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The Arameans, or Aramaeans (Aramaic: ܐܪ̈ܡܝܐ‎, ʼaramáyé), were an ancient Northwest Semitic Aramaic-speaking tribal confederation who emerged from the region known as Aram (in present-day Syria) in the Late Bronze Age (11th to 8th centuries BC). They established a patchwork of independent Aramaic kingdoms in the Levant
Levant
and seized large tracts of Mesopotamia. Use of the Western Aramaic language
Aramaic language
has steadily declined in the face of Arabic
Arabic
since the Arab
Arab
Islamic conquest
Islamic conquest
of the area in the 7th century AD, and the last vestiges of the spoken tongue in and around Maalula
Maalula
are in danger of extinction. The Arameans
Arameans
never formed a unified state but had small independent kingdoms across parts of the Near East, (present-day Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel, Palestinian territories, the northwestern Arabian peninsula and south-central Turkey). Their political influence was confined to a number of states such as Aram Damascus, Hamath, Palmyra, Aleppo
Aleppo
and the partly Aramean Syro-Hittite
Syro-Hittite
states, which were entirely absorbed into the Neo-Babylonian Empire
Neo-Babylonian Empire
by the 9th century BC. In the New Babylonian (or Chaldean) Empire, the Chaldeans, Aramaeans, Suteans and indigenous Babylonians
Babylonians
became largely indistinguishable.[1] By contrast, Imperial Aramaic
Imperial Aramaic
came to be the lingua franca of the entire Near East
Near East
and Asia Minor
Asia Minor
after King Tiglath-pileser III
Tiglath-pileser III
of Assyria
Assyria
(ruled 745–727 BC) made it one of two official languages of the vast Neo-Assyrian Empire
Neo-Assyrian Empire
in the mid-8th century BC, in recognition of the mostly-Aramean population in areas Assyria
Assyria
had conquered west of the Euphrates. This empire stretched from Cyprus
Cyprus
and the East Mediterranean in the west to Persia
Persia
and Elam
Elam
in the east, and from Armenia
Armenia
and the Caucasus
Caucasus
in the north to Egypt
Egypt
and Arabia
Arabia
in the south. The Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
(c. 550–330 BC) greatly spread Imperial Aramaic: north to the coast of the Black Sea and eastward to the Indus Valley. This version of Aramaic, influenced by Akkadian
Akkadian
and later by Old Persian, later developed into the Syriac dialect of Edessa. Between the 1st and 4th centuries AD, the Arameans
Arameans
began to adopt Christianity
Christianity
in place of the polytheist Aramean religion, and the Levant
Levant
became an important centre of Syriac Christianity, along with Assyria
Assyria
to the east from where the Syriac language
Syriac language
and Syriac script emerged. After the Arab
Arab
Islamic conquest
Islamic conquest
of the region in the 7th century AD, native Arameans
Arameans
gradually became a minority in their homelands, the language was gradually replaced by Arabic, as increasing numbers of Arabs (together with Turkic and Iranian peoples) began to move into the region. Today, an Aramean identity
Aramean identity
is mainly held by a number of Syriac Christians
Syriac Christians
in south-central Turkey, south-eastern Turkey, western, central, northern and southern Syria and in the Aramean diaspora
Aramean diaspora
especially in Germany and Sweden.[2] In 2014, Israel
Israel
recognized the Aramean minority, an Arabic- and Aramaic-speaking Christian community.[3][4]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Origins 1.2 Bronze Age collapse 1.3 Neo-Assyrian Empire, 911–605 BC 1.4 Classic era 1.5 Legacy and modern Aramean identity

2 Language 3 Religion and art 4 References 5 Sources

History[edit]

Arameans

Aramaic language Aramaic alphabet

Syro-Hittite
Syro-Hittite
states

Biblical
Biblical
region Aram-Damascus Paddan Aram Aram Rehob Aram Soba

Aramean kings

Irhuleni Hezion Tabrimmon Ben-Hadad I Hadadezer Hazael Ben-Hadad III Rezin

Aramean cities

Amrit Arpad Bit Bahiani Coba Höyük Gidara Hama Qarqar Ruhizzi Sam'al Tell Aran Tell Halaf Til Barsip Upu Zobah

v t e

Origins[edit]

Basalt funeral stele bearing an Aramaic inscription, c. 7th century BC. Found in Neirab or Tell Afis (Syria).

The toponym A-ra-mu appears in an inscription at the East Semitic speaking kingdom of Ebla
Ebla
listing geographical names, and the term Armi, which is the Eblaite term for nearby Idlib
Idlib
(modern Aleppo), occurs frequently in the Ebla
Ebla
tablets (c. 2300 BC). One of the annals of Naram-Sin of Akkad
Naram-Sin of Akkad
(c. 2250 BC) mentions that he captured "Dubul, the ensí of A-ra-me" (Arame is seemingly a genitive form), in the course of a campaign against Simurrum in the northern mountains.[5] Other early references to a place or people of "Aram" have appeared at the archives of Mari (c. 1900 BC) and at Ugarit
Ugarit
(c. 1300 BC). However, there is no historical, archaeological or linguistic evidence that the Aramu, Armi or Arame were actually Arameans
Arameans
or related to them; and the earliest undisputed historical attestation of Arameans as a people appears much later, in the inscriptions of Tiglath Pileser I (c. 1100 BC).[6] Nomadic pastoralists have long played a prominent role in the history and economy of the Middle East, but their numbers seem to vary according to climatic conditions and the force of neighbouring states inducing permanent settlement. The period of the Late Bronze Age seems to have coincided with increasing aridity, which weakened neighbouring states and induced transhumance pastoralists to spend longer and longer periods with their flocks. Urban settlements in The Levant diminished in size, until eventually fully nomadic pastoralist lifestyles came to dominate much of the region. These highly mobile, competitive tribesmen with their sudden raids continually threatened long-distance trade and interfered with the collection of taxes and tribute. The people who had long been the prominent population within what is today Syria
Syria
(called the Land of the Amurru during their tenure) were the Amorites, a Canaanite speaking group of Semites who had appeared during the 25th century BC, destroying the hitherto dominant East Semitic speaking state of Ebla, founding the powerful state of Mari in the Levant, and during the 19th century BC founding Babylonia
Babylonia
in southern Mesopotamia. However, they seem to have been displaced or wholly absorbed by the appearance of a people called the Ahlamu by the 13th century BC, disappearing from history. Ahlamû appears to be a generic term for a new wave of Semitic wanderers and nomads of varying origins who appeared during the 13th century BC across the Near East, Arabian peninsula, Asia Minor
Asia Minor
and Egypt. The presence of the Ahlamû is attested during the Middle Assyrian Empire (1365–1020 BC), which already ruled many of the lands in which the Ahlamû arose, in the Babylonian city of Nippur
Nippur
and even at Dilmun
Dilmun
(modern Bahrain). Shalmaneser I
Shalmaneser I
(1274–1245 BC) is recorded as having defeated Shattuara, King of the Mitanni
Mitanni
and his Hittite and Ahlamû mercenaries. In the following century, the Ahlamû cut the road from Babylon
Babylon
to Hattusas, and Tukulti-Ninurta I (1244–1208 BC) conquered Mari, Hanigalbat
Hanigalbat
and Rapiqum
Rapiqum
on the Euphrates
Euphrates
and "the mountain of the Ahlamû", apparently the region of Jebel Bishri
Jebel Bishri
in northern Syria. The Arameans
Arameans
would appear to be one part of the larger generic Ahlamû group rather than synonymous with the Ahlamu. Bronze Age collapse[edit]

Funeral stele of Si` Gabbor, priest of the Moon God. Basalt, early 7th century BC, found in Neirab (Syria), bears an Aramaic inscription.

The emergence of the Arameans
Arameans
occurred during the Bronze Age collapse (1200–900 BC), which saw great upheavals and mass movements of peoples across the Middle East, Asia Minor, The Caucasus, East Mediterranean, North Africa, Ancient Iran, Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece
and Balkans, leading to the genesis of new peoples and polities across these regions. The first certain reference to the Arameans
Arameans
appears in an inscription of Tiglath-Pileser I
Tiglath-Pileser I
(1115–1077 BC), which refers to subjugating the "Ahlamû-Aramaeans" (Ahlame Armaia). Shortly after, the Ahlamû rapidly disappear from Assyrian annals, to be replaced by the Aramaeans (Aramu, Arimi). This indicates that the Arameans
Arameans
had risen to dominance amongst the nomads; however, it is possible that the two peoples had nothing in common, but operated in the same area.[7] By the late 12th century BC, the Arameans
Arameans
were firmly established in Syria; however, they were conquered by the Middle Assyrian Empire, as had been the Amorites
Amorites
and Ahlamu before them. The Middle Assyrian Empire
Middle Assyrian Empire
(1365–1050 BC), which had dominated the Near East
Near East
and Asia Minor
Asia Minor
since the first half of the 14th century BC, began to shrink rapidly after the death of Ashur-bel-kala, its last great ruler in 1056 BC, and the Assyrian withdrawal allowed the Arameans
Arameans
and others to gain independence and take firm control of what was then Eber-Nari
Eber-Nari
(and is today Syria) during the late 11th century BC. It is from this point that the region was called Aramea. Some of the major Aramean speaking kingdoms included: Aram-Damascus, Hamath, Bit Adini, Bit Bahiani, Bit Hadipe, Aram-Bet Rehob, Aram-Zobah, Bit-Zamani, Bit-Halupe
Bit-Halupe
and Aram-Ma'akah, as well as the Aramean tribal polities of the Gambulu, Litau and Puqudu.[8] Later Biblical
Biblical
sources tell us that Saul, David
David
and Solomon
Solomon
(late 11th to 10th centuries) fought against the small Aramean kingdoms ranged across the northern frontier of Israel: Aram-Sôvah in the Beqaa, Aram-Bêt-Rehob (Rehov) and Aram-Ma'akah around Mount Hermon, Geshur in the Hauran, and Aram-Damascus. An Aramean king's account dating at least two centuries later, the Tel Dan Stele, was discovered in northern Israel, and is famous for being perhaps the earliest non-Israelite extra-biblical historical reference to the Israelite royal dynasty, the House of David. In the early 11th century BC, much of Israel
Israel
came under Aramean rule for eight years according to the Biblical
Biblical
Book of Judges, until Othniel
Othniel
defeated the forces led by Chushan-Rishathaim, the King of Aram-Naharaim.[9] Further north, the Arameans
Arameans
gained possession of Neo-Hittite
Neo-Hittite
Hamath
Hamath
on the Orontes and were soon to become strong enough to dissociate with the Indo-European speaking Neo-Hittite
Neo-Hittite
states. During the 11th and the 10th centuries BC, the Arameans
Arameans
conquered Sam'al
Sam'al
(modern Zenjirli), also known as Yaudi, the region from Arpad to Aleppo, which they renamed Bît-Agushi, and Til Barsip, which became the chief town of Bît-Adini, also known as Beth Eden. North of Sam'al
Sam'al
was the Aramean state of Bit-Gabbari, which was sandwiched between the Syro-Hittite states
Syro-Hittite states
of Carchemish, Gurgum, Khattina, Unqi and the Georgian state of Tabal. At the same time, Arameans
Arameans
moved to the east of the Euphrates, where they settled in such numbers that, for a time, the whole region became known as Aram-Naharaim or "Aram of the two rivers". Eastern Aramaean tribes spread into Babylonia
Babylonia
and an Aramaean usurper was crowned king of Babylon
Babylon
under the name of Adad-apal-iddin.[1] One of their earliest semi-independent kingdoms in southern Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
was Bît-Bahiâni (Tell Halaf. Neo-Assyrian Empire, 911–605 BC[edit] Assyrian annals from the end of the Middle Assyrian Empire
Middle Assyrian Empire
c. 1050 BC and the rise of the Neo-Assyrian Empire
Neo-Assyrian Empire
in 911 BC contain numerous descriptions of battles between Arameans
Arameans
and the Assyrian army.[10] The Assyrians would launch repeated raids into Aramea, Babylonia, Ancient Iran, Elam, Asia Minor, and even as far as the Mediterranean, in order to keep its trade routes open. The Aramean kingdoms, like much of the Near East
Near East
and Asia Minor, were subjugated by the Neo Assyrian Empire (911–605 BC), beginning with the reign of Adad-nirari II
Adad-nirari II
in 911 BC, who cleared Arameans
Arameans
and other tribal peoples from the borders of Assyria, and began to expand in all directions (See Assyrian conquest of Aram). This process was continued by Ashurnasirpal II, and his son Shalmaneser III, who between them destroyed many of the small Aramean tribes, and conquered the whole of Aramea
Aramea
(modern Syria) for the Assyrians. In 732 BC Aram-Damascus
Aram-Damascus
fell and was conquered by the Assyrian king Tiglath-Pileser III. The Assyrians named their Aramean colonies Eber Nari, whilst still using the term Aramean to describe many of its peoples. The Assyrians conducted forced deportations of hundreds of thousands Arameans
Arameans
into both Assyria
Assyria
and Babylonia
Babylonia
(where a migrant population already existed). These Arameans
Arameans
(along with other deported peoples) were absorbed into the indigenous populations of Assyria
Assyria
and Babylonia
Babylonia
and disappeared as distinct ethnicities.[11] Conversely, the eastern Aramaic language
Aramaic language
was adopted as the lingua franca of the Neo-Assyrian Empire in the 8th century BC, and the native Assyrians and Babylonians began to make a gradual language shift to distinctly Mesopotamian Eastern Aramaic dialects (including the Syriac language, which evolved in 5th century BC Assyria) and still survives to this day amongst the indigenous Assyrian Christians
Christians
and Mandeans
Mandeans
of northern Iraq, southeast Turkey, northeast Syria
Syria
and northwest Iran. The Neo Assyrian Empire
Neo Assyrian Empire
descended into a bitter series of brutal internal civil wars from 626 BC, weakening it greatly. This allowed a coalition of many its former subject peoples; the Babylonians, Chaldeans, Medes, Persians, Parthians, Scythians
Scythians
and Cimmerians
Cimmerians
to attack Assyria
Assyria
in 616 BC, sacking Nineveh
Nineveh
in 612 BC, and finally defeating it between 605 and 599 BC. During the war against Assyria, hordes of horse borne Scythian and Cimmerian marauders ravaged through Aramea
Aramea
and all the way into Egypt. Aramea/ Eber-Nari
Eber-Nari
was then ruled by the succeeding Neo-Babylonian Empire (612–539 BC), initially headed by a short lived Chaldean dynasty. The Aramean regions became a battleground between the Babylonians
Babylonians
and the Egyptian 26th Dynasty, which had been installed by the Assyrians as vassals after they had conquered Egypt, ejected the previous Nubian dynasty and destroyed the Kushite Empire. The Egyptians, having entered the region in a belated attempt to aid their former Assyrian masters, fought the Babylonians
Babylonians
(initially with the help of remnants of the Assyrian army) in the region for decades before being finally vanquished. The Babylonians
Babylonians
remained masters of the Aramean lands only until 539 BC, when the Persian Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
overthrew Nabonidus, the Assyrian born last king of Babylon, who had himself previously overthrown the Chaldean dynasty in 556 BC. Classic era[edit] The Arameans
Arameans
were later conquered by the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
(539–332 BC). However, little changed from the Assyrian period, as the Persians, seeing themselves as successors to the Assyrians and having spent three centuries under Assyrian rule, maintained Imperial Aramaic as the state language, together with Assyrian administrative structures, and the name Eber Nari
Eber Nari
still applied to the region. However, during the Greek Seleucid Empire
Seleucid Empire
(312–150 BC), when the Greeks
Greeks
conquered Assyria
Assyria
from the Achaemenids, they applied the 9th century BC Indo-European name for Assyria
Assyria
to that land, which read Syria, a derivative of "𒀸𒋗𒁺 𐎹" Aššūrāyu, which had hitherto only referred historically and geographically to Assyria
Assyria
and the Assyrians, a land and people in modern terms situated in the northern half of Iraq, north-eastern Syria, south-eastern Turkey
Turkey
and the north-western fringe of Iran, and not to the Levant
Levant
or its largely Aramean populace[12][13] (see Etymology of Syria). From the late 4th or early 3rd century BC the Seleucid Greeks
Greeks
also applied this name to Aram/ Eber-Nari
Eber-Nari
to the west of Assyria/Syria, which had been an Assyrian colony for three centuries. This caused both the Assyrians from Assyria
Assyria
and the Arameans
Arameans
to the west in Aram, to be labelled Syrians (and later Syriacs) in Greco-Roman
Greco-Roman
culture, despite the two peoples being geographically, historically and ethnically distinct from one another.[14] This confusion would continue in the Western world until modern times with the Syria
Syria
versus Assyria
Assyria
naming controversy (see Name of Syria). The Parthian, Roman and Byzantine Empires followed, with the Aramean lands becoming the front line initially between the Parthian and Roman empires, and then between the Sassanid and Byzantine Empires. There was also a brief period of Armenian rule during the Roman Period. Between the 1st and 4th centuries AD, the Arameans
Arameans
began to adopt Christianity
Christianity
in place of the polytheist Aramean religion, and the Levant
Levant
became an important centre of Syriac Christianity, along with Assyria
Assyria
to the east from where the Syriac language
Syriac language
and Syriac script emerged. Syriac Christianity
Christianity
survives among the indigenous pre- Arab
Arab
population to the present day. Arameans
Arameans
continued to be the majority population in their homeland (most of modern Syria
Syria
and part of south central Asia Minor) until well after the Arab
Arab
Islamic Conquest
Islamic Conquest
of the mid-7th century AD. A number of Aramaean kingdoms sprang up in the region, the most important being Palmyra, (which for a brief period became the Palmyrene Empire, rivaling Rome). There was probably some synthesis with pre-Islamic Arab
Arab
migrants in the southern deserts (and possibly Greeks
Greeks
and Phoenicians
Phoenicians
also). Legacy and modern Aramean identity[edit] Further information: Aramean identity, Neo-Aramaic languages, and Syriac Christianity After the Arab
Arab
Islamic conquest
Islamic conquest
of the region in the 7th century AD, native Arameans
Arameans
gradually became a minority in their homelands, the language was gradually replaced by Arabic, as increasing numbers of Arabs (together with Turkic and Iranian peoples) began to move into the region. A minority of Syriac Christians
Syriac Christians
still speak various Aramaic dialects. An Aramean identity
Aramean identity
is mainly held by a number of Syriac Christians
Syriac Christians
in southcentral Turkey, southeastern Turkey, western, central, northern and southern Syria
Syria
and in the Aramean diaspora
Aramean diaspora
especially in Germany and Sweden.[15] In 2014, Israel
Israel
recognized the Aramean minority, an Arabic- and Aramaic-speaking Christian community.[16][17] Language[edit] Main article: Old Aramaic language Further information: Aramaic language Arameans
Arameans
are mostly defined by their use of the West Semitic Old Aramaic language
Aramaic language
(1100 BC – AD 200), first written using the Phoenician alphabet, over time modified to a specifically-Aramaic alphabet. As early as the 8th century BC, Aramaic competed with the East Semitic Akkadian language
Akkadian language
and script in Assyria
Assyria
and Babylonia, and it spread then throughout the Near East
Near East
in various dialects. By around 800 BC, Aramaic had become the lingua franca of the Neo Assyrian Empire. Although marginalized by Greek in the Hellenistic period, Aramaic in its varying dialects remained unchallenged as the common language of all Semitic peoples
Semitic peoples
of the region until the Arab
Arab
Islamic conquest
Islamic conquest
of Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the 7th century AD, when it became gradually superseded by Arabic. The late Old Aramaic language
Aramaic language
of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, Neo-Babylonian Empire
Neo-Babylonian Empire
and Achaemenid
Achaemenid
Persian Empire
Persian Empire
developed into the Middle Aramaic Syriac language
Syriac language
of Persian Assyria, which would become the liturgical language of Syriac Christianity. The descendant dialects of this branch of Eastern Aramaic, which still retains Akkadian
Akkadian
loanwords, still survive as the spoken and written language of the Assyrian people. It is found mostly in northern Iraq, north western Iran, southeastern Turkey
Turkey
and northeastern Syria
Syria
and, to a lesser degree, in migrant communities in Armenia, Georgia, southern Russia, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan
Jordan
and Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
as well as in diaspora communities in the West, particularly the United States, Canada, Great Britain and Sweden, Australia and Germany. A small number of Israeli Jews, particularly those originating from Iraq
Iraq
and, to a lesser degree, Iran
Iran
and eastern Turkey, still speak Eastern Aramaic, but it is largely being eroded by Hebrew, especially within the Israeli-born generations. The Western Aramaic dialect is now only spoken by Muslims and Christians
Christians
in Ma'loula, Jubb'adin
Jubb'adin
and Bakhah. Mandaic is spoken by up to 75,000 speakers of the ethnically- Mesopotamian
Mesopotamian
Gnostic
Gnostic
Mandaean sect, mainly in Iraq
Iraq
and Iran. Religion and art[edit] See also: Canaanite religion It appears from their inscriptions as well as from their names that Arameans
Arameans
worshipped Mesopotamian
Mesopotamian
gods such as Haddad
Haddad
(Adad), Sin, Ishtar
Ishtar
(whom they called Astarte), Shamash, Tammuz, Bel and Nergal, and Caananite-Phoenician deities such as the storm-god, El, the supreme deity of Canaan, in addition to Anat
Anat
(‘Atta) and others. The Arameans
Arameans
who lived outside their homelands apparently followed the traditions of the country where they settled. The King of Damascus, for instance, employed Phoenician sculptors and ivory-carvers. In Tell Halaf-Guzana, the palace of Kapara, an Arameans
Arameans
ruler (9th century BC), was decorated with orthostats and with statues that display a mixture of Mesopotamian, Hittite, and Hurrian
Hurrian
influences. References[edit]

^ a b "Aramaean (people)". Encyclopaedia Britannica. ^ Assyrian people ^ "Israeli Christians
Christians
Officially Recognized as Arameans, Not Arabs". Israel
Israel
Today. September 18, 2014. Retrieved 27 April 2015.  ^ "Ministry of Interior to Admit Arameans
Arameans
to National Population Registry - Latest News Briefs - Arutz Sheva". Arutz Sheva.  ^ "T2K3.htm". UCLA.  ^ Lipinski, 2000, p. 25–27. ^ "Akhlame". Encyclopædia Britannica.  ^ Georges Roux - Ancient Iraq
Iraq
pp280-281 ^ Boling, Robert G., revised by Richard D. Nelson, Harper Collins Study Bible: The Book of Judges ^ Georges Roux, Ancient Iraq ^ ^ "The destruction of the Assyrian Empire did not wipe out its population. They were predominantly peasant farmers, and since Assyria contains some of the best wheat land in the Near East, descendants of the Assyrian peasants would, as opportunity permitted, build new villages over the old cities and carried on with agricultural life, remembering traditions of the former cities. After seven or eight centuries, and after various vicissitudes, these people became Christians. These Christians, and the Jewish communities scattered amongst them, not only kept alive the memory of their Assyrian predecessors but also combined them with traditions from the Bible." - H. W. F. Saggs. The Might That Was Assyria. pp. 290 ^ The Encyclopedia Americana. International ed. (c1986) Danbury, Conn.: Grolier. ^ ^ Frye, R. N. (October 1992). " Assyria
Assyria
and Syria: Synonyms" (PDF). Journal of Near Eastern Studies 51 (4): 281–285. doi:10.1086/373570. ^ Silvio Zaorani (Turin, 1993) under the chapter entitled "The Modern Assyrians - Name and Nation", pp. 106-107) ^ Assyrian people ^ "Israeli Christians
Christians
Officially Recognized as Arameans, Not Arabs". Israel
Israel
Today. September 18, 2014. Retrieved 27 April 2015.  ^ "Ministry of Interior to Admit Arameans
Arameans
to National Population Registry - Latest News Briefs - Arutz Sheva". Arutz Sheva. 

Sources[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Aramaeans.

S. Moscati, 'The Aramaean Ahlamû', FSS, IV (1959), pp. 303–7; M. Freiherr Von Oppenheim, Der Tell Halaf, Leipzig, 1931 pp. 71–198; M. Freiherr Von Oppenheim, Tell Halaf, III, Die Bauwerke, Berlin, 1950; A. Moortgat, Tell Halaf
Tell Halaf
IV, Die Bildwerke, Berlin, 1955; B. Hrouda, Tell Halaf
Tell Halaf
IV, Die Kleinfunde aus historischer Zeit, Berlin, 1962; G. Roux, Ancient Iraq, London, 1980. Beyer, Klaus (1986). "The Aramaic language: its distribution and subdivisions". (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht). ISBN 3-525-53573-2. Lipiński, Edward (2000). The Aramaeans: their ancient history, culture, religion (Illustrated ed.). Peeters Publishers. ISBN 978-90-429-0859-8.  Spieckermann, Hermann (1999), "Arameans", in Fahlbusch, Erwin, Encyclopedia of Christianity, 1, Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans, pp. 114–115, ISBN

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