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Arcadia
Arcadia
(Greek: Αρκαδία, Arkadía) is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the administrative region of Peloponnese. It is situated in the central and eastern part of the Peloponnese peninsula. It takes its name from the mythological figure Arcas. In Greek mythology, it was the home of the god Pan. In European Renaissance arts, Arcadia
Arcadia
was celebrated as an unspoiled, harmonious wilderness.

Contents

1 Geography. 2 History

2.1 Ancient history 2.2 Medieval history 2.3 Modern history

3 Language 4 Administration

4.1 Prefecture 4.2 Provinces 4.3 Ancient and modern towns and cities

5 Economy 6 Transportation 7 News 8 Television 9 Sports teams 10 Notable Arcadians

10.1 Mythology 10.2 Ancient Arcadians 10.3 Ancient Olympic victors 10.4 Greek War of Independence
Greek War of Independence
fighters 10.5 Politicians 10.6 Poets 10.7 Scientists, scholars, educators, academicians 10.8 Artists 10.9 Athletes 10.10 Other notable personalities

11 References in popular culture 12 References 13 External links

Geography.[edit]

Mount Lykaion

Arcadia
Arcadia
has its present-day capital at Tripoli. It covers about 18% of the Peloponnese
Peloponnese
peninsula, making it the largest regional unit on the peninsula. Arcadia
Arcadia
has a ski resort on Mount Mainalo, located about 20 km NW of Tripoli. Other mountains of Arcadia
Arcadia
are the Parnon
Parnon
in the southeast and the Lykaion
Lykaion
in the west. The climate consists of hot summers and mild winters in the eastern part, the southern part, the low-lying areas and the central area at altitudes lower than 1,000 m. The area primarily receives rain during fall and winter months in the rest of Arcadia. Winter snow occurs commonly in the mountainous areas for much of the west and the northern part, the Taygetus
Taygetus
area, the Mainalon. History[edit] Ancient history[edit] Main article: Arcadia
Arcadia
(ancient region)

"Les Bergers d’Arcadie" by Nicolas Poussin.

Landscape of Arcadia.

Medieval history[edit] After the collapse of the Roman power in the west, Arcadia
Arcadia
remained as part of the Greek-speaking Byzantine Empire. Arcadia
Arcadia
remained a beautiful, secluded area, and its inhabitants became proverbial as herdsmen leading simple pastoral unsophisticated yet happy lives, to the point that Arcadia
Arcadia
may refer to some imaginary idyllic paradise, immortalized by Virgil's Eclogues, and later by Jacopo Sannazaro
Jacopo Sannazaro
in his pastoral masterpiece, Arcadia
Arcadia
(1504); see also Arcadia
Arcadia
(utopia). After the Fourth Crusade, the area became a part of the Principality of Achaea, but was progressively recovered by the Byzantine Greeks
Byzantine Greeks
of the Despotate of the Morea
Despotate of the Morea
from the 1260s on, a process that lasted until the mid-14th century. The region fell into the hands of the Ottoman Turks in 1460. With the exception of a period of Venetian rule in 1687–1715, the region remained under Turkish control until 1821. The Latin
Latin
phrase Et in Arcadia
Arcadia
ego, which is usually interpreted to mean "Even in Arcadia
Arcadia
there am I", is an example of memento mori, a cautionary reminder of the transitory nature of life and the inevitability of death. The phrase is most often associated with a 1647 painting by Nicolas Poussin, also known as "The Arcadian Shepherds". In the painting the phrase appears as an inscription on a tomb discovered by youthful figures in classical garb. Modern history[edit]

Commander Panagiotis Kephalas raising the Maniot flag in Tripoli (Tripolitsa), the capital of Arcadia, after the successful siege.

Arcadia
Arcadia
was one of the centres of the Greek War of Independence
Greek War of Independence
which saw victories in their battles including one in Tripoli. After a victorious revolutionary war, Arcadia
Arcadia
was finally incorporated into the newly created Greek state. Arcadia
Arcadia
saw economic growth and small emigration. In the 20th century, Arcadia
Arcadia
experienced extensive population loss through emigration, mostly to the Americas. Many Arcadian villages lost half their inhabitants, and fears arose that they would turn into ghost towns. Arcadia
Arcadia
now has a smaller population than Corinthia. Demographers expected that its population would halve between 1951 and the early 21st century. The population has fallen to 87,000 in 2011. An earthquake measuring 5.9 on the Richter magnitude scale
Richter magnitude scale
shook Megalopoli
Megalopoli
and the surrounding area in 1965. Large numbers of buildings were destroyed, leaving people homeless. Within a couple of years, the buildings were rebuilt anti-seismically. In 1967, construction began on the Megalopoli
Megalopoli
Power Plant, which began operating in 1970, producing additional electricity for southern Greece. A mining area south of the plant is the largest mining area in the peninsula and continues to the present day with one settlement moved. In July and August 2007 forest fires caused damage in Arcadia, notably in the mountains. In 2008, a theory proposed by classicist Christos Mergoupis suggested that the mummified remains of Alexander the Great (not his actual tomb), may in fact be located in Gortynia-Arkadia, in the Peloponnese of Greece. Since 2008, this research is ongoing and currently being conducted in Greece. The research was first mentioned on CNN International in May 2008.[1][2] Language[edit] When, during the Greek Dark Ages
Greek Dark Ages
(c. 1200 BC–800 BC), Doric Greek dialects were introduced to the Peloponnese, the older language apparently survived in Arcadia, and formed part of the Arcado-Cypriot group of Greek languages. Arcadocypriot never became a literary dialect, but it is known from inscriptions. Tsan
Tsan
is a letter of the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
occurring only in Arcadia, shaped like Cyrillic И; it represents an affricate that developed from labiovelars in context where they became t in other dialects. Tsakonian Greek, still spoken on the coast of modern Arcadia
Arcadia
(but in the Classical period considered the southern Argolid
Argolid
coast immediately adjoining Arcadia), is a descendant of Doric Greek, and as such is an extraordinary example of a surviving regional dialect of archaic Greek. The principal cities of Tsakonia
Tsakonia
are the Arcadian coastal towns of Leonidio
Leonidio
and Tyros. Administration[edit]

Megalopoli

Leonidio

Karytaina

Dimitsana

The regional unit Arcadia
Arcadia
is subdivided into 5 municipalities. These are (number as in the map in the infobox):[3]

Gortynia
Gortynia
(3) Megalopoli
Megalopoli
(5) North Kynouria
North Kynouria
(Voreia Kynouria, 2) South Kynouria
South Kynouria
(Notia Kynouria, 4) Tripoli
Tripoli
(1)

Prefecture[edit] As a part of the 2011 Kallikratis government reform, the regional unit Arcadia
Arcadia
was created out of the former prefecture Arcadia
Arcadia
(Greek: Νομός Αρκαδίας). The prefecture had the same territory as the present regional unit. At the same time, the municipalities were reorganised, according to the table below.[3]

New municipality Old municipalities Seat

Gortynia Dimitsana Dimitsana

Vytina

Iraia

Kleitor

Kontovazaina

Langadia

Trikolonoi

Tropaia

Megalopoli Megalopoli Megalopoli

Gortyna

Falaisia

North Kynouria (Voreia Kynouria) North Kynouria Astros

South Kynouria (Notia Kynouria) Leonidio Leonidio

Kosmas

Tyros

Tripoli Tripoli Tripoli

Valtetsi

Korythio

Levidi

Mantineia

Skiritida

Tegea

Falanthos

Provinces[edit] Arcadia
Arcadia
was divided into four provinces:

Province of Gortynia—Dimitsana Province of Kynouria—Leonidio Province of Mantineia—Tripolis Province of Megalopoli—Megalopolis

Note: Provinces no longer hold any legal status in Greece. Ancient and modern towns and cities[edit] See also: List of settlements in Arcadia

Ancient site of Orchomenus (Arcadia).

The main towns in modern Arcadia
Arcadia
are Tripoli, Astros, Vytina, Dimitsana, Lagkadia, Tyros, Leonidio, Levidi, Megalopolis and Stemnitsa. Ancient cities include Acacesium (founded by Acacus), Asea, Astros, Athinaio, Daseae, Falaisia
Falaisia
(Phalesia), Gortys, Hypsus (Stemnitsa), Heraia, Lusi, Lykaio, Lycosura, Mantineia, Megalopoli, Orchomenus (Orchomenos), Tegea, Thoknia, Trapezus, Trikolonoi, Tropaia, Tripoli, Tyros, other cities includes Basilis, Caphyae, Charisia, Ellison, Enispe, Kaous, Karyes, Methydrio, Melangeia, Oryx, Paroria, Pelagos, Rhipe, Stratia, Teuthis and several more. Cities which once belonged in Arcadia
Arcadia
include Alea (now in Argolis) and Amilos (now in Achaia). Economy[edit] A thermoelectric power station which produces electricity for most of southern Greece, operates to the south of Megalopolis, along with a coal mine. In agriculture, potato farms (dominant in central and northcentral Arcadia), mixed farming, olive groves, and pasture dominate the plains of Arcadia, especially in the area around Megalopolis and between Tripoli
Tripoli
and Levidi. Transportation[edit] The Moreas Motorway
Moreas Motorway
(A7, E65) highway connects Tripoli
Tripoli
with Corinth and Athens. It is being extended further southwest to Megalopoli
Megalopoli
and Kalamata.

Major roads or highways:

Greek National Road 7 Greek National Road 33, N Greek National Road 39, Cen, S Greek National Road 66, N Greek National Road 74, NW, N Greek National Road 76, W, SW

Secondary roads:

Leontari-Dyrrachi Road Astros-Tyros-Leonidi- Monemvasia
Monemvasia
Road Karytaina- Dimitsana
Dimitsana
Road Megalopoli-Lykaio Road Sparta-Leonidi Road Tripoli- Dimitsana
Dimitsana
Road Tripoli-Astros-Tyros-Leonidi Road Tripoli- Nestani
Nestani
Road Tripoli- Vytina
Vytina
Road Veligosti- Vastas
Vastas
Road Vourvoura-Leonidi Road

Arcadia
Arcadia
has two tunnels. The Artemisio Tunnel opened first, followed by the tunnel east of Megalopolis; both serve traffic flowing between Messenia
Messenia
and Athens. News[edit]

Arcadia
Arcadia
Portal
Portal
The news site of Arcadia tyrostsakonia.gr leonidion.gr

Television[edit]

Arkadiki Radiofonia Tileorasi - ART

Sports teams[edit]

Asteras Tripolis
Asteras Tripolis
is the Greek soccer club from the city of Tripoli.

Notable Arcadians[edit] Mythology[edit]

Lycaon, first (mythical) King of Arcadia Hermes, God of gymnasium, public speaking, thievery, Pan, God of the wild, shepherds and flocks, nature of mountain wilds, hunting and rustic music, and companion of the nymphs Atalanta, a Greek mythic woman said to have been the daughter of the King of Arcadia

Ancient Arcadians[edit]

Polybius
Polybius
(app. 200–118 BC), Greek historian of the Hellenistic Period (Megalopolis) Philopoemen
Philopoemen
(253–183 BC), Greek general and statesman, Achaean strategos, known as "the last of the Greeks"

Ancient Olympic victors[edit]

Androsthenes of Maenalus, won in 420 and 416 BC Euthymenes of Maenalus (wrestler), won in 400 and 392 BC

Greek War of Independence
Greek War of Independence
fighters[edit]

Theodoros Kolokotronis
Theodoros Kolokotronis
(1770–1843), Field Marshal
Field Marshal
in the Greek War of Independence (1821–1832), he was raised and lived in Arcadia (Libovisi). Nikitas Stamatelopoulos
Nikitas Stamatelopoulos
Nikitaras o Tourkofagos (Nikitaras the Turk-Eater) (1784–1849), Greek revolutionary, nephew of Theodoros Kolokotronis (Tourkoleka) Dimitris Plapoutas
Dimitris Plapoutas
(1786–1864), general in the Greek War of Independence (Paloumba) Gennaios Kolokotronis
Gennaios Kolokotronis
(1803–1868), Greek revolutionary, Major General
General
and Prime Minister of Greece
Greece
(May 1862 – October 1862), son of Theodoros Kolokotronis
Theodoros Kolokotronis
(Stemnitsa) Kanellos Deligiannis
Kanellos Deligiannis
(1780–1862), Greek revolutionary leader, politician and President of the Hellenic Parliament (1844–1845) (Lagkadia)

Politicians[edit]

Alexandros Papanastasiou
Alexandros Papanastasiou
(1876–1936), Prime Minister of Greece (March 1924 – July 1924 and May 1932 – June 1932) and sociologist (Levidi) Epameinondas Deligiorgis
Epameinondas Deligiorgis
(1829–1879), Prime Minister of Greece, lawyer (Tripoli) Grigoris Labrakis
Grigoris Labrakis
(1912–1963), politician, doctor (Kerasitsa) Theodoros Deligiannis (1820–1905), Prime Minister of Greece (Lagkadia) Dimitrios Gontikas (1888–1967), politician and President of the Hellenic Parliament (Magouliana) Dimitris Avramopoulos
Dimitris Avramopoulos
(1953–), Minister for Foreign Affairs (2012–), Minister of National Defence (2011–2012), Mayor of Athens (1995–2002) (Elliniko)

Poets[edit]

Nikos Gatsos (1911–1992), (Asea) Kostas Karyotakis
Kostas Karyotakis
(1896–1928), (Tripoli)

Scientists, scholars, educators, academicians[edit]

Georgios Mistriotis (1840–1916), philologist, Professor of the University of Athens
Athens
(Tripoli) Konstantinos Romaios (1874–1966), archaeologist, President of the Academy of Athens
Athens
(Vourvoura)

Artists[edit]

Mimis Fotopoulos (1913–1986), actor (Zatouna) Costas Gavras (1933–), director (Loutra Iraias) Maria Menounos
Maria Menounos
(1978–), actress, television presenter, journalist (Akovo) Dimitris Mitropoulos, conductor and composer (Melissopetra) Vasilis Papakonstantinou
Vasilis Papakonstantinou
(1950–), singer and director (Vasta) Kostas Tournas (1949–), singer and composer (Tripoli) Kostas Triantafyllopoulos
Kostas Triantafyllopoulos
(1956–), actor (Athinaio) Babis Tsertos
Babis Tsertos
(1956–), musician, singer (Tropaia) Stavros Tsiolis (1937–), director (Tripoli) Electros Vekris, artist / sculptor

Athletes[edit]

Dimitris Kourbelis
Dimitris Kourbelis
(1993–), international footballer (Korakovouni) Yiannis Kouros
Yiannis Kouros
(1956–), ultramarathon runner (Tripoli) Michail Mouroutsos (1980–), Olympic taekwondo gold medalist (Lagkadia)

Other notable personalities[edit]

Lakis Santas
Lakis Santas
(1922–2011), Greek Resistance fighter who climbed on the Acropolis
Acropolis
(with Manolis Glezos), on May 30, 1941 and tore down the swastika, which had been there since April 27, 1941, when the Nazi forces had entered Athens
Athens
(Vytina) Erasmus of Arcadia, Greek Orthodox bishop

References in popular culture[edit] Main article: Arcadia
Arcadia
in popular culture

The word Arcadia
Arcadia
has become a poetic idyllism meaning "utopia". Sir Philip Sidney
Sir Philip Sidney
(1554-1586) wrote The Countess of Pembroke's Arcadia, a combination of pastoral romance and poetry, for his sister, Mary Sidney. It was hugely popular for over a century. Arcadia
Arcadia
is the name of a prize-winning play by Tom Stoppard (1993). The Greek and Latin
Latin
name Arcadius
Arcadius
(Arkadios) was derived from "Arcadia" (see the Emperor Arcadius, the grammarian Arcadius
Arcadius
of Antioch, the patriarch Arkadios II). From Greek it passed in Russian, Ukrainian, and other Slavic languages, where it is a common male name as Arkady or Arcady. The area of the prefecture were featured in several ERT programs including documentaries on the Megalopoli
Megalopoli
Mine and Ladon Lake. Marianas Trench refers to Arcadia, in their 2009–2010 song "Acadia", referring to it as a "unspoiled, harmonious wilderness". The 2014 TV series Resurrection takes place in a real town, Arcadia, Missouri. The choice of setting likely is a reference to the Latin phrase Et in Arcadia
Arcadia
ego, since the premise of the show deals with questions of life, death, and people being resurrected from the dead. The Greek musician Demis Roussos
Demis Roussos
released a song in 1978 titled "Lovely Lady of Arcadia". The game Bioshock
Bioshock
features a level and setting named Arcadia, which is a reference to the geography and landscape similarities. The game Life is Strange
Life is Strange
takes place in the fictional Oregon town of Arcadia
Arcadia
Bay. On 9 August 2017 BBC 4
BBC 4
broadcast In search of Arcadia
Arcadia
a television documentary featured a 12 miles (19 km) section of the River Thames.[4]

References[edit]

^ "Alexander the Great New Research: Are His Mummified Remains In Gortynia-Arkadia, Greece?". Ireport CNN. 2008-05-20. Retrieved 2013-01-06.  ^ "Alexander the Great Discovery-New Important Research Conducted in Greece". Ireport CNN. 2008-02-22. Retrieved 2013-01-06.  ^ a b "Kallikratis reform law text" (PDF).  ^ "In search of Arcadia". BBC Media Centre. Retrieved 10 August 2017. 

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Arcadia
Arcadia
(Greece).

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Arcadia

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Arcadia, Peloponnese.

Arcadians.gr Conference.arcadians.gr, Pan-Arcadian Congress Arcadia.ceid.upatras.gr, University of Patras, Arkadia-Project Cs.bham.ac.uk, Arcadia, Greece Tripolis.gr Tyros.gr

v t e

Administrative division of the Peloponnese
Peloponnese
Region

Area 15,490 km2 (5,980 sq mi) Population 577,903 (as of 2011) Municipalities 26 (since 2011) Capital Tripoli

Regional unit of Arcadia

Gortynia Megalopoli North Kynouria South Kynouria Tripoli

Regional unit of Argolis

Argos-Mykines Epidaurus Ermionida Nafplio

Regional unit of Corinthia

Corinth Loutraki-Perachora-Agioi Theodoroi Nemea Sikyona Velo-Vocha Xylokastro-Evrostina

Regional unit of Laconia

East Mani Elafonisos Evrotas Monemvasia Sparta

Regional unit of Messenia

Kalamata Messini Oichalia Pylos-Nestor Trifylia West Mani

Regional governor Petros Tatoulis
Petros Tatoulis
(reelected 2014) Decentralized Administration Peloponnese, Western Greece
Greece
and the Ionian

v t e

Prefectures of Greece

By name

Achaea
Achaea
and Elis Achaea Adrianoplea Aetolia-Acarnania Arcadia Argolis
Argolis
and Corinthia Argolis Argyrokastronb Arta Attica and Boeotia Atticac Boeotia Cephalonia Chalkidiki Chania Chios Corfu Corinthia Cyclades Dodecanese Dramad Elis Euboea Evrosd Evrytania Florina Grevena Heraklion Imathia Ioannina Kallipolisa Karditsa Kastoria Kavalad Kilkis Korytsab Kozani Lacedaemon Laconia Lakoniki Larissa Lasithi Lefkada Lesbos Magnesia Messenia Pella Phocis
Phocis
and Locris Phocis Phthiotis
Phthiotis
and Phocis Phthiotis Pieria Piraeus Preveza Rethymno Rhaedestosa Rhodoped Samos Saranta Ekklisiesa Serres Sfakia Thesprotia Thessaloniki Trikala Trifylia Xanthid Zakynthos

By year established

1800s

1833 Achaea
Achaea
and Elis Aetolia-Acarnania Arcadia Argolis
Argolis
and Corinthia Attica and Boeotia Cyclades Euboea Laconia Messenia Phocis
Phocis
and Locris 1845 Phthiotis
Phthiotis
and Phocis 1864 Corfu Kefallinia Lefkada Zakynthos 1882 Arta Larissa Trikala 1899 Achaea Argolis Atticac Boeotia Corinthia Elis Evrytania Karditsa Lacedaemon Lakoniki Magnesia Phocis Phthiotis Trifylia

1900s

1912 Chania Heraklion Lasithi Rethymno Sfakia 1914 Thessaloniki 1915 Argyrokastronb Chalkidiki Chios Dramad Florina Ioannina Kavalad Korytsab Kozani Lesbos Preveza Samos Serres 1920 Adrianoplea Evrosd Kallipolisa Rhaedestosa Rhodoped Saranta Ekklisiesa 1930–1944 Pella Kilkis Thesprotia Kastoria Xanthid 1947 Dodecanese Imathia Pieria 1964 Grevena Piraeus

a In Eastern Thrace or b Northern Epirus, outside present-day Greece. c From 1971, Attica consisted of four prefecture-level units: Athens, East Attica, Piraeus and West Attica. From 1994, Athens
Athens
and Piraeus were grouped into a single super-prefecture. d From 1994, Drama / Kavala / Xanthi and Evros / Rhodope prefectures were grouped into

.