist Alliance since 1973,
and Isabel Martínez de Perón's "annihilation decrees" against
left-wing guerrillas during
Operativo Independencia (translates to
Operation of Independence) in 1975, have also been suggested as dates
for the beginning of the Dirty War.
Onganía shut down Congress, banned all political parties and
dismantled student and worker unions. In 1969, popular discontent led
to two massive protests: the
Cordobazo and the Rosariazo. The
terrorist guerrilla organization
Montoneros kidnapped and executed
Aramburu. The newly chosen head of government, Alejandro Agustín
Lanusse, seeking to ease the growing political pressure, let Héctor
José Cámpora be the Peronist candidate instead of Perón. Cámpora
won the March 1973 election, issued a pardon for condemned guerrilla
members and then secured Perón's return from his exile in Spain.
On the day Perón returned to Argentina, the clash between Peronist
internal factions—right-wing union leaders and left-wing youth from
Montoneros—resulted in the Ezeiza Massacre. Cámpora resigned,
overwhelmed by political violence, and Perón won the September 1973
election with his third wife Isabel as vice-president. He expelled
Montoneros from the party and they became once again a clandestine
José López Rega
José López Rega organized the Argentine Anticommunist
Alliance (AAA) to fight against them and the People's Revolutionary
Army (ERP). Perón died in July 1974 and was succeeded by his wife,
who signed a secret decree empowering the military and the police to
"annihilate" the left-wing subversion, stopping ERP's attempt to
start a rural insurgence in Tucumán province. Isabel Perón was
ousted one year later by a junta of the three armed forces, led by
army general Jorge Rafael Videla. They initiated the National
Reorganization Process, often shortened to Proceso.
The Proceso shut down Congress, removed the judges of the Supreme
Court, banned political parties and unions, and resorted to the forced
disappearance of suspected guerrilla members and of anyone believed to
be associated with the left-wing. By the end of 1976
lost near 2,000 members; by 1977, the ERP was completely defeated. A
Montoneros launched a counterattack in 1979, which
was quickly annihilated, ending the guerrilla threat. Nevertheless,
the junta stayed in power. Then head of state General Leopoldo
Galtieri launched Operation Rosario, which escalated into the
Falklands War (Spanish: Guerra de Malvinas); within two months
Argentina was defeated by the United Kingdom. Reynaldo Bignone
replaced Galtieri and began to organize the transition to democratic
20th—21st centuries, Kirchner era
Argentine economic crisis (1999–2002)
Argentine economic crisis (1999–2002) and Kirchnerism
Cristina Fernández and
Néstor Kirchner occupied the presidency of
Argentina for 12 years, him from 2003 to 2007 and her from 2007 to
Raúl Alfonsín won the 1983 elections campaigning for the prosecution
of those responsible for human rights violations during the Proceso:
Trial of the Juntas
Trial of the Juntas and other martial courts sentenced all the
coup's leaders but, under military pressure, he also enacted the Full
Stop and Due Obedience laws, which halted prosecutions further
down the chain of command. The worsening economic crisis and
hyperinflation reduced his popular support and the Peronist Carlos
Menem won the 1989 election. Soon after, riots forced Alfonsín to an
Menem embraced neo-liberal policies: a fixed exchange rate,
business deregulation, privatizations and dismantling of protectionist
barriers normalized the economy for a while. He pardoned the officers
who had been sentenced during Alfonsín's government. The 1994
Constitutional Amendment allowed Menem to be elected for a second
term. The economy began to decline in 1995, with increasing
unemployment and recession; led by Fernando de la Rúa, the UCR
returned to the presidency in the 1999 elections.
Mauricio Macri, incumbent President of Argentina
De la Rúa kept Menem's economic plan despite the worsening crisis,
which led to growing social discontent. A massive capital flight
was responded to with a freezing of bank accounts, generating further
turmoil. The December 2001 riots forced him to resign. Congress
Eduardo Duhalde as acting president, who abrogated the fixed
exchange rate established by Menem, causing many Argentinians to
lose a significant portion of their savings. By the late 2002 the
economic crisis began to recede, but the assassination of two
piqueteros by the police caused political commotion, prompting Duhalde
to move elections forward.
Néstor Kirchner was elected as the new
Boosting the neo-Keynesian economic policies laid by Duhalde,
Kirchner ended the economic crisis attaining significant fiscal and
trade surpluses, and steep
GDP growth. Under his administration
Argentina restructured its defaulted debt with an unprecedented
discount of about 70% on most bonds, paid off debts with the
International Monetary Fund, purged the military of officers with
doubtful human rights records, nullified and voided the Full Stop
and Due Obedience laws,[F] ruled them as unconstitutional, and
resumed legal prosecution of the Juntas' crimes. He did not run for
reelection, promoting instead the candidacy of his wife, senator
Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, who was elected in 2007 and
reelected in 2011. Fernández de Kirchner's administration oversaw a
positive foreign policy with good relations with other South American
nations; however, relations between the
United States and United
Kingdom remained heavily strained. Jorge Rafael Videla, who had led
the repression during the Dirty War, was sentenced to life in a
civilian prison in 2010 under de Kirchner's administration; he later
died in prison in 2013.
On 22 November 2015, after a tie in the first round of presidential
elections on 25 October,
Mauricio Macri won the first ballotage in
Argentina's history, beating
Front for Victory
Front for Victory candidate Daniel Scioli
and becoming president-elect. Macri is the first democratically
elected non-radical or peronist president since 1916. He took
office on 10 December 2015. In April 2016, the Macri Government
introduced austerity measures intended to tackle inflation and public
Main article: Geography of Argentina
Aconcagua is the highest mountain outside of Asia, at 6,960.8 metres
(22,837 ft), and the highest point in the Southern
With a mainland surface area of 2,780,400 km2
(1,073,518 sq mi),[B]
Argentina is located in southern South
America, sharing land borders with
Chile across the
Andes to the
Paraguay to the north;
Brazil to the northeast,
Uruguay and the
South Atlantic Ocean
South Atlantic Ocean to the east; and the Drake
Passage to the south; for an overall land border length of
9,376 km (5,826 mi). Its coastal border over the Río de la
South Atlantic Ocean
South Atlantic Ocean is 5,117 km (3,180 mi)
Argentina's highest point is
Aconcagua in the Mendoza province
(6,959 m (22,831 ft) above sea level), also the highest
point in the Southern and Western Hemispheres. The lowest point
Laguna del Carbón in the San Julián
Great Depression Santa Cruz
province (−105 m (−344 ft) below sea level, also
the lowest point in the Southern and Western Hemispheres, and the
seventh lowest point on Earth)
The northernmost point is at the confluence of the Grande de San Juan
and Río Mojinete rivers in Jujuy province; the southernmost is Cape
San Pío in Tierra del Fuego province; the easternmost is northeast of
Bernardo de Irigoyen, Misiones
Bernardo de Irigoyen, Misiones and the westernmost is within Los
Glaciares National Park in Santa Cruz province. The maximum
north–south distance is 3,694 km (2,295 mi), while the
maximum east–west one is 1,423 km (884 mi).
Some of the major rivers are the Paraná, Uruguay—which join to form
the Río de la Plata, Paraguay, Salado, Negro, Santa Cruz, Pilcomayo,
Bermejo and Colorado. These rivers are discharged into the
Argentine Sea, the shallow area of the
Atlantic Ocean over the
Argentine Shelf, an unusually wide continental platform. Its
waters are influenced by two major ocean currents: the warm Brazil
Current and the cold Falklands Current.
Main article: Regions of Argentina
Argentina is divided into seven geographical regions:[G]
Northwest, a continuation of the high Puna with even higher, more
rugged topography to the far-west; the arid precordillera, filled
with narrow valleys or quebradas to the mid-west; and an
extension of the mountainous
Yungas jungles to the east.
Mesopotamia, a subtropical wedge covering the western Paraná Plateau
and neighboring lowlands enclosed by the Paraná and Uruguay
Gran Chaco, a large, subtropical and tropical low-lying, gently
sloping alluvial plain between Mesopotamia and the Andes.
Sierras Pampeanas, a series of medium-height mountain chains located
in the center.
Cuyo, a basin and range area in the central
Andes piedmont, to the
Pampas, a massive and hugely fertile alluvial plain located in the
Patagonia, a large southern plateau consisting mostly of arid, rocky
steppes to the east; with moister cold grasslands to the south
and dense subantarctic forests to the west.
Main article: Environment of Argentina
Puna Flamenco, typical of the Northwest region of Puna
High precipitation along with cold temperatures in the west form
permanent snowfields such as the Perito Moreno Glacier
Argentina is a megadiverse country hosting one of the greatest
ecosystem varieties in the world: 15 continental zones, 3 oceanic
zones, and the Antarctic region are all represented in its
territory. This huge ecosystem variety has led to a biological
diversity that is among the world's largest:
9,372 cataloged vascular plant species (ranked 24th)[H]
1,038 cataloged bird species (ranked 14th)[I]
375 cataloged mammal species (ranked 12th)[J]
338 cataloged reptilian species (ranked 16th)
162 cataloged amphibian species (ranked 19th)
Climate of Argentina
Climate of Argentina and Climatic regions of Argentina
Although the most populated areas are generally temperate, Argentina
has an exceptional amount of climate diversity, ranging from
subtropical in the north to polar in the far south. The average
annual precipitation ranges from 150 millimetres (6 in) in the
driest parts of
Patagonia to over 2,000 millimetres (79 in) in
the westernmost parts of
Patagonia and the northeastern parts of the
country. Mean annual temperatures range from 5 °C
(41 °F) in the far south to 25 °C (77 °F) in the
Major wind currents include the cool
Pampero Winds blowing on the flat
Patagonia and the Pampas; following the cold front, warm
currents blow from the north in middle and late winter, creating mild
Sudestada usually moderates cold temperatures but
brings very heavy rains, rough seas and coastal flooding. It is most
common in late autumn and winter along the central coast and in the
Río de la Plata
Río de la Plata estuary. The Zonda, a hot dry wind, affects Cuyo
and the central Pampas. Squeezed of all moisture during the
6,000 m (19,685 ft) descent from the Andes, Zonda winds can
blow for hours with gusts up to 120 km/h (75 mph), fueling
wildfires and causing damage; between June and November, when the
Zonda blows, snowstorms and blizzard (viento blanco) conditions
usually affect higher elevations.
Main article: Politics of Argentina
Government of Argentina
Government of Argentina and Ministries of the Argentine
Casa Rosada, workplace of the President
Argentina is a federal constitutional republic and representative
democracy. The government is regulated by a system of checks and
balances defined by the Constitution of Argentina, the country's
supreme legal document. The seat of government is the city of Buenos
Aires, as designated by Congress. Suffrage is universal, equal,
secret and mandatory.[K]
The federal government is composed of three branches:
The Legislative branch consists of the bicameral Congress, made up of
the Senate and Deputy chambers, which makes federal law, declares war,
approves treaties and has the power of the purse and of impeachment,
by which it can remove sitting members of the government. The
Chamber of Deputies represents the people and has 257 voting members
elected to a four-year term. Seats are apportioned among the provinces
by population every tenth year. As of 2014[update] ten provinces
have just five deputies while the
Buenos Aires Province, being the
most populous one, has 70. The Chamber of Senators represents the
provinces, has 72 members elected at-large to six-year terms, with
each province having three seats; one third of Senate seats are up for
election every other year. At least one-third of the candidates
presented by the parties must be women. In the Executive branch, the
President is the commander-in-chief of the military, can veto
legislative bills before they become law—subject to Congressional
override—and appoints the members of the Cabinet and other officers,
who administer and enforce federal laws and policies. The
President is elected directly by the vote of the people, serves a
four-year term and may be elected to office no more than twice in a
The Judicial branch includes the Supreme Court and lower federal
courts interpret laws and overturn those they find
unconstitutional. The Judicial is independent of the Executive
and the Legislative. The Supreme Court has seven members appointed by
the President—subject to Senate approval—who serve for life. The
lower courts' judges are proposed by the Council of Magistrates (a
secretariat composed of representatives of judges, lawyers,
researchers, the Executive and the Legislative), and appointed by the
President on Senate approval.
The Palace of the Argentine National Congress, seat of the National
Congress composed of the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies.
Main article: Provinces of Argentina
See also: List of Argentine provinces by population
Argentina is a federation of twenty-three provinces and one autonomous
city, Buenos Aires. Provinces are divided for administration purposes
into departments and municipalities, except for
Buenos Aires Province,
which is divided into partidos. The City of
Buenos Aires is divided
Provinces hold all the power that they chose not to delegate to the
federal government; they must be representative republics and
must not contradict the Constitution. Beyond this they are fully
autonomous: they enact their own constitutions, freely organize
their local governments, and own and manage their natural and
financial resources. Some provinces have bicameral legislatures,
while others have unicameral ones.[L]
During the War of Independence the main cities and their surrounding
countrysides became provinces though the intervention of their
cabildos. The Anarchy of the Year XX completed this process, shaping
the original thirteen provinces. Jujuy seceded from
Salta in 1834, and
the thirteen provinces became fourteen. After seceding for a decade,
Buenos Aires accepted the 1853
Constitution of Argentina
Constitution of Argentina in 1861, and
was made a federal territory in 1880.
An 1862 law designated as national territories those under federal
control but outside the frontiers of the provinces. In 1884 they
served as bases for the establishment of the governorates of Misiones,
Formosa, Chaco, La Pampa, Neuquén, Río Negro, Chubut, Santa Cruz and
Tierra del Fuego. The agreement about a frontier dispute with
Chile in 1900 created the National Territory of Los Andes; its lands
were incorporated into Jujuy,
Salta and Catamarca in 1943. La
Pampa and Chaco became provinces in 1951. Misiones did so in 1953, and
Formosa, Neuquén, Río Negro, Chubut and Santa Cruz, in 1955. The
last national territory, Tierra del Fuego, became the Tierra del
Fuego, Antártida e Islas del Atlántico Sur
Province in 1990.
Main article: Foreign relations of Argentina
Argentina is one of
G-20 major economies.
Foreign policy is officially handled by the Ministry of Foreign
Trade and Worship, which answers to the
An historical and current middle power,
Argentina bases its
foreign policies on the guiding principles of non-intervention,
human rights, self-determination, international cooperation,
disarmament and peaceful settlement of conflicts. The country is
one of the G-15 and
G-20 major economies of the world, and a founding
member of the UN, WBG, WTO and OAS. In 2012
Argentina was elected
again to a two-year non-permanent position on the United Nations
Security Council and is participating in major peacekeeping operations
in Haiti, Cyprus,
Western Sahara and the Middle East.
A prominent Latin American and Southern Cone regional power,
Argentina co-founded OEI, CELAC and UNASUR, of which the former
Néstor Kirchner was first Secretary General. It is also a
founding member of the
Mercosur block, having Brazil, Paraguay,
Venezuela as partners. Since 2002 the country has
emphasized its key role in Latin American integration, and the
block—which has some supranational legislative functions—is its
first international priority.
Argentina claims 965,597 km2 (372,819 sq mi) in
Antarctica, where it has the world's oldest continuous state presence,
since 1904. This overlaps claims by
Chile and the United Kingdom,
though all such claims fall under the provisions of the 1961 Antarctic
Treaty, of which
Argentina is a founding signatory and permanent
consulting member, with the Antarctic
Treaty Secretariat being based
in Buenos Aires.
Argentina disputes sovereignty over the
Falkland Islands (Spanish:
Islas Malvinas), and South Georgia and the South Sandwich
Islands, which are administered by the
United Kingdom as Overseas
Main article: Armed Forces of the Argentine Republic
The President holds the title of commander-in-chief of the Argentine
Armed Forces, as part of a legal framework that imposes a strict
separation between national defense and internal security
The National Defense System, an exclusive responsibility of the
federal government, coordinated by the Ministry of Defense, and
comprising the Army, the Navy and the Air Force. Ruled and
monitored by Congress through the Houses' Defense
Committees, it is organized on the essential principle of
legitimate self-defense: the repelling of any external military
aggression in order to guarantee freedom of the people, national
sovereignty, and territorial integrity. Its secondary missions
include committing to multinational operations within the framework of
the United Nations, participating in internal support missions,
assisting friendly countries, and establishing a sub-regional defense
Argentine destroyer ARA Almirante Brown (D-10)
Military service is voluntary, with enlistment age between 18 and 24
years old and no conscription. Argentina's defense has
historically been one of the best equipped in the region, even
managing its own weapon research facilities, shipyards, ordnance, tank
and plane factories. However, real military expenditures declined
steadily after 1981 and the defense budget in 2011 was about 0.74% of
GDP, a historical minimum, below the Latin American average.
The Interior Security System, jointly administered by the federal and
subscribing provincial governments. At the federal level it is
coordinated by the Interior, Security and Justice ministries, and
monitored by Congress. It is enforced by the Federal Police; the
Prefecture, which fulfills coast guard duties; the Gendarmerie, which
serves border guard tasks; and the Airport Security Police. At
the provincial level it is coordinated by the respective internal
security ministries and enforced by local police agencies.
Argentina was the only South American country to send warships and
cargo planes in 1991 to the
Gulf War under UN mandate and has remained
involved in peacekeeping efforts in multiple locations like UNPROFOR
in Croatia/Bosnia, Gulf of Fonseca, UNFICYP in
Cyprus (where among
Army and Marines troops the Air Force provided the UN Air contingent
since 1994) and
MINUSTAH in Haiti.
Argentina is the only Latin
American country to maintain troops in
SFOR (and later
EUFOR) operations where combat engineers of the Argentine Armed Forces
are embedded in an Italian brigade.
In 2007, an Argentine contingent including helicopters, boats and
water purification plants was sent to help
Bolivia against their worst
floods in decades. In 2010 the Armed Forces were also involved in
Chile humanitarian responses after their respective
Main article: Economy of Argentina
See also: Argentine foreign trade
Buenos Aires is the second largest city in South America. It is one of
the only three "Alpha -" cities in South America. and it's the
most visited city in South America. It is also the 13th richest
city in the world. It has the highest per capita income in
the Southern Cone.
Argentine agriculture is relatively capital intensive, today providing
about 7% of all employment.
Benefiting from rich natural resources, a highly literate population,
a diversified industrial base, and an export-oriented agricultural
sector, the economy of
Argentina is Latin America's
third-largest, and the second largest in South America. It
has a "very high" rating on the Human Development Index and a
GDP per capita, with a considerable internal
market size and a growing share of the high-tech sector.
YPF petroleum perforation in
General Roca, Rio Negro
General Roca, Rio Negro Province
A middle emerging economy and one of the world's top developing
Argentina is a member of the
G-20 major economies.
Historically, however, its economic performance has been very uneven,
with high economic growth alternating with severe recessions, income
maldistribution and—in the recent decades—increasing poverty.
Early in the 20th century
Argentina achieved development, and
became the world's seventh richest country. Although managing to
keep a place among the top fifteen economies until mid-century, it
suffered a long and steady decline and now it's just an upper
High inflation—a weakness of the Argentine economy for decades—has
become a trouble once again, with rates in 2013 between the official
10.2% and the privately estimated 25%, causing heated public debate
over manipulated statistics. Income distribution, having
improved since 2002, is classified as "medium", still considerably
Argentina ranks 95th out of 175 countries in the Transparency
International's 2016 Corruption Perceptions Index, an improvement of
12 positions over its 2014 rankings.
Argentina settled its
long-standing debt default crisis in 2016 with the so-called Vulture
funds after the election of Mauricio Macri, allowing
enter capital markets for the first time in a decade.
Main article: Industry in Argentina
Atucha Nuclear Power Plant was the first nuclear power plant in Latin
America. The electricity comes from 3 operational nuclear
reactors: The Embalse Nuclear Power Station, the Atucha I and II.
In 2012[update] manufacturing accounted for 20.3% of GDP—the largest
goods-producing sector in the nation's economy. Well-integrated
into Argentine agriculture, half of the industrial exports have rural
With a 6.5% production growth rate in 2011[update], the
diversified manufacturing sector rests on a steadily growing network
of industrial parks (314 as of 2013[update])
In 2012[update] the leading sectors by volume were: food processing,
beverages and tobacco products; motor vehicles and auto parts;
textiles and leather; refinery products and biodiesel; chemicals and
pharmaceuticals; steel, aluminum and iron; industrial and farm
machinery; home appliances and furniture; plastics and tires; glass
and cement; and recording and print media. In addition, Argentina
has since long been one of the top five wine-producing countries in
the world. However, it has also been classified as one of the 74
countries where instances of child labor and forced labor have been
observed and mentioned in a 2014 report published by the Bureau of
International Labor Affairs. The ILAB's List of Goods Produced by
Child Labor or Forced Labor shows that many of the goods produced by
child labor and/or forced labor comes from the agricultural
Córdoba is Argentina's major industrial center, hosting metalworking,
motor vehicle and auto parts manufactures. Next in importance are the
Buenos Aires area (food processing, metallurgy, motor vehicles
and auto parts, chemicals and petrochemicals, consumer durables,
textiles and printing);
Rosario (food processing, metallurgy, farm
machinery, oil refining, chemicals, and tanning); San Miguel de
Tucumán (sugar refining); San Lorenzo (chemicals and
San Nicolás de los Arroyos
San Nicolás de los Arroyos (steel milling and
Bahía Blanca (oil refining). Other
manufacturing enterprises are located in the provinces of Santa Fe
(zinc and copper smelting, and flour milling); Mendoza and Neuquén
(wineries and fruit processing); Chaco (textiles and sawmills); and
Salta and Chubut (oil refining)
The electric output of
Argentina in 2009[update] totaled over
122 TWh (440 PJ), of which about 37% was consumed by
Main article: Transport in Argentina
Ministro Pistarini International Airport
Ministro Pistarini International Airport opened in 1949. It was at the
time of its inauguration, the largest airbase in the world.
Argentina has the largest railway system in Latin America, with
36,966 km (22,970 mi) of operating lines in 2008[update],
out of a full network of almost 48,000 km (29,826 mi).
This system links all 23 provinces plus
Buenos Aires City, and
connects with all neighboring countries. There are four
incompatible gauges in use; this forces virtually all interregional
freight traffic to pass through Buenos Aires. The system has been
in decline since the 1940s: regularly running up large budgetary
deficits, by 1991 it was transporting 1,400 times less goods than it
did in 1973. However, in recent years the system has experienced
a greater degree of investment from the state, in both commuter rail
lines and long distance lines, renewing rolling stock and
infrastructure. In April 2015, by overwhelming majority the
Argentine Senate passed a law which re-created Ferrocarriles
Argentinos (2015), effectively re-nationalising the country's
railways, a move which saw support from all major political parties on
both sides of the political spectrum.
Argentina rail passenger services (interactive map)
Buenos Aires Underground, is the first underground railway in Latin
Southern Hemisphere and the Spanish speaking world.
By 2004[update] Buenos Aires, all provincial capitals except Ushuaia,
and all medium-sized towns were interconnected by 69,412 km
(43,131 mi) of paved roads, out of a total road network of
231,374 km (143,769 mi). Most important cities are
linked by a growing number of expressways, including Buenos Aires–La
Plata, Rosario–Córdoba, Córdoba–Villa Carlos Paz, Villa
National Route 14 General José Gervasio Artigas
and Provincial Route 2 Juan Manuel Fangio, among others. Nevertheless,
this road infrastructure is still inadequate and cannot handle the
sharply growing demand caused by deterioration of the railway
In 2012[update] there were about 11,000 km (6,835 mi) of
waterways, mostly comprising the La Plata, Paraná,
Uruguay rivers, with Buenos Aires, Zárate, Campana, Rosario, San
Lorenzo, Santa Fe,
Barranqueras and San Nicolas de los Arroyos as the
main fluvial ports. Some of the largest sea ports are La
Plata–Ensenada, Bahía Blanca, Mar del Plata, Quequén–Necochea,
Comodoro Rivadavia, Puerto Deseado, Puerto Madryn,
Ushuaia and San
Buenos Aires has historically been the most important
port; however since the 1990s the Up-River port region has become
dominant: stretching along 67 km (42 mi) of the Paraná
river shore in Santa Fe province, it includes 17 ports and in
2013[update] accounted for 50% of all exports.
In 2013[update] there were 161 airports with paved runways out of
more than a thousand. The Ezeiza International Airport, about
35 km (22 mi) from downtown Buenos Aires, is the
largest in the country, followed by Cataratas del Iguazú in Misiones,
and El Plumerillo in Mendoza. Aeroparque, in the city of Buenos
Aires, is the most important domestic airport.
Media and communications
Main article: Communications in Argentina
"Estudio Pais 24, the Program of the Argentines" in Channel 7, the
first television station in the country
Print media industry is highly developed in Argentina, with more than
two hundred newspapers. The major national ones include Clarín
(centrist, Latin America's best-seller and the second most widely
circulated in the Spanish-speaking world), La Nación (center-right,
published since 1870),
Página/12 (leftist, founded in 1987), the
Buenos Aires Herald (Latin America's most prestigious English language
daily, liberal, dating back to 1876),
La Voz del Interior (center,
founded in 1904), and the
Argentinisches Tageblatt (German
weekly, liberal, published since 1878)
Argentina began the world's first regular radio broadcasting on 27
August 1920, when Richard Wagner's
Parsifal was aired by a team of
medical students led by
Enrique Telémaco Susini in Buenos Aires'
Teatro Coliseo. By 2002[update] there were 260 AM and 1150
FM registered radio stations in the country.
The Argentine television industry is large, diverse and popular across
Latin America, with many productions and TV formats having been
exported abroad. Since 1999
Argentines enjoy the highest availability
of cable and satellite television in Latin America, as of
2014[update] totaling 87.4% of the country's households, a rate
similar to those in the United States,
Canada and Europe.
Argentina also had the highest coverage of networked
telecommunications among Latin American powers: about 67% of its
population had internet access and 137.2%, mobile phone
Science and technology
Main article: Science and technology in Argentina
SAC-D is an Argentine earth science satellite built by
launched in 2011.
Argentines have three Nobel Prizes laureates in the Sciences. Bernardo
Houssay, the first Latin American among them, discovered the role of
pituitary hormones in regulating glucose in animals. César Milstein
did extensive research in antibodies.
Luis Leloir discovered how
organisms store energy converting glucose into glycogen and the
compounds which are fundamental in metabolizing carbohydrates.
Argentine research has led to the treatment of heart diseases and
several forms of cancer.
Domingo Liotta designed and developed the
first artificial heart successfully implanted in a human being in
René Favaloro developed the techniques and performed the
world's first ever coronary bypass surgery.
Argentina's nuclear programme has been highly successful. In 1957
Argentina was the first country in
Latin America to design and build a
research reactor with homegrown technology, the RA-1 Enrico Fermi.
This reliance in the development of own nuclear related technologies,
instead of simply buying them abroad, was a constant of Argentina's
nuclear programme conducted by the civilian National Atomic Energy
Commission (CNEA). Nuclear facilities with Argentine technology have
been built in Peru, Algeria,
Australia and Egypt. In 1983, the country
admitted having the capability of producing weapon-grade uranium, a
major step needed to assemble nuclear weapons; since then, however,
Argentina has pledged to use nuclear power only for peaceful
purposes. As a member of the Board of Governors of the
International Atomic Energy Agency,
Argentina has been a strong voice
in support of nuclear non-proliferation efforts and is highly
committed to global nuclear security. In 1974 it was the first
Latin America to put in-line a commercial nuclear power
plant, Atucha I. Although the Argentine built parts for that station
amounted to 10% of the total, the nuclear fuel it uses are since
entirely built in the country. Later nuclear power stations employed a
higher percentage of Argentine built components; Embalse, finished in
1983, a 30% and the 2011 Atucha II reactor a 40%.
President Macri in the
INVAP with the
SAOCOM A and B, two planned
Earth observation satellite
Earth observation satellite constellation of Argentine Space Agency
CONAE. the scheduled launch dates for 1A and 1B were further pushed
back to October 2017 and October 2018.
Despite its modest budget and numerous setbacks, academics and the
Argentina have enjoyed an international respect since the
turn of the 1900s, when Dr.
Luis Agote devised the first safe and
effective means of blood transfusion as well as René Favaloro, who
was a pioneer in the improvement of the coronary artery bypass
surgery. Argentine scientists are still on the cutting edge in fields
such as nanotechnology, physics, computer sciences, molecular biology,
oncology, ecology, and cardiology. Juan Maldacena, an
Argentine-American scientist, is a leading figure in string theory.
Space research has also become increasingly active in Argentina.
Argentine built satellites include LUSAT-1 (1990), Víctor-1 (1996),
PEHUENSAT-1 (2007), and those developed by CONAE, the Argentine
space agency, of the SAC series.
Argentina has its own satellite
programme, nuclear power station designs (4th generation) and public
nuclear energy company INVAP, which provides several countries with
nuclear reactors. Established in 1991, the
CONAE has since
launched two satellites successfully and, in June 2009, secured
an agreement with the European
Space Agency for the installation of a
35-m diameter antenna and other mission support facilities at the
Pierre Auger Observatory, the world's foremost cosmic ray
observatory. The facility will contribute to numerous ESA space
probes, as well as CONAE's own, domestic research projects. Chosen
from 20 potential sites and one of only three such ESA installations
in the world, the new antenna will create a triangulation which will
allow the ESA to ensure mission coverage around the clock
Tourism in Argentina
Tourism in Argentina
Tourism in Argentina is characterized by its cultural offerings and
its ample and varied natural assets. The country had 5.57 million
visitors in 2013, ranking in terms of the international tourist
arrivals as the top destination in South America, and second in Latin
America after Mexico. Revenues from international tourists
reached US$4.41 billion in 2013, down from US$4.89 billion in
2012. The country's capital city, Buenos Aires, is the most
visited city in South America. There are 30 National Parks of
Argentina including many World Heritage Sites in Argentina.
The Iguazu Falls, in the Misiones
Province it is one of the
New7Wonders of Nature.
Main article: Demographics of Argentina
See also: Argentines
Balvanera, Buenos Aires, filled with picturesque Dutch style
In the 2001 census [INDEC],
Argentina had a population of 36,260,130,
and preliminary results from the 2010 census were of 40,091,359
Argentina ranks third in
South America in total
population and 33rd globally. Population density is of 15 persons per
square kilometer of land area, well below the world average of 50
persons. The population growth rate in 2010 was an estimated 1.03%
annually, with a birth rate of 17.7 live births per 1,000 inhabitants
and a mortality rate of 7.4 deaths per 1,000 inhabitants. The net
migration rate has ranged from zero to four immigrants per 1,000
inhabitants per year.
The proportion of people under 15 is 25.6%, a little below the world
average of 28%, and the proportion of people 65 and older is
relatively high at 10.8%. In
Latin America this is second only to
Uruguay and well above the world average, which is currently 7%.
Argentina has one of Latin America's lowest population growth rates,
recently about 1% a year, as well as a comparatively low infant
mortality rate. Its birth rate of 2.3 children per woman is still
nearly twice as high as that in Spain or Italy, compared here as they
have similar religious practices and proportions. The median
age is approximately 30 years and life expectancy at birth is 77.14
Argentina became in 2010 the first country in
Latin America and the
second in the
Americas to allow same-sex marriage nationwide. It
was the tenth country to allow same-sex marriage.
Ethnography of Argentina
Ethnography of Argentina and
Immigration to Argentina
Queen Maxima was born and raised in
Argentina of Spanish and Italian
As with other areas of new settlement such as the United States,
Canada, Australia, New Zealand,
Brazil and Uruguay,
considered a country of immigrants.
refer to the country as a crisol de razas (crucible of races, or
Between 1857 and 1950
Argentina was the country with the second
biggest immigration wave in the world, with 6.6 million, second only
United States in the numbers of immigrants received (27
million) and ahead of such other areas of new settlement like Canada,
Brazil and Australia.
Strikingly, at those times, the national population doubled every two
decades. This belief is endured in the popular saying "los argentinos
descienden de los barcos" (
Argentines descend from the ships).
Argentines are descended from the 19th- and
20th-century immigrants of the great immigration wave to Argentina
(1850–1955), with a great majority of these immigrants
coming from diverse European countries. The majority of these European
immigrants came from
Italy and Spain. The majority of Argentines
descend from multiple European ethnic groups, primarily of Italian and
Spanish descent (over 25 million individuals in Argentina, almost 60%
of the population have some partial Italian origins), while 17%
of the population also have partial French origins. There is also
a sizeable number of
Argentines of German descent.
Argentina is home to a significant population of Arab and partial Arab
background, mostly of
Syrian and Lebanese origin (in
are considered among the white people, just like in the United States
Census), The majority of Arab
Christians who belong to
the Maronite Church, Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Rite
Catholic Churches. A scant number are
Muslims of Middle Eastern
origins. The Asian population in the country numbers at around 180,000
individuals, most of whom are of Chinese and Korean descent,
although an older Japanese community that traces back to the early
20th century still exists.
A study conducted on 218 individuals in 2010 by the Argentine
geneticist Daniel Corach, has established that the genetic map of
Argentina is composed by 79% from different European ethnicities
(mainly Spanish and Italian ethnicities), 18% of different indigenous
ethnicities, and 4.3% of African ethnic groups, in which 63.6% of the
tested group had at least one ancestor who was Indigenous.
From the 1970s, immigration has mostly been coming from Bolivia,
Paraguay and Peru, with smaller numbers from Dominican Republic,
Ecuador and Romania. The Argentine government estimates that
750,000 inhabitants lack official documents and has launched a
program to encourage illegal immigrants to declare their status
in return for two-year residence visas—so far over 670,000
applications have been processed under the program.
Main article: Languages of Argentina
Dialectal variants of the
Spanish language in Argentina
The de facto[N] official language is Spanish, spoken by almost all
Argentines. The country is the largest Spanish-speaking society
that universally employs voseo, the use of the pronoun vos instead of
tú ("you"), which imposes the use of alternate verb forms as well.
Due to the extensive Argentine geography, Spanish has a strong
variation among regions, although the prevalent dialect is
Rioplatense, primarily spoken in the
La Plata Basin
La Plata Basin and accented
similarly to the Neapolitan language. Italian and other European
immigrants influenced Lunfardo—the regional slang—permeating the
vernacular vocabulary of other Latin American countries as well.
There are several second-languages in widespread use among the
English,[O] taught since elementary school. 42.3% of
to speak it, with 15.4% of them claiming to have a high level of
language comprehension.
Italian, by 1.5 million people.[P]
Arabic, specially its Northern Levantine dialect, by one million
Standard German, by 400,000 people.[Q]
Yiddish, by 200,000 people, the largest Jewish population in
Latin America and 7th in the world.
Guarani, by 200,000 people, mostly in
Corrientes (where it is
official de jure) and Misiones.
Catalan, by 174,000 people.
French, including the rare Occitan language.
Quechua, by 65,000 people, mostly in the Northwest.
Wichí, by 53,700 people, mainly in Chaco where, along with Kom
and Moqoit, it is official de jure.
Vlax Romani, by 52,000 people.
Albanian, by 40.000 people.
Japanese, by 32,000 people.
Aymara, by 30,000 people, mostly in the Northwest.
Ukrainian, by 27,000 people.
Welsh, including its Patagonian dialect, in which 25,000 people are
fluent. Some districts have recently incorporated it as an
Main article: Religion in Argentina
Francis, the first pope from the New World, was born and raised in
The Constitution guarantees freedom of religion. Although it
enforces neither an official nor a state faith, it gives Roman
Catholicism a preferential status.[R]
According to a CONICET poll,
Argentines are 76.5% Catholic, 11.3%
Agnostics and Atheists, 9% Evangelical Protestants, 1.2% Jehovah's
Witnesses, 0.9% Mormons; while 1.2% follow other religions, including
Judaism and Buddhism.
The country is home to both the largest Muslim and largest Jewish
communities in Latin America, the latter being the 7th most populous
in the world.
Argentina is a member of the International
Holocaust Remembrance Alliance.
Argentines show high individualization and de-institutionalization of
religious beliefs; 23.8% of them claim to always attend religious
services; 49.1%, to seldom do and 26.8%, to never do.
On 13 March 2013, Argentine Jorge Mario Bergoglio, the Cardinal
Archbishop of Buenos Aires, was elected Bishop of Rome and Supreme
Pontiff of the
Catholic Church. He took the name "Francis", and he
became the first
Pope from either the
Americas or from the Southern
Hemisphere; he is the first
Pope born outside of Europe since the
Pope Gregory III (who was Syrian) in 741.
List of cities in Argentina
List of cities in Argentina by population
Argentina is highly urbanized, with 92% of its population living in
cities: the ten largest metropolitan areas account for half of
the population. About 3 million people live in the city of Buenos
Aires, and including the Greater
Buenos Aires metropolitan area it
totals around 13 million, making it one of the largest urban areas in
The metropolitan areas of Córdoba and
Rosario have around 1.3 million
inhabitants each. Mendoza, San Miguel de Tucumán, La Plata, Mar
Salta and Santa Fe have at least half a million people
The population is unequally distributed: about 60% live in the Pampas
region (21% of the total area), including 15 million people in Buenos
Aires province. The provinces of Córdoba and Santa Fe, and the city
Buenos Aires have 3 million each. Seven other provinces have over
one million people each: Mendoza, Tucumán, Entre Ríos, Salta, Chaco,
Corrientes and Misiones. With 64.3 inhabitants per square kilometre
(167/sq mi), Tucumán is the only Argentine province more densely
populated than the world average; by contrast, the southern province
of Santa Cruz has around 1.1/km2 (2.8/sq mi).
Largest cities or towns in Argentina
INDEC metro area estimate)
Santiago del Estero
Santiago del Estero
San Salvador de Jujuy
Mar del Plata
Main article: Education in Argentina
Argentina has historically been placed high in the global rankings of
literacy, with rates similar to those of developed countries.
The Argentine education system consists of four levels:
An initial level for children between 45 days to 5 years old, with the
last two years being compulsory.
An elementary or lower school mandatory level lasting 6 or 7 years.[S]
In 2010[update] the literacy rate was 98.07%.
A secondary or high school mandatory level lasting 5 or 6 years.[S] In
2010[update] 38.5% of people over age 20 had completed secondary
A higher level, divided in tertiary, university and post-graduate
sub-levels. in 2013[update] there were 47 national public universities
across the country, as well as 46 private ones. In 2010[update]
7.1% of people over age 20 had graduated from university. The
public universities of Buenos Aires, Córdoba, La Plata, Rosario, and
National Technological University
National Technological University are some of the most important.
The Argentine state guarantees universal, secular and free-of-charge
public education for all levels.[T] Responsibility for educational
supervision is organized at the federal and individual provincial
states. In the last decades the role of the private sector has grown
across all educational stages.
Main article: Health care in Argentina
The University of
Buenos Aires School of Medicine, alma mater to many
of the country's 3,000 medical graduates, annually
Health care is provided through a combination of employer and labor
union-sponsored plans (Obras Sociales), government insurance plans,
public hospitals and clinics and through private health insurance
plans. Health care cooperatives number over 300 (of which 200 are
related to labor unions) and provide health care for half the
population; the national INSSJP (popularly known as PAMI) covers
nearly all of the five million senior citizens.
There are more than 153,000 hospital beds, 121,000 physicians and
37,000 dentists (ratios comparable to developed nations).
The relatively high access to medical care has historically resulted
in mortality patterns and trends similar to developed nations': from
1953 to 2005, deaths from cardiovascular disease increased from 20% to
23% of the total, those from tumors from 14% to 20%, respiratory
problems from 7% to 14%, digestive maladies (non-infectious) from 7%
to 11%, strokes a steady 7%, injuries, 6%, and infectious diseases,
4%. Causes related to senility led to many of the rest. Infant deaths
have fallen from 19% of all deaths in 1953 to 3% in 2005.
The availability of health care has also reduced infant mortality from
70 per 1000 live births in 1948 to 12.1 in 2009 and raised
life expectancy at birth from 60 years to 76. Though these
figures compare favorably with global averages, they fall short of
levels in developed nations and in 2006,
Argentina ranked fourth in
Main article: Culture of Argentina
See also: List of Argentines
El Ateneo Grand Splendid, it was named the second most beautiful
bookshop in the world by The Guardian.
Argentina is a multicultural country with significant European
influences. Modern Argentine culture has been largely influenced by
Italian, Spanish and other European immigration from France, United
Germany among others. Its cities are largely
characterized by both the prevalence of people of European descent,
and of conscious imitation of American and European styles in fashion,
architecture and design. Museums, cinemas, and galleries are
abundant in all the large urban centers, as well as traditional
establishments such as literary bars, or bars offering live music of a
variety of genres although there are lesser elements of
African influences, particularly in the fields of music and art. 
The other big influence is the gauchos and their traditional country
lifestyle of self-reliance. Finally, indigenous American
traditions have been absorbed into the general cultural milieu.
Ernesto Sabato has reflected on the nature of the
Argentina as follows:
With the primitive Hispanic American reality fractured in La Plata
Basin due to immigration, its inhabitants have come to be somewhat
dual with all the dangers but also with all the advantages of that
condition: because of our European roots, we deeply link the nation
with the enduring values of the Old World; because of our condition of
Americans we link ourselves to the rest of the continent, through the
folklore of the interior and the old Castilian that unifies us,
feeling somehow the vocation of the Patria Grande San Martín and
Bolívar once imagined.
— Ernesto Sabato, La cultura en la encrucijada nacional
Main article: Argentine literature
Four of the most influential Argentine writers. Top-left to
bottom-right: Julio Cortázar, Victoria Ocampo,
Jorge Luis Borges
Jorge Luis Borges and
Adolfo Bioy Casares
Although Argentina's rich literary history began around 1550, it
reached full independence with Esteban Echeverría's El Matadero, a
romantic landmark that played a significant role in the development of
19th century's Argentine narrative, split by the ideological
divide between the popular, federalist epic of José Hernández'
Martín Fierro and the elitist and cultured discourse of Sarmiento's
The Modernist movement advanced into the 20th century including
exponents such as
Leopoldo Lugones and poet Alfonsina Storni; it
was followed by Vanguardism, with Ricardo Güiraldes's Don Segundo
Sombra as an important reference.
Jorge Luis Borges, Argentina's most acclaimed writer and one of the
foremost figures in the history of literature, found new ways of
looking at the modern world in metaphor and philosophical debate and
his influence has extended to authors all over the globe. Short
stories such as
Ficciones and The Aleph are among his most famous
works. He was a friend and collaborator of Adolfo Bioy Casares, who
wrote one of the most praised science fiction novels, The Invention of
Morel. Julio Cortázar, one of the leading members of the Latin
American Boom and a major name in 20th century literature,
influenced an entire generation of writers in the
Other highly regarded Argentine writers, poets and essayists include
Estanislao del Campo, Eugenio Cambaceres, Pedro Bonifacio Palacios,
Hugo Wast, Benito Lynch, Enrique Banchs, Oliverio Girondo, Ezequiel
Martínez Estrada, Victoria Ocampo, Leopoldo Marechal, Silvina Ocampo,
Roberto Arlt, Eduardo Mallea, Manuel Mujica Láinez, Ernesto Sábato,
Silvina Bullrich, Rodolfo Walsh, María Elena Walsh, Tomás Eloy
Martínez, Manuel Puig, Alejandra Pizarnik, and Osvaldo Soriano.
Main article: Music of Argentina
Daniel Barenboim, Music Director of the Berlin State Opera; he
previously served as Music Director of the
Orchestre de Paris and La
Scala in Milan.
Tango, a Rioplatense musical genre with European and African
influences, is one of Argentina's international cultural
symbols. The golden age of tango (1930 to mid-1950s) mirrored
that of jazz and swing in the United States, featuring large
orchestras like those of Osvaldo Pugliese, Aníbal Troilo, Francisco
Julio de Caro
Julio de Caro and Juan d'Arienzo. After 1955, virtuoso
Astor Piazzolla popularized Nuevo tango, a subtler and more
intellectual trend for the genre.
Tango enjoys worldwide
popularity nowadays with groups like Gotan Project,
Argentina developed strong classical music and dance scenes that gave
rise to renowned artists such as Alberto Ginastera, composer; Alberto
Martha Argerich and Eduardo Delgado, pianists; Daniel
Barenboim, pianist and symphonic orchestra director;
José Cura and
Marcelo Álvarez, tenors; and to ballet dancers Jorge Donn, José
Neglia, Norma Fontenla, Maximiliano Guerra, Paloma Herrera, Marianela
Iñaki Urlezaga and Julio Bocca.
Martha Argerich, widely regarded as one of the greatest pianists of
the second half of the 20th century
A national Argentine folk style emerged in the 1930s from dozens of
regional musical genres and went to influence the entirety of Latin
American music. Some of its interpreters, like
Atahualpa Yupanqui and
Mercedes Sosa, achieved worldwide acclaim.
The romantic ballad genre included singers of international fame such
as Sandro de América.
Argentine rock developed as a distinct musical style in the mid-1960s,
Buenos Aires and
Rosario became cradles of aspiring musicians.
Founding bands like Los Gatos, Sui Generis, Almendra and
followed by Seru Giran, Los Abuelos de la Nada,
Soda Stereo and
Patricio Rey y sus Redonditos de Ricota, with prominent artists
including Gustavo Cerati, Litto Nebbia, Andrés Calamaro, Luis Alberto
Spinetta, Charly García,
Fito Páez and León Gieco.
Tenor saxophonist Leandro "Gato" Barbieri and composer and big band
Lalo Schifrin are among the most internationally successful
Argentine jazz musicians.
Main article: Theatre in Argentina
Teatro Colón, it is ranked the third best opera house in the
Buenos Aires is one of the great theatre capitals of the
world, with a scene of international caliber centered on
Corrientes Avenue, "the street that never sleeps", sometimes referred
to as an intellectual Broadway in Buenos Aires.
Teatro Colón is
a global landmark for opera and classical performances; its acoustics
are considered among the world's top five.[U] Other important
theatrical venues include Teatro General San Martín, Cervantes, both
Buenos Aires City; Argentino in La Plata, El Círculo in Rosario,
Independencia in Mendoza, and Libertador in Córdoba. Griselda
Gambaro, Copi, Roberto Cossa, Marco Denevi, Carlos Gorostiza, and
Alberto Vaccarezza are a few of the most prominent Argentine
Argentine theatre traces its origins to Viceroy Juan José de Vértiz
y Salcedo's creation of the colony's first theatre, La Ranchería, in
1783. In this stage, in 1786, a tragedy entitled Siripo had its
premiere. Siripo is now a lost work (only the second act is
conserved), and can be considered the first Argentine stage play,
because it was written by
Buenos Aires poet Manuel José de Lavardén,
it was premiered in Buenos Aires, and its plot was inspired by an
historical episode of the early colonization of the Río de la Plata
Basin: the destruction of Sancti Spiritu colony by aboriginals in
1529. La Ranchería theatre operated until its destruction in a fire
in 1792. The second theatre stage in
Buenos Aires was Teatro Coliseo,
opened in 1804 during the term of Viceroy Rafael de Sobremonte. It was
the nation's longest-continuously operating stage. The musical creator
of the Argentine National Anthem, Blas Parera, earned fame as a
theatre score writer during the early 19th century. The genre suffered
during the regime of Juan Manuel de Rosas, though it flourished
alongside the economy later in the century. The national government
gave Argentine theatre its initial impulse with the establishment of
the Colón Theatre, in 1857, which hosted classical and operatic, as
well as stage performances. Antonio Petalardo's successful 1871 gambit
on the opening of the Teatro Opera, inspired others to fund the
growing art in Argentina.
Main article: Cinema of Argentina
The Argentine film industry has historically been one of the three
most developed in Latin American cinema, along with those produced in
Mexico and Brazil. Started in 1896; by the early 1930s it
had already become Latin America's leading film producer, a place it
kept until the early 1950s. The world's first animated feature
films were made and released in Argentina, by cartoonist Quirino
Cristiani, in 1917 and 1918.
Andy Muschietti, director of It, the highest-grossing horror film of
The art director of
The Secret in Their Eyes
The Secret in Their Eyes won the
Academy Award for
Argentine films have achieved worldwide recognition: the country has
Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film, with The
Official Story (1985) and
The Secret in Their Eyes
The Secret in Their Eyes (2009) with seven
The Truce (La tregua) in 1974
Camila (Camila) in 1984
The Official Story
The Official Story (La historia oficial) in 1985
Tango (Tango) in 1998
Son of the Bride
Son of the Bride (El hijo de la novia) in 2001
The Secret in Their Eyes
The Secret in Their Eyes (El secreto de sus ojos) in 2009
Wild Tales (Relatos salvajes) in 2015
In addition, Argentine composers
Luis Enrique Bacalov
Luis Enrique Bacalov and Gustavo
Santaolalla have been honored with
Academy Award for Best Original
Score in 2006 and 2007 nods and Armando Bo and Nicolás Giacobone have
been honored with
Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay in 2015.
Also, the Argentine French actress
Bérénice Bejo received a
nomination for the
Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress in 2011
and won the
César Award for Best Actress and won the Best Actress
award in the
Cannes Film Festival
Cannes Film Festival for her role in the film The
Argentina also has won seventeen Goya Awards for Best Spanish Language
Foreign Film with
A King and His Movie (1986), A Place in the World
Gatica, el mono (1993),
Autumn Sun (1996), Ashes of Paradise
(1997), The Lighthouse (1998), Burnt Money (2000), The Escape (2001),
Intimate Stories (2003),
Blessed by Fire (2005),
The Hands (2006), XXY
The Secret in Their Eyes
The Secret in Their Eyes (2009),
Chinese Take-Away (2011),
Wild Tales (2014), The Clan (2015) and The Distinguished Citizen
(2016) being by far the most awarded in
Latin America with twenty four
Many other Argentine films have been acclaimed by the international
critique: Camila (1984),
Man Facing Southeast
Man Facing Southeast (1986), A Place in the
Pizza, Beer, and Cigarettes
Pizza, Beer, and Cigarettes (1997),
Nine Queens (2000),
A Red Bear (2002), The Motorcycle Diaries (2004),
The Aura (2005),
Chinese Take-Away (2011) and Wild Tales (2014) being some of them.
In 2013[update] about 100 full-length motion pictures were being
See also: Argentine painting
Las Nereidas Font by Lola Mora
Some of the best-known Argentine painters are
Cándido López and
Florencio Molina Campos
Florencio Molina Campos (Naïve style);
Ernesto de la Cárcova
Ernesto de la Cárcova and
Eduardo Sívori (Realism);
Fernando Fader (Impressionism); Pío
Atilio Malinverno and Cesáreo Bernaldo de Quirós
Emilio Pettoruti (Cubism); Julio Barragán
(Concretism and Cubism)
Antonio Berni (Neofigurativism); Roberto
Xul Solar (Surrealism);
Gyula Košice (Constructivism);
Eduardo Mac Entyre
Eduardo Mac Entyre (Generative art); Luis Seoane, Carlos
Torrallardona, Luis Aquino, and Alfredo Gramajo Gutiérrez
Lucio Fontana (Spatialism);
Tomás Maldonado and
Guillermo Kuitca (Abstract art);
León Ferrari and Marta Minujín
(Conceptual art); and
Gustavo Cabral (Fantasy art).
Gyula Košice and others created The
Madí Movement in
Argentina, which then spread to Europe and United States, where it had
a significant impact.
Tomás Maldonado was one of the main
theorists of the Ulm Model of design education, still highly
Other Argentine artists of worldwide fame include Adolfo Bellocq,
whose lithographs have been influential since the 1920s, and Benito
Quinquela Martín, the quintessential port painter, inspired by the
La Boca neighborhood.
Internationally laureate sculptors Erminio Blotta,
Lola Mora and
Rogelio Yrurtia authored many of the classical evocative monuments of
the Argentine cityscape.
Main article: Architecture of Argentina
View of Bolívar Street facing the Cabildo and Diagonal Norte, on
Buenos Aires' historical center. The city's characteristic convergence
of diverse architectural styles can be seen, including Spanish
Colonial, Beaux-Arts, and modernist architecture.
The colonization brought the Spanish Baroque architecture, which can
still be appreciated in its simpler Rioplatense style in the reduction
of San Ignacio Miní, the Cathedral of Córdoba, and the Cabildo of
Luján. Italian and French influences increased at the beginning of
the 19th century with strong eclectic overtones that gave the local
architecture a unique feeling.
Numerous Argentine architects have enriched their own country's
cityscape and those around the world:
Juan Antonio Buschiazzo
Juan Antonio Buschiazzo helped
Beaux-Arts architecture and
Francisco Gianotti combined Art
Italianate styles, each adding flair to Argentine cities
during the early 20th century.
Francisco Salamone and Viktor Sulčič
Art Deco legacy, and
Alejandro Bustillo created a prolific
body of Neoclassical and Rationalist architecture. Alberto Prebisch
Amancio Williams were highly influenced by Le Corbusier, while
Clorindo Testa introduced
Brutalist architecture locally. César
Pelli's and Patricio Pouchulu's Futurist creations have graced cities
worldwide: Pelli's 1980s throwbacks to the
Art Deco glory of the 1920s
made him one of the world's most prestigious architects, with the
Norwest Center and the
Petronas Towers among his most celebrated
Main article: Sport in Argentina
Diego Maradona, one of the FIFA Players of the 20th Century
Pato is the national sport, an ancient horseback game locally
originated in the early 1600s and predecessor of horseball.
The most popular sport is Football. Along with
Brazil and France, the
men's national team is the only one to have won the most important
international triplet: World Cup, Confederations Cup, and Olympic Gold
Medal. It has also won 14 Copas América, 6 Pan American Gold Medals,
and many other trophies. Alfredo Di Stéfano, Diego Maradona, and
Lionel Messi are among the best players in the game's history.
The country's women's field hockey team Las Leonas is one of the
world's most successful, with four Olympic medals, two World Cups, a
World League and seven Champions Trophy.
Luciana Aymar is
recognized as the best female player in the history of the sport,
being the only player to have received the FIH Player of the Year
Award eight times.
Basketball is a very popular sport. The men's national team is the
only one in the FIBA
Americas zone that has won the quintuplet crown:
World Championship, Olympic Gold Medal, Diamond Ball, Americas
Championship, and Pan American Gold Medal. It has also conquered 13
South American Championships, and many other tournaments. Emanuel
Ginóbili, Luis Scola, Andrés Nocioni, Fabricio Oberto, Pablo
Carlos Delfino and
Juan Ignacio Sánchez
Juan Ignacio Sánchez are a few of the
country's most acclaimed players, all of them part of the NBA.
Argentina hosted the
Basketball World Cup in 1950 and 1990.
Lionel Messi, five times
FIFA Ballon d'Or
FIFA Ballon d'Or winner, is the current
captain of the
Argentina national football team.
Rugby is another popular sport in Argentina. As of 2017[update] the
men's national team, known as 'Los Pumas' has competed at the Rugby
World Cup each time it has been held, achieving their highest ever
result in 2007 when they came third. Since 2012 the Los Pumas have
competed against Australia,
New Zealand &
South Africa in The
Rugby Championship, the premier international Rugby competition in the
Southern Hemisphere. Since 2009 the secondary men's national team
known as the 'Jaguares' has competed against the USA, Canada, and
Uruguay first teams in the
Americas Rugby Championship, which Los
Jaguares have won six out of eight times it has taken place.
Argentina has produced some of the most formidable champions for
Boxing, including Carlos Monzón, the best middleweight in
history; Pascual Pérez, one of the most decorated flyweight
boxers of all times; Víctor Galíndez, as of 2009[update] record
holder for consecutive world light heavyweight title defenses; and
Nicolino Locche, nicknamed "The Untouchable" for his masterful
defense; they are all inductees into the International
Boxing Hall of
Tennis has been quite popular among people of all ages. Guillermo
Vilas is the greatest Latin American player of the Open Era,
Gabriela Sabatini is the most accomplished Argentine female
player of all time—having reached #3 in the WTA Ranking, are
both inductees into the International
Tennis Hall of Fame.
Argentina reigns undisputed in Polo, having won more international
championships than any other country and been seldom beaten since the
1930s. The Argentine
Polo Championship is the sport's most
important international team trophy. The country is home to most of
the world's top players, among them Adolfo Cambiaso, the best in Polo
Argentina has had a strong showing within Auto racing.
Juan Manuel Fangio
Juan Manuel Fangio was five times
Formula One world champion under
four different teams, winning 102 of his 184 international races, and
is widely ranked as the greatest driver of all time. Other
distinguished racers were Oscar Alfredo Gálvez, Juan Gálvez, José
Froilán González, and Carlos Reutemann.
Main article: Argentine cuisine
Argentine beef as asado, a traditional dish
Besides many of the pasta, sausage and dessert dishes common to
Argentines enjoy a wide variety of Indigenous and
Criollo creations, including empanadas (a small stuffed pastry), locro
(a mixture of corn, beans, meat, bacon, onion, and gourd), humita and
The country has the highest consumption of red meat in the world,
traditionally prepared as asado, the Argentine barbecue. It is made
with various types of meats, often including chorizo, sweetbread,
chitterlings, and blood sausage.
Common desserts include facturas (Viennese-style pastry), cakes and
pancakes filled with dulce de leche (a sort of milk caramel jam),
alfajores (shortbread cookies sandwiched together with chocolate,
dulce de leche or a fruit paste), and tortas fritas (fried cakes)
Argentine wine, one of the world's finest, is an integral part of
the local menu. Malbec, Torrontés, Cabernet Sauvignon,
Chardonnay are some of the most sought-after varieties.
Main article: National symbols of Argentina
Some of Argentina's national symbols are defined by law, while others
are traditions lacking formal designation. The Flag of Argentina
consists of three horizontal stripes equal in width and colored light
blue, white and light blue, with the
Sun of May
Sun of May in the center of the
middle white stripe. The flag was designed by
Manuel Belgrano in
1812; it was adopted as a national symbol on 20 July 1816. The
Coat of Arms, which represents the union of the provinces, came into
use in 1813 as the seal for official documents. The Argentine
National Anthem was written by
Vicente López y Planes with music by
Blas Parera, and was adopted in 1813. The National Cockade was
first used during the
May Revolution of 1810 and was made official two
years later. The Virgin of Luján is Argentina's patron
The hornero, living across most of the national territory, was chosen
as the national bird in 1928 after a lower school survey. The
ceibo is the national floral emblem and national tree, while
the quebracho colorado is the national forest tree. Rhodochrosite
is known as the national gemstone. The national sport is pato, an
equestrian game that was popular among gauchos.
Argentine wine is the national liquor, and mate, the national
Asado and locro are considered the national
Latin America portal
Index of Argentina-related articles
Outline of Argentina
^ a b Article 35 of the
Argentine Constitution gives equal recognition
to the names "United Provinces of the River Plate", "Argentine
Republic" and "Argentine Confederation" and using "Argentine Nation"
in the making and enactment of laws.
^ a b c Area does not include territorial claims in Antarctica
(965,597 km2, including the South Orkney Islands), the Falkland
Islands (11,410 km2), the South Georgia (3,560 km2) and the South
Sandwich Islands (307 km2).
^ The poem's full name is La
Argentina y conquista del Río de la
Plata, con otros acaecimientos de los reinos del Perú, Tucumán y
estado del Brasil.
^ Also stated in article 35 of all subsequent amendments: 1866, 1898,
1949, 1957, 1972 and 1994 (current)
^ San Martín's military campaigns, together with those of Simón
Gran Colombia are collectively known as the Spanish
American wars of independence.
^ The Full Stop and Due Obedience laws had been abrogated by Congress
^ This regional subdivision does not include Argentine Antarctica
^ Includes higher plants only: ferns and fern allies, conifers and
cycads, and flowering plants.
^ Includes only birds that breed in Argentina, not those that migrate
or winter there.
^ Excludes marine mammals.
^ Since 2012 suffrage is optional for ages 16 and 17.
^ Although not a province, the City of
Buenos Aires is a federally
autonomous city, and as such its local organization has similarities
with provinces: it has its own constitution, an elected mayor and
representatives to the Senate and Deputy chambers. As federal
capital of the nation it holds the status of federal district.
^ The other top developing nations being Brazil, China, India,
South Africa and Turkey.
^ Though not declared official de jure, the
Spanish language is the
only one used in the wording of laws, decrees, resolutions, official
documents and public acts.
^ English is also the primary language of the disputed Falkland
^ Many elder people also speak a macaronic language of Italian and
Spanish called cocoliche, which was originated by the Italian
immigrants in the late 19th century.
^ It gave origin to a mixture of Spanish and German called
^ In practice this privileged status amounts to tax-exempt school
subsidies and licensing preferences for radio broadcasting
^ a b Level duration depends on jurisdiction.
^ The post-graduate sub-level of higher education is usually paid.
^ The other top venues being Berlin's Konzerthaus, Vienna's
Concertgebouw and Boston's Symphony
^ Constitution of Argentina, art. 35.
^ Crow 1992, p. 457: "In the meantime, while the crowd assembled
in the plaza continued to shout its demands at the cabildo, the sun
suddenly broke through the overhanging clouds and clothed the scene in
brilliant light. The people looked upward with one accord and took it
as a favorable omen for their cause. This was the origin of the "sun
of May" which has appeared in the center of the Argentine flag and on
the Argentine coat of arms ever since."; Kopka 2011, p. 5: "The
sun's features are those of Inti, the Incan sun god. The sun
commemorates the appearance of the sun through cloudy skies on 25 May
1810, during the first mass demonstration in favor of independence."
^ a b Ley No. 5598 de la Provincia de Corrientes, 22 October 2004
^ a b Ley No. 6604 de la Provincia de Chaco, 28 July 2010, B.O.,
^ "Latinobarómetro Database". www.latinobarometro.org. Retrieved
^ a b c "Población por sexo e índice de masculinidad. Superficie
censada y densidad, según provincia. Total del país. Año 2010".
Censo Nacional de Población, Hogares y Viviendas 2010 (in Spanish).
INDEC – Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos.
2010. Archived from the original (XLS) on 8 June 2014.
^ "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom
data acquired via website).
United Nations Department of Economic and
Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September
^ a b c d "Argentina". World Economic Outlook Database. International
Monetary Fund. Retrieved 17 January 2018.
^ a b "GINI index (World Bank estimate)". World Bank. Retrieved 9
^ a b "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations
Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved 25 March 2017.
^ a b Constitution of Argentina, art. 3.
^ a b Abad de Santillán 1971, p. 17.
^ a b Crow 1992, p. 128.
^ a b Levene 1948, p. 11: "[After the
Viceroyalty became] a new
period that commenced with the revolution of 1810, whose plan
consisted in declaring the independence of a nation, thus turning the
legal bond of vassalage into one of citizenship as a component of
sovereignty and, in addition, organizing the democratic republic.";
Sánchez Viamonte 1948, pp. 196–197: "The Argentine nation was
a unity in colonial times, during the Viceroyalty, and remained so
after the revolution of May 1810. [...] The provinces never acted as
independent sovereign states, but as entities created within the
nation and as integral parts of it, incidentally affected by internal
conflicts."; Vanossi 1964, p. 11: "[The Argentine nationality is
a] unique national entity, successor to the Viceroyalty, which, after
undergoing a long period of anarchy and disorganization, adopted a
decentralized form in 1853–1860 under the Constitution."
^ a b c d e f g Bolt & Van Zanden 2013.
^ a b c Díaz Alejandro 1970, p. 1.
^ a b "Becoming a serious country". The Economist. London. 3 June
2004. Archived from the original on 20 March 2014.
Argentina is thus
not a "developing country". Uniquely, it achieved development and then
lost it again.
^ a b Wood 1988, p. 18; Solomon 1997, p. 3.
^ a b Huntington 2000, p. 6; Nierop 2001, p. 61: "Secondary
regional powers in Huntington's view (Huntington, 2000, p. 6) include
Great Britain, Ukraine, Japan, South Korea, Pakistan,
Saudi Arabia and
Argentina."; Lake 2009, p. 55: "The US has created a foundation
upon which the regional powers, especially
Argentina and Brazil, can
develop their own rules for further managing regional relations.";
Papadopoulos 2010, p. 283: "The driving force behind the adoption
of the MERCOSUR agreement was similar to that of the establishment of
the EU: the hope of limiting the possibilities of traditional military
hostility between the major regional powers,
Brazil and Argentina.";
Malamud 2011, p. 9: "Though not a surprise, the position of
Argentina, Brazil's main regional partner, as the staunchest opponent
of its main international ambition [to win a permanent seat on the UN
Security Council] dealt a heavy blow to Brazil's image as a regional
leader."; Boughton 2012, p. 101: "When the U.S. Treasury
organized the next round of finance meetings, it included several
non-APEC members, including all the European members of the G7, the
Latin American powers
Argentina and Brazil, and such other emerging
markets as India, Poland, and South Africa."
^ a b Morris 1988, p. 63: "
Argentina has been the leading
military and economic power in the
Southern Cone in the Twentieth
Century."; Adler & Greve 2009, p. 78: "The southern cone of
South America, including
Argentina and Brazil, the two regional
powers, has recently become a pluralistic security community.";
Ruiz-Dana et al. 2009, p. 18: "[...] notably by linking the
Southern Cone's rival regional powers,
Brazil and Argentina."
^ Human Development Report 2016, Statistical Annex, Table 1, UNDP
^ a b "The 2010
Legatum Prosperity Index". London:
2010. Archived from the original on 26 October 2011. [The country has
a] foundation for future growth due to its market size, levels of
foreign direct investment, and percentage of high-tech exports as
share of total manufactured goods ... Argentina's economy appears
stable, but confidence in financial institutions remains low.
^ "World Bank Country and Lending Groups – World Bank Data Help
Desk". Data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 3 December 2017.
^ The name Argentine (Spanish) El nombre de
Argentina Archived 3 March
2016 at the Wayback Machine.
^ Etymology of argentin / -e (French)
^ Rock 1987, pp. 6, 8; Edwards 2008, p. 7.
^ Traba 1985, pp. 15, 71.
^ Constitution of Argentina, 1826, art. 1.
^ Constitution of Argentina, 1853, Preamble.
^ Rosenblat 1964, p. 78.
^ Constitution of Argentina, 1860 amd., art. 35.
^ "Definition of
Argentina in Oxford Dictionaries (British & World
English)". Oxford, UK: Oxford Dictionaries. 6 May 2013. Archived from
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^ "The Definite Article: Part II", Study Spanish
^ a b c Edwards 2008, p. 12.
^ Abad de Santillán 1971, pp. 18–19.
^ Edwards 2008, p. 13.
^ Crow 1992, pp. 129–132.
^ Abad de Santillán 1971, pp. 96–140.
^ a b Crow 1992, p. 353.
^ Crow 1992, p. 134.
^ Crow 1992, p. 135.
^ Crow 1992, p. 347.
^ Crow 1992, p. 421.
^ a b Abad de Santillán 1971, pp. 194ff.
^ Rock 1987, p. 81.
^ Rock 1987, pp. 82–83.
^ a b Lewis 2003, pp. 39–40.
^ Rock 1987, p. 92; Lewis 2003, p. 41.
^ Galasso 2011, pp. 349–353, vol. I.
^ Galasso 2011, pp. 185–252, vol. I.
^ Lewis 2003, p. 41.
^ Lewis 2003, p. 43.
^ Lewis 2003, p. 45.
^ Lewis 2003, pp. 46–47.
^ Lewis 2003, pp. 48–50.
^ Galasso 2011, pp. 363–541, vol. I.
^ Lewis 1990, pp. 18–30.
^ Mosk 1990, pp. 88–89.
^ a b Cruz 1990, p. 10.
^ a b Díaz Alejandro 1970, pp. 2–3.
^ Galasso 2011, pp. 567–625, vol. I.
^ Lewis 1990, pp. 37–38.
^ Galasso 2011, pp. 7–178, vol. II.
^ Galasso 2011, pp. 181–302, vol. II.
^ Barnes 1978, p. 3.
^ Barnes 1978, pp. 113ff.
^ Galasso 2011, pp. 303–351, vol. II.
^ Galasso 2011, pp. 353–379, vol. II.
^ Robben 2011, p. 34.
^ Galasso 2011, pp. 381–422, vol. II.
^ McSherry, Patrice (2005). Predatory States:
Operation Condor and
Covert War in Latin America. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman &
Littlefield Publishers. p. 78. ISBN 0742536874.
^ As can be seen from the archives declassified by the United States,
the number of trials opened in the Southern Cone, the discovery of the
Archives of the horror of
Paraguay (1992), the appearance of the book
The Trial of Henry Kissinger by British journalist and researcher
Christopher Hitchens, as revealing as other books and documents
accumulated in recent times on the role of the former Secretary of
State of two governments of his country, those of the Republicans
Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford: "Kissinger and his team devised the
project to assassinate Chilean General René Schneider, who was not
only a leader of the Chilean Armed Forces but who had not accepted the
coup d'état", Hitchens says in an interview with the correspondent
from newspaper Página 12 in Paris. He adds: "It is an absolute
atrocity and we have all the details of the attack planned by
Kissinger and that cost Schneider his life". It must be said that it
is an atrocity against Chilean democracy. that the Chileans chose
^ Political Violence and Trauma in Argentina, Antonius C. G. M.
Robben, p. 145, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007
^ Revolutionizing Motherhood: The Mothers of the Plaza De Mayo,
Marguerite Guzmán Bouvard, p. 22, Rowman & Littlefield, 1994
^ "Argentina's Guerrillas Still Intent On Socialism", Sarasota
Herald-Tribune, 7 March 1976
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^ Political Injustice: Authoritarianism and the Rule of Law in Brazil,
Chile, and Argentina, Anthony W. Pereira, p. 134, University of
Pittsburgh Press, 2005
^ Obituary The Guardian, Thursday 2 April 2009
^ Estimate of Deaths and Disappearances by 601st Intelligence
Battalion (PDF). DINA Headquarters, Buenos Aires, Argentina. July
1978. pp. A8.
^ "Una duda histórica: no se sabe cuántos son los desaparecidos",
Clarin, 10 June 2003
^ Wright, Thomas C.
State terrorism in Latin America, p. 158, Rowman
& Littlefield, 2007
^ Robben 2011, p. 127.
^ Galasso 2011, pp. 423–465, vol. II.
^ Robben 2011, pp. 76–77.
^ Robben 2011, p. 145.
^ Robben 2011, p. 148.
^ Galasso 2011, pp. 467–504, vol. II.
^ Galasso 2011, pp. 505–532, vol. II.
^ Ley No. 23492, 29 December 1986, B.O., (26058) (in Spanish)
^ Ley No. 23521, 9 June 1987, B.O., (26155) (in Spanish)
^ Galasso 2011, pp. 533–549, vol. II.
^ Epstein & Pion-Berlin 2006, p. 6.
^ a b Epstein & Pion-Berlin 2006, p. 9.
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^ a b Epstein & Pion-Berlin 2006, p. 13.
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^ Epstein & Pion-Berlin 2006, p. 16.
^ Epstein & Pion-Berlin 2006, p. 15.
^ Epstein & Pion-Berlin 2006, p. 14.
^ Ley No. 25779, 3 September 2003, B.O., (30226), 1 (in Spanish)
^ Ley No. 24952, 17 April 1998, B.O., (28879), 1 (in Spanish)
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