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Araucaria
Araucaria
( /ærɔːˈkɛəriə/; original pronunciation: [a.ɾawˈka. ɾja])[4] is a genus of evergreen coniferous trees in the family Araucariaceae. There are 20 extant species in New Caledonia
New Caledonia
(where 14 species are endemic, see New Caledonian Araucaria), Norfolk Island, eastern Australia, New Guinea, Argentina, Chile, and Brazil.

Contents

1 Description 2 Distribution and paleoecology 3 Classification and species list 4 Uses

4.1 Food 4.2 Pharmacological activity

5 See also 6 References 7 External links

Description[edit]

Araucaria araucana
Araucaria araucana
with seed cones

Araucaria
Araucaria
are mainly large trees with a massive erect stem, reaching a height of 5–80 metres (16–262 ft). The horizontal, spreading branches grow in whorls and are covered with leathery or needle-like leaves. In some species, the leaves are narrow, awl-shaped and lanceolate, barely overlapping each other; in others they are broad and flat, and overlap broadly.[5] The trees are mostly dioecious, with male and female cones found on separate trees,[6] though occasional individuals are monoecious or change sex with time.[7] The female cones, usually high on the top of the tree, are globose, and vary in size among species from 7 to 25 centimetres (2.8 to 9.8 in) diameter. They contain 80–200 large edible seeds, similar to pine nuts, though larger. The male cones are smaller, 4–10 cm (1.6–3.9 in) long, and narrow to broad cylindrical, 1.5–5.0 cm (0.6–2.0 in) broad. The genus is familiar to many people as the genus of the distinctive Chilean pine or monkey-puzzle tree ( Araucaria
Araucaria
araucana). The genus is named after the Spanish exonym Araucano ("from Arauco") applied to the Mapuches of central Chile
Chile
and south-west Argentina, whose territory incorporates natural stands of this genus. The Mapuche
Mapuche
people call it pehuén, and consider it sacred.[5] Some Mapuches living in the Andes name themselves Pehuenches ("people of the pehuén") as they traditionally harvested the seeds extensively for food.[8][9] No distinct vernacular name exists for the genus. Many are called "pine", although they are only distantly related to true pines, in the genus Pinus. Distribution and paleoecology[edit]

Three members of the genus growing together – left to right, Araucaria
Araucaria
columnaris, Araucaria cunninghamii
Araucaria cunninghamii
and Araucaria
Araucaria
bidwillii

Members of Araucaria
Araucaria
are found in Chile, Argentina, Brazil, New Caledonia, Norfolk Island, Australia, and New Guinea. There is also a significant, naturalized population of Araucaria
Araucaria
columnaris – "Cook's pine" – on the island of Lanai, in Hawaii, USA.[10] Many if not all current populations are relicts, and of restricted distribution. They are found in forest and maquis shrubland, with an affinity for exposed sites. These columnar trees are living fossils, dating back to early in the Mesozoic
Mesozoic
age. Fossil
Fossil
records show that the genus also formerly occurred in the northern hemisphere until the end of the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
period. By far the greatest diversity exists in New Caledonia, due to the island's long isolation and stability.[5] Much of New Caledonia
New Caledonia
is composed of ultramafic rock with serpentine soils, with low levels of nutrients, but high levels of metals such as nickel.[11] Consequently, its endemic Araucaria
Araucaria
species are adapted to these conditions, and many species have been severely affected by nickel mining in New Caledonia and are now considered threatened or endangered, due to their habitat lying in prime areas for nickel mining activities. There is evidence to suggest that the long necks of sauropod dinosaurs may have evolved specifically to browse the foliage of the typically very tall Araucaria
Araucaria
trees. The global distribution of vast forests of Araucaria
Araucaria
during the Jurassic
Jurassic
makes it likely that they were the major high energy food source for adult sauropods.[12] Classification and species list[edit]

Araucaria columnaris
Araucaria columnaris
sapling with distinctive axial bud.

Araucaria heterophylla
Araucaria heterophylla
leaves

Petrified cone of Araucaria mirabilis
Araucaria mirabilis
from Patagonia, Argentina
Argentina
dating from the Jurassic
Jurassic
Period (approx. 157 mya)

There are four extant sections and two extinct sections in the genus, sometimes treated as separate genera.[5][13][14] Genetic studies indicate that the extant members of the genus can be subdivided into two large clades – the first consisting of the section Araucaria, Bunya, and Intermedia; and the second of the strongly monophyletic section Eutacta. Sections Eutacta and Bunya are both the oldest taxa of the genus, with Eutacta possibly older.[15]

Taxa marked with † are extinct.

Section Araucaria. Leaves broad; cones more than 12 cm (4.7 in) diameter; seed germination hypogeal. Syn. sect. Columbea; sometimes includes Intermedia and Bunya

Araucaria angustifolia
Araucaria angustifolia
– Paraná pine (obsolete: Brazilian pine, candelabra tree); southern and southeastern Brazil, northeastern Argentina. Araucaria araucana
Araucaria araucana
– monkey-puzzle or pehuén (obsolete: Chile pine); central Chile
Chile
& western Argentina. † Araucaria
Araucaria
nipponensis – Japan[16]

Section Bunya. Contains only one living species. Produces recalcitrant seeds with hypogeal (cryptocotylar) germination,[17] though extinct species may have exhibited epigeal germination.[15]

Araucaria bidwillii
Araucaria bidwillii
– bunya-bunya; Eastern Australia † Araucaria
Araucaria
brownii - England † Araucaria mirabilis
Araucaria mirabilis
– Patagonia † Araucaria
Araucaria
sphaerocarpa - England

Section Intermedia. Contains only one living species. Produces recalcitrant seeds

Araucaria hunsteinii
Araucaria hunsteinii
– klinki; New Guinea † Araucaria haastii - New Zealand

Section Eutacta. Leaves narrow, awl-like; cones less than 12 cm (4.7 in) diameter; seed germination epigeal

Araucaria bernieri
Araucaria bernieri
– New Caledonia Araucaria biramulata
Araucaria biramulata
– New Caledonia Araucaria columnaris
Araucaria columnaris
– Cook pine; New Caledonia Araucaria cunninghamii
Araucaria cunninghamii
– Moreton Bay pine, hoop pine; Eastern Australia, New Guinea Araucaria
Araucaria
goroensis – New Caledonia Araucaria heterophylla
Araucaria heterophylla
Norfolk Island
Norfolk Island
pine; Norfolk Island Araucaria humboldtensis
Araucaria humboldtensis
– New Caledonia Araucaria laubenfelsii
Araucaria laubenfelsii
– New Caledonia Araucaria luxurians
Araucaria luxurians
– New Caledonia Araucaria montana
Araucaria montana
– New Caledonia Araucaria muelleri
Araucaria muelleri
– New Caledonia Araucaria nemorosa
Araucaria nemorosa
– New Caledonia Araucaria rulei
Araucaria rulei
– New Caledonia Araucaria schmidii
Araucaria schmidii
– New Caledonia Araucaria scopulorum
Araucaria scopulorum
– New Caledonia Araucaria subulata
Araucaria subulata
– New Caledonia † Araucaria
Araucaria
lignitici – (Paleogene) Yallourn, Victoria[18]

†Section Yezonia. Extinct. Contains only one species

Araucaria
Araucaria
vulgaris – Japan

†Section Perpendicula. Extinct. Contains only one species

Araucaria
Araucaria
desmondii

incertae sedis

Araucaria
Araucaria
beipiaoensis † Araucaria
Araucaria
fibrosa † Araucaria
Araucaria
marensii – La Meseta Formation, Antarctica & Santa Cruz Formation, Argentina[19][20] † Araucaria
Araucaria
nihongii – Japan † Araucaria
Araucaria
taieriensis - New Zealand [21]

Araucaria
Araucaria
bindrabunensis (previously classified under section Bunya) has been transferred to the genus Araucarites. Uses[edit] Further information: A. angustifolia#Uses, A. araucana § Uses, and A. bidwillii § Uses Some of the species are relatively common in cultivation because of their distinctive, formal symmetrical growth habit. Several species are economically important for timber production. Food[edit] For a broader coverage related to this topic, see Conifer nuts. The edible large seeds of A. araucana, A. angustifolia and A. bidwillii — also known as Araucaria
Araucaria
nuts,[22] and often called, although improperly, pine nuts — are eaten as food (particularly among the Mapuche
Mapuche
people and Native Australians).[5] In South America Araucaria
Araucaria
nuts or seeds are called piñas, pinhas, piñones or pinhões, like pine nuts in Europe. Pharmacological activity[edit] Pharmacological reports on genus Araucaria
Araucaria
are anti- ulcer, antiviral, neuro-protective, anti-depressant and anti-coagulant.[23] See also[edit]

Agathis
Agathis
(Kauri) Wollemia

References[edit]

^ Michael Knapp; Ragini Mudaliar; David Havell; Steven J. Wagstaff; Peter J. Lockhart (2007). "The drowning of New Zealand and the problem of Agathis". Systematic Biology. 56 (5): 862–870. doi:10.1080/10635150701636412. PMID 17957581.  ^ S. Gilmore; K. D. Hill (1997). "Relationships of the Wollemi Pine ( Wollemia
Wollemia
nobilis) and a molecular phylogeny of the Araucariaceae" (PDF). Telopea. 7 (3): 275–290. doi:10.7751/telopea19971020.  ^ K. D. Hill (1998). "Araucaria". Flora of Australia
Australia
Online. Australian Biological Resources Study. Retrieved May 7, 2012.  ^ "araucaria". Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
(3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) ^ a b c d e Christopher J. Earle (December 12, 2010). "Araucaria Jussieu 1789". The Gymnosperm
Gymnosperm
Database. Retrieved November 13, 2011.  ^ "Practical Seedling Growing: Growing Araucaria
Araucaria
from Seeds". Arboretum de Villardebelle. Retrieved November 18, 2011.  ^ Michael G. Simpson (2010). Plant
Plant
Systematics. Academic Press. p. 151. ISBN 978-0-12-374380-0.  ^ " Araucaria
Araucaria
columnaris". National Tropical Botanical Garden. Retrieved November 18, 2011.  ^ Francisco P. Moreno (November 2004). "Pehuenches: "The people from the Araucarias forests"". Museo de la Patagonia. Archived from the original on January 11, 2012. Retrieved November 18, 2011.  ^ The Pine Trees of Lanai ^ Plants of New Caledonia. Atlanta botanical gardens ^ Jürgen Hummel; Carole T. Gee; Karl-Heinz Südekum; P. Martin Sander; Gunther Nogge; Marcus Clauss (2008). "In vitro digestibility of fern and gymnosperm foliage: implications for sauropod feeding ecology and diet selection" (PDF). Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 275 (1638): 1015–1021. doi:10.1098/rspb.2007.1728. PMC 2600911 . PMID 18252667.  ^ Michael Black; H. W. Pritchard (2002). Desiccation and Survival in Plants: Drying without Dying. CAB International. p. 246. ISBN 978-0-85199-534-2.  ^ James E. Eckenwalder (2009). Conifers of the World: the Complete Reference. Timber
Timber
Press. p. 149. ISBN 978-0-88192-974-4.  ^ a b Hiroaki Setoguchi; Takeshi Asakawa Osawa; Jean-Cristophe Pintaud; Tanguy Jaffré; Jean-Marie Veillon (1998). "Phylogenetic relationships within Araucariaceae
Araucariaceae
based on rbcL gene sequences" (PDF). American Journal of Botany. 85 (11): 1507–1516. doi:10.2307/2446478. PMID 21680310.  ^ Mary E. Dettmann; H. Trevor Clifford (2005). "Biogeography of Araucariaceae". In J. Dargavel. Australia
Australia
and New Zealand Forest Histories. Araucaria
Araucaria
Forests (PDF). Occasional Publication 2. Australian Forest
Forest
History Society. pp. 1–9.  ^ Erich Götz (1980). Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms. Springer. p. 295. ISBN 978-3-540-51794-8.  ^ Cookson, Isabel C.; Duigan, Suzanne L. (1951). "Tertiary Araucariaceae
Araucariaceae
From South-Eastern Australia, With Notes on Living Species". Australian Journal of Biological Sciences. 4 (4): 415–49. doi:10.1071/BI9510415.  ^ Araucaria
Araucaria
marensii at Fossilworks.org ^ Vizcaíno, Sergio F.; Kay, Richard F.; Bargo, M. Susana (2012). "Araucaria+marensii" Early Miocene Paleobiology in Patagonia: High-Latitude Paleocommunities of the Santa Cruz Formation. Cambridge University Press. p. 112. ISBN 9781139576413. Retrieved 2017-10-21.  ^ Pole, Mike (2008). "The record of Araucariaceae
Araucariaceae
macrofossils in New Zealand". Alcheringa. 32 (4): 405–26. doi:10.1080/03115510802417935.  ^ Québec Amerique, ed. (1996). Pine nut. The Visual Food Encyclopedia. p. 280.  ^ Aslam, M.S, Ijaz, A.S (2013). "Review Article Phytochemical and Ethno Pharmacological Review of the Genus
Genus
Araucaria". Tropical journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 12 (4): 651–659. doi:10.4314/tjpr.v12i4.31. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Araucaria.

Gymnosperm
Gymnosperm
Database: Araucaria Araucaria
Araucaria
Research

v t e

Nuts

True, or botanical nuts

Acorn Beech

American beech European beech

Breadnut Candlenut Chestnut

Sweet chestnut

Hazelnut

American hazel Beaked hazel European hazel Filbert Asian hazel

Johnstone River almond Kola nut Kurrajong Malabar chestnut Mongongo Palm nut Karuka

Planted karuka Wild karuka

Red bopple nut Yellow walnut

Drupes

Almond Australian cashew nut Betel nut Borneo tallow nut Breadfruit Cashew Chilean hazel Coconut Durian Gabon nut Hickory

Mockernut hickory Pecan Shagbark hickory Shellbark hickory

Irvingia gabonensis Jack nut Panda oleosa Pekea nut Pili nut Pistachio Walnut

Black walnut Butternut English walnut Heartnut

Gymnosperms

Cycad

Burrawang nut

Ginkgo nut Araucaria
Araucaria
spp.

Bunya nut Monkey-puzzle nut

Pine nut

Chilgoza pine Colorado pinyon Korean pine Mexican pinyon Single-leaf pinyon Stone pine

Angiosperms

Brazil
Brazil
nut Macadamia

Macadamia
Macadamia
nut Queensland macadamia nut

Paradise nut Peanut Peanut
Peanut
tree Soybean

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q157214 Conifers.org: Araucaria EoL: 14006 EPPO: 1ARUG FoC: 102440 Fossilworks: 56175 GBIF: 2684910 GRIN: 901 IPNI: 11620-1 ITIS: 183481 NCBI: 25666 PLANTS: ARAUC2

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